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  • 1.
    Bagger, Anette
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    The Liminal Space Between National Tests and ICT for Teaching and Learning: (Dis)Harmony of Teacher Roles2019In: ECER 2019 - European Conference on Educational Research, Hamburg, Germany, 3-6 September, 2019: Education in an Era of Risk: the Role of Educational Research for the Future, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, a neo-liberal governing of public education has emerged and been enhanced throughout the school- systems in nations (Au, 2016). Following from this, the vehicle of development in the nordic education systems are anchored in a corporate-logic in which economic competition and technological change have taken central places (Antikainen, 2006). An orientation towards goal-management and a marketisation of the school has been displayed in reforms especially from the 1990s and forward, encompassing choice, efficiency and accountability (Rönnberg, 2011).

    Two examples of this is the very predominant practices of the increased use of ICT in teaching and learning and also, increased emphasis on national assessment (Verger, Lubienski & Steiner-Kamsi, 2017). Both of these practices are in the core of making education more efficient and holding higher quality, which is ultimately the teachers responsibility and something that the schools is held accountable for. Enhancement of knowledge and quality is assumed to be an engine for progress and are at the same time means for the state to govern a system that is imprinted by globalisation, decentrantralisation, privatization and local self-governing (Carlbaum, Hult, Lindgren, Novak, Rönnberg, Segerholm, 2014). Data-use in education have then become important tools for producing evidence, as quality indicators and for the settings of goals (Prøitz, Mausethagen & Skedsmo, 2017), which is seen both in the collection of results from the tests and in the use of ICT in the classroom.

    This contribution explores two of the most prominent reforms made in the Swedish school system the last decade, and that have connections to the above depicted global and neo-liberal logic of governing education. 1: Increased emphasis on the use of ICT in teaching and learning and 2: Increased and earlier national assessment and grading. The Swedish context in particular provides a large number of ICT initiatives, so called one-to-one computing, with both laptops and tablets for each student reported in almost all of the 290 Swedish municipalities (Becker & Taawo, 2018). In addition, national testing has been advanced and is now administered to preschool class, third grade, sixth grade and ninth grade in compulsory school.

    They are both very dominant as institutionalised practices in the Swedish school and we state that they carries with them disparate routines, rules and roles for how to be a teacher. At the same time, the nordic school model is characterized by “providing schooling of high and equal quality, regardless of children’s and young people’s resources, origin and location“ (Lundahl, 2016, p. 3). These elements of equity and quality is also a point of departure and argument for implementing changes in school policy. Although equity is not very well demarcated, and heavily weighted with the neo-liberal logic and in addition, depicted as something the schools and teachers are held accountable for (Bagger, Norén, Boistrup & Lundahl, 2019). Therefore, the teachers role become in the core of these changes and how their space of action within the dominant practices of national testing and use of ICT in teaching and learning, important to explore further.

    The purpose of this article is to contribute with knowledge on the teacher role in the practice of using ICT in education and the practice of giving national tests. Three research questions have guided the investigation: RQ1: What does the teachers role include in the practice of giving tests appear. RQ2: What does the teachers’ role include in the practice of using ICT in teaching and learning? RQ3: What differences and similarities are there in the two settings regarding demands, expectations, norms and routines - what “is” it to be a teacher and go between these contexts.

    Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used: Van Leeuwens (2008) theories was the point of departure in our exploration of the teachers’ role in relation to the practice at hand. Therefore, both of these investigated practices are understood as social practices. We then draw on Van Leeuwens (2008) understanding of social practices and how they shape and contribute to the role of the teachers. Van Leeuwen define social practice from 10 different elements: participants, actions, performance modes, eligibility conditions (participants), presentations style, times, locations, eligibility conditions (locations), resources: tools and materials, eligibility conditions (resources). All these concepts shall be understood in relation to the social practice. Thus, the concept of participant concern a specific role of, for example, teachers and students in the two contexts.The actions were then framed as performed in sequences which includes, for example, the pace of an action, performance modes, time and location (Van Leeuwen, 2008). Teachers are within these assumed to construct specific knowledge situated within legitimate perspectives. Hence, prevalent social discursive practices shapes and contributes to the role of the teachers whilst creating a possible space for action at the same time as the teachers shapes and contributes to the social discursive practice. The empirical material originates from two larger research projects (dnr:721-2013-774; drn: 721-208-4646) founded by the Swedish research council. The data comprise 21 teachers in the national test project and 26 teachers in the ICT project. The material contains classroom observations assisted with video, audio and field note documentation and retrospective teacher interviews individually and in groups. In both projects, teachers were interviewed and observed with the purpose of exploring the role of the teacher in the social practice at hand - but with different focus areas. In the NP project the aim was to look into if and how the student was affected by testing and in the ICT project the aim was to examining the kinds of enacted practices that arise from teachers’ organisation of the physical space, including ICTs, and teachers’ communication. We have in this article revisited the data from both projects, with a common methodology which makes the two social practices and their effect on the teachers’ role, comparable. The analytical procedure was to explore which specific participants (teachers) take which particular actions and in which performance modes they are performed, to which time-aspects and locations for the two practices and thereafter compare the teacher's role. 

    Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings: The roles in the national test practice and the ICT practice are here considered as a liminal space between two different social practices. Individually, these bear with them significantly different spaces, times for action, levels of creativity, kinds of questions, answers and support and essentially how the teacher approaches the students and the tasks. The major differences indicate that in the social practice of ICT, the teacher's role is supposed to promote creativity and stimulate curiosity, creativity and activity. Activity is also crucial in the situation of national tests, but the teacher role is in essence supposed to promote students listening, following and focusing on individual achievement. Further, order issues as sound level and how and where to sit, differs greatly. A conclusion is that between these practices, there is a (dis)harmony of acting as a teacher. When we reflect on the outcome, these practices are significantly different in a way that makes us to consider them as a liminal space. Still, the teacher has to move effortless and presumably seamless between these two systems of norms regarding teaching and learning. In periods, it is not very unlikely that the half of the school day is national tests and the other half consists of some kind of collaborative and creative ICT supported learning activity. The liminal space is crucial to acknowledge in terms of the energy involved in changing role, and also that it might be had for some students to understand the changed appearance of their teacher and the changed demands of the situation. The contrasts between these practices highlight probably deeper questions about what knowledge is in today’s school and society, as well as, for whom education is aimed for, and whose interest it is supposed to serve?

  • 2. Bengs, Anette
    et al.
    Hägglund, Susanne
    Wiklund-Engblom, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML). Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Applying Experience Design to Facilitate Wellbeing and Social Inclusion of Older Adults2018In: IxD&A: Interaction Design and Architecture(s), ISSN 1826-9745, E-ISSN 2283-2998, no 36, p. 11-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current article addresses the issue of how to design for meaningful experiences of wellbeing and social inclusion, supported by information and communication technology, among older adults. This is done with regard to a background study conducted for the purpose of collecting end user needs in order to inform design choices. Our design approach is influenced by the theory of Experience Design, in which design should be aimed at creating specific experiences. These experiences are considered to derive from a limited number of fundamental human needs. The study is framed as design research using the methodology of user-centred design as a guide for the creative process. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with 25 older adults, identifying needs of autonomy, competence, relatedness, physical thriving, security, pleasure and stimulation. Design goals were set based on these needs and three interventions were designed and implemented accordingly.

