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  • 1.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Paulin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, bi-weekly body conditioning classes in sedentary women2017In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 31, no 2, 451-461 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate the effects of participation in low impact body conditioning classes on physical fitness in sedentary women at different ages and (2) to examine the correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, the participation. Ninety-two sedentary women (mean age 44.2 years) participated in 11-weeks of bi-weekly classes that included cardiovascular, strength, core, endurance and mobility exercises, all performed in synchrony with music. Cardiorespiratory fitness, maximal lifting strength, mobility and balance tests were performed pre- and post the exercise period and the short-form Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ-S) was completed. Zero-order Spearman correlation analyses showed that women who rated the PSDQ-S dimension Sport competence higher participated in a larger number of sessions (rs=0.24, p=0.040). At post-tests, all participants had increased their balance, the participants aged 20-34 years had increased their lifting strength, and the participants aged 35-65 years had increased their cardiorespiratory fitness and mobility. Most PSDQ-S dimensions did not affect performance change, but the perception of being physically active was related to increased cardiovascular fitness. We conclude that women with a sedentary lifestyle who wish to increase their physical capacity benefit from music exercise and that inquiries about perceived sport competence and physical activity can improve recommendations made by strength and conditioning professionals.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lifbom, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ordförståelse hos äldre vuxna: En valideringsstudie av två test för ordförståelse2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to measure vocabulary is important both in research and clinical settings. This paper has three purposes. The first is to study the psychometric properties of two newly developed parallel tests of vocabulary in a group of old adults. The second purpose of this paper is to investigate age differences in vocabulary. The third purpose is to examine whether the correlations between cognitive abilities grow as a function of increasing age. The present study has used data from a total of 440 participants, of whom 222 have completed Ordprovet A and 218 have completed Ordprovet B. The results of the study have shown that Ordprovet A and B have satisfactory psychometric properties with respect to internal consistency as well as construct and criterion validity. However, the tests seem to suffer from a ceiling effect within this older sample. The results have shown no evidence of age differences in vocabulary or increasing correlations between cognitive abilities as a function of age. This study states that Ordprovet A and B are promising instruments for measuring vocabulary. However, some minor changes could improve the tests further.

  • 3.
    Ackebo, Klas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motivation och engagemang hos innebandytränare: - Ur ett Self-determination Theory-perspektiv2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to Self-determination Theory, people perform better when they experience inner motivation, rather than motivation sprung from external factors. This study aims to examine motivation in floorball coaches. Especially, reasons for starting to work as a coach are examined, as well as relationships between those reasons and the coaches experienced type of motivation. A web-survey was sent to 1059 floorball coaches in Sweden, wich were answered by 355 coaches. The results show 12 reasons why the coaches chose to commit themselves: Their own children, Sports interest, Contribute, Lack of coaches, Enjoyment, Their own development, A general interest, Leadership interest, Social connections, Asked to, Possessed expertise and A good cause. The results also showed that the coaches experienced inner motivation to the largest extent. Several relationships were shown between eight of the categories and the different types of motivation. Of those, the most distinct was the relationship between Contribute and self-determined motivation. This may be due to that the will to contribute can be related to the psychological need for relatedness. The study contributes to the knowledge of factors that may affect inner motivation in athletic coaches.

  • 4.
    Adner, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Axelsson, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy i arbetet med barn och ungdomar: Behandlares erfarenheter och upplevelser av att anpassa och utöva metoden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has examined therapists’ adjustments of ACT with children and adolescents and experiences of practicing the method with said group. Interviews were conducted with seven psychologists and data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Results showed general child-therapeutic adjustments, combining ACT with tCBT and modifications of the ACT principles. Challenges were working with a context with a different agenda, to be flexible and daring to be active and weird. Another challenge was working with a method that isn’t implemented in the workplace and has an uncertain future. Possibilities included using ACT for oneself, working towards positive goals and having fun. Additionally, a view of ACT as a philosophy of life was presented. Dilemmas concerning the use of a method lacking evidence were also presented. Future research can examine the impact of the different ACT principles on psychological flexibility in youths and how challenges in treatment can be overcome.

  • 5.
    Aggelid, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Testeffekten som medel för att förbättra läsförståelse?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish school children exhibit deteriorating knowledge results in terms of reading comprehension. Previous research shows that a method to increase the level of knowledge is the use of evidence-based learning techniques. Test based learning generates what is commonly referred to as a test effect, which proved to strengthen the relationship between learning and memory, as well as being applicable to various test formats. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether test based learning, in terms of learning english words leads to increased performance in a reading comprehension test, more specifically a cloze test. The study was based on a within-group design and was conducted three times over four weeks. The participants (n = 26) were pupils in fifth grade in the age of 10-11 years. The results showed significant main effects of both Learning Method and Time, however, in favor of non test based learning. Overall, the results indicated that forgetfulness over time occurred among participants, regardless Learning Method. Learning seems therefore to be dependent on the time interval between learning and retrieval of information.

  • 6.
    Agnemo, Maja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Skogen i våra hjärtan: Erfarenheter, emotionella band, värderingar och attityder till skog, natur och allemansrätten2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish landscape is dominated by highly valued forests and stakeholders argue different uses. The aim of this study was to investigate peoples experience, emotional bonds and values of forests and nature, their attitudes towards human utilization of nature and right of public access (allemansrätt), including relationships them in between. All in all 663 university students among who 254 were women and 401 were men, with the mean age of 24, answered a survey. The results from correlations show relationships between all variables. An attitude saying that the right of public access is important was predicted by stronger emotional bonds and spending more time in the forest. An attitude saying that the right of public access should be restricted was predicted by higher valuing of forest production and was more common among forest owners. The results implicate that emotions, which are strong incentives for action and created by experience, should be considered to better accomplish environmental goals. Environments necessary for experiencing nature should be provided, which is today made possible by right of public access to nature. 

