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  • 1.
    Amft, Andrea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Sápmi i förändringens tid: en studie av svenska samers levnadsvillkor under 1900-talet ur ett genus- och etnicitetsperspektiv2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is a study of the changing living conditions for the Sami in Swedish Såpmi (Samiland) throughout the twentieth century with an analysis based on a gender and ethnic perspective.

    At the turn of the century, the Sami lived as nomadic reindeer herders and were primarily self- sufficient. This changed as the reindeer herders shifted from a self-sufficient lifestyle to a money economy tor a variety of reasons. Over time they became more integrated in the dominant Swedish society and even more dependent on it. Reindeer herding has become increasingly mechanized since the I960's with rationalizations as a result. Even in to the 1990's the industry was the object of streamlining ettorts. A process of masculinization has also occurred and today's reindeer herding is a distinctly male coded profession. Women do not regularly participate in the daily work of reindeer breeding and their ability to have any direct influence on the herding districts (sameby) is limited. This is also largely true in terms of the Sami Parliament, the Sami popularly elected body.

    The Sami population has experienced unfavorable special legislation and regulation from the State. The population was divided into several different categories with different rights. Sami women were marginalized two-fold and subordinated, partly because of their ethnic affiliation (as Sami) and partly because of their sex (as women). This continues to be true today.

    The analysis of gender division of labor shows that a married couple had their own autonomous areas of power within the household. The wife was however still subordinate to her husband in his role as master of the family. The older reindeer herding society was not noted for its equality. There was a distinct hierarchy based on sex, age, and social status. Division of labor in modern reindeer breeding is in principle based on the same normative system as the older nomadic society.

    The study of the ethnic processes in Såpmi shows among other things that from a Sami perspective, a person is Sami who is related to other Sami and whose actions are based on a Sami identity. It is also clear today that there are many different Sami identities, that an individual person draws from a number of such identities and that it is the context that determines which of these are active in any given situation. The Sami identity is sex-based, i.e. there is a difference between a "male Sami" and a "female Sami." Sami women, unlike Sami men, cannot be politically active while also being active based on their sexual identity. Were they to do so, they would be excluded by definition from their ethnic group. Sami women must therefore subordinate themselves as women to be "genuine" Sami. They thereby contribute to their own marginalization and help maintain their own subordinated position in the Sami society.

  • 2.
    Amft, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Samiska studier.
    Svonni, MikaelUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Samiska studier.
    Sápmi Y1K - Livet i samernas bosättningsområde för ett tusen år sedan2006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 3. Bergman, Ingela
    et al.
    Olofsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Hörnberg, Greger
    Zackrisson, Olle
    Hellberg, Erik
    Deglaciation and colonization: Pioneer settlements in northern Fennoscandia2004In: Journal of world prehistory, ISSN 0892-7537, E-ISSN 1573-7802, Vol. 18, no 2, 155-177 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present new data on Early Mesolithic settlements in northern Sweden and discuss the process of pioneer colonization. A new set of radiocarbon dates from archaeological sites push deglaciation of northern Fennoscandia further back in time and demonstrate the rapid arrival of pioneer settlers. Environmental data reveal a highly productive early postglacial setting with plant communities unmatched in present ecosystems. The chronological and technological setting supports immigration from the north and northwest with pioneers relying on a long history of enculturating northern subarctic landscapes.

  • 4. Bergman, Ingela
    et al.
    Påsse, Tore
    Olofsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Zachrisson, Olle
    Hörnberg, Greger
    Hellberg, Erik
    Bohlin, Elisabeth
    Isostatic land uplift and Mesolithic landscapes: lake tilting, a key to the discovery of Mesolithic sites in the interior of Northern Sweden2003In: Journal of Archaeological Science, ISSN 0305-4403, E-ISSN 1095-9238, Vol. 30, no 11, 1451-1458 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Until recently only a few Mesolithic sites were known from the interior of N. Sweden, although extensive archaeological surveys have been carried out since the 1950s. The lack of archaeological data made every attempt to interpret the process of pioneer colonization quite fruitless. In this paper we present a model of non-uniform glacio-isostatic uplift and lake-tilting used to identify potential areas of Mesolithic habitation. By reconstructing shoreline displacement of ancient lakes, archaeological, palaeoecological and geological studies have resulted in the discovery of a significant number of Mesolithic sites and of an early post-glacial landscape previously unknown.