  • 3.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Boesen, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Helenius, Ola
    Örebro universitet.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palmberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Matematikutbildningens mål och undervisningens ändamålsenlighet: grundskolan våren 20092009Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Boesen, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Helenius, Ola
    Örebro universitet.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palmberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Matematikutbildningens mål och undervisningens ändamålsenlighet: gymnasiet hösten 20092010Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Österholm, MagnusUmeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).Granberg, CarinaUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).Sumpter, LovisaStockholms universitet.
    Proceedings of the 42nd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Podcasting mathematics2013In: The International Journal for Technology in Mathematics Education, ISSN 1744-2710, E-ISSN 2045-2519, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 147-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study podcasts, i.e. short video clips, were analysed to ascertain how mathematical competencies were addressed. We analysed how the mathematical content was presented in the podcasts, and then how these characterizations related to eight students’ interest to learn mathematics. The mathematical presentations was analysed using the Mathematical Competencies Research Framework (Lithner et al., 2010). The results indicate that podcasts that address several mathematical competencies receive overall higher grades by the students in the study.

  • 7.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    What is “strong presence” of a message in a steering document?2012In: Proceedings of Norma 11, The Sixth Nordic Conference on Mathematics Education in Reykjavík, May 11-14, 2011 / [ed] G. H. Gunnarsdóttir, F. Hreinsdóttir, G. Pálsdóttir, M. Hannula, M. Hannula-Sormunen, E. Jablonka, U. T. Jankvist, A. Ryve, P. Valero & K. Wæge, Reykjavík, Iceland: University of Iceland Press, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to discuss what a “strong presence” of a message in a syllabuscould be. The discussion takes a starting point in what we call the reformmessage; that what mathematics is can not only be described in terms of content andprocedures, but must also be defined in terms of competencies, e.g. problem solving,reasoning and communication. The analyzed document is the Swedish syllabus forthe first course at upper secondary school. Different ways, both quantitative andqualitative, of determining what a strong presence of a message could be are presentedand discussed.

  • 8.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Mathematical reasoning in teachers' presentations2012In: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 31p. 252-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of the opportunities presented to students that allow them to learn different types of mathematical reasoning during teachers’ ordinary task solving presentations. The characteristics of algorithmic and creative reasoning that are seen in the presentations are analyzed. We find that most task solutions are based on available algorithms, often without arguments that justify the reasoning, which may lead to rote learning. The students are given some opportunities to see aspects of creative reasoning, such as reflection and arguments that are anchored in the mathematical properties of the task components, but in relatively modest ways.

  • 9.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Bridging the Distance in Teacher Education: Teachers’ Perspectives on Process-Based Assessment2013In: Transformative Dialogues, ISSN 1918-0853, Vol. 6, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a research project in which a group of teachers in a pre-school teacher education programme based at a 'satellite' study centre in a distant rural area used digital personal development planning (PDP) as a means to bridge the distance. A qualitative approach was taken that aimed to develop a greater understanding of the teacher-student relationship through research questions addressing the student role, the learning process and the assessment process. A didactical design for process-based assessment was developed and structured into three phases involving questions of the students' previous knowledge, reflections and learning. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and a student questionnaire. The material was analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The underpinning principles of power and control were helpful for understanding the social relations in the teacher-student relationship within this online context. The results indicate a conflict between the student-centred curriculum and traditional beliefs in the teacher-student relationship.

  • 10.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Comparative research based on one-to-one computing classroom studies in Sweden and Finland2017In: Learning and education: material conditions and consequences, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The approach to compare Research topic/Aim:

    The aim of this round table is to discuss methodological and theoretical approaches for comparative analysis. In particular, the focus concerns three aspects: 1) approaches to make comparisons of teachers’ teaching with digital technologies (e.g. one-to-one computing) in Swedish and Finnish compulsory school, and 2) what are the possibilities and challenges of making comparative analysis based on qualitative data?, and 3) what is the needs and reasons for making comparative analysis of teachers’ teaching with digital technologies?

    Theoretical frameworks:

    Methodology/research design:

    The quantitative Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) has showed great impact in comparative studies between countries. PISA compares pupil skills in applying knowledge in new situations. Finland has shown great success in such comparisons while in Sweden an educational crisis in media was reported. A growing body of research argue for a need of both qualitative and quantitative studies between countries. Comparative studies are afflicted with a several difficulties based on unclear purposes regarding what it is that shall be compared (Alexander, 2000). In qualitative comparative research there seems to be an emphasis of policy studies that sometimes are complemented with teacher interviews (e.g. Carlgren & Klette, 2008). One problem with interviews concern that the teachers’ narratives demonstrate the teachers’ wish in contrast to how they actually teach. Against this backdrop, in the comparative studies there is a need for systematically analysis of how teachers really teach based on classroom observations as a complement to policy studies and teacher interviews (Alexander, 2000; Phillips & Schweisfurth, 2014).

    Expected conclusions/Findings:

    The session starts with a presentation of two projects about teachers’ didactical design in one-to-one computing classrooms in Sweden and Finland. The Swedish project took place during 2014-2016 and the Finnish project took place during 2015-2016. A possible next step is to make comparative study on the empirical material. The empirical material consists of qualitative data based on 60 classroom observations and 60 teacher interviews and 10 principal interviews collected in compulsory schools in Sweden and Finland. During this session a theoretical framework is presented that possibly can support comparative analysis. Briefly, the theoretical approach is based on Bernstein’s (1990, 2000) concepts for symbolic power (classification) and control (framing). This framework constructs the possibility of a two dimensional analysis. Firstly, the spatial dimension highlights the precondition of the classroom based on the symbolic boarders between different categories such as the relationship between desks, or the symbolic boarders between ICT and other resources. The relative concept of classification indicates privileging features of classroom spatiality, or on whom power is conferred upon. Secondly, the teachers’ teaching is analysed based on the principle of who controls what. The concept of framing indicates who has the right to select content, sequence, pacing, and how assessment is communicated. In the results, an attempt was made to illustrate the relationship between the one-to-one computing classroom spaces in relation to the one-to-one computing teaching practices based on the concepts of classification and framing. After the presentation the floor is open for discussion among the participants.

     

  • 11.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Den andra rapporten för projektet "Lärmiljön för studerande i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad"2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten redovisas den andra intervjuomgången av studenter i masterporgrammet i omvårdnad. Det övergripande syftet är att förstå de kunskaper som studenter i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad förvärvar under utbildningen. För att besvara syftet har följande forskningsfrågor formulerats: 1) Hur ser relationen ut mellan praktiska och teoretiska kunskaper ut i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad? 2) Vilka möjligheter och val ges till studenterna i de kurser de läser i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad? 3) På vilka sätt ”studievägleder” studenten sig själv i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad? Under höstterminen 2014 har totalt sex studenter intervjuats. Intervjuerna fokuserade på följande områden: studentens arbete, studentens val av kurser, examensmål i masterutbildningen. Resultatet indikerar från vilka utgångspunkter studenter väljer kurser samt vilka kunskaper de möter. För studenterna föreligger en fara för reproduktion av horisontell kunskap i kontrast till val av kurser där studenterna möter kunskaper som kommuniceras med ett mer abstrakt språk.

