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  • 1.
    Ahlqvist, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Miljöarkeologi i Umeå stads hamn och slagfältsarkeologi på Krutbrånet: Två fallstudier inom historisk arkeologi i Umeås 1800-tal2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis deals with two case studies in environmental archaeology and battlefield archaeology focusing on two major events in the late history of the Swedish coastal town Umeå and its nearby village Sävar. Established in the early 1600's, Umeå was known for its export of timber and import of cereals. The town has suffered from numerous fires, the fire in 1888 being the most devastating. Few written records of the town remain from before the 1900's. The latest war in Sweden's history is documented in historical sources and took place at Krutbrånet, Sävar where the Swedish troops suffered defeat against the russian forces in 1809. The old port in Umeå has not been previously excavated archaeologically and only a small part of the battlefield area at Krutbrånet has been surveyed. Neither of the sites have yet been protected sites under Swedish heritage conservation act. The purpose of these two case studies is to present new research results from these two sites.In the first case study, archaeobotany and soil chemistry methods were used to analyse soil samples from undisturbed cultural layers in a construction trench at the old port of Umeå. A thick burnt layer consisted of charcoal, oats and weeds, suggesting storage and possibly intended as food for horses. Oat and pea were radiocarbon dated to most likely late 1800's which places the burned layer with oats to the big city fire in 1888. The area could have intact cultural layers that are important to investigate for understanding the  unknown history of Umeås old port.The basis for the second case study is the material evidence of lead musket bullets found during a small field survey at Krutbrånet, conducted in 2010. The bullets were studied using X-ray Fluorescence together with spatial analysis to determine if troop nationality could be possible to distinguish based on composition, characteristics and spatial positions. The results revealed bullets  in varied sizes and composed of lead but also alloys of copper, antimony and tin that appear in mixed quantities spread in all the studied areas of the battlefield. Field surveys of uninvestigated areas at Krutbrånet are needed to understand the context of the studied material and of troop formations. Further studies could also be isotope analyses to determine the origins of the oats and bullets. 

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  • 2.
    Ahlqvist, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Makrofossilanalys av 22 st prover från Kv. Vingpennan, Raä 256, Jönköping sn, Småland2017Report (Other academic)
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  • 3.
    Ahlqvist, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Östman, Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Engelmark, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Makrofossil- och markkemisk analys av prover från Tanum Raä 1885, Tanum sn, Bohuslän2016Report (Other academic)
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  • 4.
    Ahlqvist, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Wallin, Jan-Erik
    Östman, Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Miljöarkeologiska analyser av prover från Drognes 196/270 ID114281, Nes kommune, Akershus, Norge2018Report (Other academic)
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    2018-007
  • 5.
    Ahlqvist, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Östman, Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Miljöarkeologiska analyser av prover från huslämningar i Dobbeltspor Dilling, ID 216874, Rygge kommune, Østfold, Norge2018Report (Other academic)
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  • 6. Allen, Derek
    et al.
    Bateman, Mark
    Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Hartmann, Dan
    Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Coope, Russell
    Department of Geological Sciences, Birmingham University, Birmingham, UK.
    Stratigraphy, dates and insect faunas from the Lateglacial site at Barmston, East Yorkshire2023In: The Naturalist, ISSN 0028-0771, Vol. 148, p. 81-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Late Quaternary deposits on the Yorkshire coast southwards from Sewerby Cliff in Bridlington Bay to Dimlington north of Spurn Point (Figs. 1a-1c, p82) have been the subject of stratigraphic and palaeontological research for well over a century (Bateman et al., 2011; Catt, 2007 and references therein, Evans et al., 1995). The region contains the type-site for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in Britain at Dimlington (Rose, 1985) and extensive outcrops of at least three glacial diamicts, locally the Basement, Skipsea and Withernsea Tills, indicating the dynamic nature of the North Sea ice lobe during the final stages of the British and Irish Icesheet (BIIS). Work by Bateman et al. (2015) indicates that the Skipsea and Withernsea Tills represent icesheets that were present across Holderness for less than 6 ka between 20.9 and 15.1 ka BP before retreating north and east. However, the deglaciation remains insufficiently constrained, with a hiatus between the preserved glacial deposits and the earliest Lateglacial sequences at Gransmoor and Roos Bog (Walker et al., 1993; Beckett, 1981). Organic sediments directly overlying glacial till have been examined at Barmston which provide additional evidence of Lateglacial environments and climate in Holderness. This paper presents fossil insect and chronological evidence from coastal exposures from which climatic reconstructions can be made.

  • 7.
    Allios, Dominique
    et al.
    Rennes University, France.
    Guermeur, Nominoë
    Rennes University, France.
    Cocoual, Antoine
    Rennes University, France.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Sciuto, Claudia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Geladi, Paul
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Gobrecht, Alexia
    IRSTEA-Montpellier, France.
    Bendoula, Ryad
    IRSTEA-Montpellier, France.
    Moura, Daniel
    IRSTEA-Montpellier, France.
    Jay, Sylvain
    IRSTEA-Montpellier, France.
    Gardel, Marie-Elise
    Amicale laïque de Carcassonne-LA3M/UMR 7298, France.
    Near infrared spectra and hyperspectral imaging of medieval fortress walls in Carcassonne: a comprehensive interdisciplinary field study2016In: NIR news, ISSN 0960-3360, E-ISSN 1756-2708, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 16-20Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A comprehensive study has been launched in the medieval fortress of Carcassonne involving a cooperation between the universities of Umeå and Rennes, and the research institute of IRSTEA of Montpellier. This study aims to combine several spectroscopic techniques in order to resolve archaeological problems related to which raw materials were used during the city wall construction, and also to improve our understanding of the different phases of construction and use of the city walls. This study was also used for elucidating the different qualities and weak points of the applied field methods.

  • 8.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    KMV Forum AB, Nacka, Sweden; Department of Human Geography, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Environment, Swedish National Road & Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Road Salt Damage to Historical Milestones Indicates Adaptation of Winter Roads to Future Climate Change May Damage Arctic Cultural Heritage2021In: Climate, E-ISSN 2225-1154, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is no doubt that anthropogenic global warming is accelerating damage to cultural heritage. Adaptation measures are required to reduce the loss of sites, monuments and remains. However, little research has been directed towards understanding potential impacts of climate adaptation measures in other governmental sectors on cultural heritage. We provide a case study demonstrating that winter road salt, used to reduce ice related accidents, damages historical iron milestones. As the climate warms, road salt use will move north into areas where sites have been protected by contiguous winter snow cover. This will expose Artic/sub-Arctic cultural heritage, including Viking graves and Sami sites, to a new anthropogenic source of damage. Research and planning should therefore include the evaluation of secondary impacts when choosing climate adaptation strategies.

