umu.sePublikationer
Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
1234 1 - 50 av 182
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1. Abat, F
    et al.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. Alfredson Tendon Clinic Inc, Umeå, Sweden; Pure Sports Medicine Clinic, ISEH, UCLH, London, UK.
    Cucchiarini, M
    Madry, H
    Marmotti, A
    Mouton, C
    Oliveira, J M
    Pereira, H
    Peretti, G M
    Spang, Christoph
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Stephen, J
    van Bergen, C J A
    de Girolamo, L
    Current trends in tendinopathy: consensus of the ESSKA basic science committee. Part II2018Ingår i: Journal of experimental orthopaedics, ISSN 2197-1153, Vol. 5, nr 38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The treatment of painful chronic tendinopathy is challenging. Multiple non-invasive and tendon-invasive methods are used. When traditional non-invasive treatments fail, the injections of platelet-rich plasma autologous blood or cortisone have become increasingly favored. However, there is little scientific evidence from human studies supporting injection treatment. As the last resort, intra- or peritendinous open or endoscopic surgery are employed even though these also show varying results. This ESSKA basic science committee current concepts review follows the first part on the biology, biomechanics and anatomy of tendinopathies, to provide a comprehensive overview of the latest treatment options for tendinopathy as reported in the literature.

  • 2.
    Agvald, Liv
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Fysisk aktivitetsnivå hos barn i årskurs 3: En accelerometerstudie2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Vikten av fysisk aktivitet är väl utredd, men kunskapsunderlaget om hur aktiva våra yngre barn är idag är fortfarande tunt. Tri-accelerometer har visat sig vara en valid metod att mäta aktivitet hos barn.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att undersöka och kartlägga den totala fysiska aktivitetsnivån under en veckas tid hos barn i årskurs tre på en skola i norra Sverige. Ytterligare syfte är att se hur stor andel av barnen som når upp till rekommenderad dos av daglig aktivitet, samt om det finns någon signifikant skillnad i aktivitetsnivå sett utifrån kön eller deltagande i organiserad idrott eller ej.

    Metod: Fyrtio barn deltog i studien. Deltagarnas aktivitet registrerades under en veckas tid genom en tri-accelerometer. Ett kortare frågeformulär angående deras fysiska aktivitet besvarades även.

    Resultat: Ingen signifikant skillnad avseende kön eller deltagande i organiserad idrott eller ej kunde påvisas. 39 av 40 deltagare nådde upp till rekommenderad dos av daglig aktivitet.

    Diskussion: Utifrån studien så förefaller barn i årskurs tre vara tillräckligt aktiva för att uppnå kraven på daglig aktivitetsdos, ett positivt resultat då larmrapporter om alltmer stillasittande förekommer. Större och djupare studier behövs för att se om dessa resultat stämmer i ett större sammanhang.

  • 3.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. Alfredson Tendon Clinic Inc., Umeå, Sweden; Pure Sports Medicine, London, England.
    Achilles and patellar tendon operations performed in local anestesia2018Ingår i: American journal of Anesthesiology and Pain medicine, ISSN 2640-5377, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 001-002Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    From 20 years of research on innervation patterns and pain mechanisms in chronic painful Achilles and patellar tendinopathy, we have learned that the nerves are located outside the affected tendon. With this background we use local anestetics in combination with Adrenaline when these patients are surgical treated. We have now more than 15 years of experience in treating Achilles tendinopathy, and 10 years of experience in treating patellar tendinopaty, in local anesthesia alone. I will present the scientific background and practi-cal techniques to use local anesthesia for treatment of chronic painful Achilles and patellar tendinopathy.

  • 4.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. Pure Sports Medicine Clinic, London, UK; The Institute of Sport Exercise & Health (ISEH), University College London Hospitals (UCLH), London, UK.
    Clinical commentary of the evolution of the treatment for chronic painful mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy2015Ingår i: Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia, ISSN 1413-3555, E-ISSN 1809-9246, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 429-432Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The chronic painful Achilles tendon mid-portion was for many years, and still is in many countries, treated with intratendinous revision surgery. However, by coincidence, painful eccentric calf muscle training was tried, and it showed very good clinical results. This finding was unexpected and led to research into the pain mechanisms involved in this condition. Today we know that there are very few nerves inside, but multiple nerves outside, the ventral side of the chronic painful Achilles tendon mid-portion. These research findings have resulted in new treatment methods targeting the regions with nerves outside the tendon, methods that allow for a rapid rehabilitation and fast return to sports.

  • 5.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Reply to the letter from Dr. Karsten Knobloch regarding our article "Sclerosing injections to treat midportion Achilles tendinosis: a randomized controlled study evaluating two different concentrations of polidocanol"2009Ingår i: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 113-114Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. ISEH, UCLH, London, UK; Pure Sports Medicine Clinic, London, UK.
    Masci, Lorenzo
    Spang, Christoph
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Surgical plantaris tendon removal for patients with plantaris tendon-related pain only and a normal Achilles tendon: a case series2018Ingår i: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, ISSN 2055-7647, Vol. 4, nr 1, artikel-id e000462Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Surgical removal of the plantaris tendon can cure plantaris-associated Achilles tendinopathy, a condition in which Achilles and plantaris tendinopathy coexist. However, rare cases with plantaris tendinopathy alone are often misdiagnosed due to a normal Achilles tendon.

    Design and setting: Prospective case series study at one centre.

    Participants: Ten consecutive patients (9 men and one woman, mean age 35 years, range 19–67) with plantaris tendon-related pain alone in altogether 13 tendons were included. All had had a long duration (median 10 months, range 3 months to 10 years) of pain symptoms on the medial side of the Achilles tendon mid-portion. Preoperative ultrasound showed thickened plantaris tendon but a normal Achilles tendon.

    Interventions: Operative treatment consisting of ultrasound-guided excision of the plantaris tendon.

    Primary and secondary outcome measures: Scores from Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles questionnaire (VISA-A)were taken preoperatively and postoperatively (median duration 10 months). Patient satisfaction and time until full return to sports activity level was asked by a questionnaire.

    Results: The VISA-A scores increased from 61 (range 45–81) preoperatively to 97 (range 94–100) postoperatively (p<0.01). Follow-up results at 10 months (range 7–72 months) on 9/10 patients showed full satisfaction and return to their preinjury sports or recreational activity

    Conclusion: The plantaris tendon should be kept in mind when evaluating painful conditions in the Achilles tendon region, especially when no Achilles tendinopathy is present. Excision of the plantaris tendon via a minor surgical procedure in local anaesthesia results in a good outcome.

  • 7.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. ISEH, UCLH, London, UK; Pure Sports Medicine Clinic, London, UK.
    Spang, Christoph
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Dr Alfen, Orthopedic Spine Center, 97080 Würzburg, Germany.
    Clinical presentation and surgical management of chronic Achilles tendon disorders: a retrospective observation on a set of consecutive patients being operated by the same orthopedic surgeon2018Ingår i: Foot and Ankle Surgery, ISSN 1268-7731, E-ISSN 1460-9584, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 490-494Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Non-invasive treatment is not always successful in patients with Achilles tendon disorders, and surgical treatment is instituted as the next step. There is sparse knowledge about the diagnoses, pain levels before surgery, surgically confirmed pathologies and postoperative complications in large patient groups.

    Aims: To study the diagnoses, pain scores before surgery, macroscopic surgical findings and postoperative complications in a series of patients treated for Achilles disorders.

    Material and methods: One surgeon operated on 771 Achilles tendons of 481 men and 290 women during a 10-year period. The clinically and ultrasound confirmed diagnoses, pre-operative pain and functional scores (Visual Analogue Scale, VAS, range 0-100; Victorian Institute Sports Tendon Assessment - Achilles questionnaire, VISA-A), macroscopic findings during surgery and postoperative complications, were retrospectively collected from a database.

    Results: Clinically, by ultrasound and during surgery midportion Achilles tendinopathy was confirmed in 519 (67%) patients, 41% of them had a thickened plantaris tendon located close the Achilles tendon. Partial midportion rupture was found in 31 (4%) patients, chronic midportion rupture in 12 (2%) patients and insertional Achilles tendinopathy, including superficial and retro-calcaneal bursitis, Haglund deformity, distal Achilles tendinopathy, plantaris tendon pathology, and bone spurs, in 209 (27%) patients. The mean pre-operative pain scores for midportion Achilles tendinopathy were 73 (VAS) and 45 (VISA-A), and for insertional Achilles tendinopathy 77 (VAS) and 39 (VISA-A). For midportion Achilles tendinopathy there were 14 (3%), and for insertional Achilles tendinopathy 10 (5%), postoperative complications.

