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  • 1.
    Awad, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sunderby Research Unit, Umeå University, Sweden..
    Lundqvist, Robert
    Research and Innovation Unit, Norrbotten County Council, Luleå, Sweden..
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sunderby Research Unit, Umeå University, Sweden..
    Lower cognitive performance among long-term type 1 diabetes survivors: A case-control study2017In: Journal of diabetes and its complications, ISSN 1056-8727, E-ISSN 1873-460X, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 1328-1331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction. The cognitive decrement is believed to depend on macro- and microvascular complications and long disease duration. Some patients do not develop these complications, but still report cognitive symptoms. We examined if long-standing T1D without complications is associated with lower cognitive performance.

    METHODS: A group of patients (n=43) with long-standing T1D (>30years) without micro- or macro vascular complications was compared with a non-diabetic control group (n=86) on six cognitive tests which probed episodic memory, semantic memory, episodic short-term memory, visual attention and psychomotor speed. Each patient was matched with two controls regarding age, gender and education. A linear mixed effect model was used to analyze the data.

    RESULTS: The mean age was 57years and mean duration was 41years. Patients with diabetes had lower diastolic blood pressure but BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and smoking did not differ between groups. Patients had lower results than non-diabetic controls in episodic short-term memory (p<0.001) and also lower values on a test that mirrors visual attention and psychomotor speed (p=0.019).

    CONCLUSIONS: Long-standing T1D was associated with lower cognitive performance, regardless of other diabetes-related complications.

  • 2.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Lantto, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Wisselgren, Maria J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Inledning2016In: Samiska Rötter: släktforska i svenska Sápmi / [ed] Per Axelsson, Elisabeth Engberg, Patrik Lantto & Maria J. Wisselgren, Solna: Sveriges släktforskarförbund , 2016, p. 5-7Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Engberg, ElisabethUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).Lantto, PatrikUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.Wisselgren, Maria J.Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Samiska rötter: släktforska i svenska Sápmi2016Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Barkhordari, Mahnaz
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics, Bandar Abbas Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Hadaegh, Farzad
    Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
    Azizi, Fereidoun
    Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
    Bozorgmanesh, Mohammadreza
    Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
    Stata Modules for Calculating Novel Predictive Performance Indices for Logistic Models2016In: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 1726-9148, Vol. 14, no 1, article id e26707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prediction is a fundamental part of prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The development of prediction algorithms based on the multivariate regression models loomed several decades ago. Parallel with predictive models development, biomarker researches emerged in an impressively great scale. The key question is how best to assess and quantify the improvement in risk prediction offered by new biomarkers or more basically how to assess the performance of a risk prediction model. Discrimination, calibration, and added predictive value have been recently suggested to be used while comparing the predictive performances of the predictive models’ with and without novel biomarkers.Objectives: Lack of user-friendly statistical software has restricted implementation of novel model assessment methods while examining novel biomarkers. We intended, thus, to develop a user-friendly software that could be used by researchers with few programming skills.Materials and Methods: We have written a Stata command that is intended to help researchers obtain cut point-free and cut point-based net reclassification improvement index and (NRI) and relative and absolute Integrated discriminatory improvement index (IDI) for logistic-based regression analyses.We applied the commands to a real data on women participating the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS) to examine if information of a family history of premature CVD, waist circumference, and fasting plasma glucose can improve predictive performance of the Framingham’s “general CVD risk” algorithm.Results: The command is addpred for logistic regression models.Conclusions: The Stata package provided herein can encourage the use of novel methods in examining predictive capacity of ever-emerging plethora of novel biomarkers.

