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  • 1. de Chateau, Peter
    et al.
    Andersson, Yvonne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Left-side preference for holding and carrying newborn infants. II:Doll holding and carrying from 2 to 16 years.1976In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 18, p. 738-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brain findings in relation to cognitive outcomes in preterm children at school age2012In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 54, p. 33-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To explore whether brain volumes in ex-preterm born children at school age relates to their cognitive abilities.

    BACKGROUND: It is well established that a preterm birth is associated with an increased risk for cognitive deficits that often remain undetected until school age. Such deficits are likely caused by an atypical neurodevelopment. There is, however, relatively little known about the characterization of the preterm born children’s brain in relation to long-term cognitive performance.

    METHODS: A sample of preterm children (n = 32) and typically developing fullterm children (n = 38) at 7-8-years underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with additional synthetic MR for extraction of brain tissue. MR-findings were related to performance on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV).

    RESULTS: The preterm children performed significantly poorer than fullterm peers on the WISC-IV in terms of total IQ (M = 95.1 and 103.5, respectively) and other measures. Overall, the total brain volume was positively correlated with general cognitive ability (total IQ). Additionally, a significant relation between grey matter (GM) and IQ was found for the preterm children. However, no association between white matter (WM) and IQ was found.

    CONCLUSIONS: Even in a small sample of school-aged children with a history of birth comparatively close to term it was possible to detect a link between atypical brain volumes and cognitive functioning. The nature of these associations is discussed in terms of how GM and WM may contribute to long-term cognition deficits associated with a preterm birth.

  • 3.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rösblad, Birgit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Impairment severity selectively affects the control of proximaland distal components of reaching movements in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy2009In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 51, no 10, p. 807-816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored proximal-to-distal components during goal-directed reaching movements in children with mild or moderate hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP); [seven females, fourmales;mean age 8y 6mo; SD 27mo], compared with age-matched, typically developing children (seven females, fivemales; mean age 8y 3mo [SD 25mo]. Severity of HCP was assessed following the approach of Claeys et al. Optoelectronic registrations were made during unimanual reaching-to-grasp and reaching-to-hit movements with both the affected non-preferred and unaffected with HCP, particularly those withmoderate impairment, displayed less optimal spatiotemporal organization of movements performed with the affected arm. Compared with the goal to hit, and increasingly with more severe impairment, children with HCP adapted to the goal to grasp by recruiting augmented shoulder movements when reaching with the affected side. A resulting impact on distal kinematics was found in shorter, straighter, and less segmentedmovement paths. Thus, depending on severity of hemispheric lesions and task complexity, unilateral brain injuries in HCPmay selectively affect neural pathways underlying both proximal and distal arm movement control. Levels of both ipsi- and  ontralateral activation in relation to side and lesion severity should be considered in future studies on prehension movements in HCP.

  • 4. Eliasson, Ann-Christian
    et al.
    Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena
    Rösblad, Birgit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Beckung, Eva
    Arner, Marianne
    Ohrvall, Ann-Marie
    Rosenbaum, Peter
    Using the MACS to facilitate comunication about manual abilities of children with cerebral palsy.2007In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 156-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Eliasson, Ann-Christin
    et al.
    Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena
    Rösblad, Birgit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Beckung, Eva
    Arner, Marianne
    Ohrvall, Ann-Marie
    Rosenbaum, Peter
    The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) for children with cerebral palsy: scale development and evidence of validity and reliability.2006In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 549-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) has been developed to classify how children with cerebral palsy (CP) use their hands when handling objects in daily activities. The classification is designed to reflect the child's typical manual performance, not the child's maximal capacity. It classifies the collaborative use of both hands together. Validation was based on the experience within an expert group, a review of the literature, and thorough analysis of children across a spectrum of function. Discussions continued until consensus was reached, first about the constructs, then about the content of the five levels. Parents and therapists were interviewed about the content and the description of levels. Reliability was tested between pairs of therapists for 168 children (70 females, 98 males; with hemiplegia [n=52], diplegia [n=70], tetraplegia [n=19], ataxia [n=6], dyskinesia [n=19], and unspecified CP [n=2]) between 4 and 18 years and between 25 parents and their children's therapists. The results demonstrated that MACS has good validity and reliability. The intraclass correlation coefficient between therapists was 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.96-0.98), and between parents and therapist was 0.96 (0.89-0.98), indicating excellent agreement.