    Conclusions: Patients presenting high pain scores from midportion Achilles tendinopathy were the most common. Plantaris tendon involvement is a frequent observation. For insertional Achilles tendinopathy the combination of pathology in the subcutaneous and retrocalcaneal bursa, a Haglund deformity and distal Achilles tendinopathy/tendinosis was most frequent. 

  • 8.
    Almgren, Simon
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Danielsson, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Påverkan av Muskeltrötthet på Motorisk Kontroll hos Kvinnliga Innebandyspelare2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-contact injuries are a big part of overall injuries in floorball. Deficits in motor control due to muscle fatigue may be a factor that causes non-contact injuries. We analyzed movement changes with The Functional Movement ScreenTM (FMS) with and without muscle fatigue on women floorball players. Method: A pilot study with a cross-sectional structure. FMS test was used to measure changes in movements and to reach fatigue a 5-10 min running ramp protocol on treadmill was used. The borg RPE-scale was used to measure perceived exhaustion. Participants: Seven female floorball players playing in teams at the highest two leagues in Sweden. The participants age was 19.7 (±SD 3,2) years, length 166.4 cm (±SD 7,2) and weight 63.1 kg (±SD 4,5). Results: Through observations of the participants we noted a different movement pattern while obtaining muscle fatigue. The results of FMS total score shows no significant difference (p=0,504) before and after the VO2max running test. The FMS results from exercises that includes the lower extremities (deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge and straight leg raise) does not either confirm a significant difference (p=0,132). Discussion: Our subjective analyze of the movements confirms a different movement strategy with and without muscle fatigue. The non-parametric statistical analyze does not confirm this change in movements as significant. The Functional Movement Screen might not be a good tool to measure changes in movement because the movement change has to be in a specific criteria to get a lower point. Even though we saw a different movement strategy after the ramp running test, the deficit in movements was not in the specific criteria that was necessary to get a lower point. Conclusion: Through the test results and our observations we conclude that movement pattern change after an exercise that causes fatigue, does not completely show how much the movement patterns changes and what the consequences are. More research has to be done in this area to confirm such results.

  • 9.
    Anckarman, Erika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Den framgångsrika personliga tränaren: En kvalitativ studie om klienters upplevelse av vilka egenskaper och faktorer som är viktiga för personliga tränare2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Fitnessbranschen har under senare tid expanderat snabbt och PT erbjuds idag på de flesta anläggningar. Träning med PT har positiva effekter fysiskt men även på beteenden kopplat till träning. För ett positiv utfall av träningen krävs det en god interaktion mellan klient och coach.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka vad klienter som tränar eller har tränat med en PT det senaste året anser är viktiga egenskaper och faktorer hos en PT.

    Design och metod: Studien har en kvalitativ deskriptiv design. Datainsamling genomfördes med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Kvalitativ innehållsanalys användes för databearbetning.

    Resultat: Vid dataanalysen framkom 3 teman, 6 kategorier och 17 subkategorier. De teman och kategorier som framkom var:

    Framstå som kompetent - Utseende och uppvisad erfarenhet, Ge känsla av bred kunskap Coachingstil- Närvaro här och nu, Individanpassning Pedagogiska strategier - Verktyg för att uppnå resultat, Trygghetsskapande

    Konklusion: Bakgrundsinformation om alla PT bör finnas tillgänglig på hemsida eller anläggning i syfte att klienten ska kunna välja sin en PT utifrån deras personliga önskemål. Detta skulle kunna skapa goda grundförutsättningar för en fungerande arbetsallians. Forskning inom detta område är begränsat och det är därför av intresse att fler större studier genomförs. 

  • 10.
    Anderback, Nanny-Maja
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Öling, Kajsa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Kan fysisk aktivitet under graviditeten reducera graviditetsrelaterade besvär?2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Många kvinnor är gravida i en eller flera perioder under sitt liv. Under denna tid har studier visat att kvinnor tenderar att bli fysiskt inaktiva. Med en graviditet kommer också en ökad risk för andra sjukdomar och besvär, såsom graviditetsdiabetes och övervikt. Vissa av dessa besvär har kunnat förebyggas med hjälp av fysisk aktivitet. Traditionellt har det funnits en uppfattning om att fysisk aktivitet innebär risker både för den gravida kvinnan och för fostret. Idag finns dock en mer liberal syn på fysisk aktivitet under graviditet men forskningen är fortfarande bristfällig.

    Syfte: Vårt syfte med denna litteraturstudie är att studera effekter av fysisk aktivitet under graviditet på graviditetsrelaterade besvär.

    Resultat: Vår studie har visat att det finns positiva effekter av fysisk aktivitet under graviditet framförallt på graviditetsrelaterade besvär som ländryggssmärta, bäckenbottendysfunktion, trötthet, graviditetsdiabetes och övervikt samt vissa positiva tendenser på preeklampsi, ödem och bäckensmärta.

    Konklusion: Positiva effekter har framkommit men inga tydliga rekommendationer finns, därför behövs ytterligare studier. Många studier har metodologiska brister och därför behövs fler RCT studier på de graviditetsrelaterade besvären för att få konsensus om vilken typ av fysisk aktivitet, duration, intensitet samt frekvens under graviditet som är gynnsamt för de besvär vi studerat.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Annie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Björkén, Rebecca
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Kan fysisk aktivitet och kost ha en positiv inverkan på fysiska och psykiska subkliniska menstruella besvär?2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Många kvinnor påverkas negativt av fysiska och psykiska besvär under sin menstruationscykel. Det råder idag stor kunskapsbrist om hur subkliniska menstruella besvär som kraftig menstruationssmärta, riklig menstruationsblödning, premenstruellt syndrom, premenstruellt dysforiskt syndrom, oregelbunden menstruation och menstruationsbortfall kan lindras utan att använda läkemedel. Fysisk aktivitet och kost har visats ge stora hälsoeffekter vid många sjukdomar och besvär och därför var syftet att undersöka om det även ger positiva hälsoeffekter vid menstruella besvär.

    Syfte: Syftet med litteraturstudien var att studera om fysisk aktivitet och kost kan minska fysiska och psykiska subkliniska menstruella besvär och därigenom ge ökat välmående.

    Metod: Sökt i Pubmed med sökorden subkliniska besvär i relation till fysisk aktivitet respektive kost hos fertila tränade och otränade kvinnor utan inverkan av hormonella preventivmedel.

    Resultat: Studien har visat vissa belägg för att fysisk aktivitet och kost kan lindra några subkliniska menstruella besvär. Premenstruellt syndrom (PMS) kan främst lindras genom lugna, meditativa aktiviteter. Vidare sågs god effekt på PMS av mindre men fler måltider med komplexa kolhydrater, samt intag av vitaminer och mineraler. Yoga har även visats minska menstruationssmärta, och allmän fysisk aktivitet har visat antydan till att förbättra menstruationens regelbundenhet. För att undvika oregelbunden menstruation eller menstruationsuppehåll behövs adekvat energiintag. Övriga subkliniska menstruella besvär saknade tydliga rekommendationer.

    Konklusion: Studien har visat att fysisk aktivitet och kost kan ha positiva effekter på vissa menstruella subkliniska besvär. För kvinnor med PMS verkar lugna, meditativa former av fysisk aktivitet kunna lindra syndromet. Yoga och fysisk aktivitet har även visats minska dysmenorré. Tillräckligt energiintag är essentiellt för att undvika oregelbunden och utebliven menstruation. Ytterligare studier behövs inom området för att säkerställa resultat och ge generella rekommendationer.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    The feasibility of using a training- and injury log to quantify training load and injury incidence in powerlifting2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about injuries and risk factors in powerlifting. In other sports, training load is an important factor that influences injury risk. However, no method to quantify training load in powerlifting exist.Objectives:

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether a standardised training and injury log is a feasible method to quantify training load and to prospectively record injuries.Method:The study was conducted in two phases with 7 respectively 8 powerlifters in each phase. In phase 1, the powerlifters logged their injuries and training for four weeks and then answered a feasibility questionnaire. Based on the results from the questionnaire, updates in the training and injury log were made and the powerlifters in phase 2 logged their training and injuries using the updated version and answered the same questionnaire as the powerlifters in phase 1.

    Results:

    It was possible to extract data and make calculations on training load based on the variables used in the training log and it was possible to calculate injury incidence and prevalence. Also, 9/12 powerlifters stated that they could use this standardised method for a period of at least 6 months.

