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  • 1.
    Adolfsson, Maja
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Lundmark, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Temporary employment, employee representation, and employer-paid training: a comparative analysis2022In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 785-798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the moderating role of employee representation on the chances of receiving employer-paid training among temporary and permanent workers from a cross-country, comparative perspective. The impact of employee representation is considered at the individual level and at the country level. The statistical analyses are performed using data from the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey and multilevel modelling. Our results suggest that temporary workers receive less employer-paid training than permanent workers. Access to employee representation increases workers' access to employer-paid training, regardless of contract type. At the country level, we found that the training-related benefits from union coverage are larger for permanent than for temporary workers. Our findings suggest that employee representation in the workplace could operate as an equalizer between temporary and permanent workers; while at the country level, the lobbying effect of union coverage is more beneficial for permanent workers. 

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  • 2. Alberto Diaz-Sanchez, Adrian
    et al.
    Corona-Gonzalez, Belkis
    Meli, Marina L.
    Obregon Alvarez, Dasiel
    Vega Canizares, Ernesto
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Lobo Rivero, Evelyn
    Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina
    First molecular evidence of bovine hemoplasma species (Mycoplasma spp.) in water buffalo and dairy cattle herds in Cuba2019In: Parasites & Vectors, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 12, article id 78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hemotropic mycoplasmas (aka hemoplasmas) are small bacteria which cause infectious anemia in several mammalian species including humans. Information on hemoplasma infections in Cuban bovines remains scarce and no studies applying molecular methods have been performed so far. The aim of the present study was to utilize real-time PCR and sequence analysis to investigate dairy cattle and buffalo from Cuba for the presence of bovine hemoplasma species.

    Results: A total of 80 blood samples from 39 buffalo and 41 dairy cattle were investigated for the presence of Mycoplasma wenyonii and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos using two species-specific real-time TaqMan PCR assays. PCR results revealed overall 53 (66.2%; 95% CI: 55.3-75.7%) positive animals for M. wenyonii and 33 (41.2%; 95% CI: 31.1-52.2%) for Ca. M. haemobos; the latter were all co-infections with M. wenyonii. The sample prevalences were similar in cattle and buffalo. Based on the sequence analysis of the nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene from two cattle and two buffalo, the presence of M. wenyonii and Ca. M. haemobos was confirmed. Statistical analysis revealed that buffalo and cattle one year of age or older were more frequently infected with M. wenyonii or Ca. M. haemobos than younger animals. PCR-positivity was not associated with anemia; however, the infection stage was unknown (acute infection versus chronic carriers).

    Conclusions: The high occurrence of bovine hemoplasma infections in buffalo and dairy cattle may have a significant impact on Cuban livestock production. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular evidence of bovine hemoplasma species infection in dairy cattle and buffalo from Cuba and the Caribbean.

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  • 3.
    Ander, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Stjerna Doohan, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Elchockvapen som hjälpmedel vid polisiära ingripanden: En vetenskaplig utvärdering av Polismyndighetens försöksverksamhet med elchockvapen 2018-20192020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Less-­lethal weapons are often used when police officers deal with uncooperative and potentially dan­gerous persons. In recent years there has been growing international consensus regarding the useful­ness of less lethal weapons, such as conducted electrical weapons (CEWs). In 2018 the Swedish Police Authority launched a two­year trial of CEWs in Sweden.

    AIM: The current study aims to evaluate the Police Authority's CEW trial, and to explore the public's point of view about the legitimacy of the police’s use of CEW.

    METHODS: The study includes a quantitative survey and qualitative data. The survey data was collected at three time points; before, during, and at the end of the trial. Survey data was collected from two groups of police officers; one group that participated in the CEW trial and one control group that was not part of the trial. To increase the understanding of the survey results, in­depth interviews and focus group in­terviews were conducted with police officers who had experience of using CEW during the trial. To understand more about the citizens' perspective on different aspects of CEW legitimacy, focus group interviews were conducted with a convenient sample of the public. Data from the Police work injury system (LISA) was also collected to investigate the CEW’s impact on police officers' injuries.

    RESULTS: Results from the survey showed no differences between CEW and the control group in experiencing stress in certain given situations. Compared to the control group, the police officers in the CEW group experienced a greater sense of safety in situations that involve a high degree of resistance and/or phys­ical attacks. Similarly, the findings from the interviews showed that having access to CEW reduced stress in violent situations by boosting police officers' sense of safety. The interview results revealed that CEW contributes to police officers limiting the use of other potentially harmful means of violence, such as physical methods and firearms. In the survey, no difference was found between the CEW group and the control group in exposure to threat, violence, and resistance, as well as injuries to police officers or counterpart. The interviewees considered the CEW to be an important tool and saw only benefits with it. They believed it could save lives, reduce injuries to both police officers and counterparts, and improve their working environment. Findings from both quantitative and qualitative data confirm the positive effect of CEW through its contribution to lesser use of violence, for example in the reduction in the use of baton and pepper spray, which often cause more injuries. Participants from the public express that CEW is an effective and useful tool for the police, but emphasizes the importance of an awareness regarding the situations in which it is used in and towards whom.

    CONCLUSIONS: Based on the survey results, it is difficult to draw any definite conclusions about how and to what extent using CEW is associated with less injuries among police officers and counterparts. However, the inter­view results indicate that police officers experience a decreased risk of violence and thus, injuries. Ac­cess to CEW can increase the sense of safety in situations involving violence and strong resistance, which consequently reduces stress. CEW can also reduce the use of pepper spray, baton, and to some extent firearms. The CEW is perceived to have a de­escalating effect and can facilitate the process of decision making in relation to which tool to be used in police interventions with a high degree of threat and violence. Participants from the public perceived that the use of violence by the police, including the use of CEW, is in general justifiable. 

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  • 4.
    Andersson, John
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Road traffic noise, air pollution, and risk of dementia: results from the Betula project2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 166, p. 334-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is growing evidence for a negative impact of traffic-related air pollution on risk of dementia. However, the contribution of noise exposure to this association has been rarely examined.

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the individual and combined effect of noise and air pollution on risk of dementia.

    Methods: Data on dementia incidence over a 15 year period was obtained from the Betula project, a longitudinal study on health and ageing. Estimates of annual mean levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the participants’ residential address were obtained using a land-use regression model. Modelled data provided road traffic noise levels (Leq. 24 h) at the participants’ residential address at baseline. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR).

    Results: Of 1721 participants at baseline, 302 developed dementia during the follow up period. Exposure to noise levels (Leq. 24 h) > 55 dB had no significant effect on dementia risk (HR 0.95; CI: 0.57, 1.57). Residing in the two highest quartiles of NOx exposure was associated with an increased risk of dementia. The risk associated with NOx was not modified by adjusting for noise. Moreover, we found no significant interaction effects between NOx and road traffic noise on dementia risk.