  • 5. Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Insect Remains from GUS: an interim report1998In: Man, Culture and Environment in Ancient Greenland / [ed] J. Arneborg & H.C. Gulløv, Copenhagen: Danish Polar Center, Copenhagen , 1998, 74-79 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6. Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Hughes, Damian
    Palaeoecological evidence for the Vera hypothesis?2005In: Large herbivores in the wildwood and modern naturalistic grazing systems, English Nature , 2005, 62-116 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report stems from work commissioned by English Nature into the role of largeherbivores in the post-glacial landscape of Britain and the potential for using free-ranginggrazing animals to create and maintain diverse landscape mosaics in modern conditions.Some aspects may be disputed or considered controversial; it is an active field of research.Therefore we stress that the views expressed are those of the authors at the current time.Subsequent research may confirm our views or lead us to modify them.We hope they will be useful in future discussions, both within English Nature and inconservation land-management circles more generally.

  • 7. Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    What's eating Halvdan the Black?: Fossil insects and the study of a burial mound in its landscape context2004In: Halvdanshaugen: arkeologi, historie og naturvetenskap / [ed] Jan Henning Larsen og Perry Rolfsen, Oslo: University Museum of Cultural Heritage , 2004, 1, 353-375 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the earliest work with insects from archaeological contexts dates back to was work on Egyptian mummies in the early nineteenth century, they were not widely used in archaeological interpretation until an effective technique for concentrating their remains was developed during the 1960s by Coope and Osborne at the University of Birmingham in England. Whilst most of their research centred upon climate and environment during the Late Quaternary, Osborne in particular began to examine assemblages from archaeological sites, and his work was expanded by Kenward, initially concentrating upon Roman and early medieval deposits in the city of York and later by Robinson at Oxford, whose main interest is in the late Holocene history of the Thames valley. Funding from the Leverhulme Trust in the UK allowed Buckland to examine the origins of the insect faunas of the Atlantic islands and this work has continued until recently. Initially research was concentrated upon the Coleoptera (beetles), but Kenward added identifications of Hemiptera (true bugs), and Skidmore and Panagiotakopulu Diptera (true flies). Panagiotakopulu has also worked closely with ectoparasite remains from archaeological sites. Although identification work still relies heavily upon the availability of extensive reference collections, the development of an extensive computer-based database, BUGS, of habitat, distribution and the fossil record of Quaternary insects has made interpretation considerably easier. In Scandinavia, early work was pioneered by Henriksen and later Lindroth. More recently Lemdahl has worked extensively on Lateglacial into Holocene natural assemblages and, in association with Hellqvist, has also examined archaeological contexts. Apart from Ponel’s work in France, there has been little recent research elsewhere in Europe, and most published work concerns natural assemblages. Similarly apart from Bain’s work on post-Columbian assemblages in the eastern US and Canada, and some work by Elias in the mid-West, insects have rarely been utilised in site interpretation in the Americas and, apart from Egypt, Africa, Asia and Australasia have fared even worse. Part of the reason behind this is the scattered nature of published results, and the frequent failure of archaeologists to cost scientific aspects of work upon their sites into project design. This paper attempts to outline some of the evidence which has been obtained from the study of insect remains, as well as to outline the methods used to concentrate the fossils. The fairly extensive bibliography allows access to the published literature, particularly that relevant to the Scandinavian World.

  • 8.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    Edinburgh University, Scotland.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Perdikaris, Sophia
    Skidmore, Peter
    Insect faunas from Medieval Langenes in Arctic Norway2006In: Proceedings from the VIII Nordic Conference on the Application of Scientific Methods In Archaeology, Umeå, Sweden, 2001. / [ed] Engelmark, Roger & Linderholm, Johan, 2006, 17-32 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cultural sediments containing significant amounts of fish bone at Langenesværet, Vesterålen, Northern Norway provide an opportunity to characterise activity during and prior to the establishment of a late medieval commercial fishing station (fiskevaer). Radiometric and AMS dating techniques are used to establish a chronology for the deposits, while activities associated with the sediments are characterised fossil insect faunas. The results highlight a series of problems with the dating of the heavily disturbed organic deposits of many archaeological sites, and the need for greater care in sample selection and interpretation.