    Conclusion:

    In conclusion, this standardised training and injury log seems to be a method to quantify training load and injuries in powerlifting. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between training load and injuries in powerlifting.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Hannes
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Gröntvedt, John
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Effekten av 8-veckors medicinbollsträning på smashhastighet hos badmintonspelare2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 14.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Andersson, Ida
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Samband mellan överkroppsstyrka och prestation i skidspåret hos svenska längdskidåkande juniorer.2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has identified strength as a key factor for performance in cross-country skiing. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between upper body strength and performance in swedish junior cross-country skiers. 33 swedish young men and 23 young women age 17,3 ± 1,0 years volunteered to participate in specific tests during a summer training camp were they completed a test battery consisting of bench press and bench pull. The strength variables obtained were correlated with FIS-points (International Ski Federation´s ranking points for distance and sprint performance) used as the performance indicator. Correlations were performed by Spearman´s rank correlation coefficient for all variables. The results showed that FIS-points for sprint correlated significantly with both bench press and bench pull. No significant correlation was found between FIS-points for distance and bench pull. These results may predict performance for cross-country skiers and indicate a justification for increased proportion of strength training. 

  • 15.
    Andersson, Terese
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Menstruationscykelns och p-pillers påverkan på den fysiska prestationsförmågan2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of Menstrual Cycle and Oral Contraceptives on Sport Performance

    During the menstrual cycle, there is a variation of the female steriod hormones estrogen and progestogen. These hormones has mainly reproduktive functions, but do also affect other physiological systems, which may have an influence on athletic performance. The use of oral contraceptives among female athletes matches the use among the general population. There is a concern among female athletes and there coaches weather oral contraceptives can affect the performance. The purpose of this litterature review is to determine the effect of the menstrual cycle and the use of oral contraceptives on athletic performance. Most studies indicates that neither the aerobic performance or VO₂max changes during the mestrual cycle, but an increase in ventilation during the lutheal phase has been observed. In the lutheal phase, the body temperature is elevated, which can affect the performance negatively during physical activity in hot and humid conditions. Studies evaluating the anaerobic performance shows varied results, which can be explained by few study participants, different study designs and varying definitions of menstrual cycle phase. Some studies that have examined the strength variation have not seen any difference, and others have seen an advantage during the follicular phase, when it also seems to be beneficial to train more strength training to optimize training adaptation. The use of oral contraceptives can affect the body composition of female athletes. Fat mass and BMD can increase, and is seen mainly in athleteswith mestrual dysfunctions. This can be benificial for their health and decrease the risk of injury, but may decrease performace level. The effect of oral contraceptive administration on aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity and strength are unclear and the research has come up with varying results. Future studies should investigate oneoral contraceptive pill formulation at a time, andalso compare different formulations, to determineif that affect performance in different ways.

    Key words: menstruation, oral contraceptives, female athlete, performance, hormones

  • 16.
    Ballin, Marcel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Lundberg, Emmy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    The effect of 10 weeks of vigorousintensity interval training on visceral adipose tissue in 70-year-old individuals with central obesity: - a randomized controlled trial2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 17.
    Bengtsson, Victor
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Yu, Ji-Guo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Could the negative effects of static stretching in warm-up be restored by sport specific exercise?2018Ingår i: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, ISSN 0022-4707, Vol. 58, nr 9, s. 1185-1189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Static stretching (SS) is widely used in warm-up as it is generally believed to increase mobility and reduce the risk of injury; however, SS has been shown to induce transient negative effects on subsequent muscle performance. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that sport specific exercise could restore SS-induced negative effects on certain sports, especially of explosive muscular performance. Whether sport specific exercise could restore SS-induced negative effects on isokinetic muscle performance remains unclear.

    METHODS: The present study conducted two different warm-ups: 2-component warm-up and 3-component warm-up on 15 university students. Both protocols contained low intensity aerobic exercise and sport specific exercise, whereas the 3-component warm-up also contained SS which has been previously proven to induce negative effects on subsequent muscle performance. After the warm-ups, the subjects performed an isokinetic test on a Biodex. To make the sport specific exercise mimic the subsequent test, both included concentric isokinetic knee extension. During the tests, muscle performance of peak torque, mean power, and total work was recorded. Comparison of the measurements on each parameter between the two warm-ups was performed using paired t test.

    RESULTS: The comparisons did not reveal any significant difference in the measurement of any parameter between the two different warm-up protocols, and calculation of Cohen's revealed small effect sizes on all of the three variables.

    CONCLUSIONS: On basis of the present results and that the SS could induce transient negative effects on subsequent muscle performance, we concluded that the negative effects of the SS on the variables were restored by the isokinetic contractions.

  • 18.
    Berglund, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Aasa, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi. Norrlandskliniken Hlth Care Ctr, Umea, Sweden.
    Michaelson, Peter
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsa och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi .
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Effects of Low-Load Motor Control Exercises and a High-Load Lifting Exercise on Lumbar Multifidus Thickness: A Randomized Controlled Trial2017Ingår i: Spine, ISSN 0362-2436, E-ISSN 1528-1159, Vol. 42, nr 15, s. E876-E882Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Design. Randomized controlled trial.Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of low-load motor control (LMC) exercises and a high-load lifting (HLL) exercise, on lumbar multifidus (LM) thickness on either side of the spine and whether the effects were affected by pain intensity or change in pain intensity. Summary of Background Data. There is evidence that patients with low back pain (LBP) may have a decreased size of the LM muscles with an asymmetry between sides in the lower back. It has also been shown that LMC training can affect this asymmetry. It is, however, not known whether a high-load exercise has the same effect. Methods. Sixty-five participants diagnosed with nociceptive mechanical LBP were included and randomized into LMC exercises or a HLL exercise, the deadlift. The LM thickness was measured using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI), at baseline and after a 2-month training period. Results. There were no differences between interventions regarding effect on LM muscle thickness. However, the analysis showed a significant effect for asymmetry. The thickness of the LM muscle on the small side increased significantly compared with the large side in both intervention groups, without influence of pain at baseline, or change in pain intensity.Conclusion. At baseline, there was a difference in thickness of the LM muscles between sides. It seems that exercises focusing on spinal alignment may increase the thickness of the LM muscles on the small side, irrespective of exercise load. The increase in LM thickness does not appear to be mediated by either current pain intensity or the magnitude of change in pain intensity.

  • 19.
    Bergström, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Offerman, Jens
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Unga kvinnors järnstatus i relation till aerob metabolism under cykelarbete.2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Järn är ett essentiellt spårämne vars främsta funktion i kroppen är att ingå i hemoglobin produktionen, en transportmolekyl för syre och koldioxid. Järnbrist är den vanligaste nutritionella bristen hos idrottare och kvinnor är i en särskild riskzon. Syfte: Att undersöka idrottande kvinnors järnstatus och eventuell relation till 1) aerob metabolism, 2) verkningsgrad, och 3) VO2max vid cykelarbete.  Metod: Deskriptiv tvärsnittsstudie. Testdeltagarnas medelålder 22 ± 5,8 år, medel VO2max 43,5 ± 4,6 ml/kg/min. Järnstatus jämfördes mot syreförbrukning, verkningsgrad och VO2max under ett ergometercykeltest. Blodprov togs med analys av testdeltagarnas serum ferritin-nivåer (sFer) där <29 ug/l antogs som låg och >30 ug/l som normal järnstatus Ett submaximalt och maximalt ergometercykeltest genomfördes på deltagarna. Analys gjordes i form av regressionsanalyser i JMP 13, för att förutspå ett samband. Resultat: Inget samband uppvisades mellan de olika parametrar som har jämförts. SFer hos deltagare (n=48) var ett medel på 23 ±11 ug/l. SFer och VO2/L/min vid 100 watt (r2=0.09, P<0.05), sFer och kcal/min (r2=0.05) och sFer och VO2max (r2=0.05). Konklusion: Huvudsakliga fyndet är att järnstatus inte har ett signifikant samband med aerob metabolism, trots att tidigare forskning har tytt på ett sådant. Fler deltagare med högre värden i ferritin och en tydligare standardisering runt träning, kost och menstruationscykeln hos kvinnorna som jämfördes skulle kunna ha gett ett annat resultat.