  • 7.
    Agritellis, Ioannis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Social media as the Cosmo Neighborhood2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world has been transformed through the internet into a "global village",and social media platforms have possibly transformed the world into a larger neighborhood covering many regions of the world. Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter came into people’s lives through the Internet, growing daily at a large rate, and it has been proven that they are very popular. This study examines links between different phenomena through social media platforms (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, blogs, etc.). It is discusses cohesiveness, desire to belong, sense of community, beliefs and opinions about different forms of these phenomena in popular virtual platforms in correlation with trust in social media, criticism of information that is spread by these virtual platforms, and if people are influenced in consumer decision making. A questionnaire has been distributed to a convenient sample of 159 international and Swedish students in Sweden in October-November 2012 in both English and Swedish versions. According to the peoples’ answers, tendencies were observed such as to not trust the platforms, and also the information received, beliefs such that social media are "controlled", negative critique, but also an expression for a need for ‘membership’.

  • 8.
    Ahl, Astrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Olofsson, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Taube, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Studenter med dyslexi inom högre utbildning i Sverige och Storbritannien2010In: Dyslexi : aktuellt om läs- och skrivsvårigheter, ISSN 1401-2480, no 3, 4-9 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Ahlberg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hallgren, Marie
    Träning av exekutiva funktioner jos vuxna: En 19 månaders uppföljning2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Flera studier visar att exekutiva funktioner kan förbättras genom träning. Trots detta är det oklart hur stabila träningseffekter är över tid. Denna studie undersöker om ett träningsprogram som adresser tre exekutiva funktioner ger stabila tränings‐ och transfereffekter hos friska unga individer. Syftet med studien var att följa upp ett träingsprogram som tränade uppdatering, skiftning och inhibering och undersöka om de effekterna som uppmättes vid posttestning fortfarande bestod efter 19 månader. I studien deltog 11 personer från träingsgruppen och åtta från kontrollgruppen. Resultaten visade på tendenser till bestånde effekter i den tränade uppgiften Bokstaven. 

    Analyserna visade på en liknande trend, tendenser till bestånde nära transfer, för en otränad uppgift som mäter uppdateringsfömåga. Vad gäller avlägsen transfer kunde inga bestånde effekter redovisas. Arbetsminnesträing är ett forskningsfält med måga obesvarade fråor och motsägelsefulla resultat. För att föstå vilka faktorer som driver transfereffekter och ger kvarstånde resultat behövs fler studier som undersöer vilken typ av träing som ger generaliserade föbättringar som håller i sig över tid.

  • 10. Ahlborg, Liv
    et al.
    Hedman, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Murkes, Daniel
    Westman, Bo
    Kjellin, Ann
    Fellander-Tsai, Li
    Enochsson, Lars
    Visuospatial ability correlates with performance in simulated gynecological laparoscopy2011In: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, ISSN 0301-2115, E-ISSN 1872-7654, Vol. 157, no 1, 73-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To analyze the relationship between visuospatial ability and simulated laparoscopy performed by consultants in obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN). Study design: This was a prospective cohort study carried out at two community hospitals in Sweden. Thirteen consultants in obstetrics and gynecology were included. They had previously independently performed 10-100 advanced laparoscopies. Participants were tested for visuospatial ability by the Mental Rotations Test version A (MRT-A). After a familiarization session and standardized instruction, all participants subsequently conducted three consecutive virtual tubal occlusions followed by three virtual salpingectomies. Performance in the simulator was measured by Total Time, Score and Ovarian Diathermy Damage. Linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between visuospatial ability and simulated laparoscopic performance. The learning curves in the simulator were assessed in order to interpret the relationship with the visuospatial ability. Results: Visuospatial ability correlated with Total Time (r = -0.62; p = 0.03) and Score (r = 0.57; p = 0.05) in the medium level of the virtual tubal occlusion. In the technically more advanced virtual salpingectomy the visuospatial ability correlated with Total Time (r = -0.64; p = 0.02), Ovarian Diathermy Damage (r = -0.65; p = 0.02) and with overall Score (r = 0.64; p = 0.02). Conclusions: Visuospatial ability appears to be related to the performance of gynecological laparoscopic procedures in a simulator. Testing visuospatial ability might be helpful when designing individual training programs.

  • 11.
    Ahlner, Ola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Avdic, Kenan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Acceptance and Commiment Therapy: Enbent existentiell efterapning eller härlig humanistisk hybrid?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete undersöker ACT och ställer frågan om terapiformen kan betraktas som en existentiell beteendeterapi. Ett material bestående av 53 vetenskapliga artiklar undersöktes med en tematisk innehållsanalys för att få en bred och aktuell bild av ACT i avseende på teori, praxis och människosyn. Resultatet sattes in i en psykologihistorisk kontext i allmänhet och en beteendepsykologiskt kontext i synnerhet. Det som talar emot ACT som en existentiell beteendeterapi är främst bristen på oppositionella inslag och kritik av den vetenskapliga normen. I andra vågskålen placerar resultatet det holistiska perspektivet samt synen på människan som ickedeterminerad. Även synen på den mänskliga ångesten som oundviklig samt tyngdvikten på värdestyrt beteende pekar i riktning mot att ACT kan betraktas som en existentiell beteendeterapi. Författarna diskuterar slutligen om detta kan säga något om dagens syn på olika psykologiska ideologier.

  • 12.
    Ahlqvist, Jan B
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Nilsson, Tore A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Hedman, Leif R
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Desser, Terry S
    Dev, Parvati
    Johansson, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Youngblood, Patricia L
    Cheng, Robert P
    Gold, Garry E
    A randomized controlled trial on 2 simulation-based training methods in radiology: effects on radiologic technology student skill in assessing image quality.2013In: Simulation in Healthcare: The Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare, ISSN 1559-2332, E-ISSN 1559-713X, Vol. 8, no 6, 382-387 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: A simulator for virtual radiographic examinations was developed. In the virtual environment, the user can perform and analyze radiographic examinations of patient models without the use of ionizing radiation. We investigated if this simulation technique could improve education of radiology technology students. We compared student performance in the assessment of radiographic image quality after training with a conventional manikin or with the virtual radiography simulator.