  • 12.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Designing for the unknown: Didactical design for process-based assessment in technology-rich learning environments2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on a study of the development of education through theinnovative use of process-based assessment in technology-rich learningenvironments in teacher and nurse education. The study of process-basedassessment addresses the aim of creating a better understanding of the shiftin emphasis from teaching to learning with regard to theory and practice.The research questions address the use of process-based assessment, andhow the social relationships and issues of content can be understood intechnology-rich learning environments. A methodological approachinvolving design-based research was found to be especially applicable. Thestudy was designed in three iterative didactical design cycles for processbasedassessment in which the first and third cycles were analysed. Theempirical material comprises qualitative semi-structured interviews withteachers and students and questionnaires with students. The empiricalmaterial was analysed through inductive thematic analysis. The theoreticalanalyses in the comprising articles are mainly based on Bernstein’stheoretical framework for studying social relationships through concepts ofsymbolic power and control. For understanding change, with regard to theshift in emphasis from teaching to learning, the analysis is taken to a metalevelby applying Bernstein’s concept of pedagogical device.The results outline the shift in emphasis from teaching to learning fromboth a theoretical and practice perspective. Theoretically, the shift inemphasis from teaching to learning is based upon a shift in symbolic powerand control for teachers. In practice, the shift of symbolic power and controlbetween the teacher, student and content outline considerable overlapsbetween teacher-student, teacher-content and student-content. The overlapshighlight the empirical contribution in this thesis through the concept of“process” that is understood as a negotiation between teacher-student,teacher-content and student-content. The weakening symbolic powerrelationship made a multi-dimensional analysis of the teacher-studentcontentrelationship possible. Theoretically, the shift of symbolic poweroutlines a process of recontextualisation of a new discourse for teaching,learning and assessment. The multi-dimensional analysis highlights thetheoretical contributions to understanding the concept of discourse fromBernstein’s perspective through which the content and context create thediscourse. For practice, process-based assessment frames the notion ofdesigning for the unknown. Designing for the unknown is considered as aframework based upon a set of rules through which teachers and studentsadapt to a problematising approach in teaching, learning and assessment

  • 13.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Didactical design for online process-based assessment in teacher education: Making the informal formal2012In: Cases on Online Learning Communities and Beyond: Investigations and Applications / [ed] Harrison Hao Yang and Shuyan Wang, Hersey: IGI Global, 2012, p. 403-425Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter reports on a research project in which a group of students in preschoolteacher education participated in an educational intervention based on thedevelopment of process-based assessment. A didactical design was developed andstructured into three phases for supporting students in building formal knowledgefrom their prior informal knowledge. Moreover, the design was implemented in anonline context that facilitated documentation and reflection. A qualitative approachwas taken that aimed to understand the learning environment emerging from thedidactical design through the use of technology by addressing questions about theteacher’s role, the learning process, and the assessment process. Data was collectedthrough in-depth interviews and a questionnaire, which were analyzed through inductivethematic analysis. The concept of variation was used in the analysis of thestudent perspective on the didactical design. The results indicate how the concept ofvariation was helpful in highlighting the underpinning affordances and constraintsof this environment and the associated social relationships.

  • 14.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Kommunikation i webbaserad videokonferens: dialog, form och innehåll2006In: Fyra studier om fortbildning av universitetslärare i Kvarkenområdet / [ed] Gun-Marie Frånberg, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2006, p. 7-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Lärmiljön för studerande i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten sammanfattas den intervjustudie som skett i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad under höstterminen 2013. Programmet sker på distans med 50% studietakt. Projektets målsättning är att studera studentens process genom masterprogrammet. Processen har avgränsats till att dels studera hur studenten själv kan skapa en individuellt anpassad utbildning och dels att studera studenternas lärprocess i de valbara kurserna. Syftet med föreliggande rapport är att förstå hur studenterna uppfattat sin första termin i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad. För att besvara syftet formulerades två forskningsfrågor: 1) Hur beskriver studenterna möjligheterna att individualisera sin utbildning under höstterminen 2013? 2) Vad kännetecknar de valbara eller tillgodoräknade kursernas design och genomförande under höstterminen 2013? Resultatet indikerar tre teman 1) att skapa sin individuella inriktning i programmet 2) Undervisningens utformning 3) Att knäcka koden. Sammanfattningsvis indikerar resultatet att programmets avsikt att skapa självständiga studenter står i relation till att inom de individuellt valda kurserna finns ringa möjligheter till självständighet.

  • 16.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Merging three schools into one new school: training teachers for team-based teaching2019In: Fjärde nationella konferensen i pedagogiskt arbete: Abstractbok, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a project where three schools in one municipality are involved in a 2-years preparation process of merging three existing schools into one greater newly built school. In each of these schools, training arenas has been set up based on the architecture of the new school building (e.g. principles of room-in-the-room, small amphitheaters, varying furniture and rich access to ICTs). The new school highlights an organizational shift where teachers will move from individual work in classes of 23-30 students to team-based teaching. Each team teaches one whole grade with approx. 100 students in home arenas. This paper focuses on how the three existing schools prepare teachers for such a shift. The aim is to increase the understanding of what skills teachers need and develop for team-based teaching. The research question addressed: what characterizes the pedagogical practice in the training arenas in terms of how the arena is used and teacher-student communication and interaction? A participatory design-based research methodology (Holmgren, 2019) was applied where this paper focus on the initial phase of teachers’ work in the training arenas. The analysis draws on a) classroom observations based on audio recordings from the teachers’ communication, notes, and photographs, and b) teacher and principal interviews. The data were analyzed with support of a typology where Bernstein’s (2000) theory of classification and framing were operationalized into a two-dimensional typology based on the physical organization of space (classification), and teachers’ communication in practice (framing) (Bergström et al., 2017). Preliminary results indicate possibilities and challenges in the pedagogical practice. Possibilities concern a richer environment which provides variation in students’ learning, while challenges concern increase demands on students’ self-regulation when power and control was distributed to the students.     

  • 17.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Power and controll as means to explore teachars' practice in the one-to-one computing classroom: is there a shift from teacher-centered practice to student-centered practice?2019In: ICEduTech 2019 Proceedings / [ed] Piet Kommers, Tomayess Issa, Pedro Isaías and Wendy Hui, IADIS Press, 2019, p. 35-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a study about teachers’ practice in one-to-one computing classrooms in Social Studies in upper secondary school. In the study, two teachers were followed in their daily practice with students where the observer collected empirical material through classroom observations, informal discussions and interviews. The teachers taught both academic and vocational programs in Social Studies and all students were equipped with a personal laptop. The aim and research questions demonstrate an attempt to both explore and explain how different power and control relations contribute to describe these teachers’ practice as either teacher-centered or student-centered. The theoretical framework was based on Bernsteins’ theory regarding symbolic power and control. Both teachers used one-to-one computing to extend the students learning outside the school building but they demonstrated two different theoretically informed practices. These teachers’ practice involved the students to different extent in the decisions about, for example, content, sequence and how the classes should be organized individually or in groups. The different teaching approaches reflects how the teachers either kept or distributed power and control to the students. The findings contribute to understand the differences between teacher-centered and student-centered practice. 

