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  • 1. Björklund, Johan
    et al.
    Folkvaljon, Yasin
    Cole, Alexander
    Carlsson, Stefan
    Robinson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology. Department of Urology, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Loeb, Stacy
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology. Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Akre, Olof
    Postoperative mortality 90 days after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy and retropubic radical prostatectomy: a nationwide population-based study2016In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 118, no 2, p. 302-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To assess 90-day postoperative mortality after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP) and retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) using nationwide population-based registry data. Patients and Methods We conducted a cohort study using the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden, including 22 344 men with localized prostate cancer of clinical stage T1-T3, whose prostate-specific antigen levels were <50 mu g/mL and who had undergone primary radical prostatectomy in the period 1998-2012. Vital status was ascertained through the Total Population Register. The rates for 90-day postoperative mortality were analysed using logistic regression analysis, and comparisons of 90-day mortality with the background population were made using standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Results Of the 14 820 men who underwent RRP, 29 (0.20%) died, and of the 7 524 men who underwent RARP, 10 (0.13%) died. Mortality in the cohort during the 90-day postoperative period was lower than in an age-matched background population: SMR 0.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-0.75). There was no statistically significant difference in 90-day mortality according to surgical method: RARP vs RRP odds ratio (OR) 1.14; 95% CI 0.46-2.81. Postoperative 90-day mortality decreased over time: 2008-2012 vs 1998-2007 OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.21-0.95, mainly because of lower mortality after RARP. Conclusion The 90-day postoperative mortality rates were low after RARP and RRP and there was no statistically significant difference between the methods. Given the long life expectancy among men with low-and intermediate-risk prostate cancer, very low postoperative mortality is a prerequisite for RP, which was fulfilled by both RRP and RARP. The selection of healthy men for RP is highlighted by the lower 90-day mortality after RP compared with the background population.

  • 2. Bratt, Ola
    et al.
    Folkvaljon, Yasin
    Loeb, Stacy
    Klotz, Laurence
    Egevad, Lars
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Upper limit of cancer extent on biopsy defining very low-risk prostate cancer2015In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 116, no 2, p. 213-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To investigate how much Gleason pattern 3 cancer prostate biopsy specimens may contain without an increased risk of undetected more aggressive cancer, compared with the risk for cancers fulfilling the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria for very low-risk prostate cancer. Patients and Methods We identified 1286 men aged <70 years in the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden who underwent primary radical prostatectomy (RP) for stage T1c or T2 prostate cancer with Gleason pattern <= 3 only, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of <10 ng/mL and a PSA density of <0.15 ng/mL/mL. The association between the extent of cancer in the biopsies (the number and proportion of positive cores and the total cancer length in the cores in millimetres) and the likelihood of Gleason pattern 4-5 in the RP specimen was analysed with logistic regression. Results In all, 438 (34%) of the 1286 men had Gleason pattern 4-5 in the RP specimen. Increasing number and proportion of positive biopsy cores, as well as increasing biopsy cancer length were both significantly associated with increased risk of upgrading at RP in univariable analysis, but in multivariable analysis only biopsy cancer length remained significant. The 684 men with stage T1c and < 8 mm cancer had similar risk of upgrading regardless of whether the number of positive biopsy cores was 1-2 or 3-4 (28% vs 27% risk); upgrading was more common among the remaining men (40%, P < 0.01). Conclusions Men aged < 70 years with stage T1c prostate cancer and 3-4 biopsy cores with Gleason pattern 3 are not more likely to have undetected Gleason pattern 4-5 cancer than men with 1-2 cores with cancer, provided that the total biopsy cancer length is < 8 mm. We propose that the definition of very low-risk prostate cancer is widened accordingly.

  • 3. Carlsson, Sigrid
    et al.
    Drevin, Linda
    Loeb, Stacy
    Widmark, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Franck Lissbrant, Ingela
    Robinson, David
    Johansson, Eva
    Stattin, Pär
    Fransson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Population-based study of long-term functional outcomes after prostate cancer treatment2016In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 117, no 6B, p. E36-E45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate long-term urinary, sexual and bowel functional outcomes after prostate cancer treatment at a median follow-up of 12 years (IQR 11-13).

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this nationwide, population-based study, we identified from the National Prostate Cancer Register, Sweden, 6,003 men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (clinical local stage T1-2, any Gleason score, prostate specific antigen < 20 ng/mL, NX or N0, MX or M0) between 1997 and 2002 who were ≤70 years at diagnosis. 1,000 prostate cancer-free controls were selected, matched for age and county of residence. Functional outcomes were evaluated with a validated self-reported questionnaire.

    RESULTS: Responses were obtained from 3,937/6,003 cases (66%) and 459/1,000 (46%) controls. Twelve years post diagnosis, at a median age of 75 years, the proportion of cases with adverse symptoms was 87% for erectile dysfunction or sexually inactive, 20% for urinary incontinence and 14% for bowel disturbances. The corresponding proportions for controls were 62%, 6% and 7%, respectively. Men with prostate cancer, except those on surveillance, had an increased risk of erectile dysfunction, compared to control men. Radical prostatectomy was associated with increased risk of urinary incontinence (odds ratio; OR 2.29 [95% CI 1.83-2.86] and radiotherapy increased the risk of bowel dysfunction (OR 2.46 [95% CI 1.73-3.49]) compared to control men. Multi-modal treatment, in particular including androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), was associated with the highest risk of adverse effects; for instance radical prostatectomy followed by radiotherapy and ADT was associated with an OR of 3.74 [95 CI 1.76-7.95] for erectile dysfunction and OR 3.22 [95% CI 1.93-5.37] for urinary incontinence.