    METHODS: A randomized controlled experimental study involving 31 first-year radiology technology students was performed. It was organized in 4 phases as follows: (I) randomization to control or experimental group based on the results of an anatomy examination; (II) proficiency testing before training; (III) intervention (control group, exposure and analysis of radiographic images of the cervical spine of a manikin; experimental group, exposure and analysis of the cervical spine images in the virtual radiography simulator); and (IV) proficiency testing after training.

    RESULTS: The experimental group showed significantly higher scores after training compared with those before training (P < 0.01). A linear mixed-effect analysis revealed a significant difference between the control and experimental groups regarding proficiency change (P = 0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: Virtual radiographic simulation is an effective tool for learning image quality assessment. Simulation can therefore be a valuable adjunct to traditional educational methods and reduce exposure to x-rays and tutoring time.

  • 13.
    Aittamaa, Lina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ek, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    "Det är väl mest jag själv som är problemet"Berättelser om nedstämdhet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskare har påpekat vikten av att förstå erfarenheter av att vara deprimerad eller nedstämd. I linje med detta syftade denna studie till att undersöka och belysa upplevelser av och reflektioner kring vardagen som nedstämd. Vidare var syftet att visa på kulturella resurser (diskurser) som finns tillgängliga för att berätta om en vardag som nedstämd. Vi genomförde halvstrukturerade intervjuer med personer som sökt till ett behandlingsprogram för depression, och som därmed definierat sig själva som nedstämda. Vi analyserade 28 intervjuer med hjälp av tematisk analys och diskursanalytiska metoder. Vi fann att informanterna använde sig av åtminstone fem olika typer av förklaringar som kretsade kring tidiga erfarenheter, personlighet, livskris, eget ansvar och biologi. Vidare fann vi att berättelserna kring nedstämdheten på flera sätt kunde beröra hur levnadssituationen hos informanterna såg ut. Ofta var dock levnadssituationen på samma gång helt frånvarande när det kom till att förklara nedstämdheten. Vårt resultat visade att individfokuserade diskurser var dominerande för att berätta om nedstämdhet, medan diskurser med fokus på yttre omständigheter, exempelvis livssituation, var marginaliserade.

  • 14.
    Alatalo, Marita
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Zackrisson, Uno
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Utvärdering av kollektivtrafikprojekt1996Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Aldrin, Lina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kennedy, Maeve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hälsobesvär vid icke-toxisk kemisk exponering: Effekter av negativ affekt och luktvalens2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Alfredsson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    INNOVATIVE TOOL-MODIFICATIONS AND TOOL SELECTIVITY IN NEW CALEDONIAN CROWS (CORVUS MONEDULOIDES)2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tool-use and tool-manufacture are thought to require high cognitive skills and have been considered as an exclusive attribute to primates. Recent observations of New Caledonian crows (NCCs) challenge this assumption. In this study 13 NCCs were tested with two different tool production tasks. The NCC either had to straighten a hook or bend a stick to retrieve food from two different kinds of tree trunks. The result showed that 3/5 birds bent sticks and used them to retrieve food and 1/5 birds straightened hooks to retrieve food. The birds managed to solve both tasks but not the birds in the control group. This indicates that NCC's tool making is a flexible innovative act and not just an innate predisposition to bend flexible material. This finding is interesting given that recent studies on human children show that below 8 years of age children fail in similar innovative tool making tasks.

  • 17.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agreement of driving examiners' assessments - Evaluating the reliability of the Swedish driving test2013In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 19, 22-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the consistency of examiner assessments of test-takers' performance on the Swedish driving test. The study included 535 tests and was designed so that the ordinary examiner and a supervising examiner assessed the same test-taker. The assessment was done on a two-grade rating scale (pass/fail). Since the result can be affected by factors associated with the test-taker and the two examiners, questionnaires were developed and these were filled in by the test-takers and the examiners. Information about the administration of the test was collected via a specially designed form filled in by the supervising examiner. Using this form, the ordinary examiners' performance was rated on a number of aspects. The result from the study indicated that the agreement between the assessments was very good. For 93% of the tests the two examiners chose the same mark on the two-grade scale. In the cases where ratings differed, the analysis indicated only a few systematic differences among variables designed to provide possible explanations for differences in opinion. However, none of these was problematic with respect to consistency of assessment. Results indicated that most tests were carried out in a satisfactory manner. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All Tights reserved.

  • 18.
    Allan, Veronica
    et al.
    School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Turnnidge, Jennifer
    School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Vierimaa, Matthew
    Department of Kinesiology & Health Science, Utah State University, Logan, USA.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Côté, Jean
    School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Development of the Assessment of Coach Emotions systematic observation instrument: A tool to evaluate coaches’ emotions in the youth sport context2016In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 11, no 6, 859-871 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research on emotions in sport focuses heavily on athletes’ intrapersonal emotion regulation; however, interpersonal consequences of emotion regulation are garnering recent attention. As leaders in sport, coaches have the opportunity to regulate not only their own emotions, but also those of athletes, officials, and spectators. As such, the present study set out to develop an observational tool, demonstrating evidence of validity and reliability, for measuring coaches’ overt emotions in the youth sport context. Categories were derived and refined through extensive literature and video review, resulting in 12 categories of behavioural content and eight emotion modifiers (NeutralHappyAffectionateAlertTenseAnxiousAngry and Disappointed). The final coding system is presented herein, complete with supporting evidence for validity and reliability. As a tool for both researchers and practitioners in sport, the Assessment of Coach Emotions (ACE) offers enhanced insight into the contextual qualities underlying coaches’ interactive behaviours.

  • 19.
    Allzèn-Melander, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Betydelsen av KASAM i relation till livsbalans och psykosocial arbetsmiljö för operativa chefer2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 20.
    Alm, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Learning of probabilistic inference tasks: effects of uncertainty and function form1982Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is concerned with the problem of how people learn to use uncer­tain information for making judgments. The general framework for the thesis is Social Judgment Theory (SJT). First the S3T paradigm, and some research conducted within the paradigm, is briefly described, and a series of four empirical studies is summarized. The studies are concerned with two factors that have been found to have great effect on subjects achievement in cue probability learning (CPL) tasks: task predictability, and the form of the function relating cue and criterion. The effects of these two factors were studied in experiments employing cue-probability learning tasks. The studies concerned with task predictability addressed the following questions (a) Do subjects understand the probabilistic nature of CPL-tasks? (b) Are subjects able to detect that a random task is, in fact, random, a study undertaken to test an aspect of Seligmans "theory of helplessness". This was also an attempt to bring emotional factors more in foeus.(c) Do subjects use data from the task only to test hypotheses, or do they use data also to construct hypotheses?