  • 20. Bo, Kari
    et al.
    Artal, Raul
    Barakat, Ruben
    Brown, Wendy J.
    Davies, Gregory A. L.
    Dooley, Michael
    Evenson, Kelly R.
    Haakstad, Lene A. H.
    Kayser, Bengt
    Kinnunen, Tarja I.
    Larsén, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mottola, Michelle F.
    Nygaard, Ingrid
    van Poppel, Mireille
    Stuge, Britt
    Khan, Karim M.
    Exercise and pregnancy in recreational and elite athletes: 2016/2017 evidence summary from the IOC expert group meeting, Lausanne. Part 5. Recommendations for health professionals and active women2018Ingår i: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 52, nr 17, s. 1080-1085Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Bodin, Jimmy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Eklund, Viktor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    En jämförelse av den fysiska kapaciteten mellan kvinnliga och manliga fotbollsspelare2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Football (or soccer) is a physically complex sport that involves everything from kicking, running, throwing, tackling etc. Even if most of the participants are men, more and more women are playing. As many know there are general differences between genders. A common knowledge is that men are stronger and have higher aerobic capacity. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in football. 32 experienced football players participated in this study. 17 men (mean age: 22,7 ± 3,5 years, bodyweight: 79,4 ± 7,4kg) and 17 women (mean age: 22,1 ± 3,3 years, bodyweight: 65,2 ± 8,4 kg). The women play in the Swedish first division while men are playing in the Swedish third division. Subjects were tested in endurance (Yo- Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 test), jumping ability  (Squat jump (SJ), Countermovement jump without (CMJ) and with arm swing (CMJ (a)) and sprinting ability (10 meter sprint). The result shows none significant differences between the two teams. The most differences were found in the Yo- Yo IE2 test where the men ran 2321 ± 605m in contrast to the women 1965± 505m (p=0,07).  In the sprint testes the men ran 10 meters at 1,77± 0,1s and the women 1,79± 0,1s (p=0,57). At the vertical jump testes the result where in SJ for men 33,2 ± 3,3 and women 31,2 ± 5,2 cm (p=0,11), In CMJ the men performed 35,9 ±5,2 cm and women 33,1±3,6 cm (p=0,10) and in CMJ (a) the men performed 40,0 ±7,3 cm and the women 40,0 ± 3,5 cm (p=0,98). In conclusion the men and women have a similar physical capacity since there were no significant differences found. This could be a result from different training structures or the different physical demands varying from the two divisions.

  • 22.
    Bohlin, Emelie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Difference in the muscle cell proteome between clean and doped athletes A study of protein-protein interactions2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 23.
    Boman, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Burén, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Antti, Henrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Svensson, Michael B.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Gene expression and fiber type variations in repeated vastus lateralis biopsies2015Ingår i: Muscle and Nerve, ISSN 0148-639X, E-ISSN 1097-4598, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 812-817Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Muscle sample collection can introduce variation in any measured variable due to inter- and intramuscle variation. We investigated the variation in gene expression and fiber type composition after repeated biopsy sampling from the vastus lateralis muscle. Methods: Six subjects donated 3 tissue samples each. One hour after baseline sampling from 1 vastus lateralis muscle, samples from both vastus lateralis muscles were obtained. Results: The fiber type composition differed between biopsies taken from the same leg. There were no within-subject differences in gene expression between the 3 biopsies. Multivariate analysis supports a model in which gene expression differs significantly between individuals but is not affected by repeated muscle biopsy sampling from the same subject. Conclusion: One vastus lateralis muscle sample per subject is sufficient to establish a reliable baseline for comparing gene expression representing selected pathways over time within the same individual.

  • 24.
    Boman, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Burén, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Åkerfeldt, T
    Svensson, Michael B.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Effects of protein ingestion on the hormonal response to resistance exercise and increases in lean body mass after eight weeks of trainingManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 25.
    Bramell, Axel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Differences in the relationship of heart rate and blood lactate values between running on track versus inclined treadmill: Improving laboratory testing to accurately prescribe exercise intensities2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the generalisability of the heart rate-blood lactate relationship determined in laboratory testing in comparison to running over ground. This plays a crucial role to prescribe exercise intensity from laboratory results. Ten well trained runners performed a maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) pre-test and an incremental submaximal test performed at a two degrees inclined treadmill and a running track. Statistical analysis included student’s t-test of heart rate at interpolated blood lactate levels and comparison of second order polynomial regression lines. VO2max was 60,4 ± 6 ml/kg/min for men and 56,3 ± 4,3 ml/kg/min for women. There was no significant difference in heart rate at interpolated blood lactate of 3 and 4 mmol/L. There was no significant difference between heart rate values at any running velocity. A significant difference between blood lactate values was observed 14km/h (p=0,04). When considering blood lactate values up to 6mmol/L, heart rate-blood lactate relationships were similar. In conclusion, lactate threshold testing on treadmill through incremental test protocols on a two degrees incline gives similar heart rate- blood lactate relationship as running over ground and may be used to prescribe intensity in training performed over ground. 

  • 26.
    Bramell, Axel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Jakobsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Validation and practical evaluation of the Onesenz microdialysis lactate analyser2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the reliability of the new Onesenz on-line microdialysis lactate analyser compared to the YSI 2300 Stat Plus. Venous blood lactate concentrations were measured simultaneously with both analysers during an incremental cycle ergometer test. Eight physically active men and women completed the test to voluntary exhaustion. A total of 81 blood samples from both devices were included in the analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted through correlation, regression analysis and limits of agreement. Lactate values during graded exercise ranged from 0,5 mM/l to 14,1 mM/l. A significant correlation was observed between the two analysers, r(79)=0,98, p<0,001. Regression analysis determined the equation: [Onesenz] = 0,811*[YSI] + 0,345  and coefficient of determination (R2) was 0,95. The mean difference between the analysers was 0,15 mM/l ± 0,7 mM/l. The agreement between the two analysers deteriorated above 6 mM/l. When studying bLa values above 6 mM/l the mean difference was 1,38 ± 1,3 mM/l. In conclusion, the Onesenz lactate analyser provides reliable bLa measurements up to 6 mM/l compared to the YSI 2300. In the context of sports medicine the more time consuming method of microdialysis limits its appropriateness to longer test protocols, but on the other hand reduces human error. Still, the prototype lacks several features concerning practical usefulness.

    Keywords: Blood lactate, Microdialysis, Lactate threshold, Exercise testing, Lactate analyser

  • 27.
    Brännström, André
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Yu, Ji-Guo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Jonsson, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi.
    Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Svensson, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Vitamin D in relation to bone health and muscle function in young female soccer players2017Ingår i: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 249-256Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work investigated serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) status in relation to bone and muscle qualities and functions in 19 female soccer players (13–16 years) resident at northern latitude with very low sun exposure (∼32–36 h/month) during winter season (late January to early March). Serum 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone and bone turnover markers osteocalcin (OC) and beta carboxy-terminal collagen cross-links (β-Ctx), as well as body composition and muscle performance were examined. Hormones were tested using routine laboratory methods. Fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral density in whole body, as well as femur and lumbar spine were evaluated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Muscle performance was assessed through isokinetic knee extension and flexion, countermovement jump, and sprint running. 25(OH)D was low (50.5 ± 12.8 nmol l−1), whereas the values of bone turnover markers were markedly high (OC: 59.4 ± 18.6 μg l−1; β-Ctx: 1075 ± 408 ng l−1). All bone and muscle measurements were normal or above normal. 25(OH) D was not significantly correlated with most of the parameters of bone and muscle quality or function, except the knee extension time to peak torque (r = −0.50, p = .03). In conclusion, the level of vitamin D is markedly low in adolescent female soccer players during the winter in Sweden. However, vitamin D levels did not significantly correlate with measures of bone and muscle except a moderate correlation in time to peak torque in the knee extensors. The practical implication of low vitamin D levels in young growing female athletes remains unclear.

  • 28.
    Bylinder Westerberg, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Magnusson, Gabriella
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Hamstringsruptur – en fotbollsspelares svåraste motståndare: En litteraturstudie framtagen för att hjälpa fotbollstränare att förebygga och behandla hamstringsrupturer2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Fotboll är en av de mest skadedrabbade idrotterna. 70-90% av skadorna är lokaliserade i nedre extremiteter. Den vanligaste skadan är hamstringsruptur och utgör 37% av skador i nedre extremiteter. Det finns idag mycket forskning gjord på hamstringsrupturer hos manliga fotbollsspelare, men skadefrekvensen för hamstringsrupturen minskar inte.

    Syfte: Studiens syfte är att bidra med ökad medvetenhet och kunskap om uppkomst, rehabilitering och preventiva åtgärder på hamstringsrupturer för tränare i manliga fotbollslag.

    Metod: Studien har sammanställt redan befintlig litteratur om de valda område för att besvara studiens syfte. Studiens valda metod är en litteraturstudie.

    Resultat: (1) Uppkomst: Höghastighetssprint & förlängning. (2) Rehabilitering: Individuell konservativ behandling. (3) Preventiva åtgärder: Excentriska övningar ex: Nordic hamstrings exercise, Asklings glider.

    Slutsats: Mer kunskap behövs inom området, både för tränare och spelare i idrottsföreningar, och kunskapen måste presenteras på ett användbart sätt.

  • 29.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden..
    Physiological demands of competitive elite cross-country skiing2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Researchers have, for decades, contributed to an increased collective understanding of the physiological demands in cross-country skiing; however, almost all of these studies have used either non-elite subjects and/or performances that emulate cross-country skiing. To establish the physiological demands of cross-country skiing, it is important to relate the investigated physiological variables to the competitive performance of elite skiers. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was, therefore, to investigate the external validity of physiological test variables to determine the physiological demands in competitive elite cross-country skiing.

