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  • 1.
    Abdul Kader, Hale
    et al.
    Centre for Risk and Insurance Studies, University of Nottingham, Nottingham,.
    Adams, Michael
    Swansea University, UK.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The determinants of reinsurance in the Swedish property fire insurance market during the interwar years, 1919–392010In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 268-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing a framework from agency theory, we use a panel data design to examine the factors motivating the level of demand for reinsurance in the rapidly developing Swedish property fire insurance market during the interwar period 1919–39. We find that as hypothesised, reinsurance enabled Swedish fire insurers to mitigate underwriting and solvency risks and thus increased their capacity to underwrite new business in uncertain economic times. This in turn helped to increase the supply of indemnity coverage for property (buildings) fire risks in the Swedish insurance market. We also find that as expected, investment earnings are inversely related to reinsurance purchases. However, contrary to what was hypothesised, reinsurance appears to be positively related to liquidity levels, suggesting that over our period of analysis, fire insurers could have been reinsuring to ‘protect’ earnings and accumulated cash reserves therefore enabling investment opportunities to be realised. Analysis of the sub-period 1919–28 further supports this contention, while our results for the economic depression years after 1929 show that reinsurance helped mitigate underwriting and insolvency risks, suggesting that the reinsurance decision of fire insurance companies could be motivated by macroeconomic factors.

  • 2.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Istanbul Kemerburgaz University.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Convergence of CO2 emissions and economic growth in the OECD countries: did the type of fuel matter?2017In: Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy, ISSN 1556-7249, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 618-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes convergence in CO2 emissions in the OECD countries with respect to the source of emissions (oil versus coal). The investigated period 1973-2010 is divided into two sub-periods, 1973-1991 and 1992-2010. The first period covers the OPEC oil price shocks, where the OECD oil policy was to a high extent governed by energy security concerns and cold war strategic considerations. The second period corresponds to the end of the cold war and the rise of climate policy in several OECD countries. Due to such contextual differences, oil and coal behave differently in the two sub-periods. The generally stronger convergence with respect to oil-related emissions until 1991 conditional on GDP per capita is compatible with a situation where the rising oil prices led to a strong transformation in the countries of interest. Besides, we evidence decoupling of economic growth from oil-related emissions in the post-cold war period.

  • 3.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Turkey.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Periods of converging carbon dioxide emissions from oil combustion in a pre-Kyoto context2016In: Environmental Development, ISSN 2211-4645, Vol. 19, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines convergence of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by oil combustion for a panel of 86 countries considering the importance of analyzing sub-periods separately. The investigation also points at the necessity of choosing a restricted global sample, which takes into account, for instance, that Eastern Bloc countries reacted differently to increasing world crude oil prices than the rest of the world. The analysis builds on examining the β-convergence hypothesis in a neoclassical growth model setting with additional control variables such as emissions from combustion of solid fuels. The results reveal evidence in support of unconditional β-convergence of CO2 emissions intensity due to oil combustion in the restricted sample for the sub-periods 1973–1979 and 1979–1991, while no evidence for convergence was found for the post-1991, pre-Kyoto period. We could not find support for coal substituting technologies.

  • 4.
    Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Swansea University, UK.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Norway.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Commercial banking, insurance and economic growth in Sweden between 1830 and 19982009In: Accounting Business and Financial History, ISSN 0958-5206, E-ISSN 1466-4275, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 21-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine empirically the dynamic historical relation between commercial bank lending, insurance and economic (income) growth in Sweden using time-series data from 1830 to 1998 and performing tests for Granger causality. Because of the non-stationary nature of the time series examined the procedure of Toda andYamamoto (1995) is used. Our results, which have accounted for possible regime changes due to different exchange rate mechanisms over time, indicate that insurance has Granger-caused economic growth and bank lending. Therefore, we conclude that insurance is an important prerequisite for stimulating economic growth and that this could have important implications for contemporary developing economies.