  • 5. Barkhordari, Mahnaz
    et al.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sardarinia, Mahsa
    Hadaegh, Farzad
    Azizi, Fereidoun
    Bozorgmanesh, Mohammadreza
    Survival Regression Modeling Strategies in CVD Prediction2016In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM, ISSN 1726-913X, Vol. 14, no 2, article id UNSP e32156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A fundamental part of prevention is prediction. Potential predictors are the sine qua non of prediction models. However, whether incorporating novel predictors to prediction models could be directly translated to added predictive value remains an area of dispute. The difference between the predictive power of a predictive model with (enhanced model) and without (baseline model) a certain predictor is generally regarded as an indicator of the predictive value added by that predictor. Indices such as discrimination and calibration have long been used in this regard. Recently, the use of added predictive value has been suggested while comparing the predictive performances of the predictive models with and without novel biomarkers. Objectives: User-friendly statistical software capable of implementing novel statistical procedures is conspicuously lacking. This shortcoming has restricted implementation of such novel model assessment methods. We aimed to construct Stata commands to help researchers obtain the aforementioned statistical indices. Materials and Methods: We have written Stata commands that are intended to help researchers obtain the following. 1, Nam-D'Agostino X-2 goodness of fit test; 2, Cut point-free and cut point-based net reclassification improvement index (NRI), relative absolute integrated discriminatory improvement index (IDI), and survival-based regression analyses. We applied the commands to real data on women participating in the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS) to examine if information relating to a family history of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD), waist circumference, and fasting plasma glucose can improve predictive performance of Framingham's general CVD risk algorithm. Results: The command is adpredsurv for survival models. Conclusions: Herein we have described the Stata package "adpredsurv" for calculation of the Nam-D'Agostino X2 goodness of fit test as well as cut point-free and cut point-based NRI, relative and absolute IDI, and survival-based regression analyses. We hope this work encourages the use of novel methods in examining predictive capacity of the emerging plethora of novel biomarkers.

  • 6. Bas-Hoogendam, Janna Marie
    et al.
    van Steenbergen, Henk
    Pannekoek, J. Nienke
    Fouche, Jean-Paul
    Lochner, Christine
    Hattingh, Coenraad J.
    Cremers, Henk R.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Månsson, Kristoffer N. T.
    Frick, Andreas
    Engman, Jonas
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Carlbring, Per
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Straube, Thomas
    Peterburs, Jutta
    Klumpp, Heide
    Phan, K. Luan
    Roelofs, Karin
    Stein, Dan J.
    van der Wee, Nic. J. A.
    Sample Size Matters: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Multi-Center Mega-Analysis of Gray Matter Volume in Social Anxiety Disorder2017In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 81, no 10, p. S7-S7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lönnberg, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Boman, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Impact of a combined community and primary care prevention strategy on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a cohort analysis based on 1 million person-years of follow-up in Västerbotten County, Sweden, during 1990-20062015In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 5, no 12, article id e009651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) by comparing all eligible individuals (target group impact) according to the intention-to-treat principle and VIP participants with the general Swedish population.

    DESIGN: Dynamic cohort study.

    SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: All individuals aged 40, 50 or 60 years, residing in Västerbotten County, Sweden, between 1990 and 2006 (N=101 918) were followed from their first opportunity to participate in the VIP until age 75, study end point or prior death.

    INTERVENTION: The VIP is a systematic, long-term, county-wide cardiovascular disease (CVD) intervention that is performed within the primary healthcare setting and combines individual and population approaches. The core component is a health dialogue based on a physical examination and a comprehensive questionnaire at the ages of 40, 50 and 60 years.

    PRIMARY OUTCOMES: All-cause and CVD mortality.

    RESULTS: For the target group, there were 5646 deaths observed over 1 054 607 person-years. Compared to Sweden at large, the standardised all-cause mortality ratio was 90.6% (95% CI 88.2% to 93.0%): for women 87.9% (95% CI 84.1% to 91.7%) and for men 92.2% (95% CI 89.2% to 95.3%). For CVD, the ratio was 95.0% (95% CI 90.7% to 99.4%): for women 90.4% (95% CI 82.6% to 98.7%) and for men 96.8% (95% CI 91.7 to 102.0). For participants, subject to further impact as well as selection, when compared to Sweden at large, the standardised all-cause mortality ratio was 66.3% (95% CI 63.7% to 69.0%), whereas the CVD ratio was 68.9% (95% CI 64.2% to 73.9%). For the target group as well as for the participants, standardised mortality ratios for all-cause mortality were reduced within all educational strata.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that the VIP model of CVD prevention is able to impact on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality when evaluated according to the intention-to-treat principle.

  • 8.
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sahlén, Klas Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Nilsson, Ingeborg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Brändström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Elderly care in Swedish welfare state: implications of the population ageing2013In: Global aging issues and policies: understanding the importance of comprehending and studying the aging process / [ed] Yushi Li, Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publisher Ltd., 2013, p. 226-244Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Non-invasive brain stimulation and neuro-enhancement in aging.2018In: Clinical Neurophysiology, ISSN 1388-2457, E-ISSN 1872-8952Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Ames, David
    Kochan, Nicole
    Lee, Teresa
    Thalamuthu, Anbupalam
    Wen, Wei
    Armstrong, Nicola
    Kwok, John
    Schofield, Peter
    Reppermund, Simone
    Wright, Margaret
    Trollor, Julian
    Brodaty, Henry
    Sachdev, Perminder
    Mather, Karen
    Investigating the influence of KIBRA and CLSTN2 genetic polymorphisms on cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of memory performance and hippocampal volume in older individuals2015In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 78, p. 10-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The variability of episodic memory decline and hippocampal atrophy observed with increasing age may partly be explained by genetic factors. KIBRA (kidney and brain expressed protein) and CLSTN2 (calsyntenin 2) are two candidate genes previously linked to episodic memory performance and volume of the hippocampus, a key memory structure. However, whether polymorphisms in these two genes also influence age-related longitudinal memory decline and hippocampal atrophy is still unknown. Using data from two independent cohorts, the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study and the Older Australian Twins Study, we investigated whether the KIBRA and CLSTN2 genetic polymorphisms (rs17070145 and rs6439886) are associated with episodic memory performance and hippocampal volume in older adults (65–90 years at baseline). We were able to examine these polymorphisms in relation to memory and hippocampal volume using cross-sectional data and, more importantly, also using longitudinal data (2 years between testing occasions). Overall we did not find support for an association of KIBRA either alone or in combination with CLSTN2 with memory performance or hippocampal volume, nor did variation in these genes influence longitudinal memory decline or hippocampal atrophy in two cohorts of older adults.

  • 11.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Hagkvist, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Lindner, Philip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet; Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Motor and mental training in older people: transfer, interference, and associated functional neural responses2016In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 89, p. 371-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning new motor skills may become more difficult with advanced age. In the present study, we randomized 56 older individuals, including 30 women (mean age 70.6 years), to 6 weeks of motor training, mental (motor imagery) training, or a combination of motor and mental training of a finger tapping sequence. Performance improvements and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to investigate performance gains and associated underlying neural processes. Motor-only training and a combination of motor and mental training improved performance in the trained task more than mental-only training. The fMRI data showed that motor training was associated with a representation in the premotor cortex and mental training with a representation in the secondary visual cortex. Combining motor and mental training resulted in both premotor and visual cortex representations. During fMRI scanning, reduced performance was observed in the combined motor and mental training group, possibly indicating interference between the two training methods. We concluded that motor and motor imagery training in older individuals is associated with different functional brain responses. Furthermore, adding mental training to motor training did not result in additional performance gains compared to motor-only training and combining training methods may result in interference between representations, reducing performance.

  • 12.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Nordin, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Free Recall Episodic Memory Performance Predicts Dementia 10 Years Prior to Clinical Diagnosis: Findings from the Betula Longitudinal Study2015In: Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders extra, E-ISSN 1664-5464, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 191-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aims: Early dementia diagnosis is a considerable challenge. The present study examined the predictive value of cognitive performance for a future clinical diagnosis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia in a random population sample. Methods: Cognitive performance was retrospectively compared between three groups of participants from the Betula longitudinal cohort. Group 1 developed dementia 11-22 years after baseline testing (n = 111) and group 2 after 1-10 years (n = 280); group 3 showed no deterioration towards dementia during the study period (n = 2,855). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the predictive value of tests reflecting episodic memory performance, semantic memory performance, visuospatial ability, and prospective memory performance. Results: Age-and education-corrected performance on two free recall episodic memory tests significantly predicted dementia 10 years prior to clinical diagnosis. Free recall performance also predicted dementia 11-22 years prior to diagnosis when controlling for education, but not when age was added to the model. Conclusion: The present results support the suggestion that two free recall-based tests of episodic memory function may be useful for detecting individuals at risk of developing dementia 10 years prior to clinical diagnosis.