    Methods The subjects in Study I – IV were elite male (I – III) and female (III – IV) cross-country skiers. In all studies, the relationship between test variables (general and ski-specific) and competitive performances (i.e. the results from competitions or the overall ski-ranking points of the International Ski Federation (FIS) for sprint (FISsprint) and distance (FISdist) races) were analysed. Test variables reflecting the subject’s general strength, upper-body and whole-body oxygen uptake, oxygen uptake and work intensity at the lactate threshold, mean upper-body power, lean mass, and maximal double-poling speed were investigated.

    Results The ability to maintain a high work rate without accumulating lactate is an indicator of distance performance, independent of sex (I, IV). Independent of sex, high oxygen uptake in whole-body and upper-body exercise was important for both sprint (II, IV) and distance (I, IV) performance. The maximal double-poling speed and 60-s double-poling mean power output were indicators of sprint (IV) and distance performance (I), respectively. Lean mass was correlated with distance performance for women (III), whereas correlations were found between lean mass and sprint performance among both male and female skiers (III). Moreover, no correlations between distance performance and test variables were derived from tests of knee-extension peak torque, vertical jumps, or double poling on a ski-ergometer with 20-s and 360-s durations (I), whereas gross efficiency while treadmill roller skiing showed no correlation with either distance or sprint performance in cross-country skiing (IV).

    Conclusion The results in this thesis show that, depending on discipline and sex, maximal and peak oxygen uptake, work intensity at the lactate threshold, lean mass, double-poling mean power output, and double-poling maximal speed are all externally valid physiological test variables for evaluation of performance capability among elite cross-country skiers; however, to optimally indicate performance capability different test-variable expressions should be used; in general, the absolute expression appears to be a better indicator of competitive sprint performance whereas the influence of body mass should be considered when evaluating competitive distance performance capability of elite cross-country skiers.

  • 30.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin. School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin. School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Wedholm, Lars
    School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mattias
    Regional Sports Federation of Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Physiological demands of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing2016Ingår i: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 30, nr 8, s. 2138-2144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate the relationship between elite females' competitive performance capability in sprint and distance cross-country skiing and the variables of gross efficiency (GE), work rate at the onset of blood-lactate accumulation (OBLA4mmol), maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), maximal speed (Vmax), and peak upper-body oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age 24.5 ± 2.8 years) completed treadmill roller-skiing tests to determine GE, OBLA4mmol, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max using the diagonal-stride technique as well as Vmax and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak using the double-poling technique. International Ski Federations ranking points for sprint (FISsprint) and distance (FISdist) races were used as competitive performance data. There were correlations between the FISsprint and the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max expressed absolutely (p = 0.0040), Vmax (p = 0.012), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak expressed absolutely (p < 0.001) and as a simple ratio-standard (p = 0.049). The FISdist were correlated with OBLA4mmol (p = 0.048), V[Combining Dot Above]O2max expressed absolutely (L·min) (p = 0.015) and as a simple ratio-standard (p = 0.046), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak expressed absolutely (p = 0.036) and as a simple ratio-standard (ml·min·kg) (p = 0.040). The results demonstrate that the physiological abilities reflected by V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak are indicators of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing. In addition, the ability to generate a high Vmax indicates the performance in sprint races, whereas the skier's OBLA4mmol reflects the performance capability in distance races. Based on the results, when evaluating the performance capacity of elite female cross-country skiers, it is recommended to use physiological variables that reflect competitive performance.

  • 31.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden..
    The importance of body-mass exponent optimization for evaluation of performance capability in cross-country skiing2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Performance in cross-country skiing is influenced by the skier’s ability to continuously produce propelling forces and force magnitude in relation to the net external forces. A surrogate indicator of the “power supply” in cross-country skiing would be a physiological variable that reflects an important performance-related capability, whereas the body mass itself is an indicator of the “power demand” experienced by the skier. To adequately evaluate an elite skier’s performance capability, it is essential to establish the optimal ratio between the physiological variable and body mass. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was to investigate the importance of body-mass exponent optimization for the evaluation of performance capability in cross-country skiing.

    Methods In total, 83 elite cross-country skiers (56 men and 27 women) volunteered to participate in the four studies. The physiological variables of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and oxygen uptake corresponding to a blood-lactate concentration of 4 mmol∙l-1 (V̇O2obla) were determined while treadmill roller skiing using the diagonal-stride technique; mean oxygen uptake (V̇O2dp) and upper-body power output () were determined during double-poling tests using a ski-ergometer. Competitive performance data for elite male skiers were collected from two 15-km classical-technique skiing competitions and a 1.25-km sprint prologue; additionally, a 2-km double-poling roller-skiing time trial using the double-poling technique was used as an indicator of upper-body performance capability among elite male and female junior skiers. Power-function modelling was used to explain the race and time-trial speeds based on the physiological variables and body mass.

    Results The optimal V̇O2max-to-mass ratios to explain 15-km race speed were V̇O2max divided by body mass raised to the 0.48 and 0.53 power, and these models explained 68% and 69% of the variance in mean skiing speed, respectively; moreover, the 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the body-mass exponents did not include either 0 or 1. For the modelling of race speed in the sprint prologue, body mass failed to contribute to the models based on V̇O2max, V̇O2obla, and V̇O2dp. The upper-body power output-to-body mass ratio that optimally explained time-trial speed was m-0.57 and the model explained 63% of the variance in speed.

    Conclusions The results in this thesis suggest that V̇O2max divided by the square root of body mass should be used as an indicator of performance in 15-km classical-technique races among elite male skiers rather than the absolute or simple ratio-standard scaled expression. To optimally explain an elite male skier’s performance capability in sprint prologues, power-function models based on oxygen-uptake variables expressed absolutely are recommended. Moreover, to evaluate elite junior skiers’ performance capabilities in 2-km double-poling roller-skiing time trials, it is recommended that divided by the square root of body mass should be used rather than absolute or simple ratio-standard scaled expression of power output.

  • 32.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Rønnestad, Bent R
    Malm, Christer B.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Optimal Formula V̇O 2max -to-mass ratio for performance among elite male cross-country skiers2015Ingår i: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 6, s. 353-360Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was 1) to validate the 0.5 body-mass exponent for maximal. oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] as the optimal predictor of performance in a 15 km classical-technique skiing competition among elite male cross-country skiers and 2) to evaluate the influence of distance covered on the body-mass exponent for [Formula: see text] among elite male skiers. Twenty-four elite male skiers (age: 21.4±3.3 years [mean ± standard deviation]) completed an incremental treadmill roller-skiing test to determine their [Formula: see text]. Performance data were collected from a 15 km classical-technique cross-country skiing competition performed on a 5 km course. Power-function modeling (ie, an allometric scaling approach) was used to establish the optimal body-mass exponent for [Formula: see text] to predict the skiing performance. The optimal power-function models were found to be [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], which explained 69% and 81% of the variance in skiing speed, respectively. All the variables contributed to the models. Based on the validation results, it may be recommended that [Formula: see text] divided by the square root of body mass (mL · min(-1) · kg(-0.5)) should be used when elite male skiers' performance capability in 15 km classical-technique races is evaluated. Moreover, the body-mass exponent for [Formula: see text] was demonstrated to be influenced by the distance covered, indicating that heavier skiers have a more pronounced positive pacing profile (ie, race speed gradually decreasing throughout the race) compared to that of lighter skiers.

  • 33.
    Christensen, Jens
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. UCLH, ISEH, London, England; Pure Sports Clin, London, England.
    Andersson, Gustav
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Protease-activated receptors in the Achilles tendon-a potential explanation for the excessive pain signalling in tendinopathy2015Ingår i: Molecular Pain, ISSN 1744-8069, E-ISSN 1744-8069, Vol. 11, artikel-id 13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aim: Tendinopathies are pathological conditions of tissue remodelling occurring in the major tendons of the body, accompanied by excessive nociceptive signalling. Tendinopathies have been shown to exhibit an increase in the number of mast cells, which are capable of releasing histamine, tryptase and other substances upon activation, which may play a role in the development of tendinopathies. This study set out to describe the distribution patterns of a family of receptors called protease-activated receptors (PARs) within the Achilles tendon. These four receptors (PAR1, PAR2, PAR3, PAR4) are activated by proteases, including tryptase released from mast cells, and are involved in fibrosis, hyperalgesia and neovascularisation, which are changes seen in tendinopathies. Method: In order to study which structures involved in tendinopathy that these proteases can affect, biopsies from patients suffering of mid-portion Achilles tendinosis and healthy controls were collected and examined using immunohistochemistry. Tendon cells were cultured to study in vitro expression patterns. Results: The findings showed a distribution of PARs inside the tendon tissue proper, and in the paratendinous tissue, with all four being expressed on nerves and vascular structures. Double staining showed co-localisation of PARs with nociceptive fibres expressing substance P. Concerning tenocytes, PAR2, PAR3, and PAR4, were found in both biopsies of tendon tissue and cultured tendon cells. Conclusions: This study describes the expression patterns of PARs in the mid-portion of the Achilles tendon, which can help explain the tissue changes and increased pain signalling seen in tendinopathies. These findings also show that in-vitro studies of the effects of these receptors are plausible and that PARs are a possible therapeutic target in the future treatment strategies of tendinopathy.