  • 5. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Yihui Jia, Joy
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Mutuality as a control for information asymmetry: a historical analysis of the claims experience of mutual and stock fire insur ance companies in Sweden, 1889 to 19392011In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 1074-1091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We test two competing arguments regarding the influence of organisational form onunderwritingperformance usingdatafromtheSwedish fireinsuranceindustry for the years 1889 to 1939 – a period of both economic growth and stagnation. Since mutuality is a response to information asymmetry problems, mutual insurers are expected to report lower annual claims relative to premiums than stock insurance companies. However, an alternative view is that stock insurers seek to reduce information asymmetry problems by issuing non-participatory rights insurance contracts with high deductibles that induce risk-sharing between the insurer’s shareholders and policyholders. This implies that stock insurers are likely to report lower annual claims than mutual insurers. Our results show that organisational form is an important determinant of the claims experience of Swedish fire insurers, suggesting that mutuality acts as an effective control for information asymmetries in the market.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Mot framtiden på gamla spår?: Regionala intressegrupper och beslutsprocesser kring kustjärnvägarna i Norrland under 1900-talet2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation the construction of two coastal railways, the East Coast Line and the Bothnia Line, in the Norrland region of northern Sweden is used as a case study of how regionally based interest groups are formed, and how they gain access to decision-making processes on a national level. In periods when a number of preconditions were in place, a window of opportunity opened for the coastal railway that the regional elites could exploit. Among these was the ability to form a coherent regional interest group, through institutions that created platforms and power-bases that enable regional elites to co-operate and act on regional and national levels.The existence of an institutional framework that was adapitve towards regional railway promotion was also important. The study shows that the coastal railway had a very flexible role on the agenda, as it provided a fixed solution against which actors could pin a multitude of different problems. An important factor for explaining the development of the coastal railway question in Norrland was the ideological notion of the region itself. Being a vast, resource-rich and sparsely populated region, Norrland had almost always received special consideration in both public opinion and national policy making. It also created a remarkable stubbornness among the regional actors in working for the coastal railway. Regional interest groups had also learnt that linking their claims to Norrland's peripheral position had high legitimacy on the national arena, by claiming the need for regional fairness and/or the national importance of the regional export-intensive industries. This was instrumental in justifying the repeated exemptions from the national railway policy regimes that ultimately were decissive in making the regional elites successful.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The vision thing: Actors, decision-making and lock-in effects in Swedish road safety policy since the 1990s2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the introduction of and consequences of the “Vision Zero” (Nollvisionen) that was part of a law passed in 1997 and called for a radical reduction of deaths caused by road traffic. We try to answer the question why the Vision Zero has failed to reach its goals for the last ten years. The introduction of the Vision Zero can be explained with a combination of changes in traffic policy and welfare policy, together with a reorganization of the transport sector that created new opportunities for old interest groups. Our main conclusion is that the strong idealistic and visionary political goals in the Vision Zero are in line with a Swedish tradition of over-arching visionary national goals for the transport sector in general. Idealistic goals suppressed critical objections, but at the same time there were insufficient resources for investments and lack of approval for the policy from actors within the sector, which can create lock-in effects and actually prevent effective policies from being implemented. This might explain the relative ineffectiveness of the policy, and the slim chances of the Vision Zero to ever being achieved.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Bilateral shipping and trade: Swedish-Finnish experiences in the post-war period2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the bilateral shipping and trade between Finland and Sweden during the post-war period. It comprises five articles and one introductory chapter for which the common point of departure is the growth and transformation of bilateral trade and shipping. The first two articles analyse the structural change of bilateral trade from a national and regional perspective. The three following articles provide an overview and analysis of the ferry shipping. By integrating the perspective in these articles in the introductory chapter and by providing a long historical record, the change of economic relations between Finland and Sweden in the post-war period is discerned. This thesis applies an economic historical approach and is founded on various fields of social science. The issue of trade is analysed within the framework of conventional and new trade theory, and the analysis of ferry shipping is governed by economic and geographic theories. The studies on trade shows that the transformation of production seen in Finland and Sweden meant that the trade increasingly became dependent on an exchange of products arising from matching industries. In turn the foreign trade arising from the Northern part of Finland and Sweden was still dominated by so called inter-industry trade. In addition to these results, the studies of ferry services shows that the growth of vehicles and passengers conveyance, together with the expanded onboard services, also intensified the commercial exchange. Due of the multi-output structure, the ferry service efficiently met the growing demand of travel and trade. The main conclusion of this thesis is that the convergence of incomes and economic structure had a significant impact on bilateral trade and ferry shipping. In addition the process of economic integration, technological advances together with specific policies issued on shipping also contributed to strengthen the economic ties between Finland and Sweden.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Convergence and structure of trade: The Swedish-Finnish case2004In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 27-51Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Economic efficiency of multiproduct structure: Evidence from the Baltic ferry industryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Samma skatt – samma välfärd?: Effektivitet, service och skatter i kommuner och landsting2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The determinats of ferry traffic flows: A gravity equation approachManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The Swedish-Finnish ferry shipping market: An economic historical perspectiveManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Utrikeshandeln i norra Sverige och Finland2003In: Ekonomiska samfundets tidskrift, ISSN 0013-3183, E-ISSN 2323-1378, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 69-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I artikeln studeras sammansättningen av utrikeshandel i Botniaområdet, de svenska länen Västerbotten och Västernorrland och de finländska f.d. Vasa län. I studien används Heckscher-Ohlinteorin för att analysera förhållandet mellan utrikeshandels sammansättning, faktorintensitet och faktortillgångar. Den empiriska analysen stödjer teorin. Botniaområdet har en omfattande nettoexport av produkter från industrier som har hög naturintensitet och energiintensitet. Slutsatsen är att de komparativa fördelarna baseras på de i området relativt rika faktortillgångarna.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Insurance and income growth: The case of Sweden 1830-1950Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate supply and demand factors that have been put forward to explain the growth of insurance markets during the financial revolution. We conclude that income growth, urbanisation, changes in risk and price are not sufficient to explain Swedish insurance market growth prior to 1900. Instead, we argue that cultural factors, i.e. the dismantling of ideas and business cultures based on the estates of the realms was essential for explaining the growth of insurance markets foremost between 1855 and 1900.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Life insurance and income growth: the case of Sweden 1830-19502010In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 203-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we provide an analysis of the life insurance market in Sweden from the early 19th century to the mid 20th century. We consider determinants put forward in the financial history literature to explain the growth of life insurance. The paper shows that income elasticity of demand gives a fairly good approximation of the development in the twentieth century, while the development of risk and insurance innovation among other things need to be taken into account to explain the growth of life insurance in nineteenth century. The price of life insurance, measured as the overhead-to-premium-income-ratio, remained fairly constant during the second half of the 19th century, while the risk, as indicated in terms of crude mortality rates and its volatility did decline.  This probably improved the return on life-insurance savings and further helped the entry of new firms. The average premium size was reduced to enable the diffusion of life insurance to workers.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Is Structural Change Speeding Up? The Case of Sweden, 1850-20002008In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 1750-2837 (electronic) 0358-5522 (paper), Vol. 56, no 3, p. 192-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the importance of structural change on productivity growth and conditions in the labour market. From a productivity perspective, a positive relation is found between structural change and productivity growth from the industrial breakthrough until the first oil crisis. From the early 1970s, this positive relation weakened and eventually became negative as labour moved from high to low productive industries. From a labour market perspective, it is found that extent of sectoral reallocation of labour has become more intense over the twentieth century. The extent of job gains and losses seems to have been more intense during the postwar period than during the industrialization phase.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Unintentional climate policy: Swedish experiences of carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth 1950-20052010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the development of carbon dioxide emissions in Sweden, especially with a focus on the absolute reductions during the post-war period, during the 1970s and 1980s. The paper shows that the largest reductions were achieved before the introduction of an active climate policy in 1991. This was in turn the result of significant improvements in energy efficiency and energy conversion, while structural changes were considerably less important. One reason behind this decoupling process may be that the active energy policy put pressure on households and industries to conserve energy and to substitute from oil to electricity and biofuels. The process was substantially reinforced by the development of world oil prices in combination with the development of domestic electricity prices, where nuclear power seems to have played an important role.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Mike B., Adams
    Jonas, Andersson
    The Historical Relation between Banking, Insurance and Economic Growth in Sweden: 1830 to 19982005Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Compensating the periphery?: regional interest groups and railways in Northern Sweden 1880-19992001In: The state, regulation, and the economy: an historical perspective / [ed] Magnusson, L. & Ottosson, J., Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing , 2001, p. 126-147Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    De okända telefonföreningarnas uppgång och fall1999In: Mellan stat och marknad: kooperation under ett sekel / [ed] Alex, Peder, Ottosson, Jan, & Wikström, Berith, Stockholm: Fören. Kooperativa studier , 1999, p. 169-188Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    De osynliga användarna: telefonen och vardagslivet 1880-19951998In: Den konstruerade världen: tekniska system i historiskt perspektiv / [ed] Kaijser, Arne & Blomqvist, Pär, Eslöv: B. Östlings bokförl. Symposion , 1998, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    From state railway housekeeping to railway economics: Swedish railway policy and economic transformation after 1920 in an institutional perspective1996In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 23-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the development of Swedish railway policy in the twentieth century is interpreted as a process of institutional change where the effects of real economic development are filtered through the railway's established institutional framework. The change in railway policy is seen as a result of an economic historical process where the industrialisation era's conception of the role of railways in society survives in institutional arrangements, and marks the railways adjustment to present-day economic and soical conditons.

  • 24.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Från hieroglyfer till @: harold A. Innis i informationssamhällets skugga2001In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 193-219Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Från normalspår till bredband: Svensk kommunikationspolitik i framtidens tjänst 1850-20002002In: Omvandlingens sekel: perspektiv på ekonomi och samhälle i 1900-talets Sverige / [ed] Andersson-Skog, Lena & Krantz, Olle, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2002, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Från ren energi till farligt avfall – kärnavfallsfrågans reglering i det svenska välfärdsbyggandet. En ekonomisk historisk översikt.2005In: Kärnavfallets politiska utmaningar, Hedemora ; Möklinta : Gidlund , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    ikea markandsför det svenska folkhemmet2015In: Respons, no 1Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    In the shadow of the Swedish welfare state: women and the service sector2007In: Business history review, ISSN 0007-6805, E-ISSN 2044-768X, Vol. 81, p. 451-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The twentieth-century history of the Swedish welfare state and public-service sector is critical to understanding the changing role of women in Sweden, as the expansion of the country's service production, beginning in the 1960s, has been mainly the result of welfare-state policies. Yet women's self-employment and wage work in the service industry has been neglected as an economic factor in both traditional economic and business-history accounts and in historical studies of gender. Some suggestions are made for future explorations of the Swedish service sector as it operates in the shadow of the welfare state.

  • 29.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Kommunikationer i ekonomisk-historisk belysning2006In: Sverige - en social och ekonomisk historia, Lund : Studentlitteratur , 2006, p. 345-370Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Kriser, motståndskraft och förändringsförmåga2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Kunskapsläget på kärnavfallsområdet 2007: nu levandes ansvar, framtida generationers frihet2007Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Kvinnors företagande i ett historiskt perspektiv: mellan familj, stat och marknad2008In: Sesam öppna dig!: Forskarperspektiv på kvinnors företagande / [ed] Larsson, Pär, Göransson, Ulla & Lagerhielm, Magnus, Stockholm: VINNOVA , 2008Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Med jämställdhet mot en uthållig framtid?: policyförändringar i svensk transportpolitik under 1990-talet2004In: Strukturernas dynamik : kontinuitet och förändring i ekonomisk historia : festskrift till Olle Krantz, Umeå : Univ., Inst. för ekonomisk historia, 2004 (Umeå : Print & Media, Umeå universitet) , 2004, p. 143-158Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Mellan försörjning och tillväxt: Arbetsmarknad, företagnade och ekonomisk politik efter 19502012In: Den hållbara svenska modellen: Innovationskraft, förnyelse och effektivitet / [ed] Lars Magnusson & Jan Ottosson, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2012, 1, p. 126-143Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    National patterns and the regulation of railways and telephony in the Nordic Countries up to 19502000In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 30-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that the railways, as the first national industrialization project, became role models for public regulatory solutions in other industries in the same country.  However, it still has to be explored if the institutional arrangements have actually been transferred from the railways to other industries. Comparative country analysis may increase our understanding of how institutions changes and eventually are ‘inherited’ by other industries. In this paper the question of whether or not the bias of the railway policy in the various Nordic countries found its way into a later emerging network industry, the telephone industry is discussed. The result shows that even as similar railway regulations emerged in the Nordic countries from the 1920s, the regulation of the telephone industries did not emerge along the same lines. Here, two different regulatory trajectories were established, one in Sweden and Norway and another one in Denmark and Finland. Here other factors such as for instance political bargaining power and national and regional development strategies must be taken into consideration.

  • 36.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Political economy and institutional diffusion: the case of Swedish railways and telecommunications up to 19501999In: Institutions in the transport and communciations industries: State and Private ACtors in the Making of Institutional Patterns, 1850-1990. / [ed] Anersson-Skog, Lena & Krantz, Olle, Cambridge, England: Science History Publications Ltd , 1999, p. 245-166Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Problematisering med förhinder2004In: Historisk tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 124, no 4, p. 656-661Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Revisiting railway history: the cse of institutional change and path dependence2009In: The evolution of path dependence / [ed] Magnusson, Lars & Ottosson, Jan, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing , 2009Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The making of national telephone networks in Scandinavia: the state and the emergence of national regulatory patterns1997In: Evolutonary economics and path dependence / [ed] Magnusson, Lars & Ottosson, Jan, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited , 1997, p. 138-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    The telephone-net wars : the telephone market between state and private business in Stockholm, 1890-19022004In: Markets and embeddedness: essays in honour of Ulf Olsson, Göteborg : Department of Economic History, School of Economics and Commercial Law, Göteborg University, 2004 (Kungälv : Livréna) , 2004, p. 13-26Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Tidsperspektivet2007Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Växtkraft av kärnkraft? Kärnkraftetableringens socioekonomiska effekter i Oskarshamn och Östhammar 1960-2000: SKB Rapport R-07-022007Report (Other academic)
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    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Var god tag plats - nu går sista bussen2011Report (Other academic)
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    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
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    Swedish economic history writing: self-suffiency or recognition of the international context?2003In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 75-87Article in journal (Refereed)
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