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  • 1. Aarseth, Espen
    et al.
    Bean, Anthony M.
    Boonen, Huub
    Carras, Michelle Colder
    Coulson, Mark
    Das, Dimitri
    Deleuze, Jory
    Dunkels, Elza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Edman, Johan
    Ferguson, Christopher J.
    Haagsma, Maria C.
    Bergmark, Karin Helmersson
    Hussain, Zaheer
    Jansz, Jeroen
    Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel
    Kutner, Lawrence
    Markey, Patrick
    Nielsen, Rune Kristian Lundedal
    Prause, Nicole
    Przybylski, Andrew
    Quandt, Thorsten
    Schimmenti, Adriano
    Starcevic, Vladan
    Stutman, Gabrielle
    Van Looy, Jan
    Van Rooij, Antonius J.
    Scholars' open debate paper on the World Health Organization ICD-11 Gaming Disorder proposal2017In: Journal of Behavioral Addictions, ISSN 2062-5871, E-ISSN 2063-5303, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 267-270Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns about problematic gaming behaviors deserve our full attention. However, we claim that it is far from clear that these problems can or should be attributed to a new disorder. The empirical basis for a Gaming Disorder proposal, such as in the new ICD-11, suffers from fundamental issues. Our main concerns are the low quality of the research base, the fact that the current operationalization leans too heavily on substance use and gambling criteria, and the lack of consensus on symptomatology and assessment of problematic gaming. The act of formalizing this disorder, even as a proposal, has negative medical, scientific, public-health, societal, and human rights fallout that should be considered. Of particular concern are moral panics around the harm of video gaming. They might result in premature application of diagnosis in the medical community and the treatment of abundant false-positive cases, especially for children and adolescents. Second, research will be locked into a confirmatory approach, rather than an exploration of the boundaries of normal versus pathological. Third, the healthy majority of gamers will be affected negatively. We expect that the premature inclusion of Gaming Disorder as a diagnosis in ICD-11 will cause significant stigma to the millions of children who play video games as a part of a normal, healthy life. At this point, suggesting formal diagnoses and categories is premature: the ICD-11 proposal for Gaming Disorder should be removed to avoid a waste of public health resources as well as to avoid causing harm to healthy video gamers around the world.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Almarlind, Pia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Bergqvist, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Lundgren, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Ämnesproven 2011 i grundskolans årskurs 9 och specialskolan årskurs 102012In: Ämnesproven 2011 i grundskolans årskurs 9 och specialskolans årskurs 10, Stockholm: Skolverket , 2012, , p. 28-43p. 28-43Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Almarlind, Pia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Bergqvist, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Lundgren, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Ämnesproven i grundskolans årskurs 9 och specialskolans årskurs 10 årskurs 9, 2013: Biologi, fysik och kemi, årskurs 9, vårterminen 20132013Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Almarlind, Pia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Bergqvist, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Lundgren, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Ämnesprovet i NO: biologi, fysik och kemi2013In: Ämnesproven 2012 i grundskolans årskurs 9 och specialskolans årskurs 10 / [ed] Skolverket, Stockholm: Skolverket , 2013, , p. 32-44p. 32-44Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Adolfsson, Johannes
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lindström, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Aktiv samverkan i Estetisk kommunikation: En undersökning av förhållningssätt till Skolverkets direktiv bland lärare på Estetiska programmet2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats berör ämnet Estetisk kommunikation 1 och mer precist ett av kursens huvudmoment – Aktiv samverkan mellan olika konstformer för framställning av ett verk. Det framgår klart av det centrala innehållet för kursen att eleverna bland annat ska jobba med samverkan mellan olika konstformer. I studien har sju gymnasieskolor på två orter i Norrland undersökts, både friskolor och kommunala skolor. De metoder som använts för att samla in data i studien är frågeformulär och intervjuer. Frågeformulär har distribuerats till femton lärare och 293 elever. Därefter har semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförts med fyra lärare vid fyra av de sju skolorna. Dessa undersökningar har lett till en så kallad triangulering, vilken inringar resultatet på ett mer precist sätt. Resultatet, som framgår av studien, visar på att lärarna i större utsträckning upplever att de arbetar aktivt med samverkan mellan konstformer än vad eleverna upplever sker. I resultatet framträder hur de olika skolorna arbetar aktivt med samverkan mellan konstformer, i större eller mindre utsträckning. I huvudsak följer undervisningen, på de skolor som deltagit i studien, Skolverkets styrdokument som finns för kursen Estetisk kommunikation 1. Det framkommer också att samarbete mellan lärare med olika estetiska kompetenser förekommer i stor utsträckning på de skolor som ingår i studien.

  • 6.
    Adolfsson, Tony
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Skogsmo, Adam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    En likvärdig medborgare - utvecklingsstörning i samhället: Övergången mellan gymnasiesärskolan och integreringen på den öppna arbetsmarknaden2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats handlar om personer med en utvecklingsstörning, närmare bestämt deras övergång från gymnasieärskolan till den öppna arbetsmarknaden i Umeås kommun. Den beskriver skolans förberedande insatser samt vilka svårigheter som finns i övergången till- och i arbetslivet. Syftet är att få en förståelse och att kartlägga hur man arbetar och ser på personer med en utvecklingsstörning och deras situation. Genom intervjuer med studie- och yrkesvägledare och en rektor på en lokal gymnasiesärskola samt en arbetsförmedlare på arbetsförmedlingen. Det ger en inblick i hur yrkesprofessionella arbetar och vad de anser behöver göras för att underlätta integreringen. Resultatet visar på en svår situation för målgruppen ute i arbetslivet. Många individer har inte en sysselsättning men dem som har det har ingen lätt uppgift att behålla det. En kombination av individuella bekymmer i form av bristande kompetens och samhällets syn på personer med en utvecklingsstörning utgör en tuff verklighet. De slutsatser som kan dras är att man från skolhåll, men främst från arbetsmarknaden, måste fortsätta att stärka sitt samarbete och tillsammans underlätta integreringen till den öppna arbetsmarknaden för målgruppen. Nya siffor visar upp en oroväckande framtid om inte någonting drastiskt förändras.

  • 7.
    Ahl, Astrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Olofsson, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Taube, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Studenter med dyslexi inom högre utbildning i Sverige och Storbritannien2010In: Dyslexi : aktuellt om läs- och skrivsvårigheter, ISSN 1401-2480, no 3, p. 4-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Ahlbom, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    När livet skapar brytpunkter i karriären: En narrativ studie av fyra individers karriärutveckling2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Karriär är idag ett uppdaterat begrepp som innefattar hela individens liv med åtaganden, sociala relationer och arbetsplatser. Karriären är under ständig utveckling och förs framåt med hjälp av olika vändningar och skiften, också kallade brytpunkter. Studiens syfte var att skapa kunskap kring karriärutvecklingen och dess brytpunkter, vilket gjordes genom att studera fyra individers karriärberättelser. Dessa individer hade alla genomgått både frivilliga, påtvingade och strukturella brytpunkter inom sitt yrkesverksamma liv. Resultatet visar att en karriär består av olika sorters brytpunkter och rutiner, men att det kan vara svårt att kategorisera dem. Därav blir en av slutsatserna att brytpunkter och rutiner är en enhetlig process som tillsammans skapar och utvecklar en människas karriär. 

  • 9.
    Ahlstrand, Marika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Digitala Med(ie)borgare: En intervjustudie rörande verksamma fritidslärares förhållnings- och arbetssätt med digitala verktyg och sociala medier2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att synliggöra och identifiera hur verksamma fritidslärare förhåller sig till samt arbetar med digitala verktyg och sociala medier. Vidare så var syftet även att synliggöra vilka effekter som fritidslärarna anser att dessa verktyg och medier kan ha på elevernas lärande.  Den metod som använts till studien har varit forskningsintervjuer, detta för att ta reda på hur det valda ämnet, digitala verktyg och sociala medier, tolkas och förstås utifrån de intervjuades egna perspektiv. Studien bygger på intervjuer gjorda på fem fritidshem med fem olika fritidslärare.