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  • 9.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    KMV Forum AB.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Nyqvist, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    A society ill-equipped to deal with the effects of climate change on cultural heritage and landscape: a qualitative assessment of planning practices in transport infrastructure2021In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 166, no 1, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides insights into the handling of climate change issues related to cultural heritage at different government decision levels dealing with physical planning, and in particular roads. Data are derived from a qualitative analysis of official reports and interviews with local and regional planners in three Swedish regions with contrasting climates. The theoretical lens of Institutional Interplay is applied to an analysis grouped into six themes: Climate threats to cultural heritage, Adaptation measures, Preparedness, Institutional preconditions, Institutional interplay, and Challenges. The results suggest that despite a strong environmental reputation internationally, Sweden is not particularly well prepared for dealing with future climate change impacts on cultural heritage and landscape. The lack of national standards and standardised methods risks regional and sectoral variation in the treatment of similar tasks, a problem which deficiencies in knowledge and continuing education are perpetuating. The degree to which discussions and cooperation occur between divisions within the same authority, between authorities, and in national networks varies considerably. Routines and criteria for prioritisation of cultural heritage mitigation, essential under conditions of limited resources, have yet to have been implemented. We conclude with five recommendations for improving the planning process with respect to climate change risks to cultural heritage.

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  • 10.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    KMV Forum AB.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Nyqvist, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Fröjmark Svanström, Karin
    KMV Forum AB.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Romlinsson, Simon
    Larsson, Andreas
    Eriksson, Camilla
    KMV Forum AB.
    Eriksson, Love
    Ekberg, Stina
    KMV Forum AB.
    Kulturhistoriska värden i ett förändrat klimat. Hot, risker och hanteringkopplat till vägar och banor2021Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change poses an assortment of risks for cultural environment andlandscapes, including cultural heritage close to or directly connected to roadsand railways. In this project, we looked at a number of these risks with an aimtowards helping the Swedish Transport Administration develop services forbetter predicting and managing them. The research was initiated through anoverview of existing government literature on climate change related threatsand risks and cultural heritage, followed by a survey of the level of understandingof these issues amongst a set of government employees involved in planning.Geographical Information Systems (GIS) were used to identify areas andheritage objects at risk for three regions, followed by field visits to assess thereliability of the GIS results. Evaluations indicated that simple GIS analysis canbe helpful in identifying sites at risk, but that fieldwork can help identify furtherrisks or issues of accuracy in the underlying data. The report provides providingbasic statistics on the degree to which different types of national monumentare threatened according to current climate change models. The project alsoran case studies, looking at 1) the risk posed by de-icing road salt to milestonesand other archaeological remains close to roads, and 2) the potential for usinghistorical maps in climate change risk prediction. Finally, the implications ofthese results for the prioritisation of climate adaptation activities are discussed,and suggestions presented for methods and models for identifying cultural heritagethreatened by climate change in the context of transport infrastructure.

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    Rapport
  • 11.
    Baker, Nathan Jay
    et al.
    Department of River Ecology and Conservation, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Gelnhausen, Germany.
    Pilotto, Francesca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Haubrock, Phillip Joschka
    Department of River Ecology and Conservation, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Gelnhausen, Germany; Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Vodňany, Czech Republic.
    Beudert, Burkhard
    Department of Conservation and Research, Bavarian Forest National Park, Grafenau, Germany.
    Haase, Peter
    Department of River Ecology and Conservation, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Gelnhausen, Germany; Faculty of Biology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.
    Multidecadal changes in functional diversity lag behind the recovery of taxonomic diversity2021In: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 11, no 23, p. 17471-17484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there has been increasing interest in how taxonomic diversity is changing over time, less is known about how long-term taxonomic changes may affect ecosystem functioning and resilience. Exploring long-term patterns of functional diversity can provide key insights into the capacity of a community to carry out ecological processes and the redundancy of species’ roles. We focus on a protected freshwater system located in a national park in southeast Germany. We use a high-resolution benthic macroinvertebrate dataset spanning 32 years (1983–2014) and test whether changes in functional diversity are reflected in taxonomic diversity using a multidimensional trait-based approach and regression analyses. Specifically, we asked: (i) How has functional diversity changed over time? (ii) How functionally distinct are the community's taxa? (iii) Are changes in functional diversity concurrent with taxonomic diversity? And (iv) what is the extent of community functional redundancy? Resultant from acidification mitigation, macroinvertebrate taxonomic diversity increased over the study period. Recovery of functional diversity was less pronounced, lagging behind responses of taxonomic diversity. Over multidecadal timescales, the macroinvertebrate community has become more homogenous with a high degree of functional redundancy, despite being isolated from direct anthropogenic activity. While taxonomic diversity increased over time, functional diversity has yet to catch up. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic pressures can remain a threat to biotic communities even in protected areas. The differences in taxonomic and functional recovery processes highlight the need to incorporate functional traits in assessments of biodiversity responses to global change.

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  • 12. Baker, Nathan Jay
    et al.
    Pilotto, Francesca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Jourdan, Jonas
    Beudert, Burkhard
    Haase, Peter
    Recovery from air pollution and subsequent acidification masks the effects of climate change on a freshwater macroinvertebrate community2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 758, article id 143685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater ecosystems are dynamic, complex systems with a multitude of physical and ecological processes and stressors which drive fluctuations on the community-level. Disentangling the effects of different processes and stressors is challenging due to their interconnected nature. However, as protected areas (i.e. national parks) are less anthropogenically impacted, they are ideal for investigating single stressors. We focus on the Bavarian Forest National Park, a Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site in Germany, where the major stressors are climate warming, air pollution (i.e. acidification) and bark beetle infestations. We investigated the effects of these stressors on freshwater macroinvertebrates using comprehensive long-term (1983–2014) datasets comprising high-resolution macroinvertebrate and physico-chemical data from a near-natural stream. Macroinvertebrate communities have undergone substantial changes over the past 32 years, highlighted by increases in overall community abundance (+173%) and richness (+51.6%) as well as taxonomic restructuring driven by a disproportional increase of dipterans. Prior to the year 2000, regression analyses revealed a decline in sulphate deposition and subsequent recovery from historical acidification as potential drivers of the increases in abundance and richness rather than to increases in water temperature (1.5 °C overall increase). Post 2000, however, alterations to nutrient cycling caused by bark beetle infestations coupled with warming temperatures were correlated to taxonomic restructuring and disproportional increases of dipterans at the expense of sensitive taxa such as plecopterans and trichopterans. Our results highlight the challenges when investigating the effects of climate change within a multi-stressor context. Even in conservation areas, recovery from previous disturbance might mask the effects of ongoing disturbances like climate change. Overall, we observed strong community restructuring, demonstrating that stenothermal headwater communities face additional stress due to emerging competition with tolerant taxa. Conservation efforts should consider the temporal variability of communities and their recovery from disturbances to adequately identify species vulnerable to local or widespread extinction.