  • 9. Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    University of Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Skidmore, Peter
    Snæsdóttir, Mjöll
    Institute of Archaeology, Iceland.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Insect faunas from Stóraborg, a farm mound in Southern Iceland2004Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Archaeological Field Assessment of the Proposed Borrow Pits at Staythorpe Power Station, Staythorpe, Nottinghamshire: Assessment of the fossil insects1999Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Buckland, Philip I
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Insect remains from Pástóftir, Kárahnjúkar, Iceland2006Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Buckland, Philip I
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Preliminary report: fossil insect remains from Karahnjukar, Iceland2006Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    BugsCEP: Coleopteran Ecology Package (software)2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    BugsCEP is a research and teaching aid for palaeoentomology, entomology and ecology. As well as habitat and distribution data, it includes tools for climate and environmental reconstruction, and facilities for storing site based abundance/collection data. A variety of searching and reporting functions greatly augment the efficiency of beetle based research.

    Bugs is built around a comprehensive database of beetle ecology and European fossil records which has been accumulated over the past 20 years.

  • 14.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    How can a database full of Bugs help reconstruct the climate?2002In: Archaeological Informatics - Pushing the Envelope - CAA 2001 - Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology: Proceedings of the 29th Conference, Gotland, April 2001, British Archaeological Reports , 2002, 453-461 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The BUGS Insect Ecology Package was originally constructed (using Dbase and Clipper) to compile Coleoptera (beetle) habitat and distribution data from a myriad of sources into one, easy to use, and publicly available database. Its primary users were researchers and teachers within the palaeoentomology field. The present system, five versions and many revisions later, is built in MS Access 2000, and covers some 5300 species, 2000 references, and 240 sites (archaeological and Quaternary), and is of value to archaeologists, ecologists, and conservationists alike.

    BUGS is essentially a relational database management system constructed around three components:

    - the species data (modern ecology and distribution)

    - the bibliography

    - the site data with species lists

    Its implementation in several institutions has greatly accelerated the efficiency with which palaeoentomological investigations can be carried out, and greatly improved the teaching of the subject.

    Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions are performed by the superimposition of the ecology and distribution of modern insect populations over fossil assemblages. At the moment, this is essentially performed semi-quantitatively by cross-reference of the data (which BUGS collates for a species list and then exports as an RTF file to any word processing package). BUGS contains a wealth of ecological data which can be employed in the interpretation of archaeological sites and contexts. In natural deposits, away from the artificial heat islands created by human activity, insect distributions are essentially constrained by climatic parameters. Tim Atkinson (UEA) and Dave Perry (formerly at Birmingham University) digitally encoded the temperature range data for over 400 species into a program for the calculation of palaeoclimates through the MCR (Mutual Climatic Range) method, and this has been extensively used in the modelling of Quaternary climates from beetle remains. The aim of our present phase of BUGS development is to implement MCR functionality into the BUGS database system. From this point it should be possible to move on to other ecological variables such as habitat and vegetation types, and increase the precision of modern climatic data, thus enhancing the value of insects in archaeological interpretation and the modelling of past climates.

  • 15.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    Sadler, Jon P.
    A Database for Egyptian Entomology2004In: Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt, ISSN 1110-0885, Vol. 81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EGBUGS, the Egyptian incarnation of the BUGS Coleopteran Ecology Package is a simple yet highly valuable aid to research and education in the fields of entomology and palaeoentomology. The ability to rapidly look up species habitat and distribution data compiled from various sources in itself saves hours of library and internet searching. Added to this is the ability to query habitat data and produce ecologically defined subsets of the EGBUGS dataset, and rapidly summarise the ecology of species found at a particular site, which again are tasks that would take hours to perform manually. It is hoped that the system will greatly benefit those working in the aforementioned fields, and even inspire others to engage in similar activities. The program can be freely downloaded from the BUGS2000 WWW site at http://www.bugs2000.org, and the authors would be grateful for comments, revisions and new data for entry.

  • 16.
    Buckland, Philip I
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Engelmark, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Wagner, Patricia
    Environmental archaeological investigation of samples from the Kaupang 2000 excavations2001Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Buckland, Philip I
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Johan, Olofsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Engelmark, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    SEAD: Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database, planning report2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document lays out a strategy for the development of SEAD – A Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database, which will facilitate the digitisation and accessibility augmentation of MAL’s existing data from nearly thirty years of work in the fields of archaeology and environmental science. SEAD will also provide a framework for the entry of data from all future research and consultancy work at MAL, and allow guest researchers and external partners to contribute to, and work with the same data. The planned system will be implemented at both local and internet levels, and be designed with an aim towards broadening its scope with external partners in the future. SEAD will be made available online in order to increase the ease of access to environmental archaeology data and encourage an expansion of both the discipline and Sweden’s role in it. This is inline with current EU strategies on enhancing research infrastructure, and providing a greater insight into human-environment interactions for long term planning.