     

    Det resultat som framkommit har varit att de flesta av de intervjuade fritidslärarna har ställt sig positivt till digitala verktyg och sociala medier inom den pedagogiska verksamheten. De anser att elevernas sociala kompetens utvecklas, att eleverna inkluderas i varandras lärande samt att lärandet blir roligare via dessa verktyg och medier. Men det har även nämnts vissa negativa effekter av dessa digitala verktyg och sociala medier. Att eleverna kan bli exkluderade från övriga elevgruppen om hen inte har tillgång till dessa verktyg och medier. En fritidslärare nämnde även att dessa verktyg och medier kan framkalla negativt beteende, främst hos pojkar i form av bråk och slagsmål.

  • 10.
    Ahlénius, Caroline
    Umeå University, Umeå School of Education (USE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Familjen börjar i förskolan: Föräldrars perspektiv på problematiska inskolningar2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet för denna kvalitativa studie var att utveckla förståelse för föräldrars perspektiv på deras barns förskolestart och vad som då kan vara problematiskt. Syftet var också att bidra med kunskaper om önskvärda handlingsmönster hos pedagoger vid förskolestarten. Studien genomfördes på internet där tio respondenter hittades på ett internetforum för föräldrar. Föräldrarnas inlägg insamlades och därtill genomfördes en e-postenkätundersökning som jag formulerat för denna studie. Några aspekter som visade sig vara viktiga för alla tillfrågade föräldrar var tillgången till information i förhand, möjligheter till inflytande över inskolningsarbetet, samt en fungerande kommunikation mellan pedagoger och föräldrar. I samtliga undersökta fall av problematiska inskolningar uppstod med eller mindre uttalade konflikter kring när och hur föräldern skulle lämna barnet och hur man skulle tolka barnets gråt.

  • 11.
    Ahmadi, Sivita
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Mallkoo, Shireen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Mångkulturell vägledning: En undersökning om mångkulturell vägledning på Komvux2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie handlar om mångkulturell vägledning på Komvux i Umeå. Studiens huvudsakliga syfte är att undersöka hur vägledarna respektive utlandsfödda studenter upplever mångkulturell vägledning. Vi vill även undersöka vägledarnas arbetssätt i mångkulturell vägledning samt vad dessa vägledare anser om sina mångkulturella kompetenser och hur den kan utvecklas.

    Undersökningen är byggt på den kvalitativa arbetsmetoden som grunder sig på intervjuer med tre verksamma studie- och yrkesvägledare på Viva vägledning samt tre utlandsfödda studenter på Komvux.

    Vi har utgått ifrån de teorier som vi har lärt oss under utbildningens gång. Denna teori kan handla exempelvis om kultur, bakgrund, levnadsberättelser, mångkulturell vägledning, kreativa arbetssätt samt studie- och yrkesval.

    I resultatet har det framkommit av de intervjuade studie- och yrkesvägledare respektive utlandsfödda studenter att begreppet mångkulturell vägledning definieras som ett förhållningssätt. Med menas det hur människor förhåller sig till varandra i ett vägledningssamtal där specifika och kreativa arbetssätt utövas för att kunna underlätta informationsutdelningen. I studiens analys och diskussion kom det fram att vägledarna behöver utveckla sina mångkulturella kompetenser för att kunna öka förståelse av utlandsfödda studenters etniska bakgrund.

  • 12.
    Ahokas, Pia
    Umeå University, Umeå School of Education (USE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Förskollärares tankar om tvåspråkighet: En studie om likheter och skillnader från två samhällen med olika språk villkor2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete handlar om förskollärares tankar och attityder till tvåspråkighet när det gäller att anpassa den pedagogiska verksamheten utifrån tvåspråkiga barns behov. Det handlar även om att jämföra likheter och skillnader mellan förskollärare som kommer från två samhällen med olika språkvillkor. Examensarbetet fokuserar mest på tvåspråkighet med inriktning på finska och svenska. För studien gjordes intervjuer med sju informanter varav sex var förskollärare och en var förskolechef. De förskollärare som deltog i studien var både en- och tvåspråkiga och kom från två olika samhällen; ett samhälle i Sverige där majoritetsspråket är svenska och det andra var ett samhälle i Tornedalen där de två majoritetsspråken är finska och svenska. En slutsats som drogs av studien är att samtliga av studiens informanter, oavsett i vilken kommun de arbetade och om de själva var tvåspråkiga, såg positivt på tvåspråkighet och ansåg att det är bra för barns senare utveckling att vara tvåspråkiga. En annan slutsats var deras pedagogiska anpassning utifrån tvåspråkiga barns behov. I Tornedalen fokuserade de mer på att barnen skulle lära sig svenska eftersom finskan dominerade både i hemmet och i samhället. Det kunde anses som en problematik för barnen om de inte hade lärt sig att behärska det svenska språket innan de börja skolan. En annan skillnad var att man i det andra samhället i Sverige använde sig mer av hemspråksundervisning för att utveckla barns tvåspråkighet, men i Tornedalen hade man i varje avdelning en förskollärare eller barnskötare som behärskade både finska och svenska.

  • 13.
    Airijoki, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Vägledning genom sociala medier: Studie- och yrkesvägledares uppfattning om Internet som vägledningsverktyg2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med undersökningen är att beskriva om Internet och sociala medier kan användas inom studie- och yrkesvägledningens verksamhetsområde, men även om det finns problem och hur framtiden kan se ut. Människan är i behov av vägledning genom livet då flera studie- och yrkesrelaterade val genomförs. Denna studie är en kvalitativ semistrukturerad intervjustudie. Studiens mål är att besvara frågeställningarna med hjälp av fem studie- och yrkesvägledare som informanter. Deras erfarenheter och kunskaper ger en bild av hur Internet och Facebook används. Tillsammans med Skolverkets styrdokument, Krumboltz (1999) teori om Planned Happenstance och Peavys (2007) konstruktivistiska vägledning kopplas allt ihop. Resultatet visar att Internet och Facebook som socialt medium utvecklas och användningen av dessa forum i yrkesrollen som studie- och yrkesvägledare varierar från person till person. Många av intervjudeltagarna tror att utvecklingen av dessa forum kommer att fortsätta, men ”face to face” kontakten är fortfarande den viktigaste. Intervjudeltagarna ser Facebook som ett komplement till skolornas lärplattformar och klassinformationen. De tillfrågade studie- och yrkesvägledarna påtalar också att man med hjälp av Facebook och Internet kan förmedla information snabbare till eleverna. Slutsatsen är att den snabba utvecklingen av Internet och sociala medier får en större inverkan på studie- och yrkesvägledarrollen.

  • 14.
    Albertsson, Berit
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Marklund, Ingela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Klassresans drivkrafter och upplevelser: En intervjustudie med sex läkare med arbetarbakgrund2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett tydligt exempel på att Sverige fortfarande är ett klassamhälle är den sociala snedre- kryteringen till högre studier. Störst är den till läkarutbildningen där endast tre av tio som började på läkarutbildningen 2012 kom från en arbetarbakgrund. Syftet med studien var att beskriva och analysera orsaker till varför vissa individer med arbetarbakgrund blir läkare samt upplevelsen av att göra en klassresa. Vi ville titta på vilka faktorer som på- verkar individernas val av vidare studier, vilka hinder de upplevde, varför dessa individer gjorde en klassresa samt vilka upplevelser de hade av att ha gjort denna resa. Studien genomfördes genom kvalitativa intervjuer med sex läkare vars föräldrar hade mindre än tre år eftergymnasial utbildning. Resultatet visade på ett antal viktiga sociala relationer som hade betydelse för respondenternas karriärutveckling, bland annat vänner och speci- ella lärare. Viktiga personliga egenskaper under studietiden var att vara målinriktad och strukturerad. Upplevelserna av klasskillnader var tydliga, allt från känslan av att vara mindre värd vilket väckte revanschlystnad till upplevelsen att inte riktigt passa in i den akademiska världen och dess språkbruk. Bristen på överföring av kulturellt kapital från- respondenternas föräldrar var tydlig, lika tydligt var betydelsen av tillförseln av kulturellt kapital från annat håll. Känslan av att inte riktigt höra hemma någonstans var stark, att man inte riktigt hörde hemma i den nya sociala miljön men heller inte längre kunde iden- tifiera sig helt med sitt ursprung. 