  • 13. Baranov, Viktor
    et al.
    Jourdan, Jonas
    Pilotto, Francesca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab. Department of River Ecology and Conservation, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Germany.
    Wagner, Rüdiger
    Haase, Peter
    Complex and nonlinear climate-driven changes in freshwater insect communities over 42 years2020In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 1241-1251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing biodiversity crisis becomes evident in the widely observed decline in abundance and diversity of species, profound changes in community structure, and shifts in species' phenology. Insects are among the most affected groups, with documented decreases in abundance up to 76% in the last 25–30 years in some terrestrial ecosystems. Identifying the underlying drivers is a major obstacle as most ecosystems are affected by multiple stressors simultaneously and in situ measurements of environmental variables are often missing. In our study, we investigated a headwater stream belonging to the most common stream type in Germany located in a nature reserve with no major anthropogenic impacts except climate change. We used the most comprehensive quantitative long‐term data set on aquatic insects available, which includes weekly measurements of species‐level insect abundance, daily water temperature and stream discharge as well as measurements of additional physicochemical variables for a 42‐year period (1969–2010). Overall, water temperature increased by 1.88°C and discharge patterns changed significantly. These changes were accompanied by an 81.6% decline in insect abundance, but an increase in richness (+8.5%), Shannon diversity (+22.7%), evenness (+22.4%), and interannual turnover (+34%). Moreover, the community's trophic structure and phenology changed: the duration of emergence increased by 15.2 days, whereas the peak of emergence moved 13.4 days earlier. Additionally, we observed short‐term fluctuations (<5 years) in almost all metrics as well as complex and nonlinear responses of the community toward climate change that would have been missed by simply using snapshot data or shorter time series. Our results indicate that climate change has already altered biotic communities severely even in protected areas, where no other interacting stressors (pollution, habitat fragmentation, etc.) are present. This is a striking example of the scientific value of comprehensive long‐term data in capturing the complex responses of communities toward climate change.

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  • 14.
    Breitling, Rainer
    et al.
    Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, UK.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Epigean spiders at Abisko Scientific Research Station in Swedish Lapland (Arachnida:Araneae)2015In: Arachnology, ISSN 2050-9928, E-ISSN 2050-9936, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 287-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Torneträsk area, including the Abisko National Park, Sweden, is arachnologically one of the best explored sites of Fennoscandia. Here we report the results of pitfall trapping at Abisko Scientific Research Station during the summers of 2004 and 2005, recording 791 individuals of 62 species of spiders. As expected, at the species level, samples were dominated by members of the Linyphiidae, while at the level of individuals Pardosa hyperborea and other lycosids were dominant. Two subsites, on heath and bog, differed substantially in their species profile: 7 species were statistically overrepresented on the drier heath site, while 2 species showed a strong preference for the wetter bog site. The samples also contained the first reported lateral gynadromorph of Archaeodictyna consecuta (Dictynidae). This study, from 195 km north of the Arctic Circle, provides important reference data for continued studies on the long-term effects of climate change on arctic ecosystems.

  • 15. Buckland, Paul
    et al.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Prosser, Tim
    Edlington Wood: using Lidar to put ancient fields and old excavations into their contemporary landscape2020In: Transactions of the Hunter Archaeological Society, ISSN 0966-2251, Vol. 29, p. 84-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Roman sites in Edlington Wood, three miles west-south-west of Doncaster, South Yorkshire, first came to wider notice as a result of finds by the woodman in the 1930s and the material was of sufficient interest for Philip Corder to use it as the basis for a paper in a festschrift to O. G. S. Crawford. Most of these finds and later material were deposited in Doncaster Museum, although others went to the owners and local metal detectorists. In 1970 a threat of quarrying led to a detailed survey of the site by the Royal Commission on Historical Monuments and limited excavation on one site. Two large areas within the Wood were cleared but remain as improved grassland. The recent availability of Lidar imagery allows the occupation sites and fragments of field system located by ground survey to be placed in a broader context of small rectangular fields and some attempt at a landscape chronology to be made. The cultivation of the fields in a system of cord rig is discussed.

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  • 16. Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    The Alder Leaf Beetle Agelastica alni (L.) (Col.: Chrysomelidae) in the Dearne Valley. Climate change or poor quarantine.2014In: Sorby Record, ISSN 0260-2245, no 50, p. 2-6Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17. Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    G. Russell, Coope
    Sadler, Jon P.
    School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham.
    A bibliography of quaternary entomology: (qbib)2019Data set
    Abstract [en]

    Originally published in 1991 (Buckland & Coope, 1991), this is the most comprehensive bibliography of articles and books on Quaternary fossil insects and their use in palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology and environmental archaeology available on the planet. Updates are periodically posted here, at www.bugscep.com, and on other open resources.

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    QBIB
  • 18. Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    Department of Geography, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh.
    Caught in a trap: landscape and climate implications of the insect fauna from a Roman well in Sherwood Forest2018In: Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, ISSN 1866-9557, E-ISSN 1866-9565, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 125-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sherwood Forest in Nottinghamshire is often considered a well preserved ancient landscape, subsequently having survived by way of centuries of management as a hunting preserve. Archaeological evidence suggests otherwise, with an enclosed landscape beginning in the pre-Roman Iron Age and continuing through the Romanperiod. Due to the nature of the region's soils, however, there is little empirical, palaeoecological evidence on its environmental history prior to the medieval period. This paper presents an insect fauna from a Roman well in a small enclosure in north Nottinghamshire, on the edge of Sherwood Forest, and its interpretation in terms of contemporary land use. Wells and small pools act as large pitfall traps and mayeffectively sample aspects of the local and regional insect fauna. The Wild Goose Cottage fauna and its environmental implications are also compared with a number of archaeologically and geographically similar contexts.