  • 18.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Preparing for a 21st century school: prototyping space, organisation and practice2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Rapport för projektet: ”Indikatorer och instrument för analys av professionsutveckling”2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten återrapporteras en förstudie där ett utvärderingsinstrument konstruerats och utprovats. Instrumentets konstruktion tar utgångspunkt i Bernsteins (2000) teori för symbolisk makt och kontroll. Projektet har två syften. Syftet är dels att med hjälp av ett instrument utvärdera om utbildningen till ingenjör vid TFE är studentcentrerad. Vidare är syftet också att konstruera och utprova ett utvärderingsinstrument utifrån sociologisk teori. Två forskningsfrågor konstruerades som dels fokuserar på hur lärare-student relationen kan förstås i tre olika program samt hur väl utvärderingsinstrumentet fungerar. Resultatet visar att bland de 14 studenter som besvarade enkäten kan lärare-student relationen betraktas som studentcentrerad. Karaktären på utbildningen indikerar en kollegial relation mellan lärare och elev. En vanlig studie form för att lära sig kursinnehållet är genom projektarbeten. En annan slutsats är behovet av fler respondenter för att kunna utvärdera instrumentets tillförlitlighet.  

  • 20.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Rapport nr 2: "Indikatorer och instrument för analys av professionsutveckling"2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten är skriven för den andra omgången i projektet ”Indikatorer och instrument för professionsutveckling”. I föreliggande projektet studeras undervisningskontexter utifrån Bernsteins (2000) teori för makt och kontroll i den pedagogiska kommunikationen. I studien ingår utbildningarna till högskoleingenjör i programmen Elektronik och datorteknik, Maskinteknik, Medieproducent och civilingenjörsprogrammet i Industriell ekonomi. Syftet är att förstå hur undervisningens reglering påverkar student-lärarrelationen samt hur studenten upplever sin egen möjlighet till inflytande över innehåll, arbetsformer och examination i utbildningen. En forskningsfråga konstruerades för att besvara syftet: Hur påverkar olika undervisningsupplägg student-lärarrelationen? Instrumentet från föregående delrapport (Bergström, 2013) från vt13 distribuerades till fler informanter och program. Resultatet visar att den pedagogiska kommunikationen skiljer sig mellan programmen. Programmen Industriell ekonomi och Maskinteknik har en mer lärarcentrerad kommunikation än programmen Elektronik- och datorteknik och i Medieproducent utbildningen. Dessa skillnader innebär för utbildningarna att det är olika reglering mellan lärare och student i förutsättningarna för lärande.

  • 21.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Shifting the emphasis from teaching to learning: process-based assessment in nurse education2011In: International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, ISSN 1492-3831, E-ISSN 1492-3831, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 108-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shifting from an emphasis on teaching to learning is a complex task for both teachers andstudents. This paper reports on a qualitative study of teachers in a nurse specialist educationprogramme meeting this shift in a distance education course. The study aimed togain a better understanding of the teacher-student relationship by addressing researchquestions in relation to the students’ role, the learning process, and the assessment process.A didactical design comprising three phases focusing on distinct learning outcomesfor the course was adopted. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with teachersand were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The results indicate a shift towardsa problematising and holistic approach to teaching, learning, and assessment. This shifthighlighted a teacher-student relationship with a shared responsibility in the orchestrationof the learning experience. The overall picture outlines a distance education experience ofprocess-based assessment characterised by the imposition of teachers’ rules and a lack ofcreativity due to the limited role of ICT merely as a container of content.

  • 22.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Granberg, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning.
    Process diaries: formative and summative assessment in e-learning courses2007In: Advanced Principles of Effective e-learning / [ed] Nicole A. Buzzetto-More, Santa Rosa: Informing Science Press , 2007, p. 21-Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Häll, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Kuuskorpi, Marko
    Jahnke, Isa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Teacher's Didactical Design in Finnish 1:1 Tablet Classrooms: Perspectives on Content and Meaning2016In: Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, European Educational Research Association, Freie Universität Berlin , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the first year of a two-year study in Finland about Finnish teachers didactical design in one-to-one (1:1) tablet classrooms. In it's simplest form 1:1 means that each student and teacher is equipped with a computing device. In this study all students and teachers are equipped with an Apple iPad. Compared to other European countries (EUN, 2013) the digitalisation of Finnish schools progress at a slow rate where the ratio of computers per child in year 7-9 is among the lowest, but has started to increase. The project is conducted during the transition from the 2004 national curriculum to the 2016 national curriculum. Researchers indicate that equipping each student with a digital device is a great challenge for the so-called ecology of the classroom (Håkansson Lindqvist, 2015). Aspect of digitalisation concerns wireless Internet access (WiFi) and cloud computing. Such technologies highlight the notion of what content students have access to and how content is shared among teachers and students. Traditionally, teaching have been organised with textbooks while with 1:1 computing students got access to a great number of new resources that possibly challenges the thinking of what represents content. However, it is not the content per se that create students learning experience, it is how the teacher design students' learning expedition (Jahnke, Norqvist and Olsson, 2014) with the curriculum and the content.

    Aim and research questions: The aim of this paper is to contribute to knowledge about teachers' didactical design in schools with one-to-one tablet programs.

    - What characterises the students' interaction with the content in one-to-one tablet contexts?

    - How can we understand the teachers' didactical design based on the relationship between the privileging features of the one-to-one tablet context in relation to the teaching practice?

  • 24.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Häll, Lars. O
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Pedagoginen suunnittelu digitaalisissa oppimisympäristöissä: Kaarina 1:1 tablettikoulut - puolivälin muistiinpanoja2016In: Opetuksen digitalisaatio, uudet oppimisympäristöt ja uusi pedagogiikka / [ed] Marko Kuuskorpi ja Keijo Sipilä, Kaarina: Kaarinan kaupunki , 2016, 1, p. 56-63Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Maker pedagogy in Swedish tablet-classrooms2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Swedish teachers' didactical design from students' perspective: perspectives on digital competences2017In: Learning and education: material conditions and consequences : NERA 2017 abstracs, Copenhagen: Aalborg University , 2017, article id 610Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic/Aim:

    Based on students' perspective, the aim of this study is to understand teachers' didactical design in contemporary one-to-one computing classroom in Sweden. The following research questions were formulated:

    1. How do teachers' organise students' use of one-to-one computing, and what are the effects?
    2. How are social processes constructed in the one-to-one computing learning environment based on students' experience and use?

    Theoretical frameworks:

    In a theoretically informed analysis, we applied Bernstein's (2000) concepts for symbolic power and control: classification and framing. Bernstein's relative concept of classification indicates the symbolic boarders between categories, for example teachers and students. The concept of framing indicates the locus of control, or who controls what. The concepts of classification and framing is relative, either strong or weak. These concepts are used to understand how teachers' either keep symbolic power and control, or shift the symbolic power and control towards the students in teaching and learning situations.