    Conclusion: We found no evidence that exposure to road traffic noise, either independently or in combination with traffic air pollution, was associated with risk of dementia in our study area. Our results suggest that pollution should be considered the main component in the association between traffic related exposures and dementia.

  • 5.
    Andersson, John
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Department of Research and Development, Sundsvall Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Segersson, David
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrköping, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Pm2.5 and dementia in a low exposure setting: the influence of odor identification ability and APOE2023In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 679-689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Growing evidence show that long term exposure to air pollution increases the risk of dementia.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between PM2.5 exposure and dementia in a low exposure area, and to investigate the role of olfaction and the APOE ε4 allele in these associations.

    Methods: Data were drawn from the Betula project, a longitudinal study on aging, memory, and dementia in Sweden. Odor identification ability was assessed using the Scandinavian Odor Identification Test (SOIT). Annual mean PM2.5 concentrations were obtained from a dispersion-model and matched at the participants’ residential address. Proportional hazard regression was used to calculate hazard ratios.

    Results: Of 1,846 participants, 348 developed dementia during the 21-year follow-up period. The average annual mean PM2.5 exposure at baseline was 6.77 µg/m3, which is 1.77 µg/m3 above the WHO definition of clean air. In a fully adjusted model (adjusted for age, sex, APOE, SOIT, cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, and education) each 1 µg/m3 difference in annual mean PM2.5-concentration was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.23 for dementia (95% CI: 1.01–1.50). Analyses stratified by APOE status (ε4 carriers versus non-carriers), and odor identification ability (high versus low), showed associations only for ε4 carriers, and for low performance on odor identification ability.

    Conclusion: PM2.5 was associated with an increased risk of dementia in this low pollution setting. The associations between PM2.5 and dementia seemed stronger in APOE carriers and those with below average odor identification ability.

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  • 6.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Varför grunda en stad?: Umeå i den tidigmoderna handels- och näringspolitiken2022In: Västerbotten förr & nu, E-ISSN 2003-6698Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2022 firar Umeå 400 år. Granskar vi dokumenten finner vi att staden fick nya privilegier år 1622. Det vill säga, de som var borgare och medlemmar i staden fick rätt att bedriva handel och att sköta vissa gemensamma angelägenheter. I gengäld tänkte sig kungen och mer allmänt det styrande rådet i Stockholm att det skulle bli enklare att få in skatten. Men först efter hand lyckades borgarna få sådan fart på verksamheten, att staden kunde börja växa. 

  • 7.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Scocco, Sandro
    Arenagruppen, Arenaide, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Refugee immigration and the growth of low-wage work in the EU152019In: Comparative Migration Studies, ISSN 2214-8590, E-ISSN 2214-594X, Vol. 7, no 39, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our paper focuses on current trends in refugee migration and job polarization. In so doing, we assess the role of refugee migration in relation to institutional, technological and globalization factors in an effort to trace the factors underlying the growth of low-paying occupations in EU 15 between 1995 and 2017. Our empirical findings suggest that refugee migration has a small but positive and statistically significant impact on the growth of low-wage occupations in the EU 15 as a whole. However, the effect is attributed to Southern Europe and the UK and Irish economies. Despite hosting relatively large numbers of refugee migrants, the effects in the Nordic countries and Continental Europe are negligible, if present, and non-existent in the long run (5 years). When including all migrant workers, we find a limited impact on the growth of low-wage work in general, while the impact of immigrant workers from low-income third party countries becomes positive for the UK and Irish economy, but less for other European macro-regions. This suggests that institutional settings can play an important role in how the economy adjusts to migration. It also suggests that traditional fiscal cost calculations in relation to migration are often overestimated, as they implicitly build on the assumption that refugees and general immigration have great impacts on the growth of low-wage occupations.

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  • 8.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Välfärden, skatterna, baumoleffekten och högerpopulismens framväxt2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 33-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi ser i dag en förtroendekris för de politiska krafter som under hela efterkrigstiden har fört en kamp kring avvägningen mellan skatter och offentligt finansierad välfärd under förutsättning att den makroekonomiska jämvikten inteäventyras. Utmanare är högerpopulismen som vunnit mark genom utpekandetav invandring som en allmän förklaring till höga skatter och upplevda brister ivälfärden. Men lika lite som invandringen egentligen kan förklara långsiktigtstigande skatter, lika bortglömd tycks Baumoleffekten vara. Bristen på strukturellekonomisk-historisk analys för att förstå utmaningarna för välfärdsfinansieringär uppenbara

  • 9.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Household risk strategies during a pandemic – experiences from the 1918 influenza pandemic2023In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 36-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2020, The COVID-19 crisis has put great pressure on the economy worldwide. Only time can tell whether the COVID-19 crisis will have permanent effects on corporate and household behaviour and how it will affect society at large. This article examines historical experiences of how households managed the financial consequences of rising mortality during the 1918 influenza pandemic. We find that the previous pandemic led to an immediate and major increase in primarily small-sum industrial life insurance policies designed for blue-collar workers. The increase in new policies did not, however, have a lasting effect. By the time the pandemic had faded, the number of policies had dropped to below pre-pandemic conditions. This historical experience underlines the fact that there are limits to the extent to which even a major shock, such as a pandemic, can lead to behavioural change among households as currently being predicted in relation to COVID-19.

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  • 10.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Household risk strategies during a pandemic: Experiences from the 1918 influenza pandemic2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The corona crisis has during the year 2020 put large pressure on the economy. Only time can tell whether the corona crisis will have permanent effects on corporate and household behaviour and how it will affect society at large. This article examines historical experiences of how households managed the financial consequences of the rising mortality during the 1918 influenza pandemic. We find that the pandemic led to an immediate and major increase in primarily industrial life insurance policies on small sums designed for blue-collar workers. The increase in new policies did however not have a lasting effect. When the pandemic had faded over, the number of policies had dropped to bellow pre-pandemic conditions. This historical experience underlines that there are limits to the extent to which even a major shock, such as a pandemic, can lead to the kinds of behavioural change on which recent policies have been predicated.

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  • 11.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hushållens riskstrategier under en pandemi – erfarenheter från spanska sjukan2020In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 48, no 8, p. 73-78Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi befinner oss i en pandemi som befaras få stora konsekvenser för samhällsekonomin. I denna artikel undersöker vi historiska erfarenheter av hur hushåll hanterade finansiella risker orsakade av influensa-epidemin spanska sjukan, 1918–20. Spanska sjukan ökade livförsäkringstagandet under de år som sjukdomen härjade, men fick inga bestående effekter på hushållens riskstrategier.  Erfarenheterna från spanska sjukan inger begränsade förhoppningar för den ökade invididualiseringen av krisansvaret vi sett under senare år, exempelvis har ansvaret för beredskapslager delvis lyfts över mot hushållen. För att vi ska vara rustade för nya pandemier krävs politisk konsensus kring att pandemiberedskap bör vara ett långsiktigt, samhälleligt åtagande. 

