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  • 1.
    Edin, Benoni B
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Ascari, L
    Beccai, L
    Roccella, S
    Cabibihan, J-J
    Carrozza, M C
    Bio-inspired sensorization of a biomechatronic robot hand for the grasp-and-lift task.2008In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 75, no 6, p. 785-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been concluded from numerous neurophysiological studies that humans rely on detecting discrete mechanical events that occur when grasping, lifting and replacing an object, i.e., during a prototypical manipulation task. Such events represent transitions between phases of the evolving manipulation task such as object contact, lift-off, etc., and appear to provide critical information required for the sequential control of the task as well as for corrections and parameterization of the task. We have sensorized a biomechatronic anthropomorphic hand with the goal to detect such mechanical transients. The developed sensors were designed to specifically provide the information about task-relevant discrete events rather than to mimic their biological counterparts. To accomplish this we have developed (1) a contact sensor that can be applied to the surface of the robotic fingers and that show a sensitivity to indentation and a spatial resolution comparable to that of the human glabrous skin, and (2) a sensitive low-noise three-axial force sensor that was embedded in the robotic fingertips and showed a frequency response covering the range observed in biological tactile sensors. We describe the design and fabrication of these sensors, their sensory properties and show representative recordings from the sensors during grasp-and-lift tasks. We show how the combined use of the two sensors is able to provide information about crucial mechanical events during such tasks. We discuss the importance of the sensorized hand as a test bed for low-level grasp controllers and for the development of functional sensory feedback from prosthetic devices.

  • 2.
    McGrath, Aleksandra M
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikov, Lev N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    BD™ PuraMatrix™ peptide hydrogel seeded with Schwann cells for peripheral nerve regeneration2010In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 83, no 5, p. 207-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of a membrane conduit filled with a synthetic matrix BD™ PuraMatrix™ peptide (BD) hydrogel and cultured Schwann cells on regeneration after peripheral nerve injury in adult rats. After sciatic axotomy, a 10mm gap between the nerve stumps was bridged using ultrafiltration membrane conduits filled with BD hydrogel or BD hydrogel containing Schwann cells. In control experiments, the nerve defect was bridged using either membrane conduits with alginate/fibronectin hydrogel or autologous nerve graft. Axonal regeneration within the conduit was assessed at 3 weeks and regeneration of spinal motoneurons and recovery of muscle weight evaluated at 16 weeks postoperatively. Schwann cells survived in the BD hydrogel both in culture and after transplantation into the nerve defect. Regenerating axons grew significantly longer distances within the conduits filled with BD hydrogel when compared with the alginate/fibronectin hydrogel and alginate/fibronectin with Schwann cells. Addition of Schwann cells to the BD hydrogel considerably increased regeneration distance with axons crossing the injury gap and entering into the distal nerve stump. The conduits with BD hydrogel showed a linear alignment of nerve fibers and Schwann cells. The number of regenerating motoneurons and recovery of the weight of the gastrocnemius muscle was inferior in BD hydrogel and alginate/fibronectin groups compared with nerve grafting. Addition of Schwann cells did not improve regeneration of motoneurons or muscle recovery. The present results suggest that BD hydrogel with Schwann cells could be used within biosynthetic conduits to increase the rate of axonal regeneration across a nerve defect.

  • 3.
    Norgren, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Stigbrand, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Cerebrospinal fluid levels of neurofilament light in chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis2005In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 264-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is a chronic relapsing-remitting animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Neurofilament light (NF-L), a structural protein expressed in neuronal cells can be used to quantify the amount of neuronal damage in MS patients. An immunoassay was used to measure levels of neurofilament light in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in rats with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced EAE. Significantly increased levels of neurofilament were found in the immunized animals compared to the controls, strengthening the similarities in the diseases and the progression pattern between the animal model and MS. The turnover of NF-L during this disease is increased since significantly elevated levels also were identified in the spinal cord of the diseased animals and immunohistochemistry gave support for this observation. Monitoring neurofilament levels in EAE can be used to follow disease progression and effects of therapy.

  • 4.
    Pettersson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Lobov, Sergei
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Novikova, Liudmila N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Labeling of olfactory ensheathing glial cells with fluorescent tracers for neurotransplantation2010In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 81, no 1, p. 125-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of cell-based treatment strategies for repair of the injured nervous system requires cell tracing techniques to follow the fate of transplanted cells and their interaction with the host tissue. The present study investigates the efficacy of fluorescent cell tracers Fast Blue, PKH26, DiO and CMFDA for long-term labeling of olfactory ensheathing glial cells (OEC) in culture and following transplantation into the rat spinal cord. All tested dyes produced very efficient initial labeling of p75-positive OEC in culture. The number of Fast Blue-positive cells remained largely unchanged during the first 4 weeks but only about 21% of the cells retained tracer 6 weeks after labeling. In contrast, the number of cells labeled with PKH26 and DiO was reduced to 51-55% after 2 weeks in culture and reached 8-12% after 4-6 weeks. CMFDA had completely disappeared from the cells 2 weeks after labeling. AlamarBlue assay showed that among four tested tracers only CMFDA reduced proliferation rate of the OEC. After transplantation into spinal cord, Fast Blue-labeled OEC survived for at least 8 weeks but demonstrated very limited migration from the injection sites. Additional immunostaining with glial and neuronal markers revealed signs of dye leakage from the transplanted cells resulted in weak labeling of microglia and spinal neurons. The results show that Fast Blue is an efficient cell marker for cultured OEC. However, transfer of the dye from the transplanted cells to the host tissue should be considered and correctly interpreted.

  • 5. Risedal, Anette
    et al.
    Mattsson, Bengt
    Dahlqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Nordborg, Claes
    Olsson, Tommy
    Johansson, Barbro B
    Environmental influences on functional outcome after a cortical infarct in the rat.2002In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 315-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of postoperative housing conditions on functional outcome and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression was evaluated 1 month after a distal ligation of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Two days postoperatively the rats were randomized into four groups; individually housed with no equipment (deprived group), individually housed with free access to a connected running wheel (running group), housed together in a large cage with no equipment (social group) or in the same size of cage furnished with bars, chains and various things to manipulate (enriched group). The enriched rats had significantly higher scores when crossing a rotating horizontal rod than deprived and running rats. The social group performed significantly better than the deprived group. The BDNF gene expression in the ipsi- and contralateral cortex, thalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum did not significantly differ between the groups. The weight of the adrenal glands was significantly increased in running rats suggesting that postischemic running may be stressful. We conclude that the beneficial effect of postischemic environmental enrichment is likely to be a combination of social and various physical activities, and that BDNF gene expression 1 month after a cortical infarct did not correlate with functional outcome.

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