  • 15.
    Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Evaluation of Insight Training of Ambulance Drivers in Sweden Using DART: a New E-learning Tool2011In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 621-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a new e-learning tool for insight training of ambulance drivers can have an effect on drivers’ driving behaviors, perceived driving competence, competence to assess risks, self-reflection, and safety attitudes.

    Methods: A quasi-experimental study design, with participants nonrandomly assigned into a control and intervention group, was used. The intervention group participated in the insight-training course and the control group did not. Both groups completed a self- and peer assessment online questionnaire before and after the training.

    Results: The main finding is that the ambulance drivers assessed themselves through the instruments after the training, with the e-learning tool Driver Access Recording Tool (DART), as safer drivers in the areas of speed adaptation, closing up, and overtaking. In the answers from the group-based evaluation, the ambulance drivers responded that they were more reflective/analytical, had increased their risk awareness, and had changed their driving behaviors.

    Conclusions: After insight training, the ambulance drivers in this study assessed themselves as safer drivers in several important areas, including speed adaptation, closing up, and overtaking. In future training of ambulance drivers there should be more focus on insight training instead of previous training focusing on maneuvering capabilities.

  • 16. Alexiadou, N
    et al.
    Dovemark, M
    Erixon Arreman, I
    Holm, A-S
    Lundahl, L
    Lundström, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Managing inclusion – Shifting paradigms of social justice in the Swedish Upper Secondary School2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Alexiadou, Nafsika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Equality and education policy in the European Union: an example from the case of Roma2017In: Policy and inequality in education / [ed] Stephen Parker, Kalervo N. Gulson, Trevor Gale, Singapore: Springer, 2017, p. 111-131Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union represents a transnational level of polity where education policies are constructed in parallel to those of nation states, and where equality is framed both in legal frameworks and in policies around citizenship and inclusion. This chapter focuses attention on the interplay between the legal and the policy landscapes around equality and their relation to education policy, and explores these ideas in relation to the Roma minority, and the efforts of the EU to address their experience of multiple inequalities across the continent. The process of developing an education and social policy, and the refinement of equality and anti-discrimination legislation, contribute to a reframing of equality beyond the borders of national policies, and open up new opportunities for their negotiation. The case of Roma EU policies suggests that a combination of legal and policy processes is necessary to address issues of inequalities in education. But there are political risks with the EU taking over such policy work especially when the equality definitions used are narrow in their remit, and when national governments lack the political will to implement EU policies.

  • 18.
    Alexiadou, Nafsika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Policy learning and europeanisation in education: the governance of a field and the transfer of knowledge2014In: Transnational policy flows in European education: the making and governing of knowledge in the education policy field / [ed] Andreas Nordin & Daniel Sundberg, Oxford: Symposium Books, 2014, p. 123-140Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter reviews the recent education policy initiatives in the EU through two lenses: (1) policy learning through the open-method of coordination, as a set of mechanisms of education governance, and, (2) what these mechanisms mean for the relationships between national and transnational levels of policy making. It is argued that policy learning acts as a particular mode of control of the direction, nature and content of the desired reforms, while at the same time there are appeals to its political neutrality and operational effectiveness. In the process of implementing and monitoring policy learning, national institutions become important sites for the understanding of reforms in practice. Drawing on a critical approach to policy instrumentation and new sociological institutionalism the chapter examines key debates in the literature of Europeanisation and policy learning and how these manifest themselves in the field of education policy.

  • 19.
    Alexiadou, Nafsika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Privatising public education across Europe: Shifting boundaries and the politics of (re)claiming schools2013In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 413-422Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of privatisation is not new. It has been debated since the end of the 1970s following a major financial crisis and the subsequent ‘crisis’ of the public sector. The once celebrated welfare state that has been a core institution in many industrialised European countries has been under various forms of pressure: financial, social, managerial, but also of political legitimacy. Ideologically, the welfare state has been challenged by (neo)liberals who have seen it as not only financially unsustainable, but also antithetical to the goals of economic efficiency and the pursuit of personal liberties. Its operations have also been attacked by political pragmatists who have seen its cumbersome bureaucratic nature as increasingly problematic. The answer for this latter group was not (necessarily) privatisation but the increased diversity of providers (often all state providers) competing for resources in order to increase the state’s responsiveness and effectiveness.

  • 20.
    Alexiadou, Nafsika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Responding to 'crisis': Education policy research in Europe2016In: Research in education (Manchester), ISSN 0034-5237, E-ISSN 2050-4608, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 23-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the significance of international and transnational developments for education policy research, with a focus on the European Union. The rise of policy projects at the EU level since 2000, has altered the relationships between the state, EU institutions and education policy, in terms of the definition of values, purposes, and mechanisms of education change, in what is often referred to as the europeanisation of education policy and governance. In a time of financial crisis and extensive population migrations to and within the European space, the paper argues for further critical research on the EU institutions and their relationship to national education systems, as well as on the social justice dimensions and implications of considering both national and EU sites of policy for addressing young and vulnerable peoples’ education and social futures.

  • 21.
    Alexiadou, Nafsika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Schools for the future Europe: values and change beyond Lisbon2014In: Educational research (Windsor. Print), ISSN 0013-1881, E-ISSN 1469-5847, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 111-113Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Alexiadou, Nafsika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Social inclusion and leadership in education: An evolution of roles and values in the English education system over the last 60 years2011In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 581-600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews the changing relationships between education policies and their links to social disadvantage and conceptions of school leadership. The argument is that definitions of leadership evolve as the assumptions underpinning the relationships between society, the economy and education institutions change. The article draws on the case of English education policy developments over the last 60 years, and places debates about school leadership against a set of changing relationships between the state and the institutions of the market. Defining a good school leader very much depends on ideas about the core school functions as well as dominant ideas about how these functions relate the institution of the school to major social and economic structures.

  • 23.
    Alexiadou, Nafsika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Dovemark, Marianne
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Erixon-Arreman, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Holm, Ann-Sofie
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lundström, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Managing inclusion in competitive school systems: The cases of Sweden and England2016In: Research in Comparative and International Education, ISSN 1745-4999, E-ISSN 1745-4999, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 13-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last 40 years have seen great political attention paid to issues of inclusion in education, both from international organisations and also individual nations. This flexible concept has been adopted enthusiastically in education reforms concerned with increased standardisation of teaching and learning, decentralisation of education management, reduced teacher autonomy and marketisation of school systems. This paper draws from a research project that explores inclusion as part of the education transformations in England and Sweden. These two countries have been very different in their state governance and welfare regimes, but have been following similar directions of reform in their education systems. The paper evaluates the changing policy assumptions and values in relation to inclusion in the schooling changes of the last few decades, through an analysis of policy contexts and processes, and a presentation of selected empirical material from research in the two countries. We argue that, despite the similar dominant discourses of competition and marketisation, the two education systems draw on significantly different paradigms of operationalising inclusion, with distinct outcomes regarding equality.

  • 24.
    Alexiadou, Nafsika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Erixon Arreman, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lundström, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Inclusive and Competitive?: Municipalities and Schools in the Intersection between Social Inclusion and Marketisation2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Outline of research questions and theoretical framework

    The Swedish and English school systems have undergone fundamental transformations since the end of the 1980s. In in the early 1990s, Sweden with long tradition of centralistic, egalitarian, universalistic education shifted into the direction of a decentralised, marketised, individualised project, with significant elements of New Public Management ideas (Bunar 2012). Political decisions introducing student choice and favourable conditions for private actors have resulted in a fast expansion of “free schools” and a more market-like situation than in most other countries. Recent studies indicate that such policies contribute to increased segregation between schools and between students (Skolverket 2012; Östh, Andersson and Malmberg 2012), contradicting central intentions of Swedish education. There is still political consensus regarding the Swedish school system’s socially compensatory task and striving for equity and inclusion. Furthermore, the far-going decentralisation of responsibilities to the local level means that the ways that municipalities and schools try to balance the demands of being competitive and socially inclusive may show large variations.  The United Kingdom, and England in particular, followed a similar trajectory of market driven reforms introduced in the late 1980s, combined with sophisticated systems of data management and central control of academic targets (Ball 2008, Jones 2003). ‘Inclusion’ in English schools, has been a long standing agenda since the 1990s, but it is a concept open to interpretation and defined by the marketised context schools operate in, and the high pressures for academic standards.  