  • 19. Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    Magilton, John R.
    Dolby, Malcolm J.
    Wild, John Peter (Contributor)
    Buckland, Philip I. (Contributor)
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Excavations on Roman pottery kiln sites in Cantley Parish, South Yorkshire, 1956–19752022In: Journal of Roman Pottery Studies Volume 19 / [ed] Steven Willis, Oxbow Books, 2022, Vol. 19, p. 44-146Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The South Yorkshire Roman pottery industry is concentrated largely in the parish of Cantley, immediately south-east ofDoncaster, the site of the fort and associated settlement of Danvm. Over seventy kilns, lying either side of the Lincolnto York via Castleford road, have been located, of which 55 have been excavated. This report deals with the remainingunpublished material, that from Cantley Kilns 30–32, 35–36 and 40–44. The earliest excavated kilns belong to themid-second century and production continued at least until the mid-fourth century. Material from Doncaster and othersites, however, suggests that earlier local late first and early second century production centres remain to be identified.Kiln types range from surface-built with removable furniture, to more substantial deeply excavated types with survivinginternal structures, including radial firebars over single and double pedestals, to more massive permanent floors overup to four pedestals. The products include mortaria, beakers, cooking pots/jars and bowls. White slip is employed onmortaria and red and white paint occurs on a few other vessels. Most of the material is in a hard gritty fabric producedin both light grey and red oxidised forms with varying degrees of burnishing. The mortaria have Mancetter/Hartshillaffinities which appear evident even after the demise of stamping by SARRIVS and others, and the cooking pots andbowls, reflect the general trend of Black-burnished ware production, although the latest forms do not occur. Threetypes, lid-seated jars, wide-mouthed/shouldered bowls and large bowls/pancheons of truncated conical form, belongto different, perhaps Continental traditions. Whilst most of the material appears to have been marketed locally, a fewvessels travelled further, particularly in the mid-second century, when Rossington Bridge, on the southern edge of theindustry, was involved in supply to the Antonine Wall.

  • 20. Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Fossil insects and the Neolithic: methods and potencial2004In: ANTAEUS 27: Annals of the Archaeological Instititute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2004, p. 235-252Conference paper (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT02
  • 21.
    Buckland, Philip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Lessons from extinctions2017In: Wood Wise, p. 22-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Many beetles are very good at colonising new areas when changes in the landscape open up new possibilities. Equally, they are highly susceptible to local extinction in the face of landscape scale changes in their environment.

  • 22.
    Buckland, Philip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    The development and implementation of software for palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatological research: the Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package (BugsCEP)2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis documents the development and application of a unique database orientated software package, BugsCEP, for environmental and climatic reconstruction from fossil beetle (Coleoptera) assemblages. The software tools are described, and the incorporated statistical methods discussed and evaluated with respect to both published modern and fossil data, as well as the author’s own investigations.

    BugsCEP consists of a reference database of ecology and distribution data for over 5 800 taxa, and includes temperature tolerance data for 436 species. It also contains abundance and summary data for almost 700 sites - the majority of the known Quaternary fossil coleopteran record of Europe. Sample based dating evidence is stored for a large number of these sites, and the data are supported by a bibliography of over 3 300 sources. Through the use of built in statistical methods, employing a specially developed habitat classification system (Bugs EcoCodes), semi-quantitative environmental reconstructions can be undertaken, and output graphically, to aid in the interpretation of sites. A number of built in searching and reporting functions also increase the efficiency with which analyses can be undertaken, including the facility to list the fossil record of species found by searching the ecology and distribution data. The existing Mutual Climatic Range (MCR) climate reconstruction method is implemented and improved upon in BugsCEP, as BugsMCR, which includes predictive modelling and the output of graphs and climate space maps.

    The evaluation of the software demonstrates good performance when compared to existing interpretations. The standardization method employed in habitat reconstructions, designed to enable the inter-comparison of samples and sites without the interference of differing numbers of species and individuals, also appears to be robust and effective. Quantitative climate reconstructions can be easily undertaken from within the software, as well as an amount of predictive modelling. The use of jackknifing variants as an aid to the interpretation of climate reconstructions is discussed, and suggested as a potential indicator of reliability. The combination of the BugStats statistical system with an enhanced MCR facility could be extremely useful in increasing our understanding of not only past environmental and climate change, but also the biogeography and ecology of insect populations in general.

    BugsCEP is the only available software package integrating modern and fossil coleopteran data, and the included reconstruction and analysis tools provide a powerful resource for research and teaching in palaeo-environmental science. The use of modern reference data also makes the package potentially useful in the study of present day insect faunas, and the effects of climate and environmental change on their distributions. The reconstruction methods could thus be inverted, and used as predictive tools in the study of biodiversity and the implications of sustainable development policies on present day habitats.

    BugsCEP can be downloaded from http://www.bugscep.com

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 23.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Environmental archaeology, climate change and e-science2010In: Thule: Kungliga Skytteanska Samfundets årsbok. 2010 / [ed] Roger Jacobsson, Umeå: Kungliga Skytteanska Samfundet , 2010, p. 55-69Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Freeing information to the people: Using the past to aid the future2011In: International Innovation - Disseminating Science Research and Technology, ISSN 2041-4552, no 4, p. 51-53Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Dr Philip Buckland discusses his recent project SEAD: the web-accessible scientific database that crosses archaeological and environmental disciplines. 