    Methodology/research design:

    This study is part of a greater project about the digitalisation of compulsory schools. Based on results from the bigger project, this study focused on a mixed group of students in compulsory school in grade-2, grade-6, grade-7 and grade-8 studying mathematics, arts and sports. The empirical material consists of four classroom observations, 11 focus group interviews with students and a questionnaire. The focus group interviews were based on three themes: 1) students' basic digital skills, 2) teachers' teaching, and 3) students’ learning. During the interviews, the approach of stimulated recall (Haglund, 2003) was used for probing students' experiences of different teaching approaches by showing the focus groups photography's of different one-to-one computing practices. The focus group interviews lasted between 18 to 35 minutes.

    Expected conclusions/Findings:

    Based on the concepts of classification and framing, three themes were constructed that indicated teachers and students digital competence. The first theme indicated students' basic digital skills. This theme identified for what and how often the most common activities in which the teachers’ ask students to use one-to-one computing. The second theme indicated a piecework approach, which highlighted students' use of one-to-one computing in class and out of class. In class use indicated a formal practice based on the teachers' power and control, while the out of class use indicated practices based on students' power and control. The third theme indicated the symbolic gesture of raising ones hand. This theme indicated diverse aspects how the teacher either held or dislocated symbolic control.

    Relevance for Nordic Educational Research:

    In the Nordic countries, digital competence is either already introduced or on its way to be introduced in the national steering documents. Few studies have so far focused on understanding students' perspective of teachers' didactical design. This study contributes to this field of research and indicates a need for a broader understanding of the concept digital competence beyond basic digital skills. Among other things, this study indicate especially how one-to-one computing constructs a need for diverse digital competences based on students' use of one-to-one computing in class as well as out of class.

  • 27.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Jahnke, Isa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Teachers' Digital Didactical Design: Towards Maker Movement Pedagogies In Tablet Mediated Learning2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates a project about digital didactical designs in one-to-one (1:1) computing classrooms in Sweden. The study focuses on schools in four municipalities with 1:1 media tablet (iPads) programs. In Sweden, there have been two major changes that have led to new situations and new challenges for schools. A new school reform started in 2011, at the same time there was a boom using mobile web-enabled technologies in teaching and learning. With the new national curriculum LGR 11 the main changes involves stronger guidance what teachers teaching should involve at the subject level, a new grading system and specific knowledge's students should achieve in school year 3, 6 and 9. The boom of mobile technologies highlights a shift away from separating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and education (e.g. computer labs) (Henderson & Yeow, 2012) into co-located settings (De Chiara, Di Matteo, Manno, & Scarano, 2007). Mobile technology becomes part of classrooms; both merged into new spaces for learning – we call them co-expanded spaces. In general, we assume these new situations affect the designs of teaching and learning in different aspects. Results from our previous studies in Denmark indicate a shift in students' learning culture from consumption of content into production of content (Jahnke & Kumar, 2014) similar to what Hatch (2013) addresses as the maker movement culture. In this study, we explore how teachers meet the new challenges by studying the pedagogical communication. Specifically, from a Digital Didactics approach, we explore how the new situation affects didactical designs in such new settings where physical teaching and learning spaces are expanded by mobile technologies.

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to understand the teaching and learning designs-in-practice, especially the facets of such designs in co-expanded spaces. By studying the innovative teachers' didactical designs in media tablet classrooms, a particular focus is on the social relationship as a function of the teacher-student interaction and communication.

    Research questions

    1. How can the teacher-student relationships be described and understood in relation to tablet mediated learning classroom practice?

    2. How can teachers' communication about tablet mediated teaching and learning be described and understood in relation to tablet mediated classroom practice?

    3. How can the forms of teachers’ digital didactical designs be described and understood in relation to the curriculum?

    Theoretical framework

    For understanding the designs of media tablet classroom practices, we used two sets of theories. Firstly, Jahnke, Norqvist, & Olsson's (2014) approach of digital didactical design that is based on learning intentions, learning activities, assessment, and the social relations was applied for framing the analysis. In this paper the social relations constitute the teacher-student communication, which mirrors the teachers' didactical design. For understanding the teacher-student communication, Bernstein’s (2000) theory of classification and framing was applied. The concepts of classification and framing are translated into power and control relations. Classification highlights the relation between different categories. What turns a category into a unique category is its unique relationship to other categories. The uniqueness of a category is based on its specialisation e.g. teacher or student. The degree of specialisation creates boarders and a space between the categories as either strong or weak. The outcome of the classification analysis indicates practices of media tablet classrooms. These practices are further analysed through the relative concept of framing as either strong or weak. The concept of framing contributes to the understanding of the locus of control in the teacher-student relationship. The locus of control relates to several issues in the teacher student relationship, which reflects Bernstein’s concepts of selection, sequence, pacing and evaluation.

    Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used

    The methodology in this research project has been pre-tested in a pilot study in Denmark in 2012 to 2014. The qualitative method has been conducted to explore the teachers' designs in Swedish classrooms ranging from preschool to upper secondary school. Applying a purposeful sampling (Patton, 1990), schools were selected where teachers and pupils have been using media tablets longer than six months, preferably within a one-to-one computing program in which the pupils can also use the iPads at home. We focused on innovative teachers and early adopters (Rogers, 2003). In total we studied schools in four municipalities in Sweden in six clusters: one preschool, one preschool class (children at age 6), and classes in school years 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, and 10-12. The schools have been visited two times during the school year 2014/2015. In total we have conducted 20 classroom observations and teacher interviews. Data collection The classroom observations were conducted of 2-3 observers. The field notes were developed, as close as possible to the observation, into thick descriptions (Kullberg, 2004) that are described as narrative, describing, analysing and interpreted. After the observations the thick descriptions were discussed until an agreement was reached among the researchers. During the observations the observer take notes, photos, short video recordings. Each lesson lasted between 40-60 minutes. The subjects range from Native Language, Math, Science, English, Spanish and Social studies. The class sizes were around 20 to 25 students in each class. The observations were followed up with teacher interviews. For the teacher interviews, a half-structured interview guide were used that is divided into five themes with sub-questions: (1) background (age, gender, years as teacher, teaching subjects; first "thought" when implementing iPads); (2) the teachers teaching; (3) Learning (4) Assessment (5) magic wizard offers three wishes (what would teacher wish). The interviews were conducted by at least two researchers; audio-recorded and transcribed. Each interview lasted for about 60 minutes. Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or FindingsFindings from the innovative media tablet classrooms indicate two sets of didactical designs. The first set of didactical design demonstrates a majority of blurred boarders between categories, ranging from teachers' organisation of desks in the classroom to the software applications used in teaching and learning. The second set of didactical designs illustrates designs based on clear boarders between categories, which indicates strong power relationships. These two sets of relationship between categories create two kinds of social relationship in the classroom. Media tablet classrooms based on weak classification indicates a pedagogical practice that involves students' decision making to a greater extent than in classrooms based on strong classification. The weak classification between categories in the classrooms becomes the underpinning framework for didactical designs where the media tablets are integrated for making products. The making of products demonstrates students' influence regarding the selection and sequence of content, for example when making films. With regard to the learning intentions in the curriculum, in students' creative work, the teachers' support student learning by using explicit and implicit criteria for keeping the right track in students' learning. An important issue concerns the sociological notion of sharing resources involving signs of changed communication and interaction patterns in the classrooms.