  • 18.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab. Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Symonds, James
    Archaeological Investigation into Subsurface Features at Elvaston, Derbyshire;  A Proposal1996Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Yuan Zhuo, Don
    University of Sheffield.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    University of Sheffield.
    Towards an Expert System in Palaeoentomology1997In: Studies in Quaternary Entomology: an Inordinate Fondness for Insects / [ed] A.C. Ashworth, P.C. Buckland & J.P. Sadler, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. , 1997, 71-77 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of Quaternary insect fossils, principally of Coleoptera, the beetles, are now sufficiently frequent to warrant the construction of a database to maintain easy access to the record. BUGS, however, seeks to go beyond this and provide ecological and distributional data on the modern fauna to enable more precise reconstructions of apst environments. This paper summarizes the program and its salient features and discusses the application of intra- and intersite statistics, which the database allows.

  • 20.
    Cocq, Coppélie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Från ’lappromantik’ till vardagsrealism: bilden av samerna i svensk barn- och ungdomslitteratur under 1900-talet2006In: Barnboken: svenska barnboksinstitutets tidskrift, ISSN 0347-772X, Vol. 29, no 2, 51-53 p.Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Cocq, Coppélie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Stállu – återkomsten: en jämförelse av traditionella berättelser i dåtid och nutid2005In: Ett land, ett folk:  Sápmi i historia och nutid / [ed] Per Axelsson, Peter Sköld, Umeå: Centrum för samisk forskning , 2005, 273-284 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Cocq, Coppélie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Ulddat som vägvisare för det samiska samhället: en diskursanalys av nordsamiska berättelser2004In: The Sámi and the Scandinavians: aspects of 2000 years of contact, Hamburg: Kovač , 2004, 99-111 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Edblom, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Långhus i Gene: teori och praktik i rekonstruktion2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the years of 1977-89 the Department of Archaeology at Umeå University conducted a scientific investigation of an Early Iron Age settlement at Genesmon in the parish of Själevad, northern Ångermanland. Subsequently, during the years 1991-99 parts of the farm were reconstructed at Gene Fornby, a couple of hundred meters away from the site. This thesis deals with the construction and furnishing of one of the farm’s longhouses (House II), and the wider context of the construction and function of the “three-aisled” building type. The purpose of this thesis is to describe the interaction between theory and practice in reconstruction, to describe the reconstruction process as a constantly changing process of explanation and understanding, and to investigate as to whether reconstructions can contribute to an increased understanding of archaeological house remains. At the end of the Late Iron Age, after nearly 5000 years of dominance in Southern and Central Scandinavia, the longhouse ceases to be the dominant form of construction. Understanding why this happened became an important problem in this work.

    During the reconstruction work, different interpretations influenced one another in a series of positive and negative feedbacks into the explanations of the archaeological remains. A hermeneutic model is used to describe this phenomenon. From archaeological and written sources, division and furnishing of the long-houses can be described in terms of seven room functions. These can be classified as storage bur, porch önd, living room skåle, byre fjös, stable stall, barn lada and rough kitchen eldhus. In order to understand the ideological meaning of the buildings the role of the fire, the placement of the seat of honour and the change in the type of building in Iceland became important parts of this study. Numerous heating experiments have been undertaken in order to try to solve the problem of excessive smoke within the building. The experiments finally led to a possible solution that also serves to illustrate just how the model itself came to influence the process of interpretation.

    The reconstruction work led to results of different character: partly data on construction, function and materials – and the time frame for the construction of House II from its archaeological remains; and partly knowledge and new theories which increase our understanding of the three-aisled building form. The elongated form, roof supporting poles, central hearth and a close association with ritual and ideology are suggested as characteristic elements for this type of construction, throughout its chronological and spatial extent. The relationship between the building and Norse ideologies is suggested as one of the explanations for the longhouse’s dissappearance with the introduction of Christianity. At the end of the Viking Age, there is a transition into a new framework based method of construction, and the political and ecclesiastical authorities are discussed as having governed these widespread changes.