  • 12.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Harris, Bernard
    Social Work and Social Policy, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Did statutory insurance improve the welfare of Swedish workers?: The statutory workplace accident insurance act of 19162022In: Labor history, ISSN 0023-656X, E-ISSN 1469-9702, Vol. 63, p. 210-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Welfare researchers have regarded statutory accident insurance in 1916 as a starting point for the exceptional expansion of the Swedish welfare state. However, rather less attention has been paid to the roles played by mutual insurance societies and employer compensation schemes in offering voluntary welfare protection. We argue that voluntary welfare protection was an integral part of the early-twentieth century welfare system and played a crucial role in protecting workers in the case of sickness and accident. We also examine the limitations of these arrangements and explore the ways in which the design of the statutory scheme ensured that there was a continuing role for voluntary provision after the new Act came into operation. We also explore the impact of the scheme on wage levels, and show how its introduction eroded the wage premiums which had previously been earned by workers in high-risk industries.

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  • 13.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Harris, Bernard
    Social Work and Social Policy, University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Morbidity among working class men and women in early twentieth century Sweden2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates gendered morbidity patterns by employing micro data derived from sickness records and membership ledgers on working class men and women in the early 20th century Sweden. We find that the main reason for gendered morbidity differences - that woman faced fewer, but longer sickness episodes than men – reflects gendered productive and reproductive activities. Men suffered from the large number of work-place accidents as workers in the production sector, while women faced major risks due to pregnancy, childbearing and related sickness. Women also suffered more from for diseases of the blood, diseases of the digestive & metabolic system and diseases the genitourinary than men. Both men and women faced shorter, but longer, sickness episodes in urban areas attributed to the underlying differences in morbidity causes during the epidemiological transition.

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  • 14.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Lilljegren, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Adverse selection in mutual benefit societies: an longitudinal approach2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutual benefit societies evolved as the major provider for illness, accident and burialinsurance in the late 19 th and early 20 th century in the Western world. One of themajor problems facing the insurers was the risk for adverse selection; that unhealthyindividuals had more incentive then healthy to insure when priced for the averagerisk. By empirically examine if the longevity among insured in mutual benefit societieswas different from uninsured, we seek to identify the presence of adverse section. Wefind no compelling evidence that unhealthy individuals was more likely to insure, orreasons to believe that adverse selection was behind the decline of mutual benefitsocieties in the twentieth century.

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  • 15.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Lilljegren, Josef
    Faculty of Economics and Business, Groningen University, the Netherland.
    Pre-welfare state provision and adverse selection: enrolment in a Swedish nationwide health insurance society2023In: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 74-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutual benefit societies evolved as the major provider for sickness, accident and life insurance in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries on both sides of the Atlantic. One of the major problems facing insurers was the risk of adverse selection, i.e. that unhealthy individuals had more incentives than healthy individuals to insure when priced for the average risk. By empirically examining whether longevity among insured individuals in a nationwide mutual health society was different from a matched sample of uninsured individuals, we seek to identify the presence of adverse selection. We find no compelling evidence showing that unhealthy individuals were more likely to insure, or reasons to believe that problems related to adverse selection would have been a major reason for government intervention in the health insurance market in Sweden.

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  • 16.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Nystedt, Paul
    Dept. of Economics, Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University.
    Workplace accidents and workers solidarity: mutual health insurance in early twentieth-century Sweden2022In: Economic history review, ISSN 0013-0117, E-ISSN 1468-0289, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 203-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the industrialization period, the rate of workplace-related accidents increased. Because of the lack of public insurance, mutual health insurance societies became the main providers of workplace accident insurance among workers. Due to large differences in accident risk, health insurance societies were potentially exposed to the risk of adverse selection, since they employed equal pricing for all members regardless of risk profile. This article investigates the impact of workplace accident risk on health insurance selection and outcomes. We employ household budget surveys encompassing urban workers in Sweden during the early twentieth century. We find evidence for a redistribution from low- to high-risk-exposed workers, as workplace accident risk had a significant and positive impact on receiving health insurance benefits, also when controlling for a variety of factors. Workers exposed to greater risks in the workplace were more likely to have health insurance but did not pay higher premiums. The redistribution from low- to high-risk-exposed workers was largely accepted and viewed as an act of solidarity between workers. Given that health insurance societies were aware of this redistribution, we argue for the presence of informed, rather than adverse, selection.

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  • 17.
    Andersson, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University Hospital.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Stiernman, Lars J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Center for the Economics of Aging, Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy, Germany.
    Cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease: a subgroup of extreme decliners revealed by a data-driven analysis of longitudinal progression2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 729755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive impairment is an important symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and predicting future cognitive decline is crucial for clinical practice. Here, we aim to identify latent sub-groups of longitudinal trajectories of cognitive change in PD patients, and explore predictors of differences in cognitive change. Longitudinal cognitive performance data from 349 newly diagnosed PD patients and 145 healthy controls from the Parkinson Progression Marker Initiative were modeled using a multivariate latent class linear mixed model. Resultant latent classes were compared on a number of baseline demographics, and clinical variables, as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) density markers of neuropathology. Trajectories of cognitive change in PD were best described by two latent classes. A large subgroup (90%), which showed a subtle impairment in cognitive performance compared to controls but remained stable over the course of the study, and a small subgroup (10%) which rapidly declined in all cognitive performance measures. Rapid decliners did not differ significantly from the larger group in terms of disease duration, severity or motor symptoms at baseline. However, rapid decliners had lower CSF amyloidß42 levels, a higher prevalence of sleep disorder and pronounced loss of caudate DAT density at baseline. These data suggest the existence of a distinct minority sub-type of PD in which rapid cognitive change in PD can occur uncoupled from motor symptoms or disease severity, likely reflecting early pathological change that extends from motor areas of the striatum into associative compartments and cortex.

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  • 18.
    Anyango, Cartrine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Namatovu, Fredinah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Women with disabilities’ experiences of intimate partner violence: a qualitative study from Sweden2023In: BMC Women's Health, E-ISSN 1472-6874, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a prevalent form of gender-based violence affecting one in three women globally. It is also a preventable cause of ill-health, disability, and death. Current research suggests that women with disabilities are at a significantly higher risk of experiencing violence throughout their lifetime. They are almost twice as likely to experience violence compared to men with disabilities or men and women without disabilities. Additionally, they experience higher rates of all types of violence. This increased vulnerability may be due to factors related to disability such as dependence on others for support, mistrust, and social and physical isolation. Although there is existing research on IPV against women in general, there is limited knowledge on IPV against women with disabilities. To address this gap in knowledge, this study aimed to explore women with disabilities’ perceptions and experiences of being victims/survivors of IPV in Sweden.

    Methods: This was a qualitative study conducted through in-depth interviews with eleven women with disabilities. The participants were aged eighteen years upwards. The collected data was analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis with a constructivist epistemological standpoint.

    Results: We developed four themes. Theme one: “multiple abuse by multiple abusers, over time,” describes the participants’ experiences of various types of violence from different perpetrators for prolonged periods. Theme two: “psychological abuse—harmful, but neglected and difficult to prove,” explains how women with disabilities’ perceive psychological abuse as harmful, but not given the same level of seriousness as physical violence. It also expresses the difficulties they encountered in providing tangible evidence to prove instances of psychological abuse. Theme three: “abuse does not end with separation,” highlights how abuse can continue beyond separation/divorce. Theme four: “surviving abusive relationships” describes the different and evolving ways the participants used to navigate their abusive relationships.

    Conclusions: Women with disabilities face all forms of abuse. They find it challenging to prove psychological abuse, and the system is inadequate in addressing its harm. The abuse also continues after separation or divorce. The support system should consider the needs of women with disabilities who experience violence, both during and after the abusive relationship. Service providers should be better equipped to detect and handle all types of IPV, especially psychological abuse.

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  • 19.
    Anyatonwu, Obinna Princewill
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nwoku, Kelechi Amy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Jonsson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Namatovu, Fredinah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    The determinants of postpartum contraceptive use in Nigeria2023In: Frontiers in Global Women's Health, E-ISSN 2673-5059, Vol. 4, article id 1284614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Postpartum contraception is vital for maternal and child health, and reduces the risk of infant mortality. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is a widely accepted framework for exploring health behaviors, such as contraceptive use. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the factors influencing postpartum contraceptive use in Nigeria and to contextualize the findings within the framework of the HBM.

    Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data collected from the Demographic Health Survey conducted in Nigeria (NDHS). In total, 28,041 women were included in this study. Self-reported contraceptive use was the outcome, while the explanatory variables included maternal age, place of residence, region of residence, religion, marital status, educational level, household wealth quintiles, knowledge of the ovulatory cycle, decision-maker for health care, and distance to health care facilities. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were used to summarize and identify factors influencing postpartum contraceptive use. The HBM was used to discuss the main findings.

    Results: The prevalence of postpartum contraceptive use in Nigeria is 27%. Our findings showed that the odds of using contraceptives during the postpartum period were higher among women who knew their ovulation cycles, lived in urban areas in the southern region, had no distance barriers to health care, and were 25–49 years old. Education, wealth, and marital status also increase the odds of contraceptive use. However, women who lived in the northeast and northwest regions or shared decision-making with their partners had lower odds.

    Conclusion: This study highlights the need for region-specific and age-focused interventions to increase contraceptive use in Nigeria. Additionally, increasing accessibility and affordability of contraceptives for younger and economically disadvantaged women, along with promoting women's autonomy in decision-making, can further enhance contraceptive use across Nigeria.

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  • 20.
    Awad, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sunderby Research Unit, Umeå University, Sweden..
    Lundqvist, Robert
    Research and Innovation Unit, Norrbotten County Council, Luleå, Sweden..
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sunderby Research Unit, Umeå University, Sweden..
    Lower cognitive performance among long-term type 1 diabetes survivors: A case-control study2017In: Journal of diabetes and its complications, ISSN 1056-8727, E-ISSN 1873-460X, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 1328-1331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction. The cognitive decrement is believed to depend on macro- and microvascular complications and long disease duration. Some patients do not develop these complications, but still report cognitive symptoms. We examined if long-standing T1D without complications is associated with lower cognitive performance.

    METHODS: A group of patients (n=43) with long-standing T1D (>30years) without micro- or macro vascular complications was compared with a non-diabetic control group (n=86) on six cognitive tests which probed episodic memory, semantic memory, episodic short-term memory, visual attention and psychomotor speed. Each patient was matched with two controls regarding age, gender and education. A linear mixed effect model was used to analyze the data.

    RESULTS: The mean age was 57years and mean duration was 41years. Patients with diabetes had lower diastolic blood pressure but BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and smoking did not differ between groups. Patients had lower results than non-diabetic controls in episodic short-term memory (p<0.001) and also lower values on a test that mirrors visual attention and psychomotor speed (p=0.019).

    CONCLUSIONS: Long-standing T1D was associated with lower cognitive performance, regardless of other diabetes-related complications.

  • 21.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Lantto, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Wisselgren, Maria J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Inledning2016In: Samiska Rötter: släktforska i svenska Sápmi / [ed] Per Axelsson, Elisabeth Engberg, Patrik Lantto & Maria J. Wisselgren, Solna: Sveriges släktforskarförbund , 2016, p. 5-7Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Engberg, ElisabethUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).Lantto, PatrikUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.Wisselgren, Maria J.Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Samiska rötter: släktforska i svenska Sápmi2016Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Kukutai, Tahu
    National Institute of Demographic and Economic Analysis, University of Waikato, Aotearoa, New Zealand.
    Kippen, Rebecca
    School of Rural Health, Monash University, Australia.
    Indigenous Wellbeing and Colonisation2016In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, E-ISSN 2004-4658, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 7-18Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 24.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Storm Mienna, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Health and physical wellbeing of the Sámi people2019In: Routledge handbook of indigenous wellbeing / [ed] Christopher Fleming and Matthew Manning, Routledge, 2019, p. 13-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes the health and physical wellbeing of the Sámi people living in Norway, Sweden, Finland and on the Kola Peninsula in Russia. Drawing on a review of the literature, we note that cancer and cardiovascular diseases are examples of conditions that, hitherto, have been thoroughly studied in the Sámi population in relation to physical wellbeing. Generally, studies conclude that the health and living conditions of the Sámi people are good and close to the level of the non-Indigenous benchmark population. However, it is also obvious that knowledge of the Sámi health situation differs between countries, partly due to national laws and policies that circumscribe opportunities to conduct relevant research involving Sámi communities. To understand the current wellbeing of the Sámi people, it is crucial to understand the effects of colonization. As such, this chapter provides a historical background to the present situation. Finally, the chapter aims to identify future challenges that may affect the wellbeing of the Sámi people of northern Europe.

  • 25.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Várdduo – Centre for Sámi Research.
    Storm Mienna, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Várdduo – Centre for Sámi Research.
    The challenge of Indigenous data in Sweden2021In: Indigenous Data Sovereignty and Policy / [ed] Maggie Walter, Tahu Kukutai, Stephanie Russo Carroll, Desi Rodriguez-Lonebear, New York & Abingdon: Routledge, 2021, p. 99-111Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indigenous Data Sovereignty is increasingly discussed in CANZUS countries but not as much in the Nordic countries, mostly due to Nordic prohibitions of the collection of ethnicity data. This chapter reports the first study on how the Sami people in Sweden perceive Indigenous control and ownership of Sami health research data. Results show that data and data management are important with preference for Sami authorities, preferably the Sami Parliament to take responsibility of data. However, doubts were expressed on the capacity of the Sami Parliament to undertake a data repository role. The study also shows that the legacy of the Nazi regime, of racial biology and of colonization is still present in discussions on Indigenous data and adds to the lack of trust between the Sami and the Swedish nation state.

  • 26.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Wisselgren, Maria J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sweden in 1930 and the 1930 census2018In: Three centuries of northern population censuses / [ed] Gunnar Thorvaldsen, Abingdon: Routledge, 2018, p. 61-86Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of censuses has always been to collect reliable information on the state's population and provide a basis for governmental decision-making. This study examines the categories used in the 1930 census and links them to the context in which they were generated. We treat the census as a tool of state power, which can be discerned from the definitions of its categories and the way in which statistics are collected and used. The guiding question of the study was "how does the 1930 census differ from previous censuses and how can these differences and changes be explained?" We find that as in earlier censuses, Statistics Sweden used extracts from the parish books on the individual level to collect information for the 1930 census, but also used diverse supplementary sources including tax registers, income tax returns and language surveys. Thus, unlike in most countries, Sweden did not send out census takers or questionnaires to the population. Many of the new or updated variables we see in the 1930 census such as income, wealth, and number of children born, can be related to the political and social debate concerning the poor working class and the establishment of the welfare state. The inclusion of categories such as ethnicity, religion, and foreign nationality can be seen as part of a normative approach wanting to control, monitor and correct deviant elements of the Swedish population. Sweden has several extraordinary longitudinal population databases built on the country’s excellent parish registers dating back to the 18th century. While the Swedish censuses have rarely been used as sources of data for historical analysis, this work demonstrates that the 1930 census has great potential to support new research.

  • 27. Bangsbo, Jens
    et al.
    Blackwell, Joanna
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). DRCMR, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Caserotti, Paolo
    Dela, Flemming
    Evans, Adam B.
    Jespersen, Astrid Pernille
    Gliemann, Lasse
    Kramer, Arthur F.
    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper
    Lykke Mortensen, Erik
    Juul Lassen, Aske
    Gow, Alan J.
    Harridge, Stephen D.R.
    Hellsten, Ylva
    Kjaer, Michael
    Kujala, Urho M.
    Rhodes, Ryan E.
    Pike, Elizabeth C.J.
    Skinner, Timothy
    Skovgaard, Thomas
    Troelsen, Jens
    Tulle, Emmanuelle
    Tully, Mark A.
    van Uffelen, Jannique G.Z.
    Viña, Jose
    Copenhagen Consensus statement 2019: physical activity and ageing2019In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 53, no 14, p. 856-858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From 19th to 22nd November 2018, 26 researchers representing nine countries and a variety of academic disciplines met in Snekkersten, Denmark, to reach evidence-based consensus about physical activity and older adults. It was recognised that the term ‘older adults’ represents a highly heterogeneous population. It encompasses those that remain highly active and healthy throughout the life-course with a high intrinsic capacity to the very old and frail with low intrinsic capacity. The consensus is drawn from a wide range of research methodologies within epidemiology, medicine, physiology, neuroscience, psychology and sociology, recognising the strength and limitations of each of the methods. Much of the evidence presented in the statements is based on longitudinal associations from observational and randomised controlled intervention studies, as well as quantitative and qualitative social studies in relatively healthy community-dwelling older adults. Nevertheless, we also considered research with frail older adults and those with age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, and in a few cases molecular and cellular outcome measures from animal studies. The consensus statements distinguish between physical activity and exercise. Physical activity is used as an umbrella term that includes both structured and unstructured forms of leisure, transport, domestic and work-related activities. Physical activity entails body movement that increases energy expenditure relative to rest, and is often characterised in terms of intensity from light, to moderate to vigorous. Exercise is defined as a subset of structured physical activities that are more specifically designed to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, cognitive function, flexibility balance, strength and/or power. This statement presents the consensus on the effects of physical activity on older adults’ fitness, health, cognitive functioning, functional capacity, engagement, motivation, psychological well-being and social inclusion. It also covers the consensus on physical activity implementation strategies. While it is recognised that adverse events can occur during exercise, the risk can be minimised by carefully choosing the type of activity undertaken and by consultation with the individual’s physician when warranted, for example, when the individual is frail, has a number of co-morbidities, or has exercise-related symptoms, such as chest pain, heart arrhythmia or dizziness. The consensus was obtained through an iterative process that began with the presentation of the state-of-the-science in each domain, followed by group and plenary discussions. Ultimately, the participants reached agreement on the 30-item consensus statements.

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  • 28.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    The impact of the parental division of paid labour on depressive symptoms – the moderating role of social policies2022In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 275-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the association between the parental division of paid labour and depressive symptoms in a comparative perspective. It investigates how this relationship varies across couples in countries with different social policies using data from European Social Survey, and multilevel models with cross-level interactions between the parental division of paid labour and macro-level indicators of social policies.

    The results indicate that dual-earner couples report fewer depressive symptoms than parentsin other types of families. This relative advantage of dual-earner couples varies across policycontexts. The benefits of a dual-earner model over a male breadwinner model are larger incountries where childcare services are easily available and do not disappear in countries withgenerous financial support from the state. Additional analyses reveal how these relationshipsdiffer across gender.

  • 29.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Barclay, Kieron
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany; London School of Economics and Political Science, UK; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Costa-Font, Joan
    London School of Economics and Political Science, UK.
    Myrskylä, Mikko
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany; London School of Economics and Political Science, UK; University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Özcan, Berkay
    London School of Economics and Political Science, UK.
    Preterm birth and educational disadvantage: heterogeneous effects2023In: Population Studies, ISSN 0032-4728, E-ISSN 1477-4747, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 459-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in advanced economies, evidence about the consequences of prematurity in later life is limited. Using Swedish registers for cohorts born 1982–94 (N  =  1,087,750), we examine the effects of preterm birth on school grades at age 16 using sibling fixed effects models. We further examine how school grades are affected by degree of prematurity and the compensating roles of family socio-economic resources and characteristics of school districts. Our results show that the negative effects of preterm birth are observed mostly among children born extremely preterm (<28 weeks); children born moderately preterm (32–<37 weeks) suffer no ill effects. We do not find any evidence for a moderating effect of parental socio-economic resources. Children born extremely preterm and in the top decile of school districts achieve as good grades as children born at full term in an average school district.

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  • 30.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Elekes, Zoltán
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Agglomeration and Social Networks Research Lab, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Budepest, Hungary.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Escaping from low-wage employment: the role of co-worker networks2022In: Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, ISSN 0276-5624, E-ISSN 1878-5654, Vol. 83, article id 100747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-wage jobs are often regarded as dead-ends in the labour market careers of young people. Previous research focused on disentangling to what degree the association between a low-wage job at the start of working life and limited chances of transitioning to better-paid employment is causal or spurious. Less attention has been paid to the channels that may facilitate the upward wage mobility of low-wage workers. We focus on such mechanisms, and we scrutinize the impact of social ties to higher-educated co-workers. Due to knowledge spillovers, job referrals, as well as firm-level productivity gains, having higher-educated co-workers may improve an individual's chances of transitioning to a better-paid job. We use linked employer-employee data from longitudinal Swedish registers and panel data models that incorporate measures of low-wage workers' social ties to higher-educated co-workers. Our results confirm that having social ties to higher-educated co-workers increases individual chances of transitioning to better-paid employment.

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  • 31.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Högberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Effects of parental job loss on children’s mental health: the role of latency, timing and cumulative effects2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Crossover effects of critical life events within families have received growing attention in life-courseresearch. A parent losing a job is among the most distressing events that can befall a family, butexisting research has reached discrepant conclusions concerning if, and if so how, this affects childmental health. Drawing on insights from models of intra-family influence and life courseepidemiological models, we ask if parental job loss have latent or long-term effects on child mentalhealth, if the effects are conditional on the timing of the job loss, and if repeated job losses havecumulative effects.We use intergenerationally linked Swedish register data combined with entropy balance andstructural nested mean models for the analyses. The data allow us to track 400,000 children over 14years and thereby test different life-course models of crossover effects. We identify involuntary joblosses using information on workplace closures, thus reducing the risk of confounding.Results show that paternal but not maternal job loss significantly increases the risk of mental healthproblems among children, that the average effects are modest in size (less than 4% in relativeterms), that they materialize only after some years, and that they are driven by children aged 6-10years. Moreover, we find evidence of cumulative effects, but also of declining marginal harm ofadditional job losses over the life course.

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  • 32.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Högberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Bernardi, Laura
    Institute of Social Sciences (ISS), University of Lausanne, Lausanne , Switzerland.
    Parental unemployment and adolescents' subjective wellbeing: the moderating role of educational policies2024In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 276-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crossover effects of parental unemployment on subjective wellbeing of children attract growing attention in research on social inequalities. Recent economic crises call for identifying policies that mitigate the adverse effects of unemployment. Building on the theoretical insights from Capability Approach, we examine the relationship between parental unemployment and subjective wellbeing of adolescents across countries with different educational policies. We use multilevel modelling and data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). We combine microdata on 45,992 adolescents in 32 countries with macro-level indicators of educational policies. We find that parental unemployment is associated with lower subjective wellbeing among adolescents, but the magnitude of this association varies depending on access to financial support for participation in education. Adolescents who receive educational allowances and who live in countries with broader access to such support are less harmed by parental unemployment.

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  • 33.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Högberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Voßemer, Jonas
    Mannheim Centre for European Social Research, Germany.
    Do consequences of parental job displacement for infant health vary across local economic contexts?2024In: RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, ISSN 2377-8253, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 57-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the consequences of parental job displacement for birth outcomes and investigates how the effects vary with regional unemployment rates. We use Swedish register data and exploit plausibly exogenous variation caused by workplace closure to reduce the bias related to reverse causality and confounding. The differences in birth outcomes between children of parents who experienced job displacement and children of parents who were not displaced turn out to be quite modest. Even in the most disadvantaged regions, with the highest unemployment rates, parental job displacement is not harmful for health at birth. We relate these findings to the institutional setting in Sweden and discuss policy implications for the United States.

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  • 34.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Health effects of unemployment in couples: does becoming unemployed affect a young partner’s health?2021In: Social Exclusion of Youth in Europe: The Multifaceted Consequences of Labour Market Insecurity / [ed] Marge Unt; Michael Gebel; Sonia Bertolini; Vassiliki Deliyanni-Kouimtzi; Dirk Hofäcker, Bristol: Policy Press, 2021, p. 58-80Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 35.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    When things go wrong with you, it hurts me too: The effects of partner’s employment status on health in comparative perspective2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of changes in employment status on health within couples have attracted increasing attention. This paper contributes to this emerging research by investigating whether the impact of a partner’s employment status on individual self-rated health varies systematically across countries with varying decommodification levels.

    We use longitudinal data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) and hybrid models. We find that a change in an individual’s employment status may affect the health not just of the person who experiences this transition, but of his or her partner. The likelihood that such a spillover will occur varies across countries with different decommodification levels. The negative effects of a partner’s employment status on self-rated health are observed when the generosity of welfare state support is limited. The moderating effects of financial support from the state are not very strong, though, they are not robust across all our models and do not extend to all the dimensions of the generosity of welfare state support.

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  • 36.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    When things go wrong with you, it hurts me too: The effects of partner’s employment status on health in comparative perspective2021In: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 143-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of changes in employment status on health within couples have attracted increasing attention. This paper contributes to this emerging research by investigating whether the impact of a partner’s employment status on individual self-rated health varies systematically across countries with varying decommodification levels. We use longitudinal data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) and hybrid models. We find that a change in an individual’s employment status may affect the health not just of the person who experiences this transition, but that of his or her partner. The likelihood that such a spillover will occur varies across countries with different decommodification levels. The negative effects of a partner’s employment status on self-rated health are observed when the generosity of welfare state support is limited. The moderating effects of financial support from the state are not very strong, though. They are not robust across all our models and do not extend to all the dimensions of the generosity of welfare state support.

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  • 37. Barban, Nicola
    et al.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Svensson, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Billari, F. C.
    Causal Effects of the Timing of Life-course Events: Age at Retirement and Subsequent Health2020In: Sociological Methods & Research, ISSN 0049-1241, E-ISSN 1552-8294, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 216-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we combine the extensive literature on the analysis of life-course trajectories as sequences with the literature on causal inference and propose a new matching approach to investigate the causal effect of the timing of life-course events on subsequent outcomes. Our matching approach takes into account pre-event confounders that are both time-independent and time-dependent as well as life-course trajectories. After matching, treated and control individuals can be compared using standard statistical tests or regression models. We apply our approach to the study of the consequences of the age at retirement on subsequent health outcomes, using a unique data set from Swedish administrative registers. Once selectivity in the timing of retirement is taken into account, effects on hospitalization are small, while early retirement has negative effects on survival. Our approach also allows for heterogeneous treatment effects. We show that the effects of early retirement differ according to preretirement income, with higher income individuals tending to benefit from early retirement, while the opposite is true for individuals with lower income.

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  • 38.
    Barclay, Kieron
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research; Stockholm University.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University; Institute for Futures Studies.
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Interpregnancy intervals and perinatal and child health in Sweden: A comparison within families and across social groups2020In: Population Studies, ISSN 0032-4728, E-ISSN 1477-4747, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 363-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large body of research has shown that children born after especially short or long birth intervals experience an elevated risk of poor perinatal outcomes, but recent work suggests this may be explained by confounding by unobserved family characteristics. We use Swedish population data on cohorts born 1981–2010 and sibling fixed effects to examine whether the length of the birth interval preceding the index child influences the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and hospitalization during childhood. We also present analyses stratified by salient social characteristics, such as maternal educational level and maternal country of birth. We find few effects of birth intervals on our outcomes, except for very short intervals (less than seven months) and very long intervals (>60 months). We find few differences in the patterns by maternal educational level or maternal country of origin after stratifying by the mother’s highest educational attainment.

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  • 39.
    Barkhordari, Mahnaz
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics, Bandar Abbas Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Hadaegh, Farzad
    Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
    Azizi, Fereidoun
    Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
    Bozorgmanesh, Mohammadreza
    Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
    Stata Modules for Calculating Novel Predictive Performance Indices for Logistic Models2016In: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 1726-9148, Vol. 14, no 1, article id e26707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prediction is a fundamental part of prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The development of prediction algorithms based on the multivariate regression models loomed several decades ago. Parallel with predictive models development, biomarker researches emerged in an impressively great scale. The key question is how best to assess and quantify the improvement in risk prediction offered by new biomarkers or more basically how to assess the performance of a risk prediction model. Discrimination, calibration, and added predictive value have been recently suggested to be used while comparing the predictive performances of the predictive models’ with and without novel biomarkers.Objectives: Lack of user-friendly statistical software has restricted implementation of novel model assessment methods while examining novel biomarkers. We intended, thus, to develop a user-friendly software that could be used by researchers with few programming skills.Materials and Methods: We have written a Stata command that is intended to help researchers obtain cut point-free and cut point-based net reclassification improvement index and (NRI) and relative and absolute Integrated discriminatory improvement index (IDI) for logistic-based regression analyses.We applied the commands to a real data on women participating the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS) to examine if information of a family history of premature CVD, waist circumference, and fasting plasma glucose can improve predictive performance of the Framingham’s “general CVD risk” algorithm.Results: The command is addpred for logistic regression models.Conclusions: The Stata package provided herein can encourage the use of novel methods in examining predictive capacity of ever-emerging plethora of novel biomarkers.

  • 40. Barkhordari, Mahnaz
    et al.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sardarinia, Mahsa
    Hadaegh, Farzad
    Azizi, Fereidoun
    Bozorgmanesh, Mohammadreza
    Survival Regression Modeling Strategies in CVD Prediction2016In: International journal of endocrinology and metabolism, ISSN 1726-9148, Vol. 14, no 2, article id e32156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A fundamental part of prevention is prediction. Potential predictors are the sine qua non of prediction models. However, whether incorporating novel predictors to prediction models could be directly translated to added predictive value remains an area of dispute. The difference between the predictive power of a predictive model with (enhanced model) and without (baseline model) a certain predictor is generally regarded as an indicator of the predictive value added by that predictor. Indices such as discrimination and calibration have long been used in this regard. Recently, the use of added predictive value has been suggested while comparing the predictive performances of the predictive models with and without novel biomarkers. Objectives: User-friendly statistical software capable of implementing novel statistical procedures is conspicuously lacking. This shortcoming has restricted implementation of such novel model assessment methods. We aimed to construct Stata commands to help researchers obtain the aforementioned statistical indices. Materials and Methods: We have written Stata commands that are intended to help researchers obtain the following. 1, Nam-D'Agostino X-2 goodness of fit test; 2, Cut point-free and cut point-based net reclassification improvement index (NRI), relative absolute integrated discriminatory improvement index (IDI), and survival-based regression analyses. We applied the commands to real data on women participating in the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS) to examine if information relating to a family history of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD), waist circumference, and fasting plasma glucose can improve predictive performance of Framingham's general CVD risk algorithm. Results: The command is adpredsurv for survival models. Conclusions: Herein we have described the Stata package "adpredsurv" for calculation of the Nam-D'Agostino X2 goodness of fit test as well as cut point-free and cut point-based NRI, relative and absolute IDI, and survival-based regression analyses. We hope this work encourages the use of novel methods in examining predictive capacity of the emerging plethora of novel biomarkers.

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  • 41. Bas-Hoogendam, Janna Marie
    et al.
    van Steenbergen, Henk
    Pannekoek, J. Nienke
    Fouche, Jean-Paul
    Lochner, Christine
    Hattingh, Coenraad J.
    Cremers, Henk R.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Månsson, Kristoffer N. T.
    Frick, Andreas
    Engman, Jonas
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Carlbring, Per
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Straube, Thomas
    Peterburs, Jutta
    Klumpp, Heide
    Phan, K. Luan
    Roelofs, Karin
    Stein, Dan J.
    van der Wee, Nic. J. A.
    Sample Size Matters: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Multi-Center Mega-Analysis of Gray Matter Volume in Social Anxiety Disorder2017In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 81, no 10, p. S7-S7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Baxter, Rebecca
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Jemberie, Wossenseged Birhane
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Li, Xia
    Naseer, Mahwish
    Pauelsen, Mascha
    Shebehe, Jacques
    Viklund, Emilia W.E.
    Xia, Xin
    Zulka, Linn Elena
    Badache, Andreea
    COVID-19: Opportunities for interdisciplinary research to improve care for older people in Sweden2021In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 29-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of COVID-19 has changed the world as we know it, arguably none more so than for older people. In Sweden, the majority of COVID-19-related fatalities have been among people aged ⩾70 years, many of whom were receiving health and social care services. The pandemic has illuminated aspects within the care continuum requiring evaluative research, such as decision-making processes, the structure and organisation of care, and interventions within the complex public-health system. This short communication highlights several key areas for future interdisciplinary and multi-sectorial collaboration to improve health and social care services in Sweden. It also underlines that a valid, reliable and experiential evidence base is the sine qua non for evaluative research and effective public-health systems.

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  • 43.
    Berg, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). UCGS .
    Lundgren, Anna Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Det talas om hormoner2022In: Formbundet, formbart!: Vänbok till Alf Arvidsson / [ed] Bo Nilsson; Anna Sofia Lundgren; Susanne Holst, Umeå: Insitutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper, Umeå universitet , 2022, p. 65-73Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 44.
    Berg, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Lundgren, Anna Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Jönsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Balansreceptet: konsten att hantera hormoner i självhjälpslitteraturens hormonberättelser: [The Balance Recipe: The Art of Managing Menopause in Self-help Literature's Hormone stories]2022In: Kvinder, Køn og Forskning, ISSN 0907-6182, E-ISSN 2245-6937, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 11-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The balance recipe: the art of managing menopause in the hormone stories of self-help literature 

    In recent years, menopause as a phase of transformation has received great media attention in a Swedish context. It is then not only specifically concerning the time when menstruation ceases – but about a longer period of time when female bodies undergo an adjustment with a focus on hormonal changes. In books such as Hormonstark (Hormone strong) (2020), Perimenopower (2018) and Livet med klimakteriet (Life with Menopause) (2020), the stressed reader in the middle of the career receives knowledge, tips, ideas and inspiring stories about how to deal with the fluctuating hormones that are said to affect the body during menopause. In this article, we start from these books with a poststructuralist feminist perspective on narratives and body control on the hormone stories of self-help literature. The aim is to explore how the literature represents women's menopause and hormonal bodies in a broader sense, and how women are encouraged to act in relation to this. The results show that hormone narratives may have feminist potential, but that they primarily make menopause an individual rather than structural matter. Further, they also reveal a close resemblance between the hormonal narratives and a biocapitalist contemporary, with an aging female body as a lucrative threat.