    CONCLUSION: The proportion of men who suffer long-term impact on functional outcomes after prostate cancer treatment was substantial.

  • 4. Crawley, Danielle
    et al.
    Garmo, Hans
    Rudman, Sarah
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology. Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Zethelius, Björn
    Holmberg, Lars
    Adolfsson, Jan
    Van Hemelrijck, Mieke
    Association between type 2 diabetes, curative treatment and survival in men with intermediate- and high-risk localized prostate cancer2018In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 209-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate whether curative prostate cancer (PCa) treatment was received less often by men with both PCa and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as little is known about the influence of T2DM diagnosis on the receipt of such treatment in men with localized PCa.

    Subjects and Methods: The Prostate Cancer database Sweden (PCBaSe) was used to obtain data on men with T2DM and PCa (n = 2210) for comparison with data on men with PCa only (n = 23 071). All men had intermediate-(T1-2, Gleason score 7 and/or prostate-specific antigen [PSA] 10-20 ng/mL) or high-risk (T3 and/or Gleason score 8-10 and/or PSA 20-50 ng/mL) localized PCa diagnosed between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2014. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) for receipt of curative treatment in men with and without T2DM. Overall survival, for up to 8 years of follow-up, was calculated both for men with T2DM only and for men with T2DM and PCa.

    Results: Men with T2DM were less likely to receive curative treatment for PCa than men without T2DM (OR 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.69-0.87). The 8-year overall survival rates were 79% and 33% for men with T2DM and high-risk PCa who did and did not receive curative treatment, respectively.

    Conclusions: Men with T2DM were less likely to receive curative treatment for localized intermediate-and high-risk PCa. Men with T2DM and high-risk PCa who received curative treatment had substantially higher survival times than those who did not. Some of the survival differences represent a selection bias, whereby the healthiest patients received curative treatment. Clinicians should interpret this data carefully and ensure that individual patients with T2DM and PCa are not under-nor overtreated.

  • 5. Danneman, Daniela
    et al.
    Drevin, Linda
    Delahunt, Brett
    Samaratunga, Hemamali
    Robinson, David
    Bratt, Ola
    Loeb, Stacy
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Egevad, Lars
    Accuracy of prostate biopsies for predicting Gleason score in radical prostatectomy specimens: nationwide trends 2000-20122017In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 119, no 1, p. 50-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To investigate how well the Gleason score in diagnostic needle biopsies predicted the Gleason score in a subsequent radical prostatectomy (RP) specimen before and after the 2005 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) revision of Gleason grading, and if the recently proposed ISUP grades 1-5 (corresponding to Gleason scores 6, 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8 and 9-10) better predict the RP grade. Patients and Methods All prostate cancers diagnosed in Sweden are reported to the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR). We analysed the Gleason scores and ISUP grades from the diagnostic biopsies and the RP specimens in 15 598 men in the NPCR who: were diagnosed between 2000 and 2012 with clinical stage T1-2 M0/X prostate cancer on needle biopsy; were aged <= 70 years; had serum PSA concentration of < 20 ng/mL; and underwent a RP < 6 months after diagnosis as their primary treatment. Results Prediction of RP Gleason score increased from 55 to 68% between 2000 and 2012. Most of the increase occurred before 2005 (nine percentage points; P < 0.001); however, when adjusting for Gleason score and year of diagnosis in a multivariable analysis, the prediction of RP Gleason score decreased over time (odds ratio [OR] 0.98; P < 0.002). A change in the ISUP grades would have led to a decreasing agreement between biopsy and RP grades over time, from 68% in 2000 to 57% in 2012, with an OR of 0.95 in multivariable analysis (P < 0.001). Conclusion Agreement between biopsy and RP Gleason score improved from 2000 to 2012, with most of the improvement occurring before the 2005 ISUP grading revision. Had ISUP grades been used instead of Gleason score, the agreement between biopsy and RP grade would have decreased, probably because of its separation of Gleason score 7 into ISUP grades 2 and 3 (Gleason score 3 + 4 vs 4 + 3).

  • 6. Danneman, Daniela
    et al.
    Drevin, Linda
    Robinson, David
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Egevad, Lars
    Gleason inflation 1998-2011: a registry study of 97 168 men2015In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 115, no 2, p. 248-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To study long-term trends in Gleason grading in a nationwide population and to assess the impact of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) revision in 2005 of the Gleason system on grading practices, as in recent years there has been a shift upwards in Gleason grading of prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: All newly diagnosed prostate cancers in Sweden are reported to the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR). In 97 168 men with a primary diagnosis of prostate cancer on needle biopsy from 1998 to 2011, Gleason score, clinical T stage (cT) and serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (s-PSA) at diagnosis were analysed. Results: Gleason score, cT stage and s-PSA were reported to the NPCR in 97%, 99% and 99% of cases. Before and after 2005, Gleason score 7-10 was diagnosed in 52% and 57%, respectively (P < 0.001). After standardisation for cT stage and s-PSA with 1998 as baseline these tumours increased from 59% to 72%. Among low-risk tumours (stage cT1 and s-PSA 4-10 ng/mL) Gleason score 7-10 increased from 16% in 1998 to 40% in 2011 (P trend < 0.001), mean 19% and 33% before and after 2005 (P < 0.001). Among high-risk tumours (stage T3 and s-PSA 20-50 ng/mL) Gleason score 7-10 increased from 65% in 1998 to 94% in 2011 (P trend < 0.001), mean 78% and 90% before and after 2005 (P < 0.001). A Gleason score of 2-5 was reported in 27% in 1998 and 1% in 2011. Gleason score 5 decreased sharply after 2005 and Gleason score 2-4 was almost abandoned. Conclusions: There has been a gradual shift towards higher Gleason grading, which started before 2005 but became more evident after the ISUP 2005 revision. Among low-stage tumours reporting of Gleason score 7-10 was more than doubled during the study period. When corrected for stage migration upgrading is considerable over recent decades. This has clinical consequences for therapy decisions such as eligibility for active surveillance. Grading systems need to be as stable as possible to enable comparisons over time and to facilitate the interpretation of the prognostic impact of grade.