    How municipal and school actors in the two countries understand the concepts of inclusion and competition, how they interpret and practice them, is very much shaped by the institutional histories of their municipality/school, but also what the policy context makes possible.

    This presentation draws on a research project, funded by The Swedish Research Council, that focuses on how competition, performance and inclusion demands on upper secondary school are enacted at the local level, that is how these policies are interpreted and translated and what strategies and practices emerge as responses to new/current policy context.  

    The paper aims to explore and understand similarities and differences in the ways Swedish and English municipal and school actors at the local level respond to the simultaneous demands of being competitive and inclusive.

    The concept policy enactment (Ball, Maguire & Braun 2012) is used as a theoretical framework, a concept which emphasises the importance of multi-faceted contexts and that policies are discursive strategies (e.g. the construction of “an upper secondary school for all” and a school quasi-market). Putting policies into actions is a complex process in which various enactors with various interests and power take part. In a decentralised school system - which applies for the two countries-  local actors, including municipalities and schools are responsible for the realization of the national education policy.

    At the same time, how education is actually constructed local levels is sparsely highlighted in the research literature – not least the issue of how inclusion is maintained in a market-oriented context.

     

    Methodology, methods

    A qualitative research approach, relying on extensive data collection is used: (a) interviews in four Swedish municipal settings including politicians, school leaders, head-teachers and study and guidance officers, (b) interviews in two case schools in England: head-teachers and other senior managers of schools, middle managers, teachers, special needs coordinators, teaching assistants, and groups of pupils. Relevant documents have been studied in both countries. The data have been analysed through traditional thematic coding combined with elements of discourse analysis (Silverman 2010).

    We explore our research questions in two different European countries. Our aim is to understand local interpretations of ‘inclusion’ within schools and municipalities in these countries, and within an increasingly marketised and competitive policy and local context.  But, our research design is not at the outset comparative. We aim to understand each case in its own right, but through a common set of research questions we have possibilities for fruitful comparisons in selected areas of the findings.

    Conclusions, expected outcomes and findings

    In Sweden, differing local strategies are related to a variety of factors including political composition of the municipal councils, the size of population, the geographical site of schools including specific “profiling” of schools to attract particular groups of students. The ideological contexts frame, constrain and enable the enactment of inclusion and school choice policies. Further, the recent upper secondary reform constitutes a special challenge regarding the division of students, eligibility to higher education, the handling of dropouts and students who are not eligible for upper secondary school.

    In England, interviews with school actors reveal the pressures of the inspection process and the operation of local markets not only in the way the schools position themselves in this market, but also in the very core activities of designing the curriculum and assessment. Inclusion is a concept that has been accepted by all as part of normal school terminology. But the adjustments that teachers and school managers have to make in pedagogy and school organisation to meet the external pressures, often works against the ideal of inclusion, or leads to a use of a concept of inclusion that is drawing on neo-liberal understandings of minimal entitlement to equal opportunities.

    References

    Ball, S. (2008) The Education Debate: Policy and Politics in the Twenty-First Century, The Policy Press.

    Ball, S. Maguire, M. & Braun, A. (2012). How schools do policy. Policy enactments in secondary schools. London & New York: Routledge

    Bunar, N. (2012) The Free Schools “Riddle”: Between traditional social democratic, neo-liberal and multicultural tenets. Scandinavian  Journal of Educational Research. 52: 4, 423-438

    Jones, K. (2003) Education in Britain, Polity Press.

    Silverman, D. (2010) Doing Qualitative Research, Third Edition, Sage.

    Skolverket (2012). Likvärdig utbildning i svensk grundskola? En kvantitativ analys av likvärdighet över tid. Rapport 374. Stockholm: Fritzes  

    Östh, John, Andersson, Eva and Malmberg, Bo (2012). School Choice and Increasing Performance Difference: A Counterfactual Approach. Urban Studies published online 26 July 2012. http://usj.sagepub.com/content/early/2012/07/26/0042098012452322

  • 25.
    Alexiadou, Nafsika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Essex, Jane
    School of Education, Brunel University, UK.
    Teacher education for inclusive practice: Responding to policy2016In: European Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 0261-9768, E-ISSN 1469-5928, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 5-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article draws on research in one teacher education course in England and examines the ways in which the program prepares student teachers for inclusive practice in science teaching. We frame our analysis by drawing on aspects of institutional mediation of official policy in teacher education, as well as theories around inclusion and critical pedagogy. Using data from official sources, lecture material, and interviews, we argue that in order to achieve real inclusion in teacher education programs we need pedagogies of praxis that move beyond (and sometimes against) the official policy definitions of inclusion, and draw instead on a more critical approach to the formation of future professionals.

  • 26.
    Alexiadou, Nafsika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Findlow, Sally
    School of Public Policy and Professional Practice, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, United Kingdom.
    Developing the educated citizen: changing frameworks for the roles of Universities in Europe and England2014In: Annales, Series Historia et Sociologia, ISSN 1408-5348, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 371-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores questions of citizenship and the role of universities in the context of the policy changes in the UK and in Europe over the last two decades. Twenty five years after the political transitions in Eastern Europe, and 70 years since the end of the Second World War, Europe is more united than ever before. New political, social and economic configurations across the continent are bringing expectations and pressures to its citizens and institutions, with universities at the front of many economic and social projects. What do these new conditions mean for citizenship in the context of European universities, and how do member states respond to this changing context? The article will use England as a national case study within the EU to illustrate the tensions between the humanistic visions still carried out by many universities, although interpreted differently across the sector, and the pressures for the creation of the ‘knowledge economy’ that are shared at the national and transnational levels.

  • 27.
    Alexiadou, Nafsika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Lange, Bettina
    Centre for Socio-Legal Studies, University of Oxford, UK.
    Deflecting European Union Influence on National Education Policy-Making: The Case of the United Kingdom2013In: Journal of European Integration, ISSN 0703-6337, E-ISSN 1477-2280, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 37-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how education policies developed in the European Union (EU) through the open method of co-ordination (OMC) are received at the member state level of the United Kingdom (UK). We argue that the UK’s response to the education OMC can be understood mainly in terms of deflecting EU influence on the process and in particular content of national education policy-making. We focus on three manifestations of deflecting EU influence on national education policies. On a level of institutional structures, first, few organizational resources are made available for responding to the education OMC. Second, there is limited communication between domestic policy teams and UK civil servants involved in international work. Third, on a level of discourse UK education policy makers have retained a commitment to the continued sovereignty of the UK over education policy and its role as a potential leader of education policy agendas in the EU. Deflecting the education OMC involves here constructing images of ‘fit’ between UK and EU OMC education policies.

  • 28.
    Alexiadou, Nafsika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Lange, Bettina
    Centre for Socio-Legal Studies, Oxford University, Oxford, UK.
    Europeanizing the National Education Space?: adjusting to the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) in the UK2015In: International Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 0190-0692, E-ISSN 1532-4265, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 157-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the reception of the education Open Method of Coordination (OMC) in the UK as an aspect of Europeanization of national administrations. It addresses relationships between political and administrative actors in the process of responding to the education OMC. We argue that despite progress with institutionalization of the education OMC at the EU level, there is limited institutionalization of the education OMC at the national level. Against the backdrop of UK skepticism about engaging with the EU integration project, the interesting finding is the administrative strategies employed for deflecting EU influence on the national education space.

  • 29.
    Alexiadou, Nafsika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Reforming Swedish education through New Public Management and quasi-markets2016In: New public management and the reform of education: European lessons for policy and practice / [ed] Helen M. Gunter, Emiliano Grimaldi, David Hall and Roberto Serpieri, Abdingon, Oxon: Routledge, 2016, p. 66-80Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Alexiadou, Nafsika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Norberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Roma, Education, and Higher Education policies: The International Context and the Case of Sweden2015Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Alexiadou, Nafsika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Norberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Sweden’s Double Decade for Roma Inclusion: An Examination of Education Policy in Context2017In: European Education: Issues and Studies, ISSN 1056-4934, E-ISSN 1944-7086, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 36-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the Swedish Strategy for Roma Inclusion. Drawing on interviews and documentary materials produced around the Strategy by official sources and Roma organizations, we describe its background, rationale, and evolution, as well as the rifts it has revealed around the issues of minority representation and the framing of inclusion. We describe the Strategy as a framework for education policy, aligned with the European Framework for Roma integration, and discuss it in relation to issues of representation, inclusion, and policy formation. We argue that, at the discursive level, the Strategy has engaged positively with the politics of Roma inclusion and has introduced a number of new issues in the public debate. However, at the same time it has given rise to policy tensions that reflect inadequate representation of and discussions with Roma stakeholders. For policy makers this has presented opportunities to rethink the design of the Strategy and to opt for an open final text that allows for a more versatile and flexible set of policy options to emerge at the local level.