  • 24.
    Engelmark, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Environmental Archaeology during 30 years2005In: En lång historia... Festskrift till Evert Baudou på 80-årsdagen, Institutionen för arkeologi och samiska studier, Umeå , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Engelmark, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Fähus i förhistorien: en miljöhistorisk introduktion1998In: Fähus från bronsålder till idag: stallning och utegångsdrift i långtidsperspektiv / [ed] Karin Viklund, Roger Engelmark och Johan Linderholm, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 1998, 7-13 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Engelmark, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    The Early Holocene Environment of North Fennoscandia and its Implications for Colonisation2005In: Pioneer settlements and colonization processes in the Barents region, Vuollerim: Vuollerim 6000 år , 2005, 97-108 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses the currently available data on the immediate post-glacial landscape of Fennoscandia, along with relevant palaeoenvionmental reconstructions for the Barents region, to paint a picture of the landscape and resources available to the early colonisers of this area. In addition, the aim is to provide a source of up to date references for those interested in integrating the archaeological and environmental evidence, towards an holistic model of the Early Holocene landscape.

  • 27.
    Engelmark, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Larson, Thomas B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Rock art and environment: towards increased contextual understanding2005In: Reflexiones sobre arte rupestre, paisaje, forma y contenido, Santiago de Compostela: Instituto de Estudos Galegos Padre Sarmiento , 2005, 113-122 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Engelmark, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Larsson, Thomas B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Rapport från Geo-Arkeologisk fältkurs i Rumänien 20042005Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Engelmark, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Miljöarkeologisk Laboratoriet.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Miljöarkeologiska Laboratoriet. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Archaeology and Science2006In: Proceedings from the VIII Nordic Conference on the Application of Scientific Methods In Archaeology, Umeå, Sweden, 2001., 2006, 146- p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Engelmark, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Miljöarkeologiska Laboratoriet. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Linderholm, JohanUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Miljöarkeologiska Laboratoriet. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Proceedings from the VIII Nordic Conference on the Application of Scientific Methods In Archaeology, Umeå, Sweden, 20012006Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Engelmark, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Miljöarkeologiska Laboratoriet.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Miljöarkeologiska Laboratoriet.
    Olofson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Miljöarkeologiska Laboratoriet.
    Miljöarkeologisk undersökning av Kornsjövägen, raä 306, Nätra sn, Ångermanland2004Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Engelmark, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Miljöarkeologiska Laboratoriet.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Miljöarkeologiska Laboratoriet.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Miljöarkeologiska Laboratoriet.
    Wallin, Jan-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Miljöarkeologiska Laboratoriet.
    Miljöarkeologisk slutundersökning RAÄ 397: Kallerstad 1:1 och 1:4, Linköpings stad och Kommun, Östergötlands län, Steg 12006Report (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Engelmark, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Viklund, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Åkrar och vallar2005In: Människan och floran, Wahlström&Widstrand , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Fossum, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Förfädernas land: en arkeologisk studie av rituella lämningar i Sápmi, 300 f. Kr-1600 e. Kr2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this thesis has been to study the ritual remains from the Sámi region, over an extended period of time. An analysis of when and why they first appeared, followed by a discussion of the changes and the continuity that occurs during this period of time which then is placed in relation to other social, economical and political processes that took place in northern Fenno Scandinavia during the iron age.

    The archaeological remains included in this study are Scree graves, lake graves, sacrificial sites, silver hoards and dwellings. Ring-shaped sacrificial sites and labyrinths are also discussed to some extent. The remains are firstly discussed on an individual basis and then in relation to each other and various other dimensions of community development in northern Scandinavia. From 300 BC – 400 AD, several of the ritual remains associated with developing Sámi identities appear for the first time, followed by a period with few discovered sites. There is an increase of archaeological finds from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, including many new ritual forms which can be linked to neighbouring societies increased economic interests in the region. There is a decrease in the number of sites from the 12th century AD and imported metal disappears from the ritual context. During the 14th century AD there is once again an increase in ritual activity, primarily in northern Norway, that appears to have moved to locations in the vicinity of dwelling sites. During the 17th century AD the ritual remains decrease over large parts of northern Scandinavia. One exception is the southern Sámi area, where numbers of characteristic Sámi ritual remains are seen to increase. Bear graves from as late as the 19th century AD have been found. The results demonstrate how rituals have been an important tool in not only creating and maintaining social and ethnical identities, uniting societies, creating opposition and causing change but also establishing bonds with other cultures or communities. Many of the changes that have taken place in the different ritual activities in the Sámi area have occurred at similar periods of time in other geographical regions of Sápmi.