    Disciplines as diverse as anthropology and palaeoecology take an interest in our environment and how we have treated it. The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database aims to create a multi-proxy, GIS-ready database for environmental and archaeological data to aid multidisciplinary research

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    fulltext
  • 25.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Redaktion: Stenålderns landskap väntar i havet2017In: Populär Arkeologi, ISSN 0281-014X, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    SEAD - The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database Inter-linking Multiproxy Environmental Data with Archaeological Investigations and Ecology2013In: Archaeology in the Digital Era: Papers from the 40th Annual Conference of Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA), Southampton, 26-29 March 2012 / [ed] Graeme Earl, Tim Sly, Angeliki Chrysanthi, Patricia Murrieta-Flores, Constantinos Papadopoulos, Iza Romanowska & David Wheatley, Amsterdam University Press, 2013, Vol. 1, p. 320-331Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The volume of data on past environmental and climate changes, as well as human interactions with these, has long since passed the level where it is manageable outside of large scale database systems. The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database project aims to not only store and disseminate such data, but also provide tools for querying and analysing them, whilst maintaining a close connection with the archaeological and ecological data that are essential for their comprehensive interpretation. Large scale, geographically and chronologically unrestricted databases provide us with essentially unlimited scope for putting individual sites into a broader context and applying locally collated data to the investigation of earth system level changes. By providing integrated access to data from a variety of proxies, including plant macrofossils, pollen, insects and geochemistry, along with dating evidence, more complex questions can be answered where any single proxy would not be able to provide comprehensive answers.

  • 27.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Subfossil species2008In: Checklist of Beetles of the British Isles: 2008 edition / [ed] A.G. Duff, A.G. Duff, Wells , 2008, p. 125-127Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since publication of the Coleoptera volume of the second edition of Kloet & Hincks' checklist of British insects (Pope, 1977), a large number of additions and deletions to the list have been published, as well as numerous nomenclatural changes. In addition, recent advances in our understanding of the phylogeny of Coleoptera have led to major modifications of higher classification in checklists and catalogues that have been published more recently in Europe and North America. In the absence of any widely accepted, modern checklist of the British fauna, British workers have been using binomial names taken from a variety of often conflicting sources.

    It is intended that this checklist should have a wider currency and be suitable for use in future conservation reviews, survey reports and taxonomic dictionaries for biological recording. It is, therefore, vital that the nomenclature used should be widely accepted by coleopterists working on the British fauna. It is also important that the checklist should be as useful as possible to those working at larger scales ranging from European through Palaearctic to the world fauna. It is envisaged that the checklist will be updated annually to keep abreast of published changes and suggested amendments from correspondents. To this end, comments on the checklist are welcome and should be addressed to the Editor by e-mail to andrew.duff@virgin.net.

  • 28.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    The Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package (BugsCEP): the development and implementation of software for palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatological research2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book describes the development and practical application of a unique database orientated software package, BugsCEP, for environmental, climatic and biodiversity reconstruction from beetle assemblages. BugsCEP consists of a database of ecology and distribution data for over 9400 insect taxa, and includes temperature tolerance data for 436 species. It contains abundance and summary data for over 770 sites, most of the known European Quaternary fossil coleopteran record, supported by a bibliography of over 3700 sources. Built in statistics, including a specially developed habitat classification system, provide semi-quantitative environmental reconstructions to aid in the interpretation of sites. BugsCEP's querying and reporting functions also increase the efficiency with which analyses can be undertaken, including the facility to explore the fossil record of species by searching ecology and distribution data. The Mutual Climatic Range (MCR) reconstruction method is implemented and improved upon, including predictive modelling and the graphical output of reconstructions and climate space maps. BugsCEP is available from www.bugscep.com.

  • 29.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    The Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package (BugsCEP) database: 1000 sites and half a million fossils later2014In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 341, p. 272-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bugs database project started in the late 1980s as what would now be considered a relatively simple system, albeit advanced for its time, linking fossil beetle species lists to modern habitat and distribution information. Since then, Bugs has grown into a complex database of fossils records, habitat and distribution data, dating and climate reference data wrapped into an advanced software analysis package. At the time of writing, the database contains raw data and metadata for 1124 sites, and Russell Coope directly contributed to the analysis of over 154 (14%) of them, some 98790 identifications published in 231 publications. Such quantifications are infeasible without databases, and the analytical power of combining a database of modern and fossil insects with analysis tools is potentially immense for numerous areas of science ranging from conservation to Quaternary geology.

    BugsCEP, The Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package, is the latest incarnation of the Bugs database project. Released in 2007, the database is continually added too and is available for free download from http://www.bugscep.com. The software tools include quantitative habitat reconstruction and visualisation, correlation matrices, MCR climate reconstruction, searching by habitat and retrieving, among other things, a list of taxa known from the selected habitat types. It also provides a system for entering, storing and managing palaeoentomological data as well as a number of expert system like reporting facilities.

    Work is underway to create an online version of BugsCEP, implemented through the Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD) project (http://www.sead.se). The aim is to provide more direct access to the latest data, a community orientated updating system, and integration with other proxy data. Eventually, the tools available in the offline BugsCEP will be duplicated and Bugs will be entirely in the web.

    This paper summarises aspects of the current scope, capabilities and applications of the BugsCEP database and software, with special reference to and quantifications of the contributions of Russell Coope to the field of palaeoentomology as represented in the database. The paper also serves to illustrate the potential for the use of BugsCEP in biographical studies, and discusses some of the issues relating to the use of large scale sources of quantitative data.

    All datasets used in this article are available through the current version of BugsCEP available at http://www.bugscep.com.

  • 30.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD): An International Research Cyber-Infrastructure for Studying Past Changes in Climate, Environment and Human Activities2010In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, no 1, p. 120-126Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 31.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Bateman, Mark D.
    Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK.
    Bennike, Ole
    GEUS Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, ØsterVoldgade 10, Copenhagen 1350, Denmark.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Chase, Brian M.
    Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution-Montpellier (ISEM), Universite´ de Montpellier, CNRS, EPHE, IRD, Bat 22, CC061, Place Euge`ne Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5, France.
    Frederick, Charles
    6Department of Geography and the Environment, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.
    Greenwood, Malcolm
    Department of Geography, Loughborough University, Leics LE11 3TU, UK.
    Murton, Julian
    Department of Geography, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9RH, UK.
    Murton, Della
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK.
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    Institute of Geography, University of Edinburgh, Drummond Street, Edinburgh EH8 9XP, UK.
    Mid-Devensian climate and landscape in England: new data from Finningley, South Yorkshire2019In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 6, no 7, article id 190577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is extensive evidence for the Late Devensian, less is known about Early and Middle Devensian (approx. 110-30 ka) climates and environments in the UK. The Greenland ice-core record suggests the UK should have endured multiple changes, but the terrestrial palaeo-record lacks sufficient detail for confirmation from sites in the British Isles. Data from deposits at Finningley, South Yorkshire, can help redress this. A channel with organic silts, dated 40 314-39 552 cal a BP, contained plant macrofossil and insect remains showing tundra with dwarf-shrub heath and bare ground. Soil moisture conditions varied from free draining to riparian, with ponds and wetter vegetated areas. The climate was probably low arctic with snow cover during the winter. Mutual climatic range (MCR), based on Coleoptera, shows the mean monthly winter temperatures of -22 to -2 degrees C and summer ones of 8-14 degrees C. Periglacial structures within the basal gravel deposits and beyond the glacial limits indicate cold-climate conditions, including permafrost. A compilation of MCR reconstructions for other Middle Devensian English sites shows that marine isotope stage 3-between 59 and 28 ka-experienced substantial variation in climate consistent with the Greenland ice-core record. The exact correlation is hampered by temporal resolution, but the Finningley site stadial at approximately 40 ka may correlate with the one of the Greenland stadials 7-11.