    The results showed that (a) subjects do not seem to be able to cope with probabilistic tasks in an optimal statistical manner. Instead they seem to use a deterministic approach to the tasks, because they do not understand the probabilistic nature of the task, (b) Task predictability affecs subjects mood, but not in the way predicted by Seligman, (c) Subjects seem to use data frorn the task only to test their hypotheses. The results thus supported the hypo­theses sampling model for the learning of CPL-tasks.

    As for the factor of function form, the following questions were addressed, (a) What hypotheses about relations between variables do subjects have? (b) Is the difficulties subjects have in learning complex rules in CPL-tasks due to a low availability of hypotheses about complex rules? The results showed that, (a) the hypothesis hierarchy as revealed in the present experiments was in general agreement with earlier results. However, few nonlinear hypotheses were observed, and other rules than functional rules were observed, (b) The difficulties subjects have to learn complex rules in CPL-tasks do not seem to be caused by low availability of rules.

    Finally, some suggestions are given for how the SJT-paradigm should be deve­loped. Specifically, it is suggested that the effects of emotional factors should be given more attention, and that the paradigm should be turned into a more general hypothesis testing model

  • 21.
    Almgren, Anton
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Winbäck, Hannes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Användbarhet inom människa-datorinteraktion i praktiken: En kartläggning av utvärderingsmetoder2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att kartlägga yrkesverksammas preferenser och användning av utvärderingsmetoder för användbarhet inom människa-datorinteraktion. En webbenkät distribuerades via epost till företag med minst en anställd som arbetar med användbarhet samt via sociala medier genom intresseorganisationen STIMDI och företaget Inuse. Totalt erhölls 104 svarande varav en räknades som bortfall då den ansågs vara en dubblett. Resultaten visar att ingen enskild eller kombination av metoder används oftast och rankas ge högst effekt på användbarhet. Angående vilka utvärderingsmetoder som används är intervju och tänka högt med användare de två metoder som nämns av flest deltagare. Resultaten visar även att nästan 80 % skattar användning av utvärderingsmetoder och involvering av användare i deras arbete som mycket viktigt. En tydlig preferens för att involvera användare och arbeta med kombinationer av metoder framgår i denna kartläggning. Forskning bör möjligtvis fokusera mer på hur användandet av utvärderingsmetoder sker i kombination. 

  • 22.
    Almlöv, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Källqvist, Karin
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Paxling, Björn
    Linköping University, Sweden and Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Sweden and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Therapist effects in guided internet-delivered CBT for Anxiety Disorders2011In: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, ISSN 1352-4658, E-ISSN 1469-1833, Vol. 39, no 3, 311-322 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Guided internet-delivered CBT for anxiety disorders has received increasing empirical support, but little is known regarding the role of the therapist.

    Aims: This study addressed therapist factors in guided internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders.

    Method: Data from three controlled trials with a total N of 119 were analyzed with attention to differences between eight therapists.

    Results: No significant mean level differences between therapists appeared in the dataset. However, one significant intraclass correlation between participants was found, suggesting that the outcome on the Beck Anxiety Inventory might have been influenced by the impact of the individual therapists.

    Conclusion: The therapist can possibly have some influence on the outcome of guided internet-delivered CBT for anxiety disorders, but studies with more statistical power are needed to establish whether therapist effects are present in this modality of psychological treatment. The present study was underpowered to detect minor therapist effects.

  • 23.
    Almroth, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kvinnliga fitness-atleters berättelser om hur de påverkats av en coach-styrd diet: Med specifikt fokus på tankar och känslor om kroppen samt förhållningssätt till mat2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the sport Fitness and Bodybuilding many athletes seeks help from a coach with the competition-diet. This study aimed to examine the perceived impact from the coach on female fitness athletes' approach to food and their thoughts and feelings about their body. This was examined by five semi-structured interviews that were interpreted by using thematic analysis, and resulted in four main themes: The coach's position of power, Relationship to food, Thoughts and feelings about the body and The need for the coach post-diet. The coaches were ascribed an authoritarian position where they could practice influence over the athletes. The athletes were affected differently; from a more healthy relationship to food, to an increased need for control of, and preoccupation about, food, as well as from a growing body satisfaction to increased body dissatisfaction. The coaches were not the only factor accountable for how the athletes were affected, but the their responsibility should be emphasized as the they seemed to be in a position where they could either prevent or worsen eating disorder-related symptoms. Thus, coaches within Fitness and Bodybuilding should consider the influence they have on their athletes.

  • 24.
    Amorim, Filipe
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lam, Mei Ka Geraldine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Self-Esteem and Anxiety among Asian and European students2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Self-esteem and Anxiety have been widely studied back-to-back on the premises of academic settings, since research has shown that they interact with eachother. The current study compares the score of self-esteem and anxiety of international students currently studying at Umeå University. Thirty students from Europe and Asia have been accessed respectively through usage of a questionnaire designed for its purpose. Overall, Europeans has higher self-esteem than Asians, however, there is no significant difference between Europeans and Asians regarding to anxiety. When taking the lowest ten subjects and the highest ten subjects’ self-esteem scores and compared them within the two cultural groups, significant difference was shown in anxiety, especially in the high self-esteem group of Asians. Asian Top-10 students’ self-esteem tend to have extra worries than others. The implication of this study suggests whether high self-esteem will also exacerbate the level of anxiety among Asians and buffer the anxiety of Westerns due their higher self-esteem.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Anton
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Morawski, Klara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    "De är inga konstverk, men de visar ju vad man känner": En fallstudie av en tidsbegränsad psykodynamisk bildpsykoterapi2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas outcome research has shown that art therapy can be effective, studies exploring the process of change in art therapy are scarce. In this single case study, the overall aim was to examine and gain a deeper understanding of the process of change in a time-limited psychodynamic art psychotherapy. Since working with emotions is considered an important factor in psychotherapeutic change, an in-depth exploration of the relationship between artwork and emotions was made. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse ten sessions of art psychotherapy and the overall theme in the process of change was changed view of oneself and others. In the exploration of artwork and emotions the themes found were experiencing emotions, expressing emotions and making emotions possible to express and transform. In conclusion, this study showed how the process in a case of art psychotherapy could present itself in changes in the client’s view of herself and others. The study also showed how artwork helped the client to work with her emotions.