  • 34.
    Edit, Strömbäck
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Prevalence of injuries and pain in Swedish powerlifters2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 35.
    Edlund, Anton
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Male ice hockey players treated with arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement: An online survey regarding pain and postoperatve outcome2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Femoroacetabular impingement is a common injury amongst male ice hockey players. Male ice hockey players (n=35, mean age 26,8±4,1) completed an online survey regardingsymptoms, rehabilitation, return to play, pain and timing. The aim of the present study was to analyze the symptoms, rehabilitation, return to play and timing for these variables in male ice hockey players previously treated with arthroscopy for FAI. Fourtythree % of the participants had to retire due to FAI-related symptoms. The present study showed that examples of common FAI-symptoms were located in the groin area, hip flexors and lower back, and that several players were misdiagnosed before getting a FAI-diagnose. The age at onset of FAI- symptoms (mean ± SD) was 19.2±4.8. The time between arthroscopy and ice contact, and the time between arthroscopy and first game was not the deciding factor for the return to play rate. FAI causes pain for many male ice hockey players, even after postoperative rehabilitation and not all players were able to return to play after FAI-arthroscopy.When taking the whole postoperative rehabilitation into consideration, to experience pain during a greater time than not does not seem favourable for outcome regarding pain. The present study is another piece of growing evidence that FAI is a major problem amongst male ice hockey players.

  • 36.
    Edlund, Anton
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Åman, Jim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    ANIMS Test and Wingate: A Correlation Study2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate if there is a correlation between ANIMS

    test and the Wingate test. We also aim to understand the metabolic demands for an ice hockey

    player better. 21 male ice hockey players, age 18,0 ± 1,8 participated in the study. The study

    consisted of an anaerobic bike test (Wingate test) and a repeated sprint test on ice (ANIMS

    test). Participants conducted the test in a random order. Peak power, power drop,

    VelocityMax were recorded for the Wingate test while time on each sprint and total sprint

    time were recorded for ANIMS test. Lactate samples were taken pre-test, 0-1 minute post test

    and 5 minutes post test. Results revealed that there is a significant correlation between Peak

    power (Wingate test) and Time on the first sprint (ANIMS). There was also a significant

    correlation between VelocityMax (Wingate test) and each of the sprints in ANIMS test. All

    the sprints on ANIMS test correlated with each other. The difference in lactate concentration

    from pre-test – 0-1 minute post and pre-test – 5 minutes post test was statistically significant

    in both ANIMS test and Wingate test. There was no significant correlation between Peak

    power (Wingate test) and Total sprint time (ANIMS). There was no significant correlation

    between Power Drop on Wingate test and the increased sprint time on ANIMS test. ANIMS

    test seems to be an anaerobic test since it correlates with Wingate test which is a valid

    anaerobic test. High concentration of post-exercise blood lactate confirms that teams and/or

    players that want to evaluate their anaerobic capacity and effect can use ANIMS test to do so.

    We therefore conclude that ANIMS test can be used as a on ice anaerobic test.

  • 37.
    Ekholm, Edwin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Niman, Rudolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Kan fälttester indikera fysisk prestation under match?: En korrelationsstudie utförd på manliga elitfotbollsspelare i Sverige2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns bristande tillgång på studier som undersökt Change of Direction Speed (CODS) och Repeated Sprint Ability (RSA) förmåga att förutspå fysisk prestation under match mätt med GPS-system. Syftet med studien var att undersöka två fälttester, 20 meter Repeated Sprint Ability test (RSA20) och Modifierat-Change of Direction Speed test (M-CODS) och dess samband till fysisk prestation under match: medeldistans (MD), acceleration (ACC), deceleration (DEC), högintensiva löpningar (HL), väldigt högintensiva löpningar (VHL), sprinter och maximal hastighet (MH) under matcher mätt med GPS-system (S5, 100Hz, CatapultSports, Australien). Under försäsongen utförde tio manliga elitfotbollsspelare (25.5±2.1 y/o, 78.8±3.6 kg,181.34±.9 cm) två fälttester som sedan jämfördes med fysisk prestation under match. Studien fann moderata signifikanta samband då p<0.05 mellan bästa tiden på RSA20 (RSA20bäst) och accelerationer inkluderat med decelerationer (ACC+DEC) (r=-0.643) samt medeltiden på RSA20 (RSA20medel) och medelantalet sprinter (r=-0.638). Studiens slutsats var att de utförda fälttesterna inte bör användas i syfte att indikera prestation till följd av inre och yttre faktorers påverkan.

  • 38.
    Eklund, Viktor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Effects of a short training programme on reaction time, agility and speed performance in adolescent football players.: Effekterna av ett kort träningsprogram för reaktionsförmåga, agility och snabbhet på fotbollsspelande tonåringar.2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Prestation i fotboll beror på många olika fysiska faktorer som exempelvis styrka,

    uthållighet och snabbhet. Snabbheten kan delas upp i många olika faktorer

    exempelvis sprinter rakt fram och agility. Det finns även något som kallas reaktiv

    agility vilket betyder att man reagerar på ett visuellt stimuli och därefter reagerar med

    ett beslut. En förmåga som verkar bli mer central i fotbollen. Syftet med denna studie

    var att utvärdera ett kort träningsprograms påverkan på de olika snabbhetsfaktorerna,

    raka sprint, agility och reaktiv agility samt beräkna korrelationer mellan de olika

    variablerna. Metod: Före- och eftertester gjordes på 19 ungdomar från svenska U17

    allsvenskan. Testpersonerna delades därefter upp i en interventionsgrupp(IG)(N=9)

    och en kontrollgrupp(KG)(N=10). Testerna som utfördes var Reactive agility

    test(RAT), Agility 5-0-5 och 10- 20- 30 meter sprint. IG fick efter testerna utföra ett

    träningspass i veckan under fem veckor bestående av två parövningar med fokus på

    reaktionssnabbhet, sprint och agility. Resultat: Inga statistisk signifikanta skillnader

    fanns mellan grupperna efter träningsperioden. Konklusion: Resultaten pekade mot

    att interventionsprogrammet inte hade någon påverkan. Däremot går det att ifrågasätta

    resultatet då eftertesterna utfördes på ett mindre bra sätt.

  • 39.
    Ekstedt, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Styrka och flexibilitet i hamstrings efter ACL rekonstruktion med hamstringsgraft2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Problemformulering: Det är essentiellt att återställa hamstring styrka efter anterior cruciate ligament rekonstruktion (ACLR) för förbättrad dynamisk stabilitet och minimering av nya skador. Ökad flexibilitet i hamstrings är en riskfaktor för ACL skada och efter en korbandsruptur sker en ökad styvhet i hamstrings som en skyddsmekanism vilket innebär minskad flexibilitet. Kvinnor och män har olika förutsättningar och resultat efter en ACLR. Syftet är att granska forskningen angående hur styrkan och flexibiliteten i hamstrings efter ACLR med hamstringsgraf mellan det skadade och det icke skadade benet är och undersöka om skillnad föreligger mellan könen.

    Sökmetod: Artiklar publicerade mellan 2000 – 2015 söktes i Pubmed, ProQuest, Pedro och SportDiscuss mellan februari och mars 2015. Studier på engelska eller svenska inkluderades som jämförde styrkan i hamstrings mellan opererade och icke opererade benet/kontrollgrupp efter ACLR med hamstringsgraft.  

    Resultat: Inga artiklar om hamstrings flexibilitet hittades. 63 artiklar om hamstringsstyrka varav 41 uppgav nedsatt styrka i hamstrings efter ACLR. Ingen artikel fann skillnad mellan män och kvinnor.

    Slutsatser: Nedsatt muskelstyrka finns i hamstrings specifikt upp till 12 månader efter operation. Tydlig styrkenedsättning vid djupa flexionsvinklar samt tendens till nedsatt muskulär uthållighetsstyrka. Kontrast vid jämförelse mellan icke opererade benet eller en kontrollgrupp.

    Praktisk betydelse: Träning av hamstrings i djupa knäflexionsvinklar bör betonas. Mer forskning på flexibilitet och uthållighetsstyrka i hamstrings behövs.

  • 40.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Difference in odds ratio in potential risk factors among ACL injured competitive alpine skiers: -a retrospective study based on a questionnaire among competitive alpine skiers2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to detect differences in odds ratio in potential risk factors at the time of the injury among ACL injured competitive alpine skiers. 33 elite and sub-elite ACL injured alpine skiers participated in the study and answered at an internet-based questionnaire referring to personal data, training, type of injury, how the injury occurred and conditions during the incidence.