  • 28.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Jahnke, Isa
    University of Missouri-Columbia.
    Variations of symbolic power and control in the one-to-one computing classroom: Swedish teachers' enacted didactical design decisions2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 38-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides new insights into Swedish teachers' didactical designs when handling two contemporary challenges regarding the new national curriculum and the increasing digitalisation of schools through one-to-one computing initiatives. The research questions consider how teachers organise physical and digital resources in their classrooms as well as variations in teachers' pedagogical communication. From a study of 23 one-to-one computing classrooms (using tablets), some ethnographic-inspired methods were applied based on classroom observation and recordings of teachers' teaching. The findings show two distinct forms of teachers' classroom organisation that indicate different didactical designs used by teachers to integrate one-to-one computing into the classroom. Variations in teaching resulted in a shift of symbolic power and control from teachers to students, which exploit the potential of using one-to-one computing in the classroom.

  • 29.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Rönnlund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Tieva, Åse
    Umeå University, Umeå University Library, Centre for teaching and learning (UPL).
    Making the shift from the traditional classroom to the active learning classroom: possibilities and challenge2019In: Fjärde nationella konferensen i pedagogiskt arbete i Umeå 19-20 augusti 2019: Abstractbok, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a case study of a school development project in a Swedish upper secondary school. The project initiators (three teachers), wanted to change their teaching towards student active learning, and as part of that change they designed and prepared a classroom inspired by the Active Learning Classroom model (Baepler et al. 2016). The aim was to increase the understanding of possibilities and challenges when changing the pedagogical practice. The research questions addressed: What characterise the pedagogical practices in the traditional vs newly designed classroom in terms of communication and interaction between teachers and students, and what characterises the pedagogical change? A participatory design-based research (DBR) methodology was applied in three phases: the exploration phase, the development phase and the evaluation phase. This paper focus on a selected sequence of three months of the development phase, exploring teaching in the shift from the traditional classroom to the ALC. The analysis draws on a) video and audio recorded observations of lessons (N=15) in the traditional classroom and in the newly designed classroom, b) teachers’ individual evaluations of lessons based on pre-formulated reflective questions, and c) focus group discussions (N=3) on the topic ‘teaching for students’ active learning’.  The data was analysed using Bernstein’s concepts of classification and framing (2000). Preliminary results indicate variations in outcome of pedagogical change depending on how the teachers worked in the traditional classroom. For example, when the students were unaware of working in groups and using digital facilities collectively, this led to challenges in the active learning classroom.

  • 30.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Wiklund-Engblom, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Variation of power and control in the one-to-one computing classroom: Finnish teachers’ enacted didactical designs in grade 1-62018In: ECER 2018: Inclusion and Exclusion, Resources for Educational Research?, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research question and theory

    This study is part of a larger Nordic research project, including a series of substudies with a common research objective of examining teachers’ didactical design in one-to-one computing classrooms in Denmark, Sweden and Finland (Jahnke et al., 2017). The findings presented in this paper is based on 16 classroom observations and 16 teacher interviews in grades 7-9 in Finland. One-to-one computing in K–12 education has grown rapidly worldwide through initiatives based on one laptop or tablet for each student (Islam & Grönlund, 2016). In the Nordic countries, studies on teachers’ working in one-to-one computing classrooms have been performed in Sweden (Fleischer, 2013; Håkansson Lindqvist, 2015; Tallvid, 2015, Bergström et al., 2017), in Norway (Blikstad-Balas, 2012), and in Denmark (Jahnke, Norqvist, & Olsson, 2014), while Finland still seems to be a blind spot on the map (Bocconi, Kampylis, & Punie, 2013). Important knowledge and understanding about Finnish teachers’ teaching in the one-to-one computing classroom is therefore missing. 

    This study focuses on 16 teachers in a Finnish municipality that was among the first to implement a large-scale one-to-one computing initiative in Finland. Finnish teachers are prized for their high academic standards (Sahlberg, 2011), but also criticised for maintaining power and control by organising students in straight lines lectured by one teacher (Carlgren et al., 2006, Simola, 2005). One-to-one computing, is considered to be an innovation in the strive for modernisation of teaching and learning through increased student emancipation (Bocconi et al., 2013). The analysis presented here considers how these teachers’ in a variety of lessons demonstrate similarities and variations regarding their organisation of the classroom space as well as decisions in practice about content, pacing, and assessment. This mix of teachers’ designs of the classroom space and their enacted decisions during teaching form their didactical designs (Bergström et al., 2017). Specifically, this article analysis how Finnish teachers use of power and control across different subjects. This study aims to describe and understand how variations within, as well as, between teachers’ didactical design challenge and reproduce established teacher-student relationships. The following research question were asked: How can variations within, as well as between, different clusters of didactical design be understood in terms of power and control?

    The concept of didactical design follows the European tradition of Didaktik (Klafki, 2000; Sensevy, 2012) where the teaching and learning process is problematized, for example, when considering imitative teaching in contrast to students’ active learning. Such dichotomies serve to illuminate how school environments, school subjects, teachers, students and ICTs are all relays of power and control, and how power and control is maintained, reproduced or challenged. For this study, Bernstein’s (2000, 1990) theory of material conditions of classrooms in relation to teachers’ communication in practice was found to be helpful for analysing teachers’ didactical design regarding the physical space and the enacted practice. In the material conditions of the classroom, Bernstein’s concept of classification was used to analyse power relations between objects for example, the arrangement of desks, ICTs, spaces and teacher-student relations. Depending on the degree of specialisation and insulation between objects, classification is either strong or weak. Strong classification indicates for example desks organised in lines, whereas with weak classification would desks be in groups.  Bernstein’s concept of framing highlight teachers’ communication and describes the locus of control about selection and sequence of content, pacing, evaluation and communication. If framing over selection of content is strong, it is the teacher who control such decisions, whereas if framing is weak the control is distributed to the students. Different power and control relationships give raise to different didactical designs with regard to possibilities and regulations in students learning.  

    Methods

    Four schools were visited twice during 2016. Classroom observations in 16 lessons (about 45minutes each) were conducted by two observers supported by one interpreter. The data comprise audio recordings of the teachers’ communication, field notes and photographs of the physical classroom space and situations. The subjects ranged from Native Language, Mathematics, Physics, English, Slojd, Geography and lessons based on thematic studies about students’ sport holiday and Scandinavia. The class size ranged from 8 to 22 students. The observations were followed up with post-lesson interviews. We asked questions that ranged from specific situations in the observed lesson, to the teachers’ experience to teach in the one-to-one computing classroom. Each interview lasted for about 60 minutes.