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  • 45.
    Bergman, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Sörlin, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Increasing physical activity in officeworkers – the Inphact Treadmill study: a study protocol for a 13-month randomized controlled trial of treadmill workstations2015In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, article id 632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sedentary behaviour is an independent risk factor for mortality and morbidity, especially for type 2 diabetes. Since office work is related to long periods that are largely sedentary, it is of major importance to find ways for office workers to engage in light intensity physical activity (LPA). The Inphact Treadmill study aims to investigate the effects of installing treadmill workstations in offices compared to conventional workstations.

    Methods/Design: A two-arm, 13-month, randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted. Healthy overweight and obese office workers (n = 80) with mainly sedentary tasks will be recruited from office workplaces in Umeå, Sweden. The intervention group will receive a health consultation and a treadmill desk, which they will use for at least one hour per day for 13 months. The control group will receive the same health consultation, but continue to work at their regular workstations. Physical activity and sedentary time during workdays and non-workdays as well as during working and non-working hours on workdays will be measured objectively using accelerometers (Actigraph and activPAL) at baseline and after 2, 6, 10, and 13 months of follow-up. Food intake will be recorded and metabolic and anthropometric variables, body composition, stress, pain, depression, anxiety, cognitive function, and functional magnetic resonance imaging will be measured at 3–5 time points during the study period. Interviews with participants from the intervention group will be performed at the end of the study.

    Discussion: This will be the first long-term RCT on the effects of treadmill workstations on objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time as well as other body functions and structures/morphology during working and non-working hours among office workers. This will provide further insight on the effects of active workstations on our health and could fill in some of the knowledge gaps regarding how we can reduce sedentary time in office environments.

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  • 46.
    Bergman, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Mattson-Frost, Tove
    Jonasson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Chorell, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Sörlin, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Ryberg, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Levine, James
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Installing treadmill workstations in offices does little for cognitive performance and brain structure, despite a baseline association between sitting time and hippocampus volumeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Bergman, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Wahlström, Viktoria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Stomby, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Otten, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lanthén, Ellen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Renklint, Rebecka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Waling, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Sörlin, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Danish Research Center for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Levine, James A.
    Department of Endocrinology, The Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; Fondation IPSEN, Paris, France.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Treadmill workstations in office workers who are overweight or obese: a randomised controlled trial2018In: The Lancet Public Health, ISSN 2468-2667, Vol. 3, no 11, article id e523-e535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Treadmill workstations that enable office workers to walk on a treadmill while working at their computers might increase physical activity in offices, but long-term effects are unknown. We therefore investigated whether treadmill workstations in offices increased daily walking time.

    Methods: We did a randomised controlled trial of healthy office workers who were either overweight or obese. We recruited participants from 13 different companies, which comprised 17 offices, in Umeå, Sweden. We included people who were aged 40-67 years, had sedentary work tasks, and had a body-mass index (BMI) between 25 kg/m2 and 40 kg/m2. After the baseline measurement, we stratified participants by their BMI (25-30 kg/m2 and >30 to 40 kg/m2); subsequently, an external statistician randomly assigned these participants (1:1) to either the intervention group (who received treadmill workstations for optional use) or the control group (who continued to work at their sit-stand desks as usual). Participants in the intervention group received reminders in boosting emails sent out to them at four occasions during the study period. Researchers were masked to group assignment until after analysis of the primary outcome. After the baseline measurement, participants were not masked to group belongings. The primary outcome was total daily walking time at weekdays and weekends, measured at baseline, 2 months, 6 months, 10 months, and 13 months with the accelerometer activPAL (PAL Technologies, Glasgow, UK), which was worn on the thigh of participants for 24 h a day for 7 consecutive days. We used an intention-to-treat approach for our analyses. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01997970, and is closed to new participants.

    Findings: Between Nov 1, 2013, and June 30, 2014, a total of 80 participants were recruited and enrolled (n=40 in both the intervention and control groups). Daily walking time during total time awake at weekdays increased between baseline and 13 months by 18 min (95% CI 9 to 26) in the intervention group and 1 min (-7 to 9) in the control group (difference 22 min [95% CI 7 to 37], pinteraction=0·00045); for weekend walking, the change from baseline to 13 months was 5 min (-8 to 18) in the intervention group and 8 min (-5 to 21) in the control group (difference -1 min [-19 to 17]; pinteraction=0·00045). Neither measure met our predetermined primary outcome of 30 min difference in total walking time between the intervention and control group, so the primary outcome of the trial was not met. One adverse event was reported in a participant who accidently stepped on their Achilles tendon.

    Interpretation: In a sedentary work environment, treadmill workstations result in a statistically significant but smaller-than-expected increase in daily walking time. Future studies need to investigate how increasing physical activity at work might have potentially compensatory effects on non-work activity.

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  • 48.
    Blom Nilsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    McCarty, Dennis
    OHSU-PSU School of Public Health, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, USA.
    Lundgren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. University of Denver Graduate School of Social Work, Denver, USA.
    Sexual Abuse and Future Mental Health Hospitalization in a Swedish National Sample of Men Who Use Opioids2020In: Journal of addiction medicine, ISSN 1932-0620, E-ISSN 1935-3227, Vol. 14, no 4, p. e24-e28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Experiences of trauma, specifically sexual abuse, have been linked to both mental health and substance use disorders. This study used 14 years of Swedish health registry data to select a sample of adult men who reported frequent opioid use and assessed if those with a self-reported history of sexual abuse had a higher likelihood of hospitalization for a mental health disorder.

    Methods: A Swedish longitudinal (2003–2017) registry study linked Addiction Severity Index (ASI) assessments completed with individuals who sought treatment for substance use disorders with data on hospitalizations for mental health disorders, and assessed associations with self-reported histories of sexual abuse among men who reported sustained and frequent use of opioids (n¼1862). Cox regression methods tested associations and controlled for age, and the7 ASI composite scores: family and social relationships, employment, alcohol use, drug use, legal, physical health, and mental health.

    Results: The ASI composite score for mental health (hazard ratio[HR] 16.6, P<0.001) and a history of sexual abuse (HR 1.93,P<0.001) were associated with an elevated risk of future mental health hospitalization.

    Conclusion: Both the ASI composite scores for mental health andself-reported history of sexual abuse reflected complex needs amongmen who used opioids and increased risk for mental health hospitalization.Treatment providers should strive to provide integrated careand address the negative aspects of victimization.

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  • 49.
    Blom-Nilsson, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Standardiserade instrument och systematisk uppföljning: förtjänster och hinder2023In: Effektiv insatsplanering vid svår substansanvändning / [ed] Lena Lundgren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023, p. 169-194Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Blom-Nilsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Lundgren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Samsjuklighet, substansanvädning och psykisk ohälsa2023In: Effektiv insatsplanering vid svår substansanvändning / [ed] Lena Lundgren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023, p. 121-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
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