  • 26.
    Andersson Bsenko, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hjerling, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kognitiv beteendeterapi och interpersonell terapi vid social fobi förmedlad via smarttelefon2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kontrollerade studier har visat att internetförmedlad datorbaserad kognitiv beteendeterapi (KBT) är effektiv i behandling av social fobi. Denna randomiserade och kontrollerade studie undersökte effektiviteten av två smarttelefonförmedlade självhjälpsprogram för vuxna personer med social fobi. Totalt randomiserades 52 deltagare till antingen KBT (n = 27) eller Interpersonell terapi (IPT) (n = 25). Självhjälpsmaterial presenterades i en smarttelefonanpassad webbsida och användes i kombination med veckovis terapeutkontakt i ett slutet meddelandesystem. Det primära utfallsmåttet var Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale‐Self Rate (LSAS‐SR; Fresco et al., 2001). Variansanalys med upprepad mätning visade en signifikant huvudeffekt av tid och en interaktionstrend (p=0.051) grupp × tid som pekade på större föbättring i KBT‐gruppen. Ytterligare analyser med beroende t‐test visade en signifikant föbättring i KBT men inte IPT‐gruppens, skattningar på LSAS‐SR från för‐ till eftermäning.

    Oberoende t‐test visade en signifikant lägre ångestnivå hos KBT relativt IPT‐gruppen mätt med LSAS‐SR vid den sista behandlingsveckan. Måttliga effektstorlekar i behandlingsutfall uppnåddes mellan grupperna (Cohens d = 0.56) och inom KBT‐gruppen (= 0.71). En liten effektstorlek sågs för IPT‐gruppen ( = 0.23). Sammantaget tenderade KBT ge bättre ångestlindring än IPT vid smarttelefon anpassad behandling av social fobi. Vidare studier behövs med störe gruppstorlekar och tillvaratagande av utväderingar från deltagare.

  • 27. Andersson, C.
    et al.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Beskrivning och symbolisk tolkning av de enskilda leksakerna i Ericamaterialet1986In: Att bygga sin värld: Handbok i Ericametoden / [ed] Allis Danielsson, Stockholm: Psykologiförlaget , 1986, 201-223 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28. Andersson, C.
    et al.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ericametoden - En lekdiagnostisk metod: Bearbetning av material, protokoll och utvärderingsblankett, 1:a upplagan1982Report (Other academic)
  • 29. Andersson, C
    et al.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Symboler och lek1986In: Att bygga sin värld: handbok i Ericametoden, Stockholm: Psykologiförlaget , 1986, 224-228 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Andersson, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Associations between atherosclerotic plaque and self-efficacy, depression and anxiety in an asymptomatic general population aged 602017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are caused by atherosclerosis. Carotid plaques are associated with increased risk of CVD, independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Evidence of early disease is demonstrated before onset and can be assessed with ultrasound. Psychosocial stressors, together with raised lipids and smoking have been identified as the most important risk factors. Cognitive factors such as self-efficacy have been identified as important constructs for health behaviors, and emotional factors do also play a role in this context. Therefore, the present study investigated the association between general self-efficacy, health-specific self-efficacy, anxiety and depression, on the one hand, and atherosclerosis, on the other hand, in a sample of 2291 participants aged 60 year from a general asymptomatic population. Among 2291 participants, 1247 had plaque and 1044 did not have plaque. The results showed that depression (in men only) and anxiety (in participants with university education only) were associated with plaque, and health-specific self-efficacy (in men only) was associated with absence of plaque. However, when statistically controlled for snuff, smoking, harmful alcohol consumption, diabetes, myocardial infarction, hypertension, hypercholesterol and sex or education no group differences were found. Variables share biomedical factors and is therefore possible statistically over-controlled. From an epidemiological perspective, even small changes obtained in a large population have high impact. Therefore, the research question is important and needs to be adressed with interdiciplinary compentence.

  • 31.
    Andersson, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Which aspects of poor mental health do best predict onset of functional somatic syndromes?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Functional somatic syndromes (FSS) are also known as subjective health complaints or medically unexplained symptoms, because no organic changes can explain the affected individuals’ aversive experiences. FSS are often associated with poor mental health, so the goal of present study was to examine which of the most common factors of poor mental health (including depression, anxiety, stress, exhaustion syndrome/ burnout and sleeping problems) that best predicts FSS (either fibromyalgia syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine and/or chronic fatigue syndrome). To achieve this goal I used longitudinal data from a population-based survey, filled out by the same individuals with a three–year interval (T1 and T2). Two approaches were used to assess these factors of poor mental health, one approach assessed these factors with questionnaires; the other with a single question about diagnoses made by a physician. Results of the questionnaire based diagnoses showed that burnout was the strongest (z-score difference between groups who had and who had not developed FSS at T2 = 0.618) and stress the second strongest predictor of FSS (z-score difference = 0.607). All the mental health factors were statistically significant predictors of FSS with large effect sizes, except depression, which had a much lower effect size. The results of the single question assessed diagnoses (adjusted for sex and marital status) showed a tendency towards generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (odds ratio =4.42 (1.47–13.2)) and depression (odds ratio= 3.90 (2.42–6.31)) to be the strongest predictors. The effect sizes for GAD and depression were medium to large while insomnia and exhaustion were small to medium. However, the large overlaps in confidence intervals for the odds ratios between diagnoses make these results less significant. These mental health conditions seem to be closely intertwined, and it is difficult to discern which ones are more important in predicting FSS. I conclude that stress in general is a major factor, whether psychological or physical.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Walén, Christian
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hallberg, Jonas
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Paxling, Björn
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Mats
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden; Psykologpartners, Linköping, Sweden.
    Almlöv, Jonas
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Källström, Reidar
    Department of Urology, University Hospital Linköping, Linköping, Sweden;.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping.
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden, †Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Sweden; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; .
    A randomized controlled trial of guided internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for erectile dysfunction2011In: Journal of Sexual Medicine, ISSN 1743-6095, E-ISSN 1743-6109, Vol. 8, no 10, 2800-2809 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Men with erectile dysfunction are often worried about their condition, have interpersonal difficulties, and have a reduced quality of life. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been shown effective for a number of health problems but evidence is limited concerning the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