  • 7. Gustavsson, Heléne
    et al.
    Wang, Wanzhong
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Jennbacken, Karin
    Welén, Karin
    Damber, Jan-Erik
    ADAMTS1, a putative anti-angiogenic factor, is decreased in human prostate cancer2009In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 104, no 11, p. 1786-1790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of 'ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type I motif, 1' (ADAMTS1) in human prostate cancer, and to study its relationship to microvessel density (MVD) and metastasis. ADAMTS1 has been described as an anti-angiogenic and antitumour factor, but its function in prostate cancer is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ADAMTS1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in specimens obtained by transurethral resection of the prostate from patients with hormone-naïve and hormone-refractory prostate tumours, including adjacent benign tissue. A semiquantitative scoring system was used for evaluating the staining. MVD was quantified by counting the number of CD34-positive blood vessels. RESULTS: ADAMTS1 was strongly expressed in the luminal epithelial cells in benign prostate glands, whereas expression was significantly lower in prostate cancer cells. There was no obvious difference between hormone-naïve and hormone-refractory tumours, and ADAMTS1 expression did not correlate with Gleason score. However, in hormone-refractory tumours from patients with metastatic disease, the expression of ADAMTS1 was significantly lower than in tumours from patients without metastases. Furthermore, the MVD was higher in hormone-refractory than in hormone-naïve tumours and benign tissue, and MVD correlated with Gleason score. There was no association between ADAMTS1 and MVD in the hormone-naïve tumours, while hormone-refractory tumours with low ADAMTS1 expression had a higher MVD than those with moderate/high expression. CONCLUSION: ADAMTS1 expression is decreased in prostate cancer, and might be involved in the early steps of prostate cancer development. Further, ADAMTS1 might have an anti-angiogenic and antimetastatic role in hormone-refractory prostate cancer, where low ADAMTS1 expression is associated with a high MVD and metastasis.

  • 8.
    Häggström, Christel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology. Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stocks, Tanja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology. Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases, Genetic Epidemiology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Garmo, Hans
    Holmberg, Lars
    Van Hemelrijck, Mieke
    Interpretation of conventional survival analysis and competing-risk analysis: an example of hypertension and prostate cancer2016In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 118, no 6, p. 850-852Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Häggström, S
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Stattin, P
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Wikström, P
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Bergh, A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Damber, J E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Castration-induced reduction of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in benign human prostate tissue is lost in advanced prostate cancer.2001In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 88, no 1, p. 110-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of vascular response in the castration-induced regression of benign and malignant human prostate tissue, as recent studies show that castration rapidly decreases blood flow and induces endothelial cell death, which may be important for subsequent epithelial cell death and involution of the glandular tissue of the prostate.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors was analysed using the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, in benign and tumour areas of core biopsies taken before, and approximately 1 week after castration therapy. The castration-induced VEGF response was related to therapy-induced changes in tumour cell apoptotic index and subsequent response in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In another set of patients, serum VEGF was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before, and at 3--6 months after castration therapy.

    RESULTS: VEGF mRNA was down-regulated after castration in benign prostate tissue (P < or = 0.05), whereas in tumour tissue, VEGF levels were reduced in some of the patients but unchanged or increased in others. In most patients whose tumour tissue responded with VEGF reduction, there was a corresponding increase in tumour cell apoptosis. Serum VEGF levels were not significantly changed after castration. Almost all patients responded with a substantial reduction in serum PSA after castration.

    CONCLUSION: Castration reduces VEGF mRNA expression in benign prostate tissue and generally in those prostate tumours where castration also induces tumour cell apoptosis. This suggests that a therapy-induced down-regulation of VEGF could be important for tumour cell death.

  • 10.
    Jacobsen, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Rasmuson, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Landberg, G
    Ljungberg, Börje
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor protein in human renal cell carcinoma2004In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 93, no 3, p. 297-302Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Jacobsen, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Rasmuson, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Ljungberg, Börje
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Different isoform patterns for vascular endothelial growth factor between clear cell and papillary renal cell carcinoma.2006In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 97, no 5, p. 1102-1108Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Rudolfsson, Stina Häggström
    Kilter, Sigrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Targeting castration-induced tumour hypoxia enhances the acute effects of castration therapy in a rat prostate cancer model2011In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 107, no 11, p. 1818-1824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: •  To explore the effects of castration therapy, the standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer, in relation to tumour hypoxia and to elicit its importance for the short- and long-term therapeutic response.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: •  We used the androgen-sensitive rat Dunning H prostate tumour model that transiently responds to castration treatment followed by a subsequent relapse, much like the scenario in human patients. •  Tumour tissues were analysed using stereological methods in intact, 1 and 7 days after castration therapy.

    RESULTS: •  Hypoxia was transiently up-regulated after castration therapy and correlated with the induction of tumour cell apoptosis. •  When castration therapy was combined with tirapazamine (TPZ), a drug that targets hypoxic cells and the vasculature, the effects on tumour cell apoptosis and tumour volume were enhanced in comparison to either castration or TPZ alone.

    CONCLUSION: •  The present study suggests that castration-induced tumour hypoxia is a novel target for therapy.

  • 13. Kirrander, Peter
    et al.
    Kolaric, Aleksandra
    Helenius, Gisela
    Windahl, Torgny
    Andrén, Ove
    Stark, Jennifer Rider
    Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella
    Elgh, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Karlsson, Mats
    Human papillomavirus prevalence, distribution and correlation to histopathological parameters in a large Swedish cohort of men with penile carcinoma2011In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 108, no 3, p. 355-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the overall and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and distribution in penile carcinoma and determine the correlation to histopathological parameters.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we analysed HPV status in 241 patients with penile carcinoma, treated at Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden, between 1984 and 2008. Age and date at diagnosis was recorded. The tumour specimens were categorized according to the UICC 2002 TNM classification. A subset of patients was operatively staged with regard to lymph node status. A commercially available Real Time PCR was used to detect 13 different types of HPV (6,11,16,18,31,33,35,45,51,52,56,58 and 59).

    RESULTS: We excluded 25 patients due to low DNA quality. Of the remaining 216, 179 (82.9%) tumour specimens were HPV infected. The majority of cases positive for HPV (70.4%) were infected by a single-type. The most frequent type was HPV 16 followed by HPV 18. No significant association between HPV status and pathological tumour stage, grade or lymph node status was found.

    CONCLUSION: The HPV prevalence found is higher than in most other studies, further strengthening HPV as an etiological agent in penile carcinoma. Furthermore, the high prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 raises the question of what potential impact current HPV vaccines that target these specific HPV types might have on penile carcinoma. No significant association between HPV status and histopathological parameters was found in the present study. Additional investigations are needed to draw final conclusions on the prognostic value of HPV status in penile carcinoma.

  • 14.
    Kirrander, Peter
    et al.
    Örebro, Sweden.
    Sherif, Amir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Friedrich, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Lambe, Mats
    Uppsala, Sweden; Stockholm, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Ulf
    Malmö, Sweden.
    The Swedish National Penile Cancer Register: Incidence, Tumour Characteristics, Management and Survival2016In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 117, no 2, p. 287-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:  To assess penile cancer incidence, stage distribution, adherence to guidelines, and prognostic factors in a population-based setting.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS:  The population-based Swedish National Penile Cancer Register (NPECR) contains detailed information on tumour characteristics and management patterns. ● A total of 1678 men with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the penis identified in the NPECR between 2000 and 2012 were included in the study. 

    RESULTS:  The mean age-adjusted incidence of penile cancer was 2.1/100,000 men, remaining virtually unchanged during the study period. At diagnosis, 14% and 2% were clinically N+ and M+, respectively. Most patients were staged pTis (34%), pT2 (19%), or pT1 (18%), whereas stage was unavailable in 18%. Organ-preserving treatment was used in 71% of Tis-T1 tumours. In cN0 and ≥pT1G2 patients, 50% underwent lymph node staging, while 74% of cN1-3 patients underwent lymph node dissection. The overall 5-year relative survival was 82%. Men aged ≥40 years and those with pT2-3, G2-3 and N+ tumours had worse outcome.

    CONCLUSION: The incidence of penile cancer in Sweden is stable. Most men presented with localised disease, and the proportion of non-invasive tumours was high. During the period under study, adherence to guidelines was suboptimal. The overall 5-year relative survival was 82%. Older age, increasing tumour stage and grade, and increasing lymph node stage were associated with poorer survival.

  • 15. Ladjevardi, Sam
    et al.
    Berglund, Anders
    Varenhorst, Eberhard
    Bratt, Ola
    Widmark, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Sandblom, Gabriel
    Treatment with curative intent and survival in men with high-risk prostate cancer: A population-based study of 11 380 men with serum PSA level 20-100 ng/mL2013In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 111, no 3, p. 381-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To investigate the influence of curative treatment on cause-specific mortality in men diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels between 20 and 100 ng/mL. Materials and Methods Patients with PCa (T1-4, N0/N1/NX, M0/MX), PSA 20-100 ng/mL and age <= 75 years were identified in the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden. Data on co-morbidity diagnoses were obtained from the National Patient Register and cause of death from the Cause of Death Register. Following adjustment for age at diagnosis, co-morbidity burden, Gleason score, T-category, PSA level and cause-specific mortality in relation to treatment were estimated using Cox regression analysis. Result A total of 11 380 men were diagnosed with PCa between 1996 and 2008 and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The cumulative 10-year PCa-specific mortality was 36% for patients receiving only palliative treatment and 13% for those treated with curative intent. For the 8462 (74%) patients with PSA levels from 20 to 50 ng/mL at diagnosis, the hazard ratio for death from PCa was 0.23 (95% confidence interval 0.19-0.27) for those treated with curative intent compared with those given palliative treatment after adjusting for age, co-morbidity, T category, PSA level and Gleason score. The corresponding hazard ratio was 0.22 (95% confidence interval 0.17-0.30) for patients with PSA levels from 51 to 100 ng/mL. Conclusion Treatment with curative intent for men with high-risk PCa was associated with reduced cause-specific mortality and should be considered even when serum PSA exceeds 20 ng/mL. Keywords prostate cancer, prostate-specific antigen, high-risk tumours, curative treatment, palliative treatment, population-based study

  • 16.
    Lidgren, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology. Patologi.
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry. Klinisk kemi.
    Rasmuson, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Ljungberg, Börje
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Glucose transporter-1 expression in renal cell carcinoma and its correlation with hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha2008In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 101, no 4, p. 480-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) activity, by analysing a target gene for HIF-1 alpha, glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), using a tissue microarray (TMA) in different types of renal cell carcinoma (RCC, a tumour with a variable clinical course, partly due to angiogenic activity), as angiogenesis is important for tumour progression and metastatic spread, and is activated by hypoxia.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: GLUT-1 and HIF-1 alpha expressions were semiquantitatively analysed using immunohistological staining of a prepared TMA, using samples from 187 patients, including 148 with conventional, 26 with papillary and 13 with chromophobe RCC.

    RESULTS: GLUT-1 staining was found mainly in the cytoplasm. The tumours were subdivided into GLUT -1(LOW) and GLUT-1(HIGH), based on staining intensity. There was a significant difference in GLUT-1 expression between RCC types (P < 0.05). In conventional RCC, GLUT-1 had no correlation with clinicopathological variables. By contrast there was a correlation with tumour stage in papillary RCC. There was an insignificant trend to better survival of patients with GLUT-1(LOW) expression in both conventional and papillary RCC. GLUT-1 correlated significantly (P = 0.008) with HIF-1 alpha.

    CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with conventional RCC had GLUT-1(HIGH) staining and there was a significant correlation with HIF-1 alpha. In papillary RCC, GLUT-1 expression was associated with stage; GLUT-1 expression was significantly higher in conventional RCC than in papillary and chromophobe RCC. GLUT-1(LOW) in both papillary and conventional RCC appeared to correspond with a better prognosis.

  • 17. Liedberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Hagberg, Oskar
    Aljabery, Firas
    Gårdmark, Truls
    Hosseini, Abolfazl
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Jancke, Georg
    Jerlström, Tomas
    Malmström, Per-Uno
    Sherif, Amir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Ströck, Viveka
    Häggström, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Holmberg, Lars
    Period-specific mean annual hospital volume of radical cystectomy is associated with outcome and perioperative quality of care: a nationwide population-based study2019In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between hospital volume and overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and quality of care of patients with bladder cancer who undergo radical cystectomy (RC), defined as the use of extended lymphadenectomy (eLND), continent reconstruction, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and treatment delay of <3 months.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used the Bladder Cancer Data Base Sweden (BladderBaSe) to study survival and indicators of perioperative quality of care in all 3172 patients who underwent RC for primary invasive bladder cancer stage T1-T3 in Sweden between 1997 and 2014. The period-specific mean annual hospital volume (PSMAV) during the 3 years preceding surgery was applied as an exposure and analysed using univariate and multivariate mixed models, adjusting for tumour and nodal stage, age, gender, comorbidity, educational level, and NAC. PSMAV was either categorised in tertiles, dichotomised (at ≥25 RCs annually), or used as a continuous variable for every increase of 10 RCs annually.

    RESULTS: PSMAV in the highest tertile (≥25 RCs annually) was associated with improved OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-1.0), whereas the corresponding HR for CSS was 0.87 (95% CI 0.73-1.04). With PSMAV as a continuous variable, OS was improved for every increase of 10 RCs annually (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.90-0.99). Moreover, higher PSMAV was associated with increased use of eLND, continent reconstruction and NAC, but also more frequently with a treatment delay of >3 months after diagnosis.

    CONCLUSIONS: The current study supports centralisation of RC for bladder cancer, but also underpins the need for monitoring treatment delays associated with referral.

  • 18. Ljungberg, Börje
    et al.
    Iranparvar Alamdari, Farhood
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Rasmuson, Torgny
    roos, Göran
    Follow-up guidelines for nonmetastatic renal cell carcinoma based on the occurrence of metastases after radical nephrectomy1999In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 84, no 4, p. 405-411Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Lundstam, S.
    et al.
    Gudmundsson, E.
    Hellberg, H.
    Erikson, S.
    Ljungberg, Börje
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Impact of tumour size on metastases and locally advanced growth in renal cell carcinoma up to 7 cm2012In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 109, p. 7-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20. Melvin, Jennifer C
    et al.
    Garmo, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology. Kings Coll London, Sch Med, Div Canc Studies, Canc Epidemiol Grp, London SE1 9RT, England.
    Daniel, Rhian
    Shanmugalingam, Thurkaa
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Häggström, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Rudman, Sarah
    Holmberg, Lars
    Van Hemelrijck, Mieke
    An investigation into the relationship between statins and cancer using population-based data2015In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 116, no 5, p. 681-683Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Nilsson, Fredrik O. L.
    et al.
    Linner, Love
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Milsom, Ian
    Cost-effectiveness analysis of newer anticholinergic drugs for urinary incontinence vs oxybutynin and no treatment using data on persistence from the Swedish prescribed drug registry2012In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 110, no 2, p. 240-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE To analyse the cost-effectiveness of newer anticholinergic drugs in relation to oxybutynin immediate release (IR) and no treatment for patients with urgency urinary incontinence. PATIENTS AND METHODS A decision analytic model was constructed. Results were collected from randomized trials and combined with registry data on persistence of medicine use and estimated number of severe adverse events. The setting corresponds to Swedish clinical practice. The costs and effects of the treatment options were analysed over a period of 1 year. Costs included drug costs, treatment costs and costs for pad use. Patients' utilities were based on treatment effect and the lack or presence of adverse events. RESULTS No treatment was the least costly treatment but also resulted in the fewest number of quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Treatment with newer anticholinergic drug medications is the most costly option but also the most efficient treatment. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results were robust. Treatment with newer anticholinergics resulted in a cost per QALY gained of (sic)21 045 compared with no treatment and no effect and (sic)65 435 compared with no treatment and placebo effect. Compared with oxybutynin IR, the cost per QALY gained was (sic)37 119. These calculations are based on relatively low pad costs, resulting in higher costs per QALY for the original drugs. CONCLUSIONS The newer anticholinergic medications are likely to be cost effective in relation to oxybutynin IR. The cost-effectiveness of the newer anticholinergics compared with no treatment depends on assumptions of the effect of no treatment, the severity of the treated condition and the treated individual's risk of adverse events. Treatment is less likely to be cost effective for elderly persons or for persons otherwise at higher risk for adverse events.

  • 22. O'Farrell, Sean
    et al.
    Sandström, Karin
    Garmo, Hans
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Holmberg, Lars
    Adolfsson, Jan
    Van Hemelrijck, Mieke
    Risk of thromboembolic disease in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation2016In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 118, no 3, p. 391-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of thromboembolic disease (TED) in men with prostate cancer (PCa) on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) while accounting for known TED risk factors.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: TED risk was assessed for 42,263 PCa men on ADT compared to a matched, PCa-free cohort of 190,930 men. Associations between ADT and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) were analysed using multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models. Previous PCa-related surgeries and the following proxies for disease progression: transurethral resection of the prostate, palliative radiotherapy and nephrostomy, were accounted for.

    RESULTS: Between 1997-2013, 11,242 PCa men received anti-androgen (AA) monotherapy, 26,959 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists, 1,091 combined androgen blockade, and 3,789 underwent orchiectomy. When accounting for previous surgeries and proxies of disease progression, GnRH agonist users and surgically castrated men were at increased TED risk versus the comparison cohort, HR: 1.67 (95% CI: 1.40-1.98) and 1.61 (95% CI: 1.15-2.28), respectively. Men on AA monotherapy were at decreased risk, HR for DVT: 0.49 (95% CI: 0.33-0.74). TED risk was highest among those who switched from AA to GnRH agonists, PE HR: 2.55 (95% CI: 1.76-3.70). This increased from 2.52 (95% CI: 1.54-4.12) in year one, to 4.05 (95% CI: 2.51-6.55) in year two.

    CONCLUSION: TED incidence among men on ADT increased with the duration of therapy and risk was highest for those who switched regimen, thus implicating roles for disease progression as well as ADT in propagating TED risk. Nonetheless, these findings support that only men with a relevant indication should receive systemic ADT.

  • 23.
    Samuelsson, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Krokoms Health Centre and the Research & Development Unit, The County Council of Jämtland.
    Månsson, L
    The Administrative Department, Östersund Hospital, Östersund.
    Milsom, I
    The Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg.
    Incontinence aids in Sweden: users and costs2001In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 88, no 9, p. 893-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To study age- and sex-specific use and costs of incontinence aids distributed free of charge in Sweden.

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in the county of Jämtland, Sweden (132,000 inhabitants). The use and cost of incontinence aids for people living in their homes and the total cost of incontinence aids for residents of special accommodation (e.g. nursing homes, homes for the elderly and sheltered housing) was obtained from a central database constructed for the purpose. Individual usage of incontinence aids by those in special accommodation was studied in two districts of Jämtland, representing 18% of the population.

    RESULTS: Free incontinence products were used by 6.4% of all women and 2.4% of all men in the county. There was a sharp increase in usage from the age of 75 years. Of the users, 21% lived in special accommodation. If the data from Jämtland are extrapolated nationally, then 274,000 women and 93,000 men in Sweden (total population 8.8 million) are using free incontinence products. The total cost of incontinence aids for Jämtland during 1999 was 15.4 million Swedish krona (SK), and those in special accommodation accounted for 46% of these costs. This corresponds to an estimated total cost in Sweden of approximately 925 million SK. Although 75% of the users were women, women only contributed 61% of the total costs. The mean annual cost of incontinence aids for an incontinent man was twice that of an incontinent woman. More than half of the costs were attributable to those aged >or=80 years.

    CONCLUSIONS: The estimated national costs of free incontinence aids accounts for 0.5% of the total costs of Swedish healthcare, including the care and nursing of older and disabled people, and for 0.05% of the gross national product.

  • 24.
    Sandlund, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Hedberg, Ylva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences, Pathology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Ljungberg, Börje
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Rasmuson, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Endoglin (CD105) expression in human renal cell carcinoma2006In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 97, no 4, p. 706-710Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Sandlund, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Oosterwijk, Egbert
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Oosterwijk-Wakka, Jeannette
    Ljungberg, Börje
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Rasmuson, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Prognostic impact of carbonic anhydrase IX expression in human renal cell carcinoma.2007In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 100, no 3, p. 556-560Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26. Sherif, Amir M
    et al.
    Eriksson, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Thörn, Magnus
    Vasko, Janos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Öhberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Ljungberg, Börje J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Sentinel node detection in renal cell carcinoma. A feasibility study for detection of tumour-draining lymph nodes.2012In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 109, no 8, p. 1134-1139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Type - Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? This is the first presented results and second publication on detection of tumour-draining lymph nodes in human renal cell carcinoma. Techniques are displayed and tumour-draining patterns are presented. OBJECTIVE: •  To evaluate the feasibility of performing sentinel node detection in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: •  An open series of 13 arbitrarily selected patients with T1b-T3b RCC scheduled for radical nephrectomy at a single Tertiary Academic Centre were examined with different modalities of sentinel node detection. •  Preoperative ultrasonography-guided injection of radioactive isotope, lymphoscintigram and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography, followed by intraoperative gamma-probe detection and Patent Blue detection, as well as postoperative scintigram of the main specimen were the planned interventions. •  These investigations were performed in conjunction with intended open radical nephrectomy. RESULTS: •  In 10 of the 13 patients sentinel node detection was achieved with 32 sentinel nodes displayed. •  Radio-guided surgery using an intraoperative gamma-probe resulted in the highest realtive detection rate with detection of sentinel nodes in nine patients. •  In total, nine metastatic sentinel nodes were detected in three patients. •  One patient, preoperatively staged as N+, was restaged after sentinel node detection and histopathology as pN0. CONCLUSIONS: •  Sentinel node detection in renal tumours is feasible although evaluation of different modes of detection needs further refinement and standardization. •  All nodes preoperatively detected by routine computed tomography as suspicious metastatic lesions were confirmed as sentinel nodes, including two nodes considered as metastatic by preoperative routine imaging but ultimately staged as non-metastatic sentinel nodes.

  • 27.
    Sjöström, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Umefjord, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Carlbring, Per
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Internet-based treatment of stress urinary incontinence: 1- and 2-year results of a randomized controlled trial with a focus on pelvic floor muscle training.2015In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 116, no 6, p. 955-964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term effects of two non-face-to-face treatment programmes for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) based on pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT).

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The present study was a randomized controlled trial with online recruitment of 250 community-dwelling women aged 18-70 years with SUI ≥ one time/week. Diagnosis was based on validated self-assessed questionnaires, 2-day bladder diary and telephone interview with a urotherapist. Consecutive computer-generated block randomization was carried out with allocation by an independent administrator to 3 months of treatment with either an internet-based treatment programme (n = 124) or a programme sent by post (n = 126). Both interventions focused mainly on PFMT. The internet group received continuous e-mail support from a urotherapist, whereas the postal group trained on their own. Follow-up was performed after 1 and 2 years via self-assessed postal questionnaires. The primary outcomes were symptom severity (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form [ICIQ-UI SF]) and condition-specific quality of life (ICIQ-Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Quality of Life [ICIQ-LUTSqol]). Secondary outcomes were the Patient Global Impression of Improvement, health-specific quality of life (EQ-visual analogue scale [EQ-VAS]), use of incontinence aids, and satisfaction with treatment. There was no face-to-face contact with the participants at any time. Analysis was based on intention-to-treat.

    RESULTS: We lost 32.4% (81/250) of participants to follow-up after 1 year and 38.0% (95/250) after 2 years. With both interventions, we observed highly significant (P < 0.001) improvements with large effect sizes (>0.8) for symptoms and condition-specific quality of life (QoL) after 1 and 2 years, respectively. No significant differences were found between the groups. The mean (sd) changes in symptom score were 3.7 (3.3) for the internet group and 3.2 (3.4) for the postal group (P = 0.47) after 1 year, and 3.6 (3.5) for the internet group and 3.4 (3.3) for the postal group (P = 0.79) after 2 years. The mean changes (sd) in condition-specific QoL were 5.5 (6.5) for the internet group and 4.7 the for postal group (6.5) (P = 0.55) after 1 year, and 6.4 (6.0) for the internet group and 4.8 (7.6) for the postal group (P = 0.28) after 2 years. The proportions of participants perceiving they were much or very much improved were similar in both intervention groups after 1 year (internet, 31.9% [28/88]; postal, 33.8% [27/80], P = 0.82), but after 2 years significantly more participants in the internet group reported this degree of improvement (39.2% [29/74] vs 23.8% [19/80], P = 0.03). Health-specific QoL improved significantly in the internet group after 2 years (mean change in EQ-VAS, 3.8 [11.4], P = 0.005). We found no other significant improvements in this measure. At 1 year after treatment, 69.8% (60/86) of participants in the internet group and 60.5% (46/76) of participants in the postal group reported that they were still satisfied with the treatment result. After 2 years, the proportions were 64.9% (48/74) and 58.2% (46/79), respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Non-face-to-face treatment of SUI with PFMT provides significant and clinically relevant improvements in symptoms and condition-specific QoL at 1 and 2 years after treatment.

  • 28.
    Sjöström, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Umefjord, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Carlbring, Per
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Internet-based treatment of stress urinary incontinence: a randomised controlled study with focus on pelvic floor muscle training2013In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 112, no 3, p. 362-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To compare two treatment programmes for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) without face-to-face contact: one Internet-based and one sent by post.

    Patients and Methods Randomised, controlled trial conducted in Sweden 2009-2011. Computer-generated block-randomisation, allocation by independent administrator. No 'blinding'. The study included 250 community-dwelling women aged 18-70 years, with SUI >= 1 time/week. Consecutive online recruitment. The women had 3 months of either; (i) An Internet-based treatment programme (124 women), including e-mail support and cognitive behavioural therapy assignments or (ii) A treatment programme sent by post (126). Both programmes focused mainly on pelvic floor muscle training.

    Primary outcomes symptom-score (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form, ICIQ-UI SF) and condition-specific quality of life (ICIQ-Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Quality of Life, ICIQ-LUTSQoL).

    Secondary outcomes (i) Patient Global Impression of Improvement, (ii) Incontinence aids, (iii) Patient satisfaction, (iv) Health-specific QoL (EQ5D-Visual Analogue Scale), and (v) Incontinence episode frequency. Follow-up after 4 months via self-assessed postal questionnaires.

    Results In all, 12% (30 women) were lost to follow-up. Intention-to-treat analysis showed highly significant improvements (P < 0.001) with large effect sizes (>0.8) with both interventions, but there were no significant differences between groups in primary outcomes. The mean (SD) changes in symptom-score were: Internet 3.4 (3.4), Postal 2.9 (3.1) (P = 0.27). The mean (SD) changes in condition-specific QoL were: Internet 4.8 (6.1), Postal 4.6 (6.7) (P = 0.52). Compared with the postal-group, more participants in the Internet-group perceived they were much or very much improved (40.9% (43/105) vs 26.5% (30/113), P = 0.01), reported reduced usage of incontinence aids (59.5% (47/79) vs 41.4% (34/82), P = 0.02) and were satisfied with the treatment programme (84.8% (89/105) vs 62.9% (71/113), P < 0.001). Health-specific QoL improved in the Internet-group (mean change 3.7 (10.9), P = 0.001), but not in the postal-group (1.9 (13.0), P = 0.13). Overall, 69.8% (120/172) of participants reported complete lack of leakage or reduced number of leakage episodes by >50%.