  • 13.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Physical activity over a decade modifies age-related decline in perfusion, gray matter volume, and functional connectivity of the posterior default mode network: a multimodal approach2016In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 131, p. 133-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One step toward healthy brain aging may be to entertain a physically active lifestyle. Studies investigating physical activity effects on brain integrity have, however, mainly been based on single brain markers, and few used a multimodal imaging approach. In the present study, we used cohort data from the Betula study to examine the relationships between scores reflecting current and accumulated physical activity and brain health. More specifically, we first examined if physical activity scores modulated negative effects of age on seven resting state networks previously identified by Salami, Pudas, and Nyberg (2014). The results revealed that one of the most age-sensitive RSN was positively altered by physical activity, namely, the posterior default-mode network involving the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Second, within this physical activity-sensitive RSN, we further analyzed the association between physical activity and gray matter (GM) volumes, white matter integrity, and cerebral perfusion using linear regression models. Regions within the identified DMN displayed larger GM volumes and stronger perfusion in relation to both current and 10-years accumulated scores of physical activity. No associations of physical activity and white matter integrity were observed. Collectively, our findings demonstrate strengthened PCC–cortical connectivity within the DMN, larger PCC GM volume, and higher PCC perfusion as a function of physical activity. In turn, these findings may provide insights into the mechanisms of how long-term regular exercise can contribute to healthy brain aging.

  • 14.
    Brännlund, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Alternativa vägar till släkthistorien2016In: Samiska rötter: släktforska i svenska Sápmi / [ed] Per Axelsson, Elisabeth Engberg, Patrik Lantto & Maria J. Wisselgren; Sveriges släktforskarförbund; CEDAR - Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning; Vaartoe - Centrum för samisk forskning, Sveriges släktforskarförbund , 2016, p. 53-63Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Bäckström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), 164 90 Stockholm.
    Sandow, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Commuting and timing of retirement2016In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 125-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interregional commuting is an important feature of labour supply and regional labour market adjustment. In this study, we examine the effect of long-distance commuting (LDC) on timing of retirement. Previous research indicates negative health effects and substantial disutility of commuting. Potentially, this may affect the labour supply of older workers via early retirement. Longitudinal population register data from Sweden on employed older workers are used for semi-parametric estimation of survival in the labour force. The results for men indicate shorter survival in the labour force/ earlier retirement for LDCs, primarily among men with high education. For women, there is no evidence of LDC being associated with early retirement. For women with high education, there are indications of longer survival in the labour force among the commuters. The seemingly contradictory results for the highly educated may be due to gender differences in commuting distances and socio-economic attributes of commuters.

  • 16.
    Degerman, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Wennstedt, Sigrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Landfors, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Haider, Zahra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Hultdin, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Maintained memory in aging is associated with young epigenetic age2017In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 55, p. 167-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epigenetic alterations during aging have been proposed to contribute to decline in physical and cognitive functions, and accelerated epigenetic aging has been associated with disease and all-cause mortality later in life. In this study, we estimated epigenetic age dynamics in groups with different memory trajectories (maintained high performance, average decline, and accelerated decline) over a 15-year period. Epigenetic (DNA-methylation [DNAm]) age was assessed, and delta age (DNAm age - chronological age) was calculated in blood samples at baseline (age: 55-65 years) and 15 years later in 52 age- and gender-matched individuals from the Betula study in Sweden. A lower delta DNAm age was observed for those with maintained memory functions compared with those with average (p = 0.035) or accelerated decline (p = 0.037). Moreover, separate analyses revealed that DNAm age at follow-up, but not chronologic age, was a significant predictor of dementia (p = 0.019). Our findings suggest that young epigenetic age contributes to maintained memory in aging.

  • 17.
    Drugge, Anna-Lill
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Brännlund, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Challenging the mainstream through parrhesiastic theory and practice2016In: Ethics in indigenous research: past experiences - future research / [ed] Anna-Lill Drugge, Umeå: Vaartoe - Centre for Sami Research , 2016, 1, p. 105-116Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Hälsoreformer, livsmedelskontroll och hälsoutveckling i svenska städer 1850-19302015In: Mot ett modernt livsmedelssystem: Livsmedelshygien och livsmedelskontroll i Sverige och Norden 1850-1930 / [ed] Per Eriksson, Stockholm: Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbruksakademien, 2015, 1, p. 65-81Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Arvidsson, Alf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Sweden: demography and ethnology in the north2016In: Encyclopedia of the Barents region: vol. 2, N-Y / [ed] Mats-Olov Olsson, Fredrick Backman, Alexey Golubev, Björn Norlin, Lars Ohlsson, Oslo: Pax Forlag, 2016, p. 351-356Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    A parametric model for old age mortality in mediation analysis2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Is high social class always beneficial for survival?: Northern Sweden 1801–2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Focusing on two regions in northern Sweden 1801–2013, we challenge common notions of the assumed advantage in survival of belonging to a high social class. The issue is analysed according to gender and age group (adults and elderly) and in relation to the developmentof economic inequality. The results show that high social class is not always favourable for survival. Men in the elite category had higher mortality compared to others during a large part of the studied period; a male mortality class reversal appears at a surprisingly late date, while the social gradient among women conforms to the expected pattern. Wesuggest that health-related behaviour is decisive not only in later but earlier phases of the mortality transition as well. The results implicate that the association between social class and health is more complex than is assumed in many of the dominant theories in demography and epidemiology.