  • 35.
    Goldhahn, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Sagaholm: hällristningar och gravritual1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningen om den sydskandinaviska hällkonsttraditionen har av tradition varit centrerad kring olika motiv och tolkningar av deras betydelse. Detta är till viss del en naturlig följd av att hällkonsten utgår ifrån bilden som ett kunskapsförmedlande medium. Den främsta orsaken till detta torde dock vara att vi oftast återfinner de sydskandinaviska hällristningarna inhuggna på olika hällar i ett öppet landskap, som regel utan någon närmare relation till andra fornlämningar och i nära relation till marker som var lämpade för bete och odling. Som en följd av detta är det svårt att uttala sig om vad för slags rituella aktiviteter som omgärdade tillkomsten av denna hällkonst. Ett källmaterial som ännu inte utnyttjats till sin fulla potential för att studera detta är de fall där hällristningar återfunnits i samtida gravar. Syftet med min avhandling har varit att genom det goda exemplets makt försöka närma mig en förståelse för ett av de många sammanhang som denna hällkonst kunde produceras i. Hällristningarna från bronsåldersgravhögen Sagaholm har här fått tjäna som min utgångspunkt. Anledningen till detta är inte enbart att Sagaholm är det största fyndet av hällristningar som gjorts i denna typ av kontext i norra Europa, utan även för att de återfunnits i ett stratigrafiskt slutet sammanhang som tydligt visar i vilket skede av gravritualen som hällristningarna fyllde sin främsta funktion. Hällristningarna från Sagaholm presenteras, analyseras och tolkas följaktligen i relation till den gravritual som omgärdade uppförandet av denna grav. Genom min avhandling har jag velat visa att arkeologisk forskning och akademiska avhandlingar inte nödvändigtvis behöver vara additiva till sin karaktär för att producera ny kunskap, utan att denna lika gärna kan emanera utifrån en mer fördjupad diskussion över ett enstaka fynd. Jag har även velat peka på vikten av ett kontextuellt förhållningssätt inom arkeologin där olika metaforiska sammanhang är viktiga för tolkningen av den materiella kulturen som ett meningskapande fenomen. Genom min avhandling har jag kunnat påvisa att olika tekniker att framställa hällristningar inte okritiskt kan användas för att inordna dessa i ett kronologiskt ramverk. Tillverkningstekniken kan dock tas som utgångspunkt för andra frågeställningar, i föreliggande fall tolkas detta som ett sätt att addera en narrati v struktur till detta bildmedium.

    Till sist: Genom min avhandling har jag velat demonstrera vikten av att gå till botten med det källmaterial vi behandlar inom arkeologin och att detta är ett vitalt inslag i arkeologins främsta syfte - att studera och tolka den materiella kulturen som ett viktigt medium för mänsklig kommunikation.

  • 36.
    Grundberg, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Medeltid i centrum: europeisering, historieskrivning och kulturarvsbruk i norrländska kulturmiljöer2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to shed light upon three related research areas with the medieval period at their core: medieval Europeanization, the historiography of medieval places, the importance of the cultural environment and medieval period for the present day. By these means several current research angles are integrated within medieval research, the history of science and cultural heritage research. Six investigations of medieval central places in Ångermanland and Medelpad in northern Sweden are used to exemplify these issues. The use of hermeneutic theory emphasises the relationship between the present day community, the individual and the interpretation of history.

    The sites presented in the thesis represent the entire medieval period from the 11th Century to the start of the 16th Century. Two of them – Kvissle chapel and “Skelettåkern” (=The Skeleton Field) in Björned – functioned as private Christian churches or graveyards; two were important harbours – Sankt Olofshamn (=Saint Olof’s Harbour) and Kyrkesviken (=Church bay); two functioned as military castles or fortifications – Styresholm/ ”Pukeborg” and Bjärtrå stronghold. In addition to these, four medieval stone parish churches have been examined: the old church at Alnö in Medelpad, and the churches of Torsåker, Boteå and Grundsunda in Ångermanland.

    The Europeanization of Norrland is discussed with reference to aspects such as religious transition and parish formation, monetarization and changes in household structure, trade specialization and administrative territorialization. Central places have played an important role in this process.