    The use of different methods made triangulations of the different data possible. Each lesson was analysed with support of a theory-oriented coding scheme. In the analysis of the didactical design of the classroom environment, power relations were interpreted from photos and field notes. The classification between categories were interpreted on a two-point scale as either strong (C+) or weak (C-). In total, we analysed seven categories of “relations between” objects: desks, the teacher’s space and the students’ space, physical learning resources and one-to-one computing resources, the selection of software applications (apps), teacher and student, student and student, and the classroom and other facilities. In the next step, focus was turned to the teachers’ communication in the audio recordings. The concepts of framing was operationalised into six categories for control: selection, sequence, pacing, evaluation, teacher-student relationship and student-student relationship. These categories were coded on a four-point scale from very strong to very weak framing (F++, F+, F- F--). The results from the classification and framing analysis made it possible to estimate and differentiate different didactical designs. The didactical design findings were then considered in relation to the post-lesson interviews. The interviews provide a richer picture of the observed practice and beyond.

    Expected outcomes 

    For presenting some preliminary results a typology was used to illustrate the interplay between teachers’ didactical design of the physical classroom space and teachers’ enacted practice. In order to illustrate different nuances, quantitative data illustrate the degree to which teachers organised both furniture and digital resources, while qualitative aspects are based on teachers’ communication. From the preliminary analysis we can perceive differences in the material where some lessons demonstrate power and control relationships with similarities to traditional desk teaching. One group of lessons, demonstrate a practice where some of the power and control was distributed to the students. A third group of teachers indicated didactical designs where power and control were distributed to the students to a great extent. These teachers organised the students in groups and ICT resources demonstrated the similar value as printed books. Here, the control was distributed to the students both regarding the content, but also in pacing.  

    This study is relevant since digital technologies in pedagogical practice is increasing world-wide and is assumed to change teaching and learning. However, previous studies have shown that Finnish teachers’ teaching has been reported to maintain previous traditions of teaching and learning through teachers’ power and control. Based on these clash of paradigms, this study has the potential to serve as a good what happens in Finnish classrooms when one-to-one computing is introduced.

  • 31.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Årebrand, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    The student-role in the one-to-one computing classroom: tensions between teacher-centred learning and student-centred learning2013In: Scaling up Learning for Sustained Impact: 8th European Conference, on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2013, Paphos, Cyprus, September 17-21, 2013. Proceedings / [ed] Davinia Hernández-Leo, Tobias Ley, Ralf Klamma, Andreas Harrer, Berlin: Springer-Verlag New York, 2013, no 8, p. 424-429Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One-to-one (1:1) computing has recently been scaled up andintegrated into learning strategies, but there have been rather few studiesabout it so far. This explorative observation and interview studyaims to gain increased understanding about the student role in the 1:1computing classroom in upper secondary school. The results demonstratea media-rich classroom based on four categories of affordances:students’ note-taking; searching the Internet; social media; and laptopsfor duplication. The four categories of affordances delineate how teachers’behaviour is influencing students and their use of laptops in thedesigned learning activities. The designs of the 1:1 classrooms are basedon technology-enhanced consumption of media as opposed to designs fortechnology-enhanced learning. It is concluded that the student role is diverseand stretched between principles of both teacher-centred learningand student-centred learning.

  • 32.
    Broman, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Application of Digital Tools in Chemistry Education: Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality and Gamification2019In: 2019 ESERA, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a politician-decided top-down implementation of digital tools into the school curricula, chemistry education researchers and teacher educators try to develop relevant and meaningful digital tools possible to use to increase students’ learning. To exemplify and explore the impact of digital tools on students’ learning processes, two chemistry education projects are discussed in this presentation. When are digital tools applicable to enhance learning and how should teachers embed and frame this application of the digital tools? The projects present how Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR) and gamification can be used to enhance students’ perceived interest and value.

  • 33.
    Broman, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Digital Tools in Chemistry Education - Virtual/Augmented Reality & Gamification2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Broman, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Johnels, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Virtual and augmented reality – a way to develop university students; spatial ability in organic chemistry2019In: European Variety In Chemistry Education 2019: Abstract Booklet, 2019, p. 24-24Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Broman, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Johnels, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, C. David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Chorell, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Westerlind, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Boström, Jonas
    Norrby, Magnus
    Spatial Ability in Organic Chemistry – Can Virtual and Augmented Reality be Valuable?2019In: 7:e Utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the roles of digital technologies as Virtual Reality (VR), and Augmented Reality (AR), are discussed to explore how biotechnology engineering students develop their spatial ability in organic chemistry. We have, through stereochemistry workshops, followed how students, in specific, visualise and rotate molecular representations and how the use of digital tools influences the students’ interest.

  • 36.
    Broman, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Lindfors, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Uvell, Hanna
    Vestling, Monika
    Gymnasiearbetet: en länk mellan skola och universitet2019In: Forum för forskningsbaserad NT-undervisning, Linköping, 17-18 oktober, 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Buchem, Ilona
    et al.
    Beuth University of Applied Science Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Jahnke, Isa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Pachler, Norbert
    Institute of Education, University of London, London, UK.
    Special Issue on Mobile Learning and Creativity: Current Concepts and Studies2013In: International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, ISSN 1941-8647, E-ISSN 1941-8655, Vol. 5, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationally, there is a growing body of research related to mobile learning dedicated to the design, implementation and evaluation of mobile learning tools and scenarios (Buchem et al., 2011). However, whilst some studies within the socio-cultural framework address important aspects such as user-generated contexts (Pachler et al., 2010), ownership and changed power relations (Traxler, 2011), the role of mobile learning for fostering creativity is still an under-explored and under-researched area. As such, the relationship between mobile learning and creativity is ambiguous and in need of attention. This Special Issue aims to contribute to this developing area of knowledge and practice while locating mobile learning with a socio-culturally orientated approach proposed by Pachler, Bachmair and Cook (2010). The papers in this volume contribute particularly to the role of mobile learning for fostering creativity. They explore the relationship between learning and creativity in different contexts (for instance, formal education, workplace learning, informal learning), and analyse ways in which mobile media and methods applied to in the design of mobile learning may – or may not – foster creative learning.

  • 38. Campbell, Lorna
    et al.
    Currier, Sarah
    Kraan, Wilbert
    Massart, David
    Paulsson, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Portelli, P
    Summary of expert contributions for the LIFE Learning Object Repository Interoperability workshop2005Report (Other academic)
  • 39. Collet, Mike
    et al.
    Paulsson, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    van Assche, Frans
    Øverby, Erlend
    Curriculum exchange format (CEF): Data model2009Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Dunkels, Elza
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Frånberg, Gun-MarieUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).Hällgren, CamillaUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Interactive media use and youth: Learning, knowledge exchange and behavior2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern advancements in technology have changed the way that young people use interactive media. Learning from such methods was not even considered until recently. It is now slowly defining the landscape of contemporary pedagogical practices.

    Interactive Media Use and Youth: Learning, Knowledge Exchange and Behavior provides a comprehensive collection of knowledge based on different perspectives on quantitative and descriptive studies, what goes on in the contemporary media landscape, and pedagogical research on formal and non-formal learning strategies. This book outlines interactive media as an emerging research area, growing around young people and contemporary digital arenas. The field is growing in size, shape and complexity and the need for study is urgent.

  • 41.
    Dunkels, Elza
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Frånberg, Gun-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Hällgren, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Young people and online risk2011In: Youth culture and net culture: online social practices / [ed] Elza Dunkels, Gun-Marie Frånberg and Camilla Hällgren, Hershey, Pennsylvania (USA): IGI Global , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors suspect that the young perspective has been left out when online risk and safety are discussedin contemporary research. The aim of this chapter is to give a critical approach to this matter and questionfear as a driving force for protecting young people online. Interviews with children about their views ofinternet use (Dunkels, 2007) and a study of safe use guides from European countries conducted in 2008(Lüders et al, 2009) form the empirical base. The discussion in the chapter is underpinned by ideas ofchildhood as a social construction, emerging ideas of power relations pertaining to age and theories oftechnology reception. The authors also introduce a metaphor, the layer cake, to better understand howthe same action can be viewed from different vantage points.

  • 42.
    Dunkels, Elza
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Frånberg, Gun-MarieUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).Hällgren, CamillaUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Youth culture and net culture: Online social practices2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The globalization of our society has changed the social culture of young people forever. In this day and age, this online social culture is growing in size, shape, and complexity and the need for further study is imperative.

    Youth Culture and Net Culture: Online Social Practices aims to engage the complex relationship between technology and youth culture, while outlining the details of various online social activities. This book focuses on generational aspects of online social practices, as well as other facets, such as gender and social class. Presenting the views of young people regarding social practices is paramount in a time when the educational system, policymakers and non-governmental organizations are calling for this knowledge.

  • 43.
    Dunkels, Elza
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Hällgren, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Frånberg, Gun-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    The invisible girl: Ceci n'est pas une fille2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation describes The Invisible Girl, a Swedish multi-disciplinary research project in which power relations, gender, online youth culture and learning are the primary objects of study.

    Many studies on young girls' and boys' internet use have been conducted during the last fifteen years of rapidly developing mass use of the internet. However, the vast bulk of this research has had a top-down, adult perspective, with very little or no intention at all to give voice to the young informants themselves. There have also been tendencies to over-emphasize the generation gap and exoticisize young people's actions. Taking a closer look at this body of research, we find the presence of discomforting gender blindness. This is evident in, for instance, the use of boys' knowledge as a norm in the sense that girls should develop the same interests and competences as boys (ITU, 2008). Furthermore, in the gender blind school, girls' digital competence has been invisible and girls' knowledge is often hidden by their own terminology (Enochsson, 2005). Simmons (2004) also claims that we do not have words to describe girls' aggressions and that the lack of words leads to difficulties in discussing the question.

    As researchers we are concerned about the unequal nature of this research field. When trying to find out what these inequalities consist of we have identified an important blind spot, both from a societal and a research point of view, which has led us to call our project The Invisible Girl. The name is inspired by Ralph Ellison's novel Invisible Man (1952). Just like Ellison portrays black Americans as being invisible, it is possible to view girls as invisible on the internet in the sense that their actions cannot be described with the existing male oriented terminology.

  • 44.
    Eriksson, Henning
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Digitizing curricula: an approach for digital usability2015In: eChallenges e-2015 Conference Proceedings / [ed] Paul Cunningham and Miriam Cunningham, Dublin: International Information Management Corporation Limited, 2015, p. 1-9Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Steering documents for school, i.e. curricula, syllabi, subject plans and the Education Act, are not generally available in a digitally usable format. That complicates, for example, the process of building advanced curriculum-based services for schools in which individual elements are traceable. To address this problem, Swedish subject syllabi incorporating knowledge requirements for compulsory school were analyzed in terms of their structure, content type and relationship to the subject, year, and grade level. Markup describing the documents was added using Semantic Web technologies such as RDF and Linked Data to make the documents digitally usable. This paper presents a method for analyzing and marking up national steering documents. Digitally usable steering documents open up for services in which digital learning resources are connected to specific parts of the steering documents or in which steering documents from various countries can be compared, for example concerning PISA results. 

  • 45.
    Frånberg, Gun-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Ambassadörer för kvinnors företagande: en teoribaserad utvärdering2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project Ambassadors for Women’s Entrepreneurship was implemented by the Swedish government as part of a larger programme that was started in order to encourage women’s entrepreneurship. The purpose of the project was to change the current view of women’s entrepreneurship by making women entrepreneurs, especially those managing innovative firms in service industries, more visible. The current study is a theory-based evaluation of the Ambassador project.

    Some 800 female entrepreneurs were recruited as ambassadors. Their mission was to present themselves and their companies to students in schools and universities and in other public forums. The ambassadors made some 11,000 public appearances and met around 170,000 people between 2008 and 2014. Most of the stated targets for media exposure for the ambassadors were met.

    Around 14 per cent of Swedish women over the age of 16 run a business, and the manage-ment of the firm is the primary source of income for around 7 per cent of Swedish women. Between 25% and 30% of Swedish entrepreneurs and firm-managers are women, a share that has been fairly constant for the past fifty years. Women’s entrepreneurship is concentrated in labour-intensive service industries, especially in care industries. The entrepreneur as a profession has strong male connotations in both policy and research. Female entrepreneurship is described as fundamentally different from male entrepreneurship and driven by different rationales. Companies managed by women tend to have fewer employees and lower profitability than companies run by men.

    The Ambassador project had the specific objective of making women entrepreneurs more visible, especially women who manage innovative businesses in service industries. The potential for successfully challenging the public image of female entrepreneurship is limited considering that these are industries where women traditionally are entrepreneurs and firm managers. Ambassadors were not remunerated for their participation in the project, which may reinforce the image of the subservient (servicing) woman who is not driven by the same economic incentives that men are. The establishment of a separate arena for women entrepreneurs reinforced the image of women as a fundamentally different kind of entrepreneur compared to the male norm.

  • 46.
    Frånberg, Gun-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Den krympande måttstocken: Om normer och barnsyn i 2000-talets förskola2015In: Efter barnets århundrade: Utmaningar för 2000-talets förskola / [ed] Frånberg, Gun-Marie, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 13-30Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Frånberg, Gun-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Efter barnets århundrade: utmaningar för 2000-talets förskola2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Frånberg, Gun-Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Dunkels, Elza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Hällgren, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Youth and contemporary learning2011In: Interactive media use and youth: Learning, knowledge exchange and behavior / [ed] Elza Dunkels, Gun-Marie Frånberg and Camilla Hällgren, Hershey, Pennsylvania (USA): IGI Global , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the chapter is to problematize the concept of learning and common views on transformed conditions for learning; have contemporary digital media reformed the processes of learning and if so, how can the educational system benefit from and exploit this?  The chapter highlights changes and reflects on contemporary and future aspects of learning. What is seen as meaningful learning? Is learning more demanding today or does the open and abundant access to information simplify it?

  • 49.
    Frånberg, Gun-Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Hällgren, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Dunkels, Elza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Introductory chapter2012In: Invisible Girl: "Ceci n'est pas une fille" / [ed] Gun-Marie Frånberg, Camilla Hällgren, Elza Dunkels, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2012, p. 9-15Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Frånberg, Gun-Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Hällgren, CamillaUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).Dunkels, ElzaUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Invisible Girl: "Ceci n'est pas une fille"2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
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