  • 32.
    Alexiadou, Nafsika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Van de Bunt-Kokhuis, Sylvia
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Policy space and the governance of education: transnational influences on institutions and identities in the Netherlands and the UK2013In: Comparative Education, ISSN 0305-0068, E-ISSN 1360-0486, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 344-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a comparative analysis of two country-specific cases. Thecomparative analysis is situated within the broad domain of the changingknowledge economy landscape for educational policy. The two cases examinethe transfer, embedding and enactment of policies during the interactionsbetween supranational, national, institutional and individual levels. Case studyone concerns policy transfers and their mediation between the EU and thenational levels, drawing from empirical research on the UK. Case study twoexplores the experience and interpretation of higher education mobility practicesfrom the point of view of individual mobile academics located in, or connectedto, the Dutch frameworks of higher education. We employ the concept of spaceto illuminate the effects on education policy and practice of the changingrelationships between the national and inter-, supranational levels of discourseand practice. Our central thesis is that even though EU member states have lostsovereign power over defining education goals and outcomes, hinderingdynamics remain. The extent to which policies and discourses from ‘outside’ thenational level are integrated and adopted ‘within’ depends on the interactionbetween education–political discourses with existing institutionalised practices.In the case of the EU education policies we observe a weak form of policytransfer to the national level. In the UK there is a combination of a denseinstitutional field in education and a Eurosceptic political discourse. In the Dutchcase of individual academics, on the other hand, we found a positive discoursearound international academic mobility. A moderately adapted set of regulatoryframeworks and emerging support structures facilitate to varying degrees theDutch practice of academic mobility.

  • 33.
    Al-fadli, Azhar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Hofberg Berggren, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    “Barn som snubblar utan snubbeltråd”: En studie om hur barn i grovmotoriska svårigheter kan stöttas,stimuleras och utmanas i förskolan2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att belysa verksamma förskollärares upplevelser av arbetet med attstötta, stimulera och utmana barn i grovmotoriska svårigheter. Denna studie är således enkvalitativ studie med semistrukturerade intervjuer med sex förskollärare på sex olikaförskolor. Studiens forskningsfrågor har behandlat verksamma förskollärares upplevelser avderas arbetssätt, erfarenheter och orsaker till att barn befinner sig i grovmotoriska svårighetersamt förutsättningar för att stötta, stimulera och utmana dessa barn i förskolan. Denna studiehar sin utgångspunkt i ett relationellt perspektiv där barn beskrivs som att de befinner sig isvårigheter. Det framgår i vår studie att samtliga informanter beskriver att de arbetar med attstötta, stimulera och utmana barn i svårigheter i deras grovmotorik i både vardagssituationeroch i lärarledda aktiviteter, vilket lyfts av tidigare forskning som angeläget. Informanterna harvarierande erfarenheter av barn i grovmotoriska svårigheter. Orsaker till att barn befinner sig isvårigheter i grovmotoriken framgår i denna studie som komplext och beroende av arv, miljö,omgivning samt möjligheter till att öva, vilket sociokulturell teori betonar. Viktiga slutsatserfrån denna studie är att miljön och förskollärarens roll är central för barns grovmotoriskautveckling samt att förskolans förutsättningar för att stötta, stimulera och utmana barn i derasgrovmotoriska utveckling har försämrats exempelvis genom större barngrupper.

  • 34.
    Alfredsson, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Andersson, Paulina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Vi äger tiden: En studie om hur förskollärare ser på sin yrkesroll i relation till tidshantering2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur förskollärare ser på sin yrkesroll och dess innehåll i relation till tidshantering. Våra frågeställningar berör deltagarnas syn på yrkesrollen samt vilka prioriteringar som görs och varför. Vi ser det som ett problem att förskollärare ofta upplever sig stressade över sin arbetssituation samt känslan av att tiden inte räcker till. Med hjälp av kvalitativ metod genomfördes sex stycken intervjuer med deltagare från två olika kommuner, samtliga hade behöriga förskollärarutbildningar. I bakgrundslitteraturen kunde vi se hur förskollärarens yrkesroll har ändrats över tid samt hur kompetenskravet ökat och fler arbetsuppgifter lagts till i professionens befintliga tid. Resultatet visade att förhållningssättet påverkar till stor del hur förskolläraren upplever att arbetsuppgifterna hinns med. De förskollärare som ser samvaron med barnen som det centrala i deras yrkesroll känner sig mer stressade över administrativa uppgifter än de förskollärare som ser tiden i barngrupp likvärdig med tid för planering, dokumentation, utvärdering, föräldrakontakt med mera.

  • 35.
    Alger, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Is This Reliable Enough?: Examining Classification Consistency and Accuracy in a Criterion-Referenced Test2016In: International journal of assessment tools in education, ISSN 2148-7456, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 137-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One important step for assessing the quality of a test is to examine the reliability of test score interpretation. Which aspect of reliability is the most relevant depends on what type of test it is and how the scores are to be used. For criterion-referenced tests, and in particular certification tests, where students are classified into performance categories, primary focus need not be on the size of error but on the impact of this error on classification. This impact can be described in terms of classification consistency and classification accuracy. In this article selected methods from classical test theory for estimating classification consistency and classification accuracy were applied to the theory part of the Swedish driving licence test, a high-stakes criterion-referenced test which is rarely studied in terms of reliability of classification. The results for this particular test indicated a level of classification consistency that falls slightly short of the recommended level which is why lengthening the test should be considered. More evidence should also be gathered as to whether the placement of the cut-off score is appropriate since this has implications for the validity of classifications.

  • 36.
    Alger, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Prov för förarbevis för moped klass II: Enkätstudie avseende provkonstruktion och provgenomförande2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009 a requirement to obtain a driver’s certificate was introduced for riding a class II moped. In order to obtain a driver’s certificate test-takers are required to complete a compulsory course and pass a test. In this report the second part of an evaluation of testing practices for the driver’s certificate for moped class II is presented. In the first part of the project the content and quality of a number of tests was examined.

    This second part of the project focuses on the development or selection of tests and the administration of the tests. After an interview guide and a web questionnaire were designed 33 test administrators were asked to fill in a questionnaire or take part in a telephone interview. 22 test administrators filled in the questionnaire. Another two test constructors were interviewed.

    All  the test administrators we reached still use the test enclosed with their application for administering tests. Fifteen of them use the test constructed by the Swedish National Association of Driving Schools (STR) and are pretty happy with that. The items in STR’ s test are constructed by a group who meet up a couple of times per year to develop and review items which are then placed in a data base, marked with the appropriate driving licence category. Later on, the items are reviewed further. Since class II was an additional category there was no such marking in the data base so an employee had to manually search for and pick out suitable items for the tests produced in 2009.

    Most test administrators who used self-constructed tests stated that they had chosen to do so since there were no other tests available at the time. Some stated that it suited them best to design the test themselves. The descriptions of the test development process are not particularly detailed, but often mention using the requirements from the Swedish Transport Agency as a starting point.

    STR’s tests are, with one exception, administered via computer, while the other tests are pen-and-paper tests. Often the tests are administered to one test-taker at a time, and nobody administers them to groups of more than 16 people. Test administration seems to adhere to the rules, but four test administrators claim that there is only one version of the test (should be at least 2).

    Some of the test administrators examine what items the test-takers have problems with in order to adapt their teaching or the test. It is common to require failed test-takers to study more at home before retaking the test, but most test-takers pass at their first attempt.

  • 37.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Det praktiska körprovet 2009-2011: analys av datas tillförlitlighet samt provresultat och trender2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report is to examine the reliability of data from the practical driving test for category B 2009-2011 and study the composition of the group of test-takers and results and changes in pass rates over time during the period. Based on the data checks done it can be concluded that data is reliable. Data from 2011 does not comprise the entire year, but when data for the equivalent period previous years is compared with the year as a whole the differences are negligible.

    There are certain differences between groups as to the proportion of passed tests. A larger proportion of test-takers below the age of 20 pass the test compared to older test-takers. A larger proportion of test-takers who were registered by a driving school passed than those who registered themselves. If you divide the test-takers by gender and type of registration a somewhat larger percentage of the men passed the driving test. As for average number of mistakes there are no major differences between the sexes except for manoeuvring.

    As for the content of the test, the most common areas to test are street crossing, driving towards a goal and reversing. Motorway, lanes, roundabouts and signalled crossings are more commonly tested at the main offices, while narrow winding roads, railway crossing and turning off a main road are more common in the other places. Street crossing, lanes and motorway are the situations where the largest percentage of test-takers fails. The percentage of fails for each curricular module are fairly similar for main offices and other offices, but the proportion of fails is higher for roundabouts, driving towards a goal and railway crossings at the main offices. The requirement for attention and identifying risks is the hardest for test-takers to fulfil.

    When comparing the results with previous years we find that the group differences are fairly similar, but the percentage of tests registered via a driving school continues to decrease. It is more common to include reversing in the test. Even though test-takers who has failed the theory tests are now allowed to take the practical driving test the percentage of passed tests remains on the same level for tests registered via driving schools and has only decreased by a couple of percentage points for the remaining tests.

  • 38.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Jämförelser mellan provorter: en studie av körprov för behörighet B2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are more than 130 places in Sweden where driving tests can be carried out, with their own particular traffic environments, examiners and test-takers. The test-takers' ages and their preferred method of registering for the test vary between places. In some places only a few tests are carried out and in some a large number of tests. In some places certain aspects of the traffic environment are absent, like motorways, railway crossings or roundabouts. The intensity of traffic also varies between different locations. In short, there are many aspects that can vary between individual tests. In this report various ways of presenting such differences and some ways of categorizing places are explored.

    Does this have consequences for results? It is difficult to analyse as several variables probably interact and are hard to untangle and due to the nature of the data. The result is binary – pass/fail – which limits what analyses can be made – and there are many categories in the variables place and examiner. In order to achieve fewer categories some can be collapsed into fewer and larger categories. The question is then how many categories and what criteria should be used to form them. When analyses are made we can see that the content of tests differ both within a particular location and between different places. It is, however, unclear if the same or different skills and abilities are measured in different places, but nevertheless not as simple as to claim that it is "easier" to obtain a licence in certain places than others based on simple comparisons of success rates. Test-takers' age and method of registration for the test, aspects that we know are connected to the percentage of passed tests, also differ between places.

  • 39.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Samma prov - andra provtagare: en studie av förändringar i körprovsresultat och provtagargruppens sammansättning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to describe the trend regarding the pass rate for the driving test and examine to what degree changes of the pass rate can be linked to changes in the composition of the group of test-takers. Previously there have been no trend studies exploring changes with regard to the language of the theory test, i.e. whether the test-takers take the test in Swedish or another language so special attention will be given to this aspect.

    The composition of the group of test-takers has changed quite a lot over the last 20 years. Test-takers can either register for the test via a driving school or on their own. The percentage of tests registered via a driving school has decreased, and in later years the number of driving tests not registered via a driving school following theory tests in other languages than Swedish has increased. The pass rate among the tests that were not registered via a driving school has decreased more than for those registered via a driving school. If the results are weighted to reflect the distribution of groups as it was in 1998 or 2010 one may conclude that if the total group of test-takers had had the same composition in later years the pass rate would probably not have decreased as much.

    If theory tests are categorised according to whether they were carried out in Swedish or another language (translated or interpreted) results show that the percentage of tests in other languages has increased significantly since 2013. The percentage of driving tests following theory tests in other languages has also increased. Most of the driving tests after theory tests in other languages are carried out by test-takers who are 25 years or older and who have not registered for the test via a driving school. Such tests are also failed to a greater degree.

    Many more tests are administered today than 10 or 20 years ago. The number of test-takers increased by 87 per cent between 1998 and 2016 while the number of tests increased by 137 per cent. A contributing factor is the change in 2008 that all were allowed to take the driving test regardless of result on the theory test (previously only those who passed could). If results on the driving test are divided by result on the preceding theory test (pass/fail) it turns out that the pass rate has decreased at roughly the same rate since 2012 for both those who failed and those who passed the theory test. However, a larger proportion of those who have passed the theory test also pass the driving test.

    The changes in conditions for taking the driving test does not constitute the whole explanation. If comparing the number of driving tests in 2010 (when all were part of the new system) and 2016 the increase is 22 and 33 per cent respectively.

    When performing analyses based on test-takers rather than tests it is also clear that the number of test-takers who are 25 or older and not registered via a driving school is increasing. At least from 2013 this increase is almost entirely due to test-takers who have taken the theory test in other languages than Swedish.  In 1998 24 per cent of the test-takers only took tests for which they had not registered via a driving school. In 2010 that percentage was 42 per cent an in 2016 53 per cent. Students who do not register for the test via a driving school also carry out more tests on average within the year than those who do.

    Test-takers who carry out many driving tests have, to a greater extent than others, had the examiner intervene (e.g. by braking) during their first test attempt, which perhaps is a consequence of not being properly prepared.

    To summarize: the trend with decreasing pass rate, an increasing proportion of older test-takers and of tests not registered via a driving school that has been visible over the last 20 years or so seems to be continuing. When looking at trends in a shorter perspective, the most notable change is the increase in theory tests that are taken in languages other than Swedish. These tests are, to a great extent, taken by older test-takers, not registered via a driving school, factors that are associated with a lower pass rate. Findings may inform policy makers and other stake-holders when it comes to understanding changes in the composition of test-takers and how possible efforts to increase pass rates could be targeted.

  • 40.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Sämre  år för år?: En studie av förändringen av andelen godkända på körprov för körkortsbehörighet B2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vägverket har samlat in en mängd data i samband med körproven under många år. Ett av de mått som presenterats är andel godkända prov och denna andel har minskat under perioden 1998-2008. I denna rapport diskuteras faktorer som kan påverka resultatet och hur detta kan tolkas. Som bakgrund presenteras några generella frågeställningar som gäller mätningar följt av en beskrivning av förändringar som rör förarprovet.

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka i vilken mån förändringar av andelen godkända på körprovet kan kopplas till förändringar i provtagar­gruppens sammansättning. Som underlag har använts de data som sam­lats in i samband med körprovet.

    För att undersöka om kunskapsnivån eller gruppens sammansättning förändrats mest har resultaten delats upp utifrån sexton delgrupper. Indelningsgrunderna har varit ålder, kön och anmälningssätt. Inom respektive grupp har resultaten varit tämligen stabila över tid. Det är bland de privatanmälda eleverna man kan se en nedåtgående trend. Samtidigt har andelen privatanmälda ökat. Om man viktar resultaten för att återspegla den fördelning mellan grupper som rådde 1998 kan man konstatera att om provtagargruppen hade haft samma sammansättning under de följande åren skulle andelen godkända totalt ha varit högre under dessa år än vad som nu är fallet.

  • 41.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Trender 1998-2015 avseende förändringen av andelen godkända på körprov för körprovsbehörighet B2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Road Administration has, over the years, gathered a lot of data in connection with the driving test. One of the statistics used is the percentage of passed tests and this number has decreased since 1998. In a previous report factors which can affect the result and possible interpretations of results were discussed in terms of to what degree changes in the percentage of passed tests were connected to changes in the composition of the group of test-takers. This is a follow-up of that study with more recent data which includes analyses of the composition of test-takers both based on individuals and on tests.

    Many results are presented in terms of 16 categories based on test-takers’ age, sex and how they were registered for the test. Within each category the results are comparatively stable over time. It is among test-takers who did not register for the test via a driving school that you can discern a downward trend regarding the percentage of passed tests. The percentage of such test-takers in the group as a whole has increased.

    In 2008 a major change was introduced as all who took the theory part of the test also took the driving test. Previously this was restricted to those who passed the theory test. Such a change affects the percentage of passed tests which got slightly higher for driving tests preceded by a passed theory test and slightly lower for driving tests preceded by failed theory tests.

    If results are weighted to reflect the distribution of groups as it was in 1998 one may conclude that if the total group of test-takers had had the same composition as 1998 over the years that followed the total percentage of tests resulting in a pass would have been greater than what is now the case.

  • 42.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Uppföljning av sammanhållet förarprov: Utvärdering av effekter av ett sammanhållet teoretiskt och praktiskt förarprov mellan 2007 och 20132014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On September 1, 2008 a new test model for the Swedish driving licence test was introduced. In the new test model the theory test and the driving test are viewed as integrated and they are booked at the same time. First the test-taker takes the theory test and then, on the same day or within a short time period, he or she takes the driving test. The driving test shall always be performed, irrespective of the result on the theory test. In order to obtain a driving licence the test-taker must pass both the theory test and the driving test within a two-month period from the point when the first test is passed – otherwise new fees must be paid and both tests must be retaken. Previously only the test-takers who had passed the theory test were allowed to take the driving test and the result on the theory test was valid for a year.

    After the new model was introduced a study was conducted to examine whether the change had resulted in an improved pass-rate for the two parts of the test – the theory test and the driving test – and whether the integration of the test parts had improved. The results were presented in a report in 2010 (Alger, Henriksson, & Wänglund, 2010).

    In order to examine whether the initial positive effects are lasting a follow-up study has now been conducted where data from the period before the change (2007) are compared with samples from the corresponding periods in later years.

    As for the theory test a somewhat higher percentage of the tests result in a pass after the introduction of the new test model. However, the major difference between 2007 and later years is the percentage of tests registered via a driving school. The number of tests registered via driving schools is significantly higher after the change and the test-takers registered for the test in this manner are more likely to pass the test than those who registered themselves directly. The mean score has increased for almost all competence areas, but the differences are small.

    When it comes to the driving test the results of tests carried out between December 2007 and the end of February 2008 were compared with the results of the driving tests carried out during the corresponding period in later years. If all tests are included, i.e. also those following on a failed theory test, 59 per cent of the tests were passed in 2008/09 and 56 per cent in 2011/12. In order to make a fair comparison the results of the driving tests preceded by passed theory tests were compared. In the old system, where everybody who took the driving test first had passed the theory test 59 per cent of the driving tests resulted in a pass. Out of those who had passed the theory tests in the new system 66 per cent passed the driving test 2008/09 and 62 per cent 2011/12.

    The analyses also showed that there was a connection between results on the theory test and the driving test as test-takers with a high score on the theory test were more likely to pass the driving test.

    In summary the downward trend for the percentage of passed theory tests that was apparent before the introduction of the new model seems to have been broken. There was a marked increase in the percentage of tests registered via a driving school in connection with the change. The total percentage of passed theory tests has increased somewhat after the introduction of the new test model and the mean score has increased even though the difference is rather small. When it comes to the driving test the percentage of passed tests has increased after the introduction of the new system if you compare the driving tests preceded by passed theory tests. If the driving tests after failed theory tests are also included the percentage of passed tests has decreased, albeit perhaps not as much as could be feared. All in all more tests are carried out in the new system, but the average number of tests per passed test has only increased marginally. From the data we have access to, only a few test-takers have passed the same type of test more than once as a consequence of failing to pass both the theory test and the driving test within a two-month period. In closure the new system has not brought about any major changes (apart from the substantial increase of theory tests registered via a driving school). Even though we cannot know what the situation would have been without the introduction of the new test model, it seems like the changes carried out have had an effect in breaking the clearly negative trends prevailing before the change.

  • 43.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Henriksson, Widar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Prov för förarbevis för moped klass II2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In October 2009 a requirement to obtain a driver’s certificate was introduced for riding a moped class II. In order to obtain a driver’s certificate test-takers are required to complete a compulsory course and pass a test. Those who applied for permission to arrange tests for moped class II had to submit an example of a test to the Swedish Transport Agency with their applications. We have studied a sample of those tests. The content of the tests were analysed in order to determine to what extent the stipulated content of the regulations was covered. Compliance with general guidelines for item construction and whether the regulations concerning number of questions were met was also examined.

    Among the 34 selected examiners 11 had developed their own test. The remaining examiners stated that they used the test developed by the Swedish National Association of Driving Schools (STR). Regulations for the test (TSFS 2010:80) stipulate that it should consist of 25 to 35 items. All tests in the study contained at least 25 items. With a couple of exceptions there are items from all four content areas outlined in the regulations. The main emphasis in the tests is on Traffic rules. The goals stipulated for the training and the goals stipulated for the test do not correspond entirely which probably is the reason why many items contain content not defined in the requirements for the test. However, most of such items can be linked to goals for the training.

    As to shortcomings in the test some items could for example have been phrased more clearly and contained more information. Some response options deviate from the others or are just too unlikely which unfortunately makes the number of selectable options smaller.

    Both content and design of the tests vary considerably why it would be best to let the Swedish Transport Agency develop the test for the conditional driving licence for mopeds class II. The test would be more uniform and equivalent, which would mean a fairer testing. It would be possible to strive for parallel tests. It would also be easier to supervise the results and the quality of the tests than is possible with the current system of supervision.

  • 44.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Henriksson, Widar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Wänglund, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Sammanhållet prov: Utvärdering av effekter av ett sammanhållet teoretiskt och praktiskt förarprov2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On the 1st of September 2008 a new model for the Swedish driving-licence test was introduced. The new test model means that the theory test and the driving test are viewed as integrated and they are booked at the same time. First, the test-taker takes the theory test and then, on the same day or within a short time period, he or she takes the driving test. The driving test shall always be performed, irrespective of the result of the theory test. In order to obtain a driving licence the test-taker must pass both the theory test and the driving test within a two-month period from the point when the first test is passed – otherwise new fees must be paid and both tests must be retaken.

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the introduction of the new test model for licence category B has resulted in an improved pass-rate for the two parts of the test – the theory test and the driving test – and whether the integration of the test parts has improved.

    The study was conducted by comparing data from the driving-licence test before and after the new test model was introduced. The results on the theory test were examined by comparing results on the theory test from week 50 in 2007 with results from week 50 in 2008. The results indicated that the percentage of passed tests increased from 51 to 62. The average score on the test increased from 50.4 points in 2007 to 52.6 points in 2008. Thus, the average score in 2008 is above the cut-score for pass, which is 52 (out of 65 points).

    The results on the driving test were examined by comparing the driving tests carried out from the beginning of December 2007 to the end of February 2008 with driving tests conducted during the same period one year later. In order to obtain comparable groups, the analysis was based on those who passed the theory test in the new system. The result showed that the percentage of passed tests increased from 59 to 66.

    Moreover, the analysis indicated that there is a relationship between the theory and driving test in the sense that test-takers with higher scores on the theory test are more likely to pass the driving test.

    In conclusion, the results on both the theory and practical test have improved after the introduction of the new model for the driving-license test and the correlation between the theory test and the driving test is stronger after the change.

  • 45.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agreement of driving examiners' assessments - Evaluating the reliability of the Swedish driving test2013In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 19, p. 22-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the consistency of examiner assessments of test-takers' performance on the Swedish driving test. The study included 535 tests and was designed so that the ordinary examiner and a supervising examiner assessed the same test-taker. The assessment was done on a two-grade rating scale (pass/fail). Since the result can be affected by factors associated with the test-taker and the two examiners, questionnaires were developed and these were filled in by the test-takers and the examiners. Information about the administration of the test was collected via a specially designed form filled in by the supervising examiner. Using this form, the ordinary examiners' performance was rated on a number of aspects. The result from the study indicated that the agreement between the assessments was very good. For 93% of the tests the two examiners chose the same mark on the two-grade scale. In the cases where ratings differed, the analysis indicated only a few systematic differences among variables designed to provide possible explanations for differences in opinion. However, none of these was problematic with respect to consistency of assessment. Results indicated that most tests were carried out in a satisfactory manner. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All Tights reserved.

  • 46.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Beskrivning av data om det praktiska förarprovet 1998-2005 och analys av tillförlitligheten2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report was to examine the reliability of data from the driving test 1998-2005 and give a basic presentation of data from these years. In order to improve the quality of the data tests that do not appear to have been completed and unnecessary duplicates were removed. After cleaning and recoding, the data can be regarded as reliable.

    From the basic presentation in the report you find that there are certain differences between groups during this period. A larger proportion of test-takers below the age of 20, who make up around half the test-takers, pass the test compared to older test-takers and had a lower average of failed aspects. More men than women took the test and a larger percentage of women were registered by a driving school. A larger proportion of test-takers who were registered by a driving school passed than those who registered themselves. If you divide the test-takers by gender and type of registration a somewhat larger percentage of the men passed the driving test. As for average number of mistakes there are no major differences between the sexes except for manoeuvring.

    As for the content of the test, attention and traffic behaviour are the areas with the largest number of fails. Security check, street crossing and driving towards a goal are the most common areas to test while efficient braking is rare. When you study the content of the test at the main offices and sub-offices you will find that motorway, lanes, signalled crossing and roundabouts are more common at the main offices, while the opposite is true for narrow and wide roads, turning around, left or right.

    As for changes over time you find that the percentage of test-takers registered by driving schools has decreased over the period, as has the percentage of passed tests, both as a total and the percentage who passed their first test. The percentage of passed tests among those who registered for the test themselves has decreased, but there is no obvious downwards trend for those who were registered via a driving school. Efficient braking has become even rarer.

  • 47.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Beskrivning av data om det praktiska förarprovet 2007-2008 och analys av tillförlitligheten2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report was to examine the reliability of data from the driving test for passenger cars 2007-2008 and give a basic presentation of data. The quality of the data was improved by removing tests that do not appear to have been completed and unnecessary duplicates.

    Two major changes occurred during these years. One was that a new driving test and a new test form, for which the data was registered via a digital pen, were introduced in December 2007. Previously data from the test forms had been scanned optically. The work with the new type of data registration led to data for 2007 not being scrutinized in the usual way, which in turn led to these not having the same quality as previous years. Introduction of the digital pen meant that problems caused by the scanning disappeared. However, it turned out that unintentional markings with the digital pen could lead to duplicates being registered. The other major change was the introduction of a new test model in September 2008. From then on it was not only those who had passed the theory test who took the driving test, which must be considered when comparing data with previous years.

    From the basic presentation in the report you will find that there are certain differences between groups. Test-takers below the age of 20 pass the are more likely to pass the test than older test-takers. More men than women took the test and a larger percentage of women were registered by a driving school. A larger proportion of the test-takers who were registered by a driving school passed the test than those who registered themselves. If you divide the test-takers by gender and type of registration a somewhat larger percentage of the men passed the driving test. As for average number of mistakes there are no major differences between the sexes except for manoeuvring. When you study the content of the test at the main offices and sub-offices you find that motorway, driving in lanes, light signal controlled intersection and roundabouts are more commonly tested at the main offices, while the opposite is true for narrow and wide roads/highways, turning around, left or right/ approaching or turning off main roads.

    As for changes over time the security check, which earlier was tested on almost all tests, has become less common in 2008 while revers­ing has been tested very often.The percentage of test-takers registered by driving schools have decreased over the period, as has the percentage of passed tests. Bear in mind, though, that the test model has changed.

  • 48.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Provtagares uppfattning om förarprovet: Enkätundersökning före och efter införandet av sammanhållet förarprov2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den första september 2008 infördes en ny provmodell, ”sammanhållet förarprov”, för körkort behörighet B. Detta innebar att kunskapsprovet och körprovet bokas samtidigt och genomförs samma dag eller nära i tid. Provtagarna börjar med att genomföra kunskapsprovet och oavsett resultat på kunskapsprovet genomför de därefter körprovet. Provtagarna måste få godkänt på båda proven inom en tvåmånadersperiod från det första godkända provet för att få körkort. I annat fall får de göra om båda proven och betala nya provavgifter.

    Denna studie hade som syfte att undersöka om införandet av sammanhållet förarprov påverkat hur provtagarna ser på provet och hur de förbereder sig. En enkät skickades ut till ett slumpmässigt urval bestående av 500 provtagare som genomfört kunskapsprovet före förändringen (augusti 2008) och 500 provtagare som genomfört det efter förändringen (augusti 2010). Urvalsgrupperna utgjordes till hälften av provtagare som fått godkänt och till hälften av provtagare som fått underkänt.

    Det som den nya provmodellen fört med sig är att fler anmäls via trafikskola och något färre väljer att först läsa teori och sedan övningsköra. Inställningen till reglerna kring provet har också förändrats och de nya reglerna har vunnit större acceptans än när de först infördes. I övrigt är det, utifrån de påståenden som prövades i enkäten, inga större skillnader.

  • 49.
    Alhakim, Ibrahim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Esmaili, Arezoo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Invandrares erfarenheter av introduktion och SFI2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att beskriva mottagandet av nyanlända invandrare med fokus på introduktionen i det svenska samhället och SFI:s (Svenska för invandrare) verksamhet. Studien utgår från beskrivningar av SFI-elevers erfarenheter från första tiden och deras uppfattningar av SFI:s kvalitet. Att söka asyl eller invandra till ett nytt land innebär en komplex situation för de berörda och det medför en rad olika svårigheter som ska hanteras. För studiens genomförande har en kvalitativ metod valts med intervjuer som kan ge det djup som behövds för att kunna skildra deltagarnas egna tankar och upplevelser. Empiri har samlats in genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med nio SFI-elever i olika åldrar, kön och utbildningsbakgrund. För att vidga perspektivet ytterligare delade en SYV samt en lärare som arbetar med SFI, med sig av sina erfarenheter och tankar. Intervjuerna genomfördes på två olika skolor i norra Sverige, den ena i en mellanstor kommun och den andra i en mindre kommun. Resultaten visade att alla deltagare i studien var nöjda med mottagandet, och den första tiden, efter ankomsten till Sverige. I stort beskriver eleverna att de var nöjda med utbildningen på SFI och dess kvalitet. Det som spelade en betydande roll för deras motivation och prestation för framtida karriärdrömmar och karriärmöjligheter visade sig vara faktorer som ålder, utbildningsbakgrund och anledning till inresan till Sverige, om flytten till Sverige var av egen vilja eller tvång.

  • 50.
    Alm, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    "Hemliga dörren": En studie om pekplattan som pedagogiskt verktyg i förskolan2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie har pekplattan som pedagogiskt läromedel i förskolan undersökts. Det övergripande syftet var att ta reda på hur verktyget nyttjades och vilka möjligheter till utveckling och lärande barnet kunde utveckla. Tanken var även att få en bild av vilken kompetens och kunskaper som krävdes av pedagogerna för brukandet av iPad. Frågeställningarna som studien utgått ifrån är hur pekplattan kan bidra till lärande i olika aktiviteter på förskolan? I vilka syften pekplattan används på förskolan? Vilken kunskap som pedagogerna ansåg sig behöva för användandet av verktyget? Studien genomfördes med kvalitativa intervjuer samt observationer på tre olika förskolor i en medelstor kommun belägen i norra Sverige. Kriteriet för urvalet var att förskolorna skulle ha olika erfarenheter att arbeta med pekplattan. Resultatet av studien visade dels på hur många olika användningsområden som pekplattan kan fungera på i förskolan; dokumentationsverktyg, verktyg för schemaläggning, hjälpmedel/komplement till ”vanliga” aktiviteter; dels på olika användning beroende på förskola. Resultaten visade också att kompetensutveckling för pedagoger är viktig inom området. Följande slutsatser kan dras av denna studie: Pekplattan kan öka barnens kommunikations- och samarbetsförmåga, utbildning av pedagogerna visar på positiva fördelar för användning av pekplattan tillsammans med barnen och verktyget gynnar föräldrarnas delaktighet i sitt barns utveckling. Pekplattan har också en tendens att dra till sig stor uppmärksamhet hos barnen, vilket kan resultera att fokus ligger mest på verktyget och påverkar således den ”vanliga” verksamheten.

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