    Aim: The study investigated the effects of ICBT for erectile dysfunction.

    Methods: Seventy-eight men were included in the study and randomized to either ICBT or to a control group, which was an online discussion group. Treatment consisted of a 7-week Web-based program with e-mail-based therapist support. Each therapist spent an average of 55 minutes per participant.

    Main Outcome Measure: The International Index of Erectile Functioning five-item version was administered via the telephone at pretreatment, post-treatment, and 6 months after receiving ICBT.

    Results: At post-treatment, the treatment group had significantly greater improvements with regard to erectile performance compared with the control group. Between-group differences at post-treatment were small (d =0.1), but increased at the 6-month follow-up (d =0.88).

    Conclusions: This study provides support for the use of ICBT as a possible treatment format for erectile dysfunction.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Fanny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effekter av SIM (Speed Intuition Management) på medarbetares kognitiva motivation: Utvärdering av företaget Björn Lundéns ledarskapsstil, SIM-metoden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim is to investigate how different organizational structures affectemployees perception of their workplace, from the basis of Self-determination theory.By investigating employees at a more traditional company and a SIM-company, it will bepossible to measure how different work situations are perceived by employees, and howit affects the motivation to work. Thirtyeight people took part in the study. The studyhas a quantitative approach where the empirical part consists of 45 questions. The firstpart of the questionnaire is based on the SDT theory ISS-C, which meassure employeesexperience of their boss and BPNWS who is a measure of the degree to which employeesfeel their need of the following three factors, met at their workplace: Competence,Relatedness and Autonomy. The results are in line with the hypothesis and whetherpeople are motivated differently by using the SIM-method. ISS-C containing the fourcategories, autonomy, involvement, structure and controlling, tend to be higher at theSIM-company compare to the other company. The result is positive because themotivational factors are contributing to a greater well-being and better performingemployees, who are much more content with their working environment.

  • 34.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University,Linköping, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Panic disorder2011In: Stepped care and e-health: Practical applications to behavioral disorders / [ed] William T. O´Donohue and Crissa Draper, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2011, 61-76 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder that is characterized by recurrent and unexpected panic attacks. In this chapter to authors present a stepped care approach to the treatment of panic disorder and provide a comprehensive review of bibliotherapy and recent Internet-delivered treatments.

  • 35.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder)2011In: Stepped care and e-Health: Practical applications to behavioral disorders / [ed] William T. O`Donohue and Crissa Draper, New York, Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London: Springer-Verlag New York, 2011, 1, 99-113 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Department of Behavioural Sciences an Learning, Linköpings University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Using different communication channels to support internet interventions2010In: Oxford Guide to Low Intensity CBT Interventions / [ed] James Bennett-Levy, David Richards, Paul Farrand, Helen Christensen, Kathy Griffiths, David Kavanagh, Britt Klein, Mark A. Lau, Judy Proudfoot, Lee Ritterband, Chris Williams and Jim White, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2010, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linkö ping, Sweden and Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Therapist experience and knowledge acquisition in internet-delivered CBT for social anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 5, e37411- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in several trials on social anxiety disorder (SAD) with moderate to large effects. The aims of this study were threefold. First, to compare the effects of ICBT including online discussion forum with a moderated online discussion forum only. Second, to investigate if knowledge about SAD increased following treatment and third to compare the effects of inexperienced versus experienced therapists on patient outcomes.

    Methods: A total of 204 participants with a primary diagnosis of SAD were included and randomized to either guided ICBT or the control condition. ICBT consisted of a 9-week treatment program which was guided by either psychology students at MSc level (n = 6) or by licensed psychologists with previous experience of ICBT (n = 7). A knowledge test dealing with social anxiety was administered before and after treatment. Measures of social anxiety and secondary outcomes dealing with general anxiety, depression, and quality of life were administered before and after treatment. In addition, a 1-year follow-up was conducted on the treated individuals.

    Results: Immediately following treatment, the ICBT group showed superior outcome on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale self-report version with a between group posttreatment Hedges geffect size ofg = 0.75. In addition, significant differences on all the secondary outcomes were observed. Gains were well maintained one year later. Knowledge, as assessed by the knowledge test, increased following treatment with little gain in the control group. Therapist experience did not result in different outcomes, but experienced therapists logged in less frequently compared to the inexperienced therapists, suggesting that they needed less time to support patients.

    Discussion: We conclude that guided ICBT reduce symptoms of SAD, increase knowledge about SAD and that therapist experience does not make a difference apart from the finding that experienced therapist may require less time to guide patients.

    Trial Registration: UMIN.ac.jp UMIN000001383

  • 38.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Department of Behavioural Scinces and Learning, Linköping University.
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Challenges and potential solutions in integrating internet-based CBT interventions into spacialist services2010In: Oxford Guide to Low Intensity CBT Intervantions / [ed] James Bennett-Levy, David a. Richards, Paul Farrand, Helen Christensen, Kathleen M. Griffiths, David J. Kavanagh, Britt Klein, Mark A. Lau, Judy Proudfoot, Lee Ritterband, Jim White, Chris Williams, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2010, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Linköpings universitet.
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svanborg, Cecilia
    Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Bergström, Jan
    Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, avdelning psykiatri, Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Paniksyndrom: ond cirkel av feltolkade kroppsliga signaler2011In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 108, no 14, 795-797 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Attacker av intensiv rädsla utan tydlig yttre orsak som leder till rädsla för nya attacker – det kännetecknar paniksyndrom. Evidensbaserade behandlingsalternativ finns, och det finns inget skäl att avvakta med behandling.