    Historiography illuminates how, and in which contexts, knowledge and understanding of history and medieval central places has developed and been communicated. This includes the use of place names and the oral narration of history, authorship and scientific research into local history. A number of primary school teachers, adult education college (‘folk high school’) teachers and priests were particularly important for the growth of local historical research around the turn of the 20th century.

    The use of cultural heritage is illustrated with a discussion of how the medieval cultural environments in Ångermanland and Medelpad have been interpreted and used in recent years. This includes aspects such as signposting, teaching and research activities, mass media attention, amateur history plays and similar performances, and the formation of various types of society.

    These three aspects of Norrland’s medieval period, together with the use of a cultural heritage perspective, form a broader holistic picture of the social role of scientific research and the cultural environment, where local interest in history is important for regional development.

  • 37.
    Hedman, Sven-Donald
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Boplatser och offerplatser: ekonomisk strategi och boplatsmönster bland skogssamer 700-1600 AD2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis primarily discusses the development of late Iron Age Saami settlement patterns in greater Norrland's forest area, from the establishment of the Settlements through to historical times. The Settlements are chiefly characterised by hearths, but it is also important to study Saami sacrificial sites when trying to understand the significance of the settlement patterns. Central to the thesis is how the archaeological material can be applied to questions concerning the introduction of reindeer herding.

    During the early Viking period a significant change in the settlement pattern of greater Norrland's inland occurs. New niches start to be exploited, moving away from the earlier shore-bound model. The Settlements are relocated to areas with good reindeer grazing land, by small streams, bogs and small lakes. The principal features are concentrations of hearths, which arise in large numbers, most often in groups of three to ten.

    A number of the artefacts found at the settlement sites are also found at Saami sacrificial sites from between 800 to 1350 AD, suggesting that the hearths should be studied in the context of Saami culture.

    A wide range of artefacts have been discovered during excavation of the Settlements, which suggests extensive contacts, mainly to the east and the Ladoga area, but also with Norway to the west. The artefacts display a continuity from the Viking period into the 1700's, and the dating of the hearths show a similar chronological spread.

    The study area has supported a reindeer herding forest Saami society during historical times, the settlement pattern of which has close similarities to that found under the Viking period. This implies that the settlement pattern that emerged during the Viking period can probably be related to an emergent reindeer herding system. Reindeer herding was undertaken in combination with hunting and fishing - so called semi-nomadism. It is suggested that the forest land Saami society become so dependent on reindeer herding during the Viking period, that it controlled the settlement pattern.

  • 38.
    Holm, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Det förflutnas närvaro: Om kulturmiljovårdens socialiserande betydelse2005In: En lång historia...: Festskrift till Evert Baudou på 80-årsdagen, Institutionen för arkeologi och samiska studier , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Holm, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Arkeologi.
    Humanisters karriärvägar.: Arbetsmarknad för disputerade vid Humanistisk fakultet, Umeå universitet.2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten är ett resultat av en utredning om arbetsmarknad och karriärvägar för disputerade humansiter vid Umeå universitet mellan åren 1994 och 2003. I utredningen undersöks bl.a. vilken betydelse en humanistisk doktorsavhandling har, vilka karriärvägar som kan identifieras, arbetsmarknad, arbetsituation och forskningsmöjligheter. En enkät besvarades av 73% av de tillfrågade, dessutom intervjuades 11 personer. Resultaten visar bl.a. att majoriteten av de tillfrågade var tillsvidareanställda inom universitet och högskola vid svarstillfället.

  • 40.
    Holm, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Arkeologi.
    Stenålderskust i norr: Bosättning, försörjning och kontakter i södra Norrland2006Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Neolithic remains, such as settlements and houses, together with subsistence and communication in the coastal area of the provinces of Hälsingland and Gästrikland are focused on in this study. The results from excavations and surveys from the project "The younger Stone Age in the Southern Parts of the Coastal Area of Northern Sweden" are analysed and interpreted in a contextual framework of human communication, cultural identity and subsistence.