    Conclusions Concerning primary outcomes, treatment effects were similar between groups whereas for secondary outcomes the Internet-based treatment was more effective. Internet-based treatment for SUI is a new, promising treatment alternative.

  • 29. Teo, J. S. M.
    et al.
    Gnanapragasam, V. J.
    Bratt, O.
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Huang, H. H.
    Muir, K.
    Lophatananon, A.
    Lee, L. S.
    External validation of a new clinical prognostic grouping to improve prediction of disease mortality at diagnosis in primary non-metastatic prostate cancer2017In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 120, p. 9-10Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30. Thulin, Helena
    et al.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Onelöv, Erik
    Ahlstrand, Christer
    Carringer, Malcolm
    Holmäng, Sten
    Ljungberg, Börje
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Malmström, Per-Uno
    Robinsson, David
    Wijkström, Hans
    Wiklund, N Peter
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Henningsohn, Lars
    Defecation disturbances after cystectomy for urinary bladder cancer2011In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 108, no 2, p. 196-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What’s known on the subject? and What does the study add?Functional gastrointestinal symptoms and problems are common after radical cystectomy with urinary diversion. This study adds new important epidemiological data on this group of symptoms.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare long-term defecation disturbances in patients who had undergone a cystectomy due to urinary bladder cancer with non-continent urostomies, continent reservoirs and orthotopic neobladder urinary diversions.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: During their follow-up we attempted to contact all men and women aged 30–80 years who had undergone cystectomy and urinary diversion at seven Swedish hospitals. During a qualitative phase we identified defecation disturbances as a distressful symptom and included this item in a study-specific questionnaire together with free-hand comments. The patients completed the questionnaire at home. Outcome variables were dichotomized and the results are presented as relative risks with 95% confidence interval.

    RESULTS: The questionnaire was returned from 452 (92%) of 491 identified patients. Up to 30% reported problems with the physiological emptying process of stool (bowel movement, sensory rectal function, awareness of need for defecation, motoric rectal and anal function, straining ability). A sense of decreased straining capacity was reported by 20% of the men and women with non-continent urostomy and 14% and 8% of those with continent reservoirs and orthotopic neobladders, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Of the cystectomized individuals 30% reported problems with the physiological emptying process of stool (bowel movement, sensory rectal function, awareness of need for defecation, motoric rectal and anal function, straining ability). Those wanting to improve the situation for bladder cancer survivors may consider communicating before surgery the possibility of stool-emptying problems, and asking about them after surgery.

  • 31. Thulin, Helena
    et al.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Onelöv, Erik
    Ahlstrand, Christer
    Carringer, Malcolm
    Holmäng, Sten
    Ljungberg, Börje
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Malmström, Per-Uno
    Robinsson, David
    Wijkström, Hans
    Wiklund, N Peter
    Henningsohn, Lars
    Hygiene and urinary tract infections after cystectomy in 452 Swedish survivors of bladder cancer.2009In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether or not an improved hygiene can lessen the incidence of symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) in patients treated by cystectomy for urinary bladder cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS We attempted to contact during their follow-up all men and women aged 30-80 years who had undergone cystectomy and urinary diversion at seven Swedish hospitals. During a qualitative phase we identified hygienic measures and included them in a study-specific questionnaire. The patients completed the questionnaire at home. Outcome variables were dichotomized and the results presented as relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS We received the questionnaire from 452 (92%) of 491 identified patients. The proportion of patients who had a symptomatic UTI in the previous year was 22% for orthotopic neobladder and cutaneous continent reservoir, and 23% for non-continent urostomy diversion. The RR for a UTI was 1.1 (0.5-2.5) for 'never washing hands' before handling with catheters or ostomy material. Patients with diabetes mellitus had a RR of 2.1 (1.4-3.2) for having a symptomatic UTI. CONCLUSIONS We could not confirm lack of hygiene measures as a cause of UTI for men and women who had a cystectomy with urinary diversion. Patients with diabetes mellitus have a greater risk of contracting a UTI.

  • 32. Van Hemelrijck, Mieke
    et al.
    Folkvaljon, Yasin
    Adolfsson, Jan
    Akre, Olof
    Holmberg, Lars
    Garmo, Hans
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Causes of death in men with localized prostate cancer: a nationwide, population-based study2016In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 117, no 3, p. 507-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To detail the distribution of causes of death from localized prostate cancer (PCa). Patients and Methods The database PCBase Sweden links the Swedish National Prostate Cancer Register with other nationwide population-based healthcare registers. We selected all 57 187 men diagnosed with localized PCa between 1997 and 2009 and their 114 374 PCa-free control subjects, matched according to age and county of residence. Mortality was calculated using competing risk regression analyses, taking into account PCa risk category, age and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Results In men with low-risk PCa, all-cause mortality was lower compared with that in corresponding PCa-free men: 10-year all-cause mortality was 18% for men diagnosed at age 70 years, with a CCI score of 0, and 21% among corresponding control subjects. Of these cases, 31% died from cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with 37% of the corresponding control subjects. For men with low-risk PCa, 10-year PCa-mortality was 0.4, 1 and 3% when diagnosed at age 50, 60 and 70 years, respectively. PCa was the third most common cause of death (18%), after CVD (31%) and other cancers (30%). By contrast, PCa was the most common cause of death in men with intermediate-and high-risk localized PCa. Conclusions Men with low-risk PCa had lower all-cause mortality than PCa-free men because of lower CVD mortality, driven by early detection selection; however, for men with intermediateor high-risk disease, the rate of PCa death was substantial, irrespective of CCI score, and this was even more pronounced for those diagnosed at age 50 or 60 years.

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