  • 22.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Life course and long-term perspectives of social inequality in mortality among elderly and adults in Northern Sweden 1801-20132017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Neighbourhood inequality as a health risk: Empirical evidence from Swedish registers2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore the impact on mortality of income inequality in residential neighbourhoods and municipalities among elderly 65-84 years in the year 2004, using Swedish longitudinal micro-data covering the entire Swedish population for the period 1970 – 2006. Preliminary cross-sectional multi-level analyses are now complemented by longitudinal analyses of long-term residential histories with exposure to equal/unequal municipalities and neighbourhoods and the long-term impact on mortality. We investigate the association between mortality and income inequality at place of residence at different time lags and the effect of a summary measure of previous exposures to environments characterised by different inequality levels. We also compare groups that have different experiences of residential characteristics, i.e. those that have resided in unequal or equal places and those that have changed from equal to unequal residences or vice versa. Preliminary results from a cross-sectional analysis on 2006, show that income inequality in the municipality of residence had an independent effect on mortality in the age group 65-74 years

  • 24.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Nilsson, Urban
    Urban mortality in Sweden during the 19th century2000In: Population Dynamics during Industrialization / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2000, p. 39-81Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Marsh, John Everett
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Longitudinal effects of bilingualism on dual-tasking2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 12, article id e0189299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ongoing debate surrounds whether bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tests of executive processing. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are long-term (10 year) bilingual advantages in executive processing, as indexed by dual-task performance, in a sample that were 40-65 years at baseline. The bilingual (n = 24) and monolingual (n = 24) participants were matched on age, sex, education, fluid intelligence, and study sample. Participants performed free-recall for a 12-item list in three dual-task settings wherein they sorted cards either during encoding, retrieval, or during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list. Free recall without card sorting was used as a reference to compute dual-task costs. The results showed that bilinguals significantly outperformed monolinguals when they performed card-sorting during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list, the condition that presumably placed the highest demands on executive functioning. However, dual-task costs increased over time for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, a finding that is possibly influenced by retirement age and limited use of second language in the bilingual group.

  • 26.
    Eskilsson, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre.
    Aerobic training for improved memory in patients with stress-related exhaustion: a randomized controlled trial2017In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Patients with stress-related exhaustion suffer from cognitive impairments, which often remain after psychological treatment or work place interventions. It is important to find effective treatments that can address this problem. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects on cognitive performance and psychological variables of a 12-week aerobic training program performed at a moderate-vigorous intensity for patients with exhaustion disorder who participated in a multimodal rehabilitation program.

    METHODS: In this open-label, parallel, randomized and controlled trial, 88 patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder participated in a 24-week multimodal rehabilitation program. After 12 weeks in the program the patients were randomized to either a 12-week aerobic training intervention or to a control group with no additional training. Primary outcome measure was cognitive function, and secondary outcome measures were psychological health variables and aerobic capacity.

    RESULTS: In total, 51% patients in the aerobic training group and 78% patients in the control group completed the intervention period. The aerobic training group significantly improved in maximal oxygen uptake and episodic memory performance. No additional improvement in burnout, depression or anxiety was observed in the aerobic group compared with controls.

    CONCLUSION: Aerobic training at a moderate-vigorous intensity within a multimodal rehabilitation program for patients with exhaustion disorder facilitated episodic memory. A future challenge would be the clinical implementation of aerobic training and methods to increase feasibility in this patient group.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03073772 . Retrospectively registered 21 February 2017.