    Of 33 alpine skiers, 11 sustained their injury after 3-4 consecutive days of training. Eighteen alpine skiers injured their ACL after 1-4 runs. The majority of the injuries occurred in the slalom events (SL and GS). Forty-eight percent reported that the weather was clear at the time of the incidence, while 21 practitioners reported that they slept eight or more hours the night before the injury.

    The main finding of the present study was that the majority of the ACL injuries in among alpine ski racers occurred after 3-4 consecutive training days. No differences were detected in odds ratio of the rest of the variables (number of runs, type of discipline, weather, light setting and snow conditions) which seem not to be related to the ACL injury rate of the rest of the variables. 

  • 41.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Strandvall, Izabelle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Träningsvolym på snö och dess betydelse för prestationsförmåga -en möjlig faktor för att nå framgång inom alpin skidåkning2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate if high volume of sport specific training is correlated with FIS ranking in FIS world cup for alpine skiers. The study is a retrospective cohort study, and thirteen (n= 13) elite alpine skiers, who were in the Swedish national team season 2008/2009, were selected to participate in the study. The participants are both males (n=7) and females (n=6), and compete in the alpine disciplines slalom (SL) and giant slalom (GS).  The performance levels were determined by the 13th FIS points list 2008/2009 and correlated with the athletes training volume on snow. The data with information about training volume were collected from the Swedish national team’s database.

    The main findings in this study were that there is no significant correlation between the volume of sport specific training and performance level in FIS world cup for alpine skiers. Neither in SL (p=0, 1737) nor in GS (p=0, 5053).

    The findings of this study are likely of importance for alpine skiing trainers and the athletes themselves. Since alpine skiing is a complex sport with many factors to consider, it is important to distribute the training for maximum performance capacity. Therefore, due to this fact it is essential for those who work with alpine skiing to know how to plan the training year to achieve maximum performance of the athlete. In conclusion, because of no significant correlation in the results further studies with larger sample sizes are needed. 

  • 42.
    Flatholm, Emil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Identifying Underlying Factors that Affect the Risk for Sustatining Sport Injuries in Athletic Adolescents: Through Evaluation of Body Control, Muscle Activation in the Lower Extremities, Joint Laxity, and Joint Mobility, a Quantitative Study2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sport injuries are a widespread problem in elite sports and is accounting for 30- 40% out of all unintentional injuries in adolescents. In Sweden, 47.000 sport injuries occurred in children and adolescents aged 0-17 years old during a period over three years (2010-2013). Sustaining a sport injury in early age may impact the attitude towards sports and the amount of physical activity exercised. Lately, an increase of high-schools with special emphasis on elite sports is seen, which leads to more adolescents being exposed to the risk for sustaining a sport injury. There are several commonly used tests to evaluate injury risk in athletes. Tests such as body control screening, joint laxity screening, and measurements of muscle quality.

    Aim: The aim of the present prospective study was to a) investigate the correlations between, b) analyse differences between gender, and c) analyse potential differences between teenage athletes that received an injury or not during their first elite sports high-school year with use of pre-semester functional movement screening methods with the intent to address factors that increase the risk for future injuries.

    Method: Two-hundred-eighty-seven (n=287) athletic adolescents, 15-16 years of age from an elite sports school (Dragonskolans elitidrottsgymnasium) in Umeå participated in the study. The subjects underwent testing at the start of the first semester of their first year in high school. The tests were the following: The functional movement screen (FMS), Beighton score, measures of joint mobility, and measures of muscle activation in knee flexors and extensors. The following incidence of sport injuries during the first year at the elite sports school were studied in relation to results from the initial movement tests.

    Results: No significant difference was found between injured and non-injured in the FMS total score, nor between gender. Females scored significantly higher than males in Beighton total score (p<0,05). There was no significant difference to be seen in Beighton total score between injured and non-injured. Females was more likely to receive injuries and were significantly more mobile in hamstrings, quadriceps, iliopsoas, the right calf, weaker in both knee flexors and knee extensors, and reached peak torque in knee extensors slower than males.

    Injured reached peak torque significantly slower than non-injured in the right knee flexors. No correlations could be seen between the FMS, Beighton score, joint mobility, and muscle measurements in the lower extremity. Conclusion: It is of utmost importance that the Functional Movement Screen is researched and developed further, alternatively, that development of a new evaluation tool is carried out when it comes to risk assessment of future sports injuries in adolescent athletes. Joint laxity as addressed by Beighton score with a cut-off at five points is not a depending factor in this population regarding the presence of sport injuries. Athletic adolescents showing slow activation of the knee flexors may be in a greater risk for sustaining an injury. By understanding, addressing, and counteracting risk-factors for sustaining sport injuries we can avoid negative physiological, psychological, social, and socioeconomically consequences. Therefore, further research is needed to address these physiological, psychological, biological, and social factors that may impact the injury risk in athletic adolescents.

      

  • 43.
    Fomin, Gabrielsen, Sanne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Utför fotbollsspelare skadeförebyggande träningsprogram och har de tillgång till medicinsk personal?: - En enkätundersökning2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Det finns i tidigare studier beskrivna problem så som implementering och följsamhet när det gäller skadeförebyggande träningsprogram (SPP) för fotbollsspelare.

     

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att kartlägga och undersöka om kvinnliga och manliga fotbollslag i Stockholm utför ett SPP samt om det finns något samband med deras tillgång till medicinsk personal. Syftet är också att undersöka om det finns någon skillnad på tillgången till medicinsk personal och utförande av SPP mellan kvinnliga och manliga fotbollsspelare.

     

    Metod: Enkäten skickades ut till 133 manliga och kvinnliga fotbollsspelare från samma fotbollsklubb. Enkäten innehöll 14 frågor om tillgång till medicinsk personal, information om skadeförebyggande träning samt utförande av SPP.

     

    Resultat: Totalt 82 fotbollsspelare besvarade enkäten.  Majoriteten av deltagarna uppgav att de har tillgång till medicinsk personal. Fler manliga än kvinnliga fotbollsspelare har tillgång till medicinsk personal (P=0,018). Ingen korrelation visades mellan att ha tillgång till medicinsk personal och att ha fått information om skadeförebyggande träning (P=0,45). 66% av deltagarna angav att de utför ett SPP. Tillgång till medicinsk personal korrelerade med utförande av ett SPP (P=0,04).

     

    Slutsats: Medicinsk personal verkar ha en betydelse när det gäller utförande av ett skadeförebyggande träningsprogram. Vidare forskning krävs inom området för att motivera fotbollslag att ta hjälp av medicinsk personal

  • 44.
    Fong, Gloria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi. Centre for Hip Health and Mobility, Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Backman, Ludvig J.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Scott, Alex
    Centre for Hip Health and Mobility, Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Danielson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    The Effects of Substance P and Acetylcholine on Human Tenocyte Proliferation Converge Mechanistically via TGF-β12017Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 3, artikel-id e0174101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous in vitro studies on human tendon cells (tenocytes) have demonstrated that the exogenous administration of substance P (SP) and acetylcholine (ACh) independently result in tenocyte proliferation, which is a prominent feature of tendinosis. Interestingly, the possible link between SP and ACh has not yet been explored in human tenocytes. Recent studies in other cell types demonstrate that both SP and ACh independently upregulate TGF-β1 expression via their respective receptors, the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R) and muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs). Furthermore, TGF-β1 has been shown to downregulate NK-1R expression in human keratocytes. The aim of this study was to examine if TGF-β1 is the intermediary player involved in mediating the proliferative pathway shared by SP and ACh in human tenocytes. The results showed that exogenous administration of SP and ACh both caused significant upregulation of TGF-β1 at the mRNA and protein levels. Exposing cells to TGF-β1 resulted in increased cell viability of tenocytes, which was blocked in the presence of the TGFβRI/II kinase inhibitor. In addition, the proliferative effects of SP and ACh on tenocytes were reduced by the TGFβRI/II kinase inhibitor; this supports the hypothesis that the proliferative effects of these signal substances are mediated via the TGF-β axis. Furthermore, exogenous TGF-β1 downregulated NK-1R and mAChRs expression at both the mRNA and protein levels, and these effects were negated by simultaneous exposure to the TGFβRI/II kinase inhibitor, suggesting a negative feedback loop. In conclusion, the results indicate that TGF-β1 is the intermediary player through which the proliferative actions of both SP and ACh converge mechanistically.