  • 6. Eliasson, Ann-Christin
    et al.
    Rösblad, Birgit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Forssberg, Hans
    Disturbances in programming goal-directed arm movements in children with ADHD2004In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 19-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Hultling, C
    et al.
    Richard, Levi
    Amark, S P
    Sjöblom, P
    Semen retrieval and analysis in men with myelomeningocele.2000In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 42, no 10, p. 681-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of advanced assisted reproduction technologies (ART) has created opportunities for the treatment of infertility among patients with myelomeningocele (MMC). The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of semen retrieval and to analyse the semen quality in men with MMC. Nine men, aged 22 to 39 with MMC participated in the study. Two participants were able to achieve unassisted ejaculation. Vibratory stimulation was unsuccessfully attempted in the remaining seven participants who then underwent electroejaculation under general anaesthesia. In total, enough spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic spermatozoa injection were retrieved from five participants. In four cases, no spermatozoa were observed in the ejaculates. Testicular biopsies, however, revealed spermatogenesis, and thus a reproductive potential, in one of these men. Therefore, in six of the nine men with MMC, fatherhood seemed possible with modern ART, despite the semen quality generally being very poor.

  • 8.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Long-term effect of a very preterm birth on sport activities, laterality and cognitive functioning in early school age children2017In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 59, no 144, p. 44-, article id S2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Neuro-motor impairments are commonly described in children born very preterm. Our purpose was to examine whether children born preterm differ concerning choice and amount of sport activities, laterality, and cognitive functioning in comparison to term born.

    METHOD: A sample of 130 children, investigated at early school-age (mean = 7.8y); categorized into three groups based on gestational age (GA); 66 children term born (FT; GA 39 – 42w), 33 moderately preterm (M-PT; GA 34 – 36w), and 31 very preterm (V-PT; GA 23 – 33w). Sport activities were perceived from parents’ ratings; Activities scale/Child behavior checklist, Laterality Index (LI); by a modified Edinburgh Handedness inventory, and cognitive functioning by WISC-IV.

    RESULTS: Children born M-PT performed comparable to FT, as regards to sport activities and cognitive performance. Children born V-PT had significantly poorer full scale IQ, lower sport performance, fewer sport activities, and participated in more individual sport activities in comparison to FT and M-PT. V-PT children were also less lateralized in comparison to FT and M-PT born.  Additionally, a significant positive correlation was found between LI and number of sport activities for the V-PT children, not found for the FT or M-PT.

    CONCLUSUON: A very preterm birth seems to generate long-term effects on amount and choice of sport activities, side preference and cognitive functioning. Thus, more focus should be paid to children born very preterm to identify deviations in their early sport engagement and activities; consequently, to motivate and provide improvements in their sport activities, physical performance, and cognitive functioning.

  • 9.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Domellöf, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Faroogi, Aijaz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Cognitive performance and behavioral functions in relation to gestational age (GA) at birth2015In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 57, no Suppl s4, p. 21-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction:

    It is well established that a very preterm birth (PT) relates to increased behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to investigate effects and associations between different gestational ages (GA) at birth (term, late-to-extreme) and later functions. This study is part of an ongoing, longitudinal project.

    Participants and Methods:

    Test outcomes from WISC-IV and Achenbach’s Child-Behavior-Checklist (CBCL) in children tested at 7-8-years (M=7.7) were used to investigate group differences as effect of GA at birth. In total, 64 preterm born (PT), GA range 22-36, (divided into groups of 14 extremely-PT/EPT, 17 very-PT/VPT, and 33 moderately PT/MPT) and 64 term born (TB), were included. Additionally, associations between GA, birth weight (BW), and outcomes from WISC-IV and CBCL were investigated.

    Results:

    Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) revealed significantly (p < .05) poorer WISC outcomes on Verbal Comprehension Index, Perceptual Reasoning Index, and on Full-Scale-IQ for children born EPT/VPT in comparison to MPT and TB born. Parents’ CBCL ratings reveled that EPT children had significantly higher prevalence of Attention problems, Thought problems, Aggressive and Somatic complaints. Including the PT-group only shown significant positive correlations between GA/BW respectively and full scale IQ. Higher GA/BW was related to increasing IQ scores.  Significant negative correlations were seen between GA/BW respectively and TotProblem/CBCL-scale. Additionally, CBCL/DSM-Oriented Scales; Adhd-, Opposite-, and Conduct-Problems correlated significantly negative with GA/BW in the PT-born children.

    Conclusion:

    Our study provides further support for associations between increased risk of cognitive and behavior problems with decreasing GA/BW at birth.

  • 10.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Domellöf, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Faroogi, Aijaz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Lindqvist, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Birgander, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Effects of twin-births on IQ, handedness, and brain volumes in 8-years-old preterm born twins and matched singletons: a pilot study2016In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 58, no S6, p. 57-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Children born preterm have a high prevalence of long-term cognitive and behavioral disturbances. Still, studies of how preterm-twin-births may effect brain maturation and thus, contribute to long-term effects on brain-behavioral development and functions are rare.

    Aim: To investigate whether brain volumes differ between twin (TPB) and singleton preterm born (SPB) and full-term born children (FTB) and associate to long-term cognitive and behavioral outcomes as well as to gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW) and head circumference (BHC) at birth.

    Method: A sample of 22 twin born preterm (Mean GA=32.1, BW=1781), 23 matched singletons preterm (Mean GA=31.8, BW=1751), and 22 full-term singletons were included. All children were investigated by means of their cognition functions (WISC-IV), handedness performance index and brain volumes (3 Tesla MRI) at early school ages (M=7.8y) in 40 children (9 TPB, 10 SPB, 21 FTB).

    Results: The FTB-children performed better than both TPB and SPB on cognitive performance, and showed higher IQ. Brain volumes, especially Gray matter were stronger associated with IQ in the twins. Furthermore it was found that the SPB singletons had smaller Total Brain volume and less Grey Matter than FTB. The twins showed a higher prevalence of non-right handedness associated to GA, than both SPB and FTB. Independently of birth status, GA, BW and BHC were found to correlate positively with IQ, Total Brain volume, and Gray-and White matter volumes.

    Conclusion: Discordant handedness in TPB children and associations to lower GA indicate effect of twin-births on early functional laterality. The overall associations found between low GA/BW and smaller BHC at birth in preterm born and associations with lower IQ and smaller brain volumes at 8-y indicate that a very preterm birth are a higher predictor for long-term effects on brain development and cognitive performance than twin-birth per se.

  • 11.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Domellöf, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of prematurity on brain maturation and movement performance in 7-9-year-old children2012In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 54, p. 13-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between brain volumes and spatiotemporal properties of goal-directed upper-limb movements in relation to perinatal factors in preterm born children. BACKGROUND: Recent follow-up studies of children born prematurely have generally found worse sensory-motor performance at school age in comparison to term born children. Additionally, a higher incidence of non-right handedness has been described in preterm born children. Yet, our knowledge is still limited in how a preterm birth may affect brain maturation and how this is associated with later performance and motor functioning. DESIGN/METHODS: In the first phase of this on-going, longitudinal study, motor functions have been investigated in 7-9-years-old children born prematurely without early sign of neuropathology (N= 32, Mean GW=32) in comparison to age matched fullterm born children (N=38). Kinematic registrations during task specific upper-limb movements as well as side differences were assessed. Additionally, functional brain structures/volumes were investigated by 3-Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). RESULTS: Preliminary outcomes indicating subtle, but still poorer upper-limb performance generated from the kinematic outcome parameters and with less clear side preferences in the preterm-born children. Decreased total brain volume and regional gray matter reduction were associated with more segmented movement trajectories and with gestational age and birth weight.These results suggest that neuromotor functions are less efficient and less lateralized as an effect of a premature birth. CONCLUSIONS: The findings underscore the need for follow-up programs and more refine neuromotor investigations to improve early identification of developmental delays and therapeutic efforts to optimize motor development in preterm born children.

     

  • 12.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Domellöf, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Neuromotor and cognitive functions in 4-9-years-old children born prematurely2011In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 53, no Suppl. s3, p. 33-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To identifying developmental differences in neurologically based functioning in preterm born children compared with typically developing, fullterm born children. BACKGROUND: Resent follow-up studies of children born prematurely, even in those without identified neuropathology, have consistently found poorer neuromotor and cognitive skills at school age; thus, at least from group level comparisons. Still, our knowledge is limited in how a preterm birth may effects later behavioural outcomes. DESIGN/METHODS: In the first phase of this ongoing, cross-sectional and quasi-longitudinal study, motor functions, laterality and cognitive functions have been investigated in 4-9-years-old children born prematurely (N= 70, Mean GW=31), and in comparison to age matched fullterm born children (N=78). Additionally, brain imaging (MRI) data was collected on both fullterm and preterm born children at the age of 7-9-years. Kinematic movement registrations and additional behaviour measurements in combination with high resolution, structural 3Tesla MRI scans was used to investigate a number of expected crucial issues and associations between neuromotor, cognitive and structural organisations in both the preterm and the full term born children. RESULTS: Preliminary outcomes indicating subtitle, but still overall differences in most of the kinematic parameters analysed from arm, hand, and head movements (e.g., movement durations, smoothes, segmentation, velocity profile), and with less lateralized sensory-motor performance in the preterm born children at the age of 4- and 7-9-years in comparison to fullterm born children. In addition, the kinematic outcomes were associated with the cognitive performance in the preterm born children. These results are suggesting that both neuromotor and cognitive functions are less efficient in preterm born children. These behavioural outcomes will further be investigated in relation to the outcomes from the MRI investigations. CONCLUSIONS: The outcome from the first analysis underscores the need for further refine investigations and follow-ups, even on an individual level, for the majority of preterm born children.

  • 13.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lenfeldt, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Warntjes, Marcel J B
    Department Centre for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linköping University.
    Domellöf, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Assessment of myelin and brain volumes at early school-age: long-term effects of a preterm birth2018In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 60, no S2, p. 20-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Structural and functional alterations in white matter architecture are common described in children born preterm (PT) and associated to behavioral implications. Still, how critical gestational immaturity may associate with later myelination is less studied. This study aimed to explore the influence and associations between gestational age (GA) and birthweight (BW) in children born PT compared with fullterm (FT), on quantitative values of brain myelin and volumes.

    Patients and methods

    Participants included 60 children (mean age = 8.2 years) categorized based on GA (weeks); ranging from 25 - 35.4 in PTs (N=27); 38 - 41.9 in FTs (N=33). Volumetric brain measures were conducted by a 3.0-Tesla MRI-scanner and synthetic MRI (SyMRI) acquisition sequence, including synthesis of contrast weighted images. Automatic segmentation of total brain tissues (intracranial [ICV] and parenchymal [BPV] volume [ml]) generated gray-matter (GM), white-matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and total myelin volume.

    Result

    Children born extremely PT (<27GW) displayed reductions of total BPV and WM compared to FTs, less myelinated content than very PT (VPT; < 32GW) and moderately PT (MPT; <36GW), and significant more CSF than FT-born. Significant positive correlation between respectively increasing GA (r= .48) and BW (r= .53) and amount of myelinated content were found for the PT-born.

    Conclusion

    Detection of diversity regarding myelination and brain-volumes and associations to risk factors related to gestational immaturity may be useful for increased understanding of long-term effects of degree of prematurity and allowing future investigations of how interventions effects brain myelination (and plasticity) in children born PT.

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