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  • 1.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Domellöf, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Häggmark, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Johansson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Reiz, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Gustavsson, Bengt
    Cardiopulmonary hemodynamics and pharmacokinetics after hepatic intraarterial infusion of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)1988In: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, ISSN 0344-5704, E-ISSN 1432-0843, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 251-255Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Berglin, Cecilia Engmer
    et al.
    Pierre, Pernilla Videhult
    Bramer, Tobias
    Edsman, Katarina
    Ehrsson, Hans
    Eksborg, Staffan
    Laurell, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Prevention of cisplatin-induced hearing loss by administration of a thiosulfate-containing gel to the middle ear in a guinea pig model2011In: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, ISSN 0344-5704, E-ISSN 1432-0843, Vol. 68, no 6, p. 1547-1556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thiosulfate may reduce cisplatin-induced ototoxicity, most likely by relieving oxidative stress and by forming inactive platinum complexes. This study aimed to determine the concentration and protective effect of thiosulfate in the cochlea after application of a thiosulfate-containing high viscosity formulation of sodium hyaluronan (HYA gel) to the middle ear prior to i.v. injection of cisplatin in a guinea pig model. The release of thiosulfate (0.1 M) from HYA gel (0.5% w/w) was explored in vitro. Thiosulfate in the scala tympani perilymph of the cochlea 1 and 3 h after application of thiosulfate in HYA gel to the middle ear was quantified with HPLC and fluorescence detection. Thiosulfate in blood and CSF was also explored. The potential otoprotective effect was evaluated by hair cell count after treatment with thiosulfate in HYA gel applied to the middle ear 3 h prior to cisplatin injection (8 mg/kg b.w.). HYA did not impede the release of thiosulfate. Middle ear administration of thiosulfate in HYA gel gave high concentrations in the scala tympani perilymph while maintaining low levels in blood, and it protected against cisplatin-induced hair cell loss. HYA gel is an effective vehicle for administration of thiosulfate to the middle ear. Local application of a thiosulfate-containing HYA gel reduces the ototoxicity of cisplatin most likely without compromising its antineoplastic effect. This provides a minimally invasive protective treatment that can easily be repeated if necessary.

  • 3.
    Gustafsson, Sofia B
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Lindgren, Theres
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Jonsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Jacobsson, Stig OP
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Cannabinoid receptor-independent cytotoxic effects of cannabinoids in human colorectal carcinoma cells: synergism with 5-fluorouracil2009In: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, ISSN 0344-5704, E-ISSN 1432-0843, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 691-701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cannabinoids (CBs) have been found to exert antiproliferative effects upon a variety of cancer cells, including colorectal carcinoma cells. However, little is known about the signalling mechanisms behind the antitumoural effect in these cells, whether the effects are shared by endogenous lipids related to endocannabinoids, or whether such effects are synergistic with treatment paradigms currently used in the clinic. The aim of this preclinical study was to investigate the effect of synthetic and endogenous CBs and their related fatty acids on the viability of human colorectal carcinoma Caco-2 cells, and to determine whether CB effects are synergistic with those seen with the pyrimidine antagonist 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The synthetic CB HU 210, the endogenous CB anandamide, the endogenous structural analogue of anandamide, N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly), as well as the related polyunsaturated fatty acids arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid showed antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects in the Caco-2 cells, as measured by using [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay, the CyQUANT proliferation assay and calcein-AM fluorescence. HU 210 was the most potent compound examined, followed by anandamide, whereas NAGly showed equal potency and efficacy as the polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, HU 210 and 5-FU produced synergistic effects in the Caco-2 cells, but not in the human colorectal carcinoma cell lines HCT116 or HT29. The compounds examined produced cytotoxic, rather than antiproliferative effects, by a mechanism not involving CB receptors, since the CB receptor antagonists AM251 and AM630 did not attenuate the effects, nor did pertussis toxin. However, α-tocopherol and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME attenuated the CB toxicity, suggesting involvement of oxidative stress. It is concluded that the CB system may provide new targets for the development of drugs to treat colorectal cancer.

  • 4.
    Hemmingsson, Oskar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Zhang, Youyi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Still, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Naredi, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    ASNA1, an ATPase targeting tail-anchored proteins, regulates melanoma cell growth and sensitivity to cisplatin and arsenite2009In: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, ISSN 0344-5704, E-ISSN 1432-0843, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 491-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose ASNA1 is homologous to E. coli ArsA, a well characterized ATPase involved in efflux of arsenite and antimonite. Cells resistant to arsenite and antimonite are cross-resistant to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. ASNA1 is also an essential ATPase for the insertion of tail-anchored proteins into ER membranes and a novel regulator of insulin secretion. The aim of this study was to determine if altered ASNA1 levels influenced growth and sensitivity to arsenite and cisplatin in human melanoma cells.

    Methods Cultured melanoma T289 cells were transfected with plasmids containing sense or antisense ASNA1. Cells were exposed to cisplatin, arsenite and zinc. Cell growth and chemosensitivity were evaluated by the MTT assay and apoptosis by a TUNEL assay.

    Results ASNA1 expression was necessary for growth. T289 clones with decreased ASNA1 expression exhibited 51 ± 5% longer doubling times than wildtype T289 (P = 0.0091). After exposure to cisplatin, ASNA1 downregulated cells displayed a significant increase in apoptosis. The cisplatin IC50 in ASNA1 underexpressing cells was 41.7 ± 1.8% compared to wildtype (P = 0.00097) and the arsenite IC50 was 59.9 ± 3.2% of wildtype IC50 (P = 0.0067).

    Conclusions Reduced ASNA1 expression is associated with significant inhibition of cell growth, increased apoptosis and increased sensitivity to cisplatin and arsenite.

  • 5. Sooman, Linda
    et al.
    Ekman, Simon
    Andersson, Claes
    Kultima, Hanna Göransson
    Isaksson, Anders
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Bergqvist, Michael
    Blomquist, Erik
    Lennartsson, Johan
    Gullbo, Joachim
    Synergistic interactions between camptothecin and EGFR or RAC1 inhibitors and between imatinib and Notch signaling or RAC1 inhibitors in glioblastoma cell lines.2013In: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, ISSN 0344-5704, E-ISSN 1432-0843, Vol. 72, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The current treatment strategies for glioblastoma have limited health and survival benefits for the patients. A common obstacle in the treatment is chemoresistance. A possible strategy to evade this problem may be to combine chemotherapeutic drugs with agents inhibiting resistance mechanisms. The aim with this study was to identify molecular pathways influencing drug resistance in glioblastoma-derived cells and to evaluate the potential of pharmacological interference with these pathways to identify synergistic drug combinations.

    METHODS: Global gene expressions and drug sensitivities to three chemotherapeutic drugs (imatinib, camptothecin and temozolomide) were measured in six human glioblastoma-derived cell lines. Gene expressions that correlated to drug sensitivity or resistance were identified and mapped to specific pathways. Selective inhibitors of these pathways were identified. The effects of six combinations of inhibitors and chemotherapeutic drugs were evaluated in glioblastoma-derived cell lines. Drug combinations with synergistic effects were also evaluated in non-cancerous epithelial cells.

    RESULTS: Four drug combinations had synergistic effects in at least one of the tested glioblastoma-derived cell lines; camptothecin combined with gefitinib (epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor) or NSC 23766 (ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 inhibitor) and imatinib combined with DAPT (Notch signaling inhibitor) or NSC 23766. Of these, imatinib combined with DAPT or NSC 23766 did not have synergistic effects in non-cancerous epithelial cells. Two drug combinations had at least additive effects in one of the tested glioblastoma-derived cell lines; temozolomide combined with gefitinib or PF-573228 (focal adhesion kinase inhibitor).

    CONCLUSION: Four synergistic and two at least additive drug combinations were identified in glioblastoma-derived cells. Pathways targeted by these drug combinations may serve as targets for future drug development with the potential to increase efficacy of currently used/evaluated chemotherapy.

  • 6.
    Öman, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Lundqvist, Stefan
    Gustavsson, Bengt
    Hafström, Lars-Olof
    Naredi, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Phase I/II trial of intraperitoneal 5-Fluorouracil with and without intravenous Vasopressin in non-resectable pancreatic cancer2005In: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, ISSN 0344-5704, E-ISSN 1432-0843, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 603-609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Systemic palliative treatment with chemotherapy against advanced pancreas cancer has low effectiveness despite considerable toxicity. Aim: To investigate the safety, toxicity and tumour response of intraperitoneal 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) with intravenous Leucovorin and to monitor 5-FU pharmacokinetics in plasma during intraperitoneal instillation with and without vasopressin in patients with non-resectable pancreas cancer. Patients/methods: Between 1994 and 2003, 68 patients with non-resectable pancreas cancer TNM stage III and IV, were enrolled to receive intraperitoneal 5-FU instillation 750–1500 mg/m2 and intravenous Leucovorin 100 mg/m2 for two days every third week. Tumour response, performance status and toxicity were recorded. Seventeen patients were also treated with intravenous vasopressin 0.1 IU/minute for 180 minutes, during intraperitoneal 5-FU instillation. Area under the curve (AUC) and peak concentration (Cmax) of 5-FU in plasma were analysed. Results: The treatment was well tolerated with minor toxicity. One complete response (54.1+ months) and 2 partial responses were observed. Time to progression was 4.4 months (0.8–54.1+), and median survival was 8.0 months (0.8–54.1+). There was a significant reduction of 5-FU Cmax in plasma the second day of treatment if vasopressin was used (3.4 ± 2.5 and 6.1 ± 5.4 μmol/l, respectively, p<0.05). 5-FU AUC in plasma was not significantly affected by vasopressin either day of treatment. Conclusion: Intraperitoneal 5-FU is a safe treatment with low toxicity to patients with non-resectable pancreas cancer. Tumour response was 4.4% and median survival time 8.0 months. Addition of vasopressin did not significantly decrease plasma 5-FU AUC but reduced Cmax on day 2 of treatment.

  • 7.
    Öman, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Tölli, Jukka
    Naredi, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Hafström, Lars-Olof
    Effect of carcinomatosis and intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil on peritoneal blood flow modulated by vasopressin in the rat as measured with the 133Xe-clearance technique2004In: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, ISSN 0344-5704, E-ISSN 1432-0843, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 213-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Intraperitoneal administration of 5-fluorouracil for the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies results in a greater total drug exposure in the peritoneal fluid than in plasma. Drugs are eliminated from the peritoneal cavity mainly by capillaries leading to the portal venous system and to a lesser extent by lymphatics. The drug itself and the presence of peritoneal carcinomatosis may affect elimination of the drug. The 133Xe-clearance technique allows the influence of a vasoactive agent on the peritoneal blood flow to be estimated with minimal invasiveness. The aim of the present study was to explore whether intraperitoneal 5-FU or peritoneal carcinomatosis affects the peritoneal blood flow and its reactivity to intravenous vasopressin, as measured indirectly with the 133Xe-clearance technique. Methods: The animals used in this study were 63 Wistar-Fu (W-Fu) rats and 67 Lister-Hooded (LH) rats. On day 0, either 5-FU at 25 mg/kg body weight in 25 ml/kg isotonic saline was instilled intraperitoneally, or 1·105 syngeneic tumour cells were inoculated intraperitoneally. On days 1, 2 and 3 in the 5-FU-treated rats, and on days 12–16 in rats inoculated with tumour cells, peritoneal blood flow was analysed with the 133Xeclearance technique, before and during intravenous infusion of vasopressin at 0.07 IU/min/kg body weight. Results: The basal 133Xe-clearance before administration of vasopressin was similar in all groups except in the LH rats treated with 5-FU in which it was significantly lower. Infusion of vasopressin induced a significant decrease in 133Xe-clearance of the same magnitude in controls and in tumour-bearing rats. In the rats given intraperitoneal 5-FU, vasopressin did not reduce the 133Xe-clearance the first day after administration of 5-FU. Conclusions: Intravenous vasopressin at 0.07 IU/ min/kg decreased peritoneal blood flow as measured indirectly with the 133Xe-clearance method. Intraperitoneal 5-FU abrogated the reduction in peritoneal blood flow with intravenous vasopressin the first day after treatment. In contrast, the presence of peritoneal carcinomatosis did not influence peritoneal blood flow, nor the effect of vasopressin

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