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  • 32.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    BugsCEP, an entomological database twenty-five years on2014In: Antenna (Journal of the Royal Entomological Society), ISSN 0140-1890, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 21-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Den Bank Close, Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Pitfall trapping at Gården Under Sandet (GUS) 1995, Western Greenland2023In: Norwegian Journal of Entomology, ISSN 1501-8415, E-ISSN 1894-0692, Vol. 70, no 2, p. 158-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During archaeological excavations on the site of the Norse farm at Gården under Sandet (GUS), in Ameralik Fjord, south-west Greenland, the opportunity was taken to sample the modern ground-living insect fauna by pitfall trapping from a range of natural habitats for comparison with fossil assemblages from the medieval farm and its midden. Two species, the predatory bug Nabis flavomarginatus Scholtz, 1847 and small ladybird Nephus redtenbacheri Mulsant, 1846 are recorded for the first time in this part of Greenland, although there are earlier records from the sediments associated with medieval farms in the region and both have been regarded as Norse introductions. The minute staphylinid Mycetoporus nigrans Mäklin, 1853, added to the Greenland list from this material by Peter Hammond (in Buckland et al. 1998), was found to be common in most natural habitats around GUS. Grids of eight traps, four at ground level and four on posts, were set out in six localities defined by their vegetational characteristics and emptied three times over the month-long sampling period. The cicadellid Psammotettix lividellus (Zetterstedt, 1840) appeared in all ground traps being particularly abundant on the dwarf birch and sedge dominated floodplain, to which the polyphagous mirid bug Chlamydatus pullus (Reuter, 1870) appears confined.

  • 34.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Species found as fossils in Quaternary sediments2012In: Checklist of Beetles of the British Isles / [ed] A.G. Duff, United Kingdom: Pemberley Books , 2012, 2nd, p. 127-130Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This new checklist is the most up-to-date and comprehensive checklist of the beetle fauna of the British Isles, representing many man-years of effort by leading British coleopterists. The main checklist is fully annotated with detailed endnotes.

  • 35.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Species found as fossils in Quaternary sediments2018In: Checklist of beetles of the British Isles: with a chapter on fossil beetles / [ed] Andrew G. Duff, Iver: Pemberley Books , 2018, 3, p. 171-174Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    When a Waterhole is Full of Dung: An Illustration of the Importance of Environmental Evidence for Refining Archaeological Interpretation of Excavated Features2019In: Archaeometry, ISSN 0003-813X, E-ISSN 1475-4754, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 977-990Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prehistoric field systems sometimes encompass excavated, pit-like features which are difficult to classify due to the complex stratigraphies resulting from reuse, infilling and collapse. They are frequently classified as wells and watering holes, but other potential uses for excavated depressions are rarely cited. We argue the need for environmental archaeology in the interpretation of features of this nature, and present a case study from a Bronze Age site at Pode Hole, near Peterborough (UK), where fossil insect material clearly contradicts the archaeological interpretation. We present empirical evidence for a sealed context filled with dung which cannot be interpreted as a water source. This evidence strongly contrasts with other superficially similar features at the site.

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  • 37.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Paleoentomology: Insects and other Arthropods in Environmental Archaeology2014In: The Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology / [ed] Claire Smith, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2014, p. 5740-5755Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insects are the most diverse group of animals on the planet, and as suchare present in a wider variety of habitats than most other organism groups.This diversity, in addition to a long evolutionary history (Grimaldi &Engel 2005), and together with a propensity to be preserved in both desiccatingand anaerobic environments, has provided an excellent tool for thereconstruction of both Quaternary and more immediate archaeologicalenvironments. Insect remains often provide proxy environmental information onthe immediate context from which the fossils are derived, and as such may beeither complementary to the more regional picture provided by palynology orindicate site conditions, such as levels of hygiene and evidence of tradingconnections, which are rarely available from any other palaeoecological source.They therefore provide information on a broad range of habitats and conditions,on- and off-site, and in addition, in appropriate contexts, also climate.Processing of samples is essentially simple, requiring readily availablematerials, yet is time consuming, and identification of the usuallydisarticulated fragments (sclerites) requires diligence and patience and accessto well curated reference collections. Fortunately, abundant literature,computer software and database tools now exist to aid in their interpretation.

  • 38.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Paleoentomology: insects and other arthropods in environmental archaeology2018In: Encyclopedia of global archaeology / [ed] Claire Smith, Cham: Springer, 2018, 2Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insects are the most diverse group of animals on the planet and as such are present in a wider variety of habitats than most other complex organisms. This diversity, in addition to a long evolutionary history (Grimaldi and Engel 2005), and together with a propensity to be preserved in both desiccating and anaerobic environments, has provided an excellent tool for the reconstruction of both Quaternary and more immediate archaeological environments. Insect remains often provide proxy environmental information on the immediate context from which the fossils are derived, and as such may be either complementary to the more regional picture provided by palynology or indicate site conditions, such as levels of hygiene and evidence of trading connections, which are rarely available from any other palaeoecological source. They therefore provide information on a broad range of habitats and conditions, on- and off-site, and in addition, in appropriate contexts, also climate. Processing of samples is essentially simple, requiring readily available materials, yet is time consuming, and identification of the usually disarticulated fragments (sclerites) requires diligence and patience and access to well-curated reference collections. Fortunately, abundant literature, computer software, and database tools now exist to aid in their interpretation.

  • 39.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Eriksson, Erik J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD)2014In: The Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology / [ed] Claire Smith, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2014, p. 7076-7085Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental archaeology encompasses a wide range of scientific methods for analyzing the results of past human activities, environments, climates and perhaps most importantly, the relationships between these. Many of these methods are referred to as proxy analyses, denoting the illumination of the past as interpreted through the evidence of fossil organisms or properties. These lines of evidence, or proxy data sources, are assumed to reflect past conditions by way of their dependence on them. For example, crops will only grow within a specific climate range; organic waste will lead to increased soil phosphate levels and burning increases magnetic susceptibility. Whilst it is easier to store, manage and analyze the data produced by these methods individually, there is much to be gained from multi-proxy integration at the raw data level. Despite this methodological diversity, the common factors of space, time and context allow us to compare and integrate the results of analyses. This is, however, easier said than done, and without efficient data handling systems the data rapidly become unmanageable. SEAD represents one solution to this problem, and forms a node in an international web of open access paleoenvironmental and archaeological databases which are driving archaeological science into new realms of more complex, multi-site, multi-proxy analyses and meta-analyses. This article sets out to describe the system, the scientific implications of which are covered in Buckland et al. 2010.

  • 40.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Erik J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    SEAD - The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database: Progress Report Spring 20142014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides an overview of the progress and results of the VR:KFI infrastructure projects 2007-7494 and (825-)2010-5976. It should be considered as a status report in an on-going long-term research infrastructure development project.

    Download full text (pdf)
    SEAD - Progress Report Spring 2014
  • 41.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Viklund, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Engelmark, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Svensson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Buckland, Paul
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    Institute of Geography, School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Uppsala Municipal Council, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Integrating human dimensions of Arctic palaeoenvironmental science: SEAD – the strategic environmental archaeology database2011In: Journal of Archaeological Science, ISSN 0305-4403, E-ISSN 1095-9238, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 345-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental change has a human dimension, and has had so for at least the last 10 000 years. The prehistoric impact of people on the Arctic landscape has occasionally left visible traces, such as house and field structures. More often than not, however, the only evidence available is at the microscopic or geochemical level, such as fossil insect and seed assemblages or changes in the physical and chemical properties of soils and sediments. These records are the subject of SEAD, a multidisciplinary database and software project currently underway at Umeå University, Sweden, which aims to create an online database and set of tools for investigating these traces, as part of an international research infrastructure for palaeoecology and environmental archaeology.

  • 42.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Hammarlund, Dan
    Lund University.
    Hjärthner-Holdar, Eva
    Swedish National Historical Museums.
    Lidén, Kerstin
    Stockholm University.
    Lindahl, Anders
    Lund University.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University.
    The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database: a resource for international, multiproxy and transdisciplinary studies of environmental and climatic change2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate and environmental change are global challenges which require global data and infrastructure to investigate. These challenges also require a multi-proxy approach, integrating evidence from Quaternary science and archaeology with information from studies on modern ecology and physical processes among other disciplines. The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD http://www.sead.se) is a Swedish based international research e-infrastructure for storing, managing, analysing and disseminating palaeoenvironmental data from an almost unlimited number of analysis methods. The system currently makes available raw data from over 1500 sites (>5300 datasets) and the analysis of Quaternary fossil insects, plant macrofossils, pollen, geochemistry and sediment physical properties, dendrochronology and wood anatomy, ceramic geochemistry and bones, along with numerous dating methods. This capacity will be expanded in the near future to include isotopes, multi-spectral and archaeo-metalurgical data. SEAD also includes expandable climate and environment calibration datasets, a complete bibliography and extensive metadata and services for linking these data to other resources. All data is available as Open Access through http://qsead.sead.se and downloadable software.

     

    SEAD is maintained and managed at the Environmental Archaeology Lab and HUMlab at Umea University, Sweden. Development and data ingestion is progressing in cooperation with The Laboratory for Ceramic Research and the National Laboratory for Wood Anatomy and Dendrochronology at Lund University, Sweden, the Archaeological Research Laboratory, Stockholm University, the Geoarchaeological Laboratory, Swedish National Historical Museums Agency and several international partners and research projects. Current plans include expanding its capacity to serve as a data source for any system and integration with the Swedish National Heritage Board's information systems.

     

    SEAD is partnered with the Neotoma palaeoecology database (http://www.neotomadb.org) and a new initiative for building cyberinfrastructure for transdisciplinary research and visualization of the long-term human ecodynamics of the North Atlantic funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

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    Poster
  • 43.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Explaining Late Quaternary beetle extinctions in the UK using palaeoenvironmental databases for quantitative environmental reconstruction2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The comparison of palaeoenvironmental and archaeological records of fossil insects with modern red data books can provide a picture of local extinctions. Buckland & Buckland (2012) performed such a study on the Coleoptera of the British Isles, using the BugsCEP database for the fossil data, and looking at broad chronological divisions. The ecology of these regionally extinct beetles, all of which are extant in other parts of the World, may be used to investigate the environmental and climatic changes which may have lead to their extirpation. This process can be semi-automated and habitats quantified through the use of ecological classification and a database infrastructure which links fossil and modern ecological and climate data (Buckland & Buckland 2006; http://www.bugscep.com). Preliminary results indicate that the majority of extirpated species with mid-Holocene records were dependent on woodland environments (Buckland 2014). These investigations can be refined by using narrower time-slices, interpolating dating evidence and including more comprehensive archaeological dating evidence. The expansion of the analysis to include the full assemblages found in the samples containing the extirpated species also allows for a more comprehensive picture of the long-term relationships between biodiversity, environmental and climatic change and human activity.

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    Presentation
  • 44.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Östman, Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Samuel, Ericson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Wallin, Jan-Erik
    Pollenlaboratoriet i Umeå AB.
    Engelmark, Roger
    Environmental archaeological analysis from the archaeological excavations at Ørland kampflybase, Vik 70/1, Ørland, Sør-Trøndelag, Norway. 2015-20162017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 322 bulk samples, 267 bulk subsamples and 1632 survey samples from the excavation of Iron Age settlements at Ørland, Vik, Sør-Trondelag, were analysed at the Environmental Archaeology Laboratory (MAL) at Umeå University. The overall aim of these analyses was to look for evidence which could help identify possible prehistoric activity areas, understand building functions and divisions, and shed light on land management around the farmsteads.