  • 41.
    Holmblad, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Fornminnen i Österbotten: från neandertalare till sockenbor2005Book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Holmblad, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Från ryssugnar till jättekyrkor: maritimt kulturarv i Österbotten2005In: Skärgård: Tidskriften som dokumenterar ett världsarv, ISSN 0356-9381, Vol. 28, no 4, 35-45 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Holmblad, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Malaxområdets förhistoria2007In: Malax historia: Del I, Malax kommun, Malax , 2007Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Holmblad, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Tidig metallålder i Österbotten: preliminära arkeologiska och miljöarkeologiska resultat från Malax och Laihela2007In: IV Mittnordiska arkeologidagar: Saarijärvi 14-16 juni 2007 / [ed] Janne Vilkuna, Jussi-Pekka Taavitsainen, Virpi Heikkinen, Jyväskylä: Keski-Suomen museoyhdistys , 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45. Hörnberg, Greger
    et al.
    Bohlin, Elisabeth
    Hellberg, Erik
    Bergman, Ingela
    Zackrisson, Olle
    Olofsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Wallin, Jan-Erik
    Påsse, Tore
    Effects of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers on local vegetation in a non-uniform glacio-isostatic land uplift area, northern Sweden2006In: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, ISSN 0939-6314, Vol. 15, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Johan, Linderholm
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Fähus, markanalys och arkeologi: att studera dyngan i tiden och rummet1998In: Fähus från bronsålder till idag: stallning och utegångsdrift i långtidsperspektiv / [ed] Karin Viklund, Roger Engelmark och Johan Linderholm, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 1998, 22-27 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Karlsson, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Bosättning och resursutnyttjande: miljöarkeologiska studier av boplatser med härdar från perioden 600-1900 e. Kr inom skogssamiskt område2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on dwelling sites with hearths dating from the period 600-1900 AD, located in the coniferous forest areas of Northern Sweden. The term dwelling sites with hearths refers to sites where stone-lined hearths occur. These hearths are of a type that became very common in Northern Sweden during the first millennium after the birth of Christ.

    The main aim of this study is to apply environmental archaeological methods to the investigation of dwelling sites with hearths in order to attain new information on the organisation and use of these sites, as well as to discuss and evaluate earlier strategies of settlement and subsistence. For this study, soil chemical survey and pollen analysis methods are used. Soil chemical surveys have been conducted at a total of 13 sites from the period 1000/1100-1900 AD at locations in the inland areas of the counties of Norrbotten, Västerbotten and Jämtland, while pollen analyses have been conducted at 4 sites located in the county of Norrbotten.

    Interpretations of the results are related to previous archaeological research, surveys and excavations. In addition, historical and ethnographical documentation as well as historical research concerning the conditions in the area during later periods are considered.

    The results show that environmental archaeological methods can provide information about settlements with hearths that is not normally possible to discern through archaeological surveys or excavations. Regarding the environmental impact at the settlement areas, there are clear differences between different dwelling sites with hearths. These differences seem to be independent of the number of hearths at the sites. Thus, it is not possible to make interpretations regarding these dwelling sites based purely on the number of hearths at the sites. The results also imply that these sites have been part of a settlement system where different types of dwelling sites were in use for shorter periods of time, for different purposes, and by a limited number of people. With the exception of the 17th century church and market place in Arvidsjaur, none of the examined dwelling sites could be interpreted as being a gathering site for a large number of people. Compared to descriptions of the conditions in the Sami area (Sa. Sápmi) during historical periods, this type of settlement pattern is comparable to the Forest Sami settlement pattern of late historical times. Moreover, soil chemical surveys conducted in areas adjacent to a number of hearths show similarities to the Sami hut (Sw. kåta).

    To sum up, the use of dwelling sites with hearths shows continuity from the 7th century settlements to Sami settlements of the 20th century, with respect to the environmental impact at the dwelling sites. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that a settlement pattern and subsistence similar to that of the Forest Sami economy and settlement of late historical times are characteristic for settlements with hearths and may have occurred as early as 600 AD.

  • 48.
    Karlsson, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Soil Studies and Historical Archaeology: A Discussion on Forest Saami Settlements: Current Swedish Archaeology2004In: Current Swedish Archaeology, ISSN 1102-7355, Vol. 12, 105-120 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Karlsson, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Undersökningar av visten med hjälp av miljöarkeologiska metoder2005In: Ett land, ett folk: Sápmi i historia och nutid, Centrum för samisk forskning, Umeå universitet, Umeå , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50. Klang, Lennart
    et al.
    Lindgren, BrittaUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.Ramqvist, Per HRegional Arkeologi, Mitthögskolan i Örnsköldsvik.
    Hällbilder och hällbildernas rum2002Collection (editor) (Other academic)
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