  • 27.
    Flodin, Pär
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Jonasson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Does Aerobic Exercise Influence Intrinsic Brain Activity? An Aerobic Exercise Intervention among Healthy Old Adults2017In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 9, article id 267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have indicated that aerobic exercise could reduce age related decline in cognition and brain functioning. Here we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on intrinsic brain activity. Sixty sedentary healthy males and females (64–78 years) were randomized into either an aerobic exercise group or an active control group. Both groups recieved supervised training, 3 days a week for 6 months. Multimodal brain imaging data was acquired before and after the intervention, including 10 min of resting state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL). Additionally, a comprehensive battery of cognitive tasks assessing, e.g., executive function and episodic memory was administered. Both the aerobic and the control group improved in aerobic capacity (VO2-peak) over 6 months, but a significant group by time interaction confirmed that the aerobic group improved more. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not observe any significant group by time interactions with regard to any measure of intrinsic activity. To further probe putative relationships between fitness and brain activity, we performed post hoc analyses disregarding group belongings. At baseline, VO2-peak was negativly related to BOLD-signal fluctuations (BOLDSTD) in mid temporal areas. Over 6 months, improvements in aerobic capacity were associated with decreased connectivity between left hippocampus and contralateral precentral gyrus, and positively to connectivity between right mid-temporal areas and frontal and parietal regions. Independent component analysis identified a VO2-related increase in coupling between the default mode network and left orbitofrontal cortex, as well as a decreased connectivity between the sensorimotor network and thalamus. Extensive exploratory data analyses of global efficiency, connectome wide multivariate pattern analysis (connectome-MVPA), as well as ASL, did not reveal any relationships between aerobic fitness and intrinsic brain activity. Moreover, fitness-predicted changes in functional connectivity did not relate to changes in cognition, which is likely due to absent cross- sectional or longitudinal relationships between VO2-peak and cognition. We conclude that the aerobic exercise intervention had limited influence on patterns of intrinsic brain activity, although post hoc analyses indicated that individual changes in aerobic capacity preferentially influenced mid-temporal brain areas.

  • 28.
    Forouzan, Setareh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Social Determinants of Health Research Centre, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Rafiey, Hassan
    Social Welfare Management Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Dejman, Masoumeh
    Department of Mental Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Measuring the mental health care system responsiveness: results of an outpatient survey in Tehran2016In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 3, article id 285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As explained by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2000, the concept of health system responsiveness is one of the core goals of health systems. Since 2000, further efforts have been made to measure health system responsiveness and the factors affecting responsiveness, yet few studies have applied responsiveness concepts to the evaluation of mental health systems. The present study aims to measure responsiveness and its related domains in the mental health-care system of Tehran. Utilizing the same method used by the WHO for its responsiveness survey, responsiveness for outpatient mental health care was evaluated using a validated Farsi questionnaire. A sample of 500 public mental health service users in Tehran participated and subsequently completed the questionnaire. On average, 47% of participants reported experiencing poor responsiveness. Among responsiveness domains, confidentiality and dignity were the best performing factors while autonomy, access to care, and quality of basic amenities were the worst performing. Respondents who reported their social status as low were more likely to experience poor responsiveness overall. Attention and access to care were responsiveness dimensions that performed poorly but were considered to be highly important by study participants. In summary, the study suggests that measuring responsiveness could provide guidance for further development of mental health-care systems to become more patient orientated and provide patients with more respect.

  • 29.
    Fors, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Olofsson, JennyUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Utblick: Sverige i en internationell jämförelse2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens globaliserade värld spelar jämförelser mellan länder en allt mer framträdande roll. Inom den komparativa samhällsforskningen försöker forskare förklara och förstå likheter och skillnader mellan olika länder utifrånen mängd skilda teman och områden och den här boken ger ett smakprov på hur sådana skillnader och likheter kan beskrivas och förstås. Hur kommer det sig till exempel att människor är mer främlingsfientliga i vissa länder än i andra? Varför skiljer sig åsikter om jämställdhet inom familjen så mycket mellan länder? Stämmer det att människor blir allt mindre religiösa i takt med att länder moderniseras? Ökar eller minskar välbefinnandet över tid i Europas länder? Hur utvecklas livsvillkor och hälsa för den äldre befolkningen i Europa? Med hjälp av tre av världens främsta komparativa surveyundersökningar –European Social Survey (ESS), International Social Survey Programme (ISSP), samt The Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) –försöker författarna till boken besvara dessa frågor.

  • 30.
    Genbäck, Minna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Stanghellini, Elena
    Department of Economics, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Predictors of decline in self-reported health: addressing non-ignorable dropout in longitudinal studies of aging2017In: European Journal of Ageing, ISSN 1613-9372, E-ISSN 1613-9380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictors of decline in health in older populations have been investigated in multiple studies before. Most longitudinal studies of aging