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  • 45.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Nyqvist, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Alexander, Benedict
    WSP, Sweden.
    Palsson, Gisli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    The Swedish Transport Administration’s Toolbox and its Potential in Archaeological and Cultural Heritage Survey: Including a brief review of remote sensing, prospection and geodata analysis methods for archaeology and cultural heritage2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides an overview of the main remote sensing methods and geodata types used in archaeological prospection and cultural heritage survey. Based on a literature review, it provides an initial survey of the state of the art nationally and internationally, followed by details on the potential usage of different methods in a Swedish context. The details include pros and cons of methods as well as information on considerations that should be taken into account when applying the methods in different situations. Examples are provided where relevant to explain specific details or illustrate important points. Particular attention has been paid to laser scanning (LiDAR) data due to its increasing prevalence and prominence in landscape and archaeological surveys.

    The report continues with a preliminary evaluation of the possibilities for using data provided by Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket), obtained for other stages of the planning process, in archaeological and cultural heritage work. Specifically, the report looks at a number of geodata types obtained from The Geological Survey of Sweden (Sveriges geologiska undersökning/SGU), a nature conservation survey in report form, a ground penetrating radar technical report, terrain laser scanning (LiDAR) and orthophotos (geometrically corrected aerial photographs). The SGU geodata consist of a number of Geographical Information System (GIS) layers describing bedrock and soil types, and the nature conservation survey included accompanying, but incomplete, GIS data. This section consists of concise descriptions of the potential of each group of GIS layers or data, and is complemented by brief, bullet point summaries along with additional technical information in Appendix 1. Comments have been made where additional, related, data sources would be useful. Swedish terms are included in parenthesis where the term differs significantly from the English equivalent.

    A final summary provides a compact overview of the main points of the report before providing some conclusions and ideas for further work. This is in turn followed by a list of ideas for enhancing the efficiency with which the types of data discussed can be used in infrastructure projects which have a potential to impact on archaeology/cultural heritage.

    References are provided to support important or potentially contentious points or where further reading or research would be advised for a more comprehensive understanding of relevant issues.

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  • 46.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Sjölander, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Approaches to research data infrastructure for archaeological science2022In: Digital heritage and archaeology in practice: data, ethics, and professionalism / [ed] Goldstein, Lynne; Watrall, Ethan, University Press of Florida, 2022, p. 109-134Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant number of archaeology’s Grand Challenges (Kintigh et al. 2014) can only be addressed through access to large amounts of data from multiple research fields, and advanced tools for aggregating, synthesizing and analyzing them. Archaeological research has seen significant developments in the use of databases and database tools since first adopting them in the late 1960s (Lock 2003). The often small scale of archaeological budgets, and the paucity of long-term funding, has meant that cheaper solutions have most often been used. These have ranged from mainstream database management systems through university site licenses and project specific purchases, to independently coded solutions and more recent open source alternatives. The relatively unusual nature and complexity of archaeological science (see Lidén 2017) data has meant that custom database designs have been the norm. The vast majority of these databases have been built to serve single purposes: from simple sample processing archives, to more complete excavation databases or multi-site macrofossil databases. User interfaces, if present, usually reflect these aims rather than provide for wider audiences. Such databases are an extremely important part of how science is now conducted, and, as explained in this chapter, there are considerable advantages to upscaling them towards becoming components in research infrastructure.

  • 47.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Sjölander, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Blombocken avslöjar forntiden2017In: Populär arkeologi, ISSN 0281-014X, no 5, p. 28-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Databaser. Fossila insekter och förkolnade fröer kan ge mycket information om de miljöer som människor har levt i och kan liksom annan biologisk information tjäna arkeologin.

  • 48.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Sjölander, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Erik J.
    ICT Services and System Development (ITS), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD)2018In: Encyclopedia of global archaeology / [ed] Smith, C., Cham: Springer, 2018, 2Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental archaeology encompasses a wide range of scientific methods for analyzing the results of past human activities, environments, climates, and perhaps, most importantly, the relationships between these. Many of these methods are referred to as proxy analyses, denoting the illumination of the past as interpreted indirectly through the evidence of fossil organisms or properties. These lines of evidence, or proxy data sources, are assumed to reflect past conditions by way of their dependence on them. For example, a species of beetle may only survive within a specific climate range, and thus its presence in samples indicates this climate at the time of deposition; organic waste deposited around a farmstead will raise soil phosphate levels above those of the surrounding land; and the presence of cereal grains in postholes suggests their local cultivation or import, usage, or storage.

  • 49.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Sjölander, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    von Boer, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Roger, Mähler
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    The intricate details of using research databases and repositories for environmental archaeology data2022In: ArcheoLogica Data, ISSN 2785-0307, Vol. 2, p. 15-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental archaeology is a complex mix of empirical analysis and qualitative interpretation.It is increasingly data science oriented, and databases and online resources are becoming increasinglyimportant in large scale synthesis research on changes in climate, environments and human activities.Research funders, journals and universities place much emphasis on the use of data repositories toensure transparency and reusability in the research process. Although these are important, researchersthemselves, however, may have more use for research databases which are oriented more towardsadvanced querying and exploratory data analysis than conforming to archiving standards. This paperexplores the pros and cons of these different approaches. It also discusses and problematizes somekey concepts in research data management, including the definitions of data and metadata, along withthe FAIR principles. Research examples are provided from a broad field of environmental archaeologyand palaeoecology. In contrast to most publications, the developer’s perspective is also included, anda worked example using the Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD) to investigate fossilbeetle data demonstrates the implementation of some of this in the real world. This example may befollowed online using the SEAD browser, and all described data downloaded from there. After providingboth encouragement and warnings on the use of digital resources for synthesis research, some suggestionsare made for moving forward.

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  • 50.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Steers, Andy
    iSYS Computers.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    A re-assessment of numbers. The case of Cantley Kilns 33–4 and 37–9 using EVEs and comparing vessel counts between two sampling events2022In: Journal of Roman Pottery Studies Volume 19 / [ed] Steven Willis, Oxbow Books, 2022, Vol. 9, p. 147-164Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The selective archiving of pottery sherds in museums is rarely analysed with respect to its potential impact on subsequent re-analysis. An undergraduate dissertation on pottery groups from the production site at Cantley provided an opportunity to test this empirically. Two quantification events are thus explored through simple statistical and visualisation methods and the implications of different quantification methods, including the use of EVE (Estimated Vessel Equivalents), discussed.

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