  • 45.
    Forsgren, Sture
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Andersson, Gustav
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Further proof of the existence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system in the human Achilles tendon: Presence of the AChR alpha 7 receptor in tendon cells and cells in the peritendinous tissue2015Ingår i: International Immunopharmacology, ISSN 1567-5769, E-ISSN 1878-1705, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 195-200Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Human tendon cells have the capacity for acetylcholine (ACh) production. It is not known if the tendon cells also have the potential for ACh breakdown, nor if they show expression of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor AChR alpha 7 (alpha 7nAChR). Therefore, tendon tissue specimens from patients with midportion Achilles tendinopathy/tendinosis and from normal midportion Achilles tendons were examined. Reaction for the degradative enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was found in some tenocytes in only a few tendinopathy tendons, and was never found in those of control tendons. Tenocytes displayed more regularly alpha 7nAChR immunoreactivity. However, there was a marked heterogeneity in the degree of this reaction within and between the specimens. alpha 7nAChR immunoreactivity was especially pronounced for tenocytes showing an oval/widened appearance. There was a tendency that the magnitude of alpha 7nAChR immunoreactivity was higher in tendinopathy tendons as compared to control tendons. A stronger alpha 7nAChR immunoreactivity than seen for tenocytes was observed for the cells in the peritendinous tissue. It is likely that the alpha 7nAChR may be an important part of an auto-and paracrine loop of non-neuronal ACh that is released from the tendon cells. The effects may be related to proliferative and blood vessel regulatory functions as well as features related to collagen deposition. ACh can furthermore be of importance in leading to anti-inflammatory effects in the peritendinous tissue, a tissue nowadays considered to be of great relevance for the tendinopathy process. Overall, the findings show that tendon tissue, a tissue known to be devoid of cholinergic innervation, is a tissue in which there is a marked non-neuronal cholinergic system.

  • 46.
    Furberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Hyyrynen, Tuija
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Smålagsspel och intervallbaserad fysträning och dess påverkan på fysiska kvalitéer hos elitdamfotbollsspelare.2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Soccer is the world's most popular sport and therefore has been widely studied. Soccer performance is dependent upon a variety of factors such as technical, tactical, psychological and physiological qualities that are required in order to perform in a high level. Most of the studies so far were aiming in describing and defining successful’s player profile. Based on the requirement profile, new "soccer-specific training programs" have been designed to develop players' fitness and strength through soccer-specific drills instead of or as a complement to traditional running training without the ball. This development has created a new research discourse that shows the physiological and performance-wise benefits of soccer specific training such as small-sided games. This study investigates the physiological effects of a soccer-specific training program in a setting of elite women soccer players. Method: 13 (N = 13) elite women soccer players participated in a research setting, which consisted of 15 weeks of soccer specific physical training. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of soccer specific physical training on player's fitness, jumping ability, strength, and sprint capacity. These features have been measured through physiological tests performed before and after the soccer specific pre-season training. Results: A significant improvement was seen in squat jump as well as in 10-meter and 20-meter sprint results. Meanwhile the results from the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 showed a tendency towards improvement. Conclusion: The results showed that soccer-specific training improved physical qualities, such as sprint and jump capabilities, of elite women soccer players in this study.

  • 47.
    Gaida, James Edmund
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia ; University of Canberra Research Institute for Sport and Exercise (UCRISE), Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. Institute of Sport Exercise and Health, University College Hospital London, London, UK.
    Scott, A.
    Mousavizadeh, R.
    Forsgren, Sture
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Apolipoprotein A1 distribution pattern in the human Achilles tendon2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, nr 5, s. 1506-1513Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Metabolic factors such as cholesterol appear to play an important role in the development of Achilles tendinopathy. There is, however, no morphologic proof explaining the link between high cholesterol and tendinopathy. As apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-A1) is essential for reverse cholesterol transport, it may be related to cholesterol overload in tendon. Nothing is known about Apo-A1 expression in tendon tissue. We examined the distribution of Apo-A1 protein in biopsies from normal and tendinopathy-affected human Achilles tendons, and APOA1 mRNA production from cultured human hamstring tenocytes. Specific immunoreactions for Apo-A1 were detected. The tenocytes showed specific Apo-A1 immunoreactions. These reactions were usually distinct in the tendinopathy specimens. While the tendinopathy specimens often showed granular/small deposit reactions, the slender tenocytes of control specimens did not show this pattern. The magnitude of Apo-A1 immunoreactivity was especially marked in the tendinopathy specimens, as there is a high number of tenocytes. Reactions were also seen in the walls of blood vessels located within the tendon tissue proper of both the normal and tendinopathy tendons and within the peritendinous/fatty tissue of the tendinopathy tendons. The reactions were predominantly in the form of deposit reactions within the smooth muscle layer of the vessel walls. Cultured hamstring tenocytes produced APOA1 mRNA. We demonstrated the presence of Apo-A1 in human tendon tissue. This suggests there may be a link between Achilles tendinopathy and cholesterol metabolism. We hypothesize that Apo-A1 may be important for tenocyte and blood vessel function within tendons.

  • 48.
    Geholm, Jakob
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Coach-atlet relationens kvalité och faktorer för överträning hos svenska CrossFit-utövare: Påverkar svenska CrossFit-utövares upplevda relation med deras coach graden av faktorer som kan relateras till överträning?2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att utöka förståelsen för coachers roll i graden av faktorer som kan relateras till överträning hos svenska CrossFit-utövare. Urvalet bestod av 42 CrossFit-utövare (n=42), dessa bestod av 30 kvinnor (72%), 11 (26%) män och en som inte ville definiera kön (2%). Alla deltagare var från Sverige. Deltagarna var 33 (±8.8) år gamla och tränade CrossFit regelbundet i genomsnitt 5,9 timmar/veckan (±3.4). En enkät bestående av The Coach-athlete Relationship Questionnaire, Motives for Physical Activity Measurement-Revised, The Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire Revised Version, The multi-component Training Distress Scale, The Perceived Stress Scale- 4 item samt ett Feedback Questionnaire skickades ut till 120 aktiva CrossFit-utövare. Signifikansnivån i studien var alfa=0.05. Resultaten visade ett signifikant positivt samband (p<0.05, r=0.347) mellan den upplevda coach-atlet relationens kvalité och CrossFit-utövares viljestyrka, signifikant positivt samband (p<0.05, r=0.349) mellan den upplevda coach-atlet relationens kvalité och positiv feedback samt ett signifikant negativt samband mellan motivet ”Hälsa” för fysisk aktivitet och sömnsvårigheter (p<0.05, r=-0.323). Studien kunde inte säkerställa en konklusion av det sistnämnda resultatet, däremot hade den upplevda coach-atlet relationens kvalité ett samband med en specifik faktor relaterad till överträning bland svenska CrossFit-utövare, närmare bestämt deras viljestyrka. Studies resultat visar även att typen av kommunikation som CrossFit-utövaren upplever att hens respektive coach använder har ett samband med den upplevda coach-atlet relationens kvalité. Framtida forskning bör undersöka området vidare för att utöka förståelsen för samspelet mellan coacher och CrossFit-utövare.

  • 49.
    Giannopoulos, Antonios
    et al.
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Copenhagen.
    Yeung, Ching-Yan Chloé
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Copenhagen.
    Theos, Apostolos
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Quantification of Cell Generated Forces: A Tool to Assess Functionality2017Ingår i: Journal of Orthopedic Research and Therapy, ISSN 2575-8241, nr 8, artikel-id JORT-168Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 50.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Geithner, Christina
    Body Composition of Women’s Ice Hockey Players: Comparison of Estimates Using Skinfolds and iDXA2019Ingår i: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 33, nr 9, s. 2496-2502Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to compare percent fat (% Fat) estimates from anthropometric equations using skinfolds (SKF) in women’s ice hockey players to estimates obtained from Lunar iDXA. Data were collected on 19 elite female Swedish hockey players (mean age ± SD = 18.4 ± 2.4 y). Four skinfolds (SKF) (triceps, abdominal, suprailiac, and thigh) were measured within two hours of iDXA assessments. The % Fat estimates from iDXA and four anthropometric equations were compared using paired t-tests, and a one-way ANOVA was used to compare % Fat estimates from the anthropometric equations. Bland Altman analyses were used to assess agreement between % Fat estimates from SKF and iDXA. The significance level was set a priori at p<0.05. The % Fat estimates from anthropometric equations were significantly lower than those from iDXA (mean ± SD: 26.85 ± 4.93%,p=0.000). Bland Altman analyses indicated mean differences of -7.96 to -10.13 percentage points between anthropometric equations and iDXA. Estimates of % Fat from anthropometric equations (range: 16.72% to 18.89%) were within the range reported in earlier studies using the Sum of 7 SKF. Thus, SKF offer a reasonable alternative to iDXA for this population, but result in underestimates of % Fat relative to iDXA. Strength and conditioning coaches should use the same body composition assessment method consistently, and interpret the results with caution, as they are estimates and not true values.

1234 1 - 50 av 182
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf