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  • 1. Aslund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Nilsson, Kent W
    Starrin, Bengt
    Sjöberg, Rickard L
    Shaming experiences and the association between adolescent depression and psychosocial risk factors.2007In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 16, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether psychosocial risk factors such as parental separation, parental unemployment and experiences of sexual abuse are associated with adolescent depression, and whether shaming experiences (defined as experiences of being degraded, or ridiculed by others) may account for such an association.

    METHOD: A total of 5048 Swedish adolescents answered the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2004 (SALVe-2004) during classhours. The survey included questions about depressive symptoms, parental separation, parental unemployment and experiences of sexual abuse.

    RESULTS: The psychosocial risk factors studied were all associated with depression, but several of these associations became non-significant when a factor for shaming experiences was entered into the models. The explained variance for depression furthermore increased from approximately 4-7% to 17-20% when shame was included.

    CONCLUSION: Shaming experiences may mediate part of the association between psychosocial risk factors and depression. These findings may have important implications for the understanding of psychotherapeutic treatment of the effects of risk factors in depressed patients.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Per E
    et al.
    Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University.
    Nilsson, Doris
    Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University.
    Polytraumatization and psychological symptoms in children and adolescents2009In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 274-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on the impact of traumatic experiences in children and adolescents has focused almost entirely on the effect of single trauma. Research on cumulative traumas has been lacking, but Finkelhor (Child Abuse Negl 31:7–26, 2007) has recently directed the attention to the concept of polyvictimization. As an extension of this concept, this study examined the impact of polytraumatization, operationalized as the number of different potentially traumatic events. The study population comprised two cross-sectional samples of school-aged children ( n = 270) and adolescents ( n = 400). Information of life-time incidence of traumatic events was collected by the life incidence of traumatic events (LITE), and psychological symptoms by the parent version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) for the school children and the self-report trauma symptom checklist for children (TSCC) for the adolescents. We found that exposure to at least one traumatic event was common in both the samples (63% of the children and 89.5% of the adolescents). The number of different traumatic events, polytraumatization, was highly predictive of symptoms in both samples, and with a few exceptions surpassed the impact of specific events in exploratory analyses. We furthermore replicated previous findings of the important impact of interpersonal over non-interpersonal events on symptoms in both samples, and found an indication that this effect differed by gender in different manners in the two samples. This study emphasizes the significance of both the quantity of traumatic events, polytraumatization, as well as the quality, interpersonal events 

  • 3. Hultén, A
    et al.
    Wasserman, D
    Hawton, K
    Jiang, G X
    Salander Renberg, Ellinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Schmidtke, A
    Bille-Brahe, U
    Bjerke, T
    Kerkhkof, A
    Michel, K
    Querejeta, I
    Recommended care for young people (15-19 years) after suicide attempts in certain European countries.2000In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 100-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data on recommended care for young people aged 15-19 years after attempted suicide from nine European research centres during the period 1989-1992 were analysed in terms of gender, history of previous suicide attempt and methods used. Altogether 438 suicide attempts made by 353 boys and 1,102 suicide attempts made by 941 girls were included. Analyses of the total data from all centres showed that young people with a history of previous suicide attempt and those using violent methods had significantly higher chance of being recommended aftercare than first-time attempters or those choosing self-poisoning. There were no significant differences of being recommended care between genders. Logistic regression analyses of the material were performed and the results were similar. Both having previous attempted suicide (odds ratio 2.0, 95% CI 1.53-2.61) and using "hard" methods (odds ratio 1.71, 95% CI 1.49-1.96) were significantly associated with increased possibility of being recommended aftercare. When individual centres were analysed, large disparities of recommended care after suicide attempts were found and there were no uniform criteria of recommending care for young suicide attempters in Europe.

  • 4. Levav, I
    et al.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry. EURO/WHO Task Force on Destigmatization Copenhagen,Denmark.
    Tsiantis, J
    Kolaitis, G
    Ponizovsky, A
    Psychiatric services and training for children and adolescents in Europe: results of a country survey2004In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 395-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental health budgets, services and programs are seldom commensurate with mental health needs in the countries, particularly of population groups whose voice in advocacy is weak. In this inquiry we explored the adequacy of mental health care resources available for the young in Europe. To achieve this objective this survey investigated a few variables (e. g., number of services, degree of coverage, trained personnel) that were used as gross indicators of the discrimination suffered by this health sector. We sent a short postal questionnaire to the mental health focal points of the 51 countries included in the World Health Organization European Region. Thirty six countries (70.5%) responded. The results showed that the degree of coverage and quality of services for the young were generally worse in comparison with those for adults, including for serious disorders. A lack of both specialized and in-training personnel was identified. The exposure of general practitioners and pediatricians to psychiatry for the young was limited. Generally, the lower the income level of the country the worse the situation. Our mapping confirmed findings of previous inquiries. European child psychiatry leaders had raised a set of recommendations to improve the current situation; their implementation can now benefit from novel strategies adopted by the World Health Organization to advance mental health worldwide.

  • 5.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    et al.
    Centre for Clinical Research, Västmanland County Hospital, Uppsala University, 721 89, Västerås, Sweden.
    Sonnby, Karin
    Centre for Clinical Research, Västmanland County Hospital, Uppsala University, 721 89, Västerås, Sweden.
    Nordquist, Niklas
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, POB 593, 751 24, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Comasco, Erika
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, POB 593, 751 24, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Centre for Clinical Research, Västmanland County Hospital, Uppsala University, 721 89, Västerås, Sweden.
    Oreland, Lars
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, POB 593, 751 24, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Transcription Factor Activating Protein-2 beta (TFAP-2 beta) genotype and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in relation to symptoms of depression in two independent samples2014In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 207-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Transcription Factor Activating Protein-2 beta (TFAP-2 beta) gene has been shown to influence monoaminergic neurotransmission, and several genes important for monoaminergic function have binding sites for TFAP-2 beta. Familial studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest a hereditary-determined subtype of ADHD with comorbid depression. We examined a functional variation of the TFAP-2 beta gene in the context of co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression in two independent population-based samples of adolescents (Group A, n = 175 and Group B, n = 1,506) from Sweden. Results indicated 6.1 to 7.8 % of adolescents screened positively for ADHD and depression symptoms. Symptoms of depression were more common among girls who screened positively for ADHD and did not carry the nine-repeat allele of the TFAP-2 beta intron 1 Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) polymorphism. The presence of the nine-repeat variant of the TFAP-2 beta intron 1 VNTR appears to protect girls with ADHD symptoms from the co-expression of symptoms of depression.

  • 6. Sjöberg, R L
    False allegations of satanic abuse: case studies from the witch panic in Rättvik 1670-71.1997In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 6, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The creation of false memories, psychiatric symptoms and false allegations of satanic child abuse during an outbreak of witch hysteria in Sweden in the seventeenth century are described and related to contemporary issues in child testimonies. Case studies of 28 children and 14 adults are presented. The mechanisms underlying the spread of these allegations, as well as the reactions and influence of the adult world on the children's testimonies, are discussed.

  • 7. Sjöberg, Rickard L
    et al.
    Lindholm, Torun
    A systematic review of age-related errors in children's memories for voiding cystourethrograms (VCUG).2005In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 14, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Svanborg, Pär
    et al.
    Thernlund, Gunilla
    Gustafsson, Per A
    Hägglöf, Bruno
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Schacht, Alexander
    Kadesjö, Björn
    Atomoxetine improves patient and family coping in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in Swedish children and adolescents2009In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 18, no 12, p. 725-735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This 10-week study assessed the efficacy of atomoxetine in combination with psychoeducation compared to placebo and psychoeducation in the improvement of Quality of Life in Swedish stimulant-naive children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A total of 99 patients were treated with atomoxetine (49 patients) or placebo (50 patients) for 10 weeks and assessed regarding broader areas of functioning using the Quality of Life measures Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition (CHIP-CE), Family Strain Index [FSI; equivalent to the Family Burden of Illness Module used in the study], Appraisal of Stress in Child-Rearing (ASCR), Five to fifteen (FTF), "I think I am" ("Jag tycker jag är"), and Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) before and after the active treatment phase. Simultaneously, the patients' parents participated in a 4-session psychoeducation program. A statistically significant difference in favor of atomoxetine was seen in the improvement from baseline to study endpoint for the CHIP-CE domains "Achievement" and "Risk avoidance", for the FSI total score, for the ASCR section (I) domain "Child as a burden", for all FTF domains except for "Language and Speech", and for the CDRS-R total score. No difference between treatment groups was observed in the patient-assessed evaluation of self-esteem using the "I think I am" scale. Atomoxetine combined with psychoeducation had a positive effect on various everyday coping abilities of the patients as well as their families during 10 weeks of treatment, whereas the patients' self-image and the parents' image of the climate in the family were not significantly improved.

  • 9. Törn, Peggy
    et al.
    Pettersson, Erik
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    Lundström, Sebastian
    Hellner Gumpert, Clara
    Larsson, Henrik
    Kollberg, Linnea
    Långström, Niklas
    Halldner, Linda
    Childhood neurodevelopmental problems and adolescent bully victimization: population-based, prospective twin study in Sweden.2015In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 24, no 9, p. 1049-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bully victimization is a common problem among children with neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Previous research was mostly cross-sectional and seldom accounted for co-morbid psychopathology, which makes it difficult to draw conclusions about causality and specificity of any association. Using a genetically informative prospective design, we investigated the association between various neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs) in childhood and bully victimization in adolescence, and the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to this association. We obtained parent-reports of NDPs at age 9/12 years and self-reported bully victimization at age 15 for 3,921 children participating in the The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). Structural equation modelling was used to control for NDP co-morbidity and bully victimization at baseline. Cholesky decomposition was used to analyse genetic and environmental contributions to observed associations. Because most of the NDPs were associated to later bully victimization, a common effect of all NDPs was summarized into a general NDP factor. Controlling for this general factor, only problems with social interaction and motor control uniquely predicted subsequent bully victimization in girls. General and unique associations were influenced by both genetic and unique environmental factors. NDPs in general and social interaction and motor problems in particular predicted later bully victimization. The longitudinal design and twin analyses indicated that these associations might be causal. Knowledge of these vulnerabilities may be important when designing risk assessment and prevention strategies.

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