  • 40.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden and Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Estling, Fanny
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Ebba
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Department of Clinical Psychology, Vrjie Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Can the patient decide which modules to endorse?: an open trial of tailored internet treatment of anxiety disorders2011In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 1, no 40, 57-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy commonly consists of disorder-specific modules that are based on face-to-face manuals. A recent development in the field is to tailor the treatment according to patient profile, which has the potential to cover comorbid conditions in association with anxiety and mood disorders. However, it could be that the patients themselves are able to decide what modules to use. The authors tested this in an open pilot trial with 27 patients with mixed anxiety disorders. Modules were introduced with a brief description, and patients could choose which modules to use. The exception was the two first modules and the last, which involved psychoeducation and relapse prevention. The treatment period lasted for 10 weeks. Results showed large within-group effect sizes, with an average Cohen’s  d of 0.88. In a structured clinical interview, a majority (54%) had significantly improved 10 weeks after commencing treatment. Only one person dropped out. On the basis of results of this preliminary study, the authors suggest that the role of choice and tailoring should be further explored in controlled trials and that patient choice could be incorporated into Internet-delivered treatment packages.

     

     

  • 41. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Hummerdal, Daniel
    Bergman-Nordgren, Lise
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A 3.5-year follow-up of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for major depression2013In: Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 0963-8237, E-ISSN 1360-0567, Vol. 22, no 2, 155-164 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for major depression has been tested in several trials, but only with follow-ups up to 1.5 years. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of ICBT 3.5 years after treatment completion. Methods: A total of 88 people with major depression were randomized to either guided self-help or e-mail therapy in the original trial. One-third was initially on a waiting-list. Treatment was provided for eight weeks and in this report long-term follow-up data were collected. Also included were data from post-treatment and six-month follow-up. A total of 58% (51/88) completed the 3.5-year follow-up. Analyses were performed using a random effects repeated measures piecewise growth model to estimate trajectory shape over time and account for missing data. Results: Results showed continued lowered scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). No differences were found between the treatment conditions. A large proportion of participants (55%) had sought and received additional treatments in the follow-up period. A majority (56.9%) of participants had a BDI score lower than 10 at the 3.5-year follow-up. Conclusions: People with mild to moderate major depression may benefit from ICBT 3.5-years after treatment completion.

  • 42. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Paxling, Bjorn
    Wiwe, Maria
    Vernmark, Kristofer
    Felix, Christina Bertholds
    Lundborg, Lisa
    Furmark, Tomas
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Therapeutic alliance in guided internet-delivered cognitive behavioural treatment of depression, generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder2012In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 50, no 9, 544-550 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Guided internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) has been found to be effective in several controlled trials, but the mechanisms of change are largely unknown. Therapeutic alliance is a factor that has been studied in many psychotherapy trials, but the role of therapeutic alliance in ICBT is less well known. The present study investigated early alliance ratings in three separate samples. Participants from one sample of depressed individuals (N = 49), one sample of individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (N = 35), and one sample with social anxiety disorder (N = 90) completed the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI) modified for ICBT early in the treatment (weeks 3-4) when they took part in guided ICBT for their conditions. Results showed that alliance ratings were high in all three samples and that the WAI including the subscales of Task, Goal and Bond had high internal consistencies. Overall, correlations between the WAI and residualized change scores on the primary outcome measures were small and not statistically significant. We conclude that even if alliance ratings are in line with face-to-face studies, therapeutic alliance as measured by the WAI is probably less important in ICBT than in regular face-to-face psychotherapy. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Division of Psychiatry, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Paxling, Björn
    Department of Clinical Psychology and EMGO Institute, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam , The Netherlands and Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping.
    Roch-Norlund, Pie
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Östman, Gunnar
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Norgren, Anna
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Almlöv, Jonas
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping.
    Georén, Lisa
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Breitholtz, Elisabeth
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Dahlin, Mats
    Psykologpartners, Linköping.
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Department of Clinical Psychology and EMGO Institute, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam , The Netherlands.
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Silverberg, Farrell
    Philadelphia School of Psychoanalysis and Private Practice, Philadelphia, Pa. , USA.
    Internet-based psychodynamic versus cognitive behavioral guided self-help for generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial2012In: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, ISSN 0033-3190, E-ISSN 1423-0348, Vol. 81, no 6, 344-355 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Guided Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in many trials and found to be effective in the treatment of anxiety and mood disorders. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has also been treated with ICBT, but there are no controlled trials on guided Internet-based psychodynamic treatment (IPDT). Since there is preliminary support for psychodynamic treatment for GAD, we decided to test if a psychodynamically informed self-help treatment could be delivered via the Internet. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of IPDT for GAD and to compare against ICBT and a waiting list control group.

    Method: A randomized controlled superiority trial with individuals diagnosed with GAD comparing guided ICBT (n = 27) and IPDT (n = 27) against a no treatment waiting list control group (n = 27). The primary outcome measure was the Penn State Worry Questionnaire.

    Results: While there were no significant between-group differences immediately after treatment on the main outcome measure, both IPDT and ICBT resulted in improvements with moderate to large within-group effect sizes at 3 and 18 months follow-up on the primary measure in the completer analyses. The differences against the control group, although smaller, were still significant for both PDT and CBT when conforming to the criteria of clinically significant improvement. The active treatments did not differ significantly. There was a significant group by time interaction regarding GAD symptoms, but not immediately after treatment.

    Conclusions: IPDT and ICBT both led to modest symptom reduction in GAD, and more research is needed.

    Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel

  • 44.
    Andersson, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Behandlingstrovärdighet och utfallsförväntan: Dess påverkan på behandlingsutfallet i en internetadministrerad depressionsbehandling2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Depression isone of our times most common diseases. The need for more accessible and effective treatments are high. To maximize the effect of a treatment one must take common factors, like treatment credibilityand outcome expectations in account. The purpose of this studie was to investigate how treatment credibility and outcome expectations manifested it self in a internetadminstrated treatment for depression with two treatment forms, and also investigate if treatment credibility and outcome expectations showed a siginificant relation to treatment outcome. The two treatment forms where physical activation and behavioural activation. The 197 participantswere diagnosed with mild to moderate depression. They were in the age of 18-80, 75 % were women and 25 % men. The participantestimated the treatment credibility andoutcome expectationson the Treatment Credibility Scale (TCS)for the two treatment forms before they got randomized to one of the twotreatments. The result showed that psysical activation were perceivedas significantly more credible and with higher outcome expectations then behavioral activation. The results further showed a significant relation between treatment credibility and outcome expectations and treatment outcome for behavioral activation. The explenation for the resultat might be found in the treatment forms different designs, TCS construction and analys method that were choosen.

  • 45.
    Andersson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Salander, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Brandstetter-Hiltunen, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Knutsson, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Is it possible to identify patient´s sex when reading blinded illness narratives? An experimental study about gender bias.2008In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 7, no 21, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Andersson, Kjell
    et al.
    Arbets- och miljömedicinska kliniken, Universitetssjukhuset i Örebro.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Warg, Lars-Erik
    Arbets- och miljömedicinska kliniken, Universitetssjukhuset i Örebro.
    Inomhusklimat och riskkommunikation2010In: Allergi i praksis, ISSN 0806-5462, no 2, 52-58 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     

     

  • 47.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Multiple chemical sensitivity and persistent pain states are related, may be treated with similar procedures?2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 5, no 2, 102-103 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sick of smells: Empirical findings and a theoretical framework for chemical intolerance2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical intolerance (CI) is a term that refers to the surprisingly common phenomenon of persons getting ill from everyday chemicals. Although seemingly similar to asthma and allergies, CI sufferers do not react to exposures with increased histamine release. CI neither conforms to toxicological dose-response relationships as sufferers react to very low concentrations of chemicals assumed to be harmless. In addition, no particular chemical can be tied to any particular set of symptoms as in the case of other kinds of toxic injuries. The two overreaching goals of this thesis were to empirically investigate important hypotheses regarding CI, and to develop a theoretical framework that integrates previous theories of CI into a coherent whole.There are four empirical studies in this thesis. Utilizing event-related potentials (ERPs), magnitude estimations of perceived intensity, detection tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the studies provided support for the following hypotheses: (1) persons with self-reported CI sensitize to olfactory and chemosomatosensory stimuli, whereas non-intolerant individuals habituate; (2) sensitization in CI is similar in terms of brain activation patterns to both non-clinical sensitization and other unexplained illnesses such as fibromyalgia; (3) persons with CI have an attention bias to chemical exposures, reflected by problems with withdrawing attention from such stimuli; (4) measures of peripheral hyperreactivity are correlated with chemosensory ERP measures; but failed to corroborate (5) the reactions of women resemble those found in persons with CI to a greater degree than the case in men.Three major theories of CI are also discussed. The neural sensitization theory describes CI as pathological and non-immunological increases in neural responsiveness. The conditioning theory describes CI as the result of basic associative learning mechanisms. The neurogenic inflammation theory describes CI as proliferation of sensory c-fibers and inflammatory responses carried to several parts of the body through axon reflexes and release of inflammatory mediators. The main point of the theoretical synthesis is that the theories offer different and complementary perspectives on CI, rather than presenting conflicting ontologies. With an integrated perspective, infected debates whether CI is a psychological or organic illness can hopefully be avoided.Finally, the unexplained characteristics of CI, the empirical findings and the theoretical accounts are described within the theoretical framework of signal detection theory. Several features of CI, e.g. sensitization and peripheral hyperreactivity, are described in terms of applying a low criterion (ß).

  • 49.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bende, Mats
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Central Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Millqvist, Eva
    Astma and Allergy Research Group, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Attention bias and sensitization in chemical sensitivity2009In: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 66, no 5, 407-416 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveWe investigated whether persons with self-reported chemical sensitivity (CS) have an attention bias and enhanced sensitization to chemical exposure.MethodsChemosomatosensory, olfactory, and auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 21 CS subjects and 17 controls in attend and ignore conditions. Reaction times (RTs) and magnitude estimations of perceived intensity were collected in the attend condition. ERPs were averaged over attention conditions and during the first/second part of the testing.ResultsERP patterns indicated that CS subjects did not habituate to the same extent as the controls and had difficulties ignoring the chemical exposure. CS subjects had faster overall RT, and the perceived intensities for the chemosomatosensory stimuli did not decrease with time in the CS group, which was the case for the controls.ConclusionsThese results indicating attention bias and enhanced sensitization in CS suggest alterations in central, cognitive responses to chemical exposure.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz
    Department of Systems Biology, Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Technical University of Denmark.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte.
    Lind, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Chemosensory perception, symptoms and autonomic responses during chemical exposure in multiple chemical sensitivity2016In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 89, no 1, 79-88 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a prevalent medically unexplained symptom characterized by symptom reactions to everyday chemical exposure below hygienic thresholds. The aim of this study was to investigate the expressions of hyper-reactivity in MCS during whole-body exposure to low concentrations of the odorant n-butanol.

    Methods: We exposed 18 participants with MCS and 18 non-ill controls to a low concentration of the odorantn-butanol using an exposure chamber. The first 10 min constituted blank exposure, after which then-butanol concentration increased and reached a plateau at 11.5 mg/m3.

    Results: MCS participants, compared with controls, reported greater perceived odor intensities, more unpleasantness to the exposure and increasing symptoms over time. MCS participants also expressed higher pulse rate and lower pulse rate variability than controls did. No group differences were found for breathing rate or tonic electrodermal activity responses.

    Conclusions: We conclude that MCS sufferers differ from healthy controls in terms of autonomic responses, symptoms and chemosensory perception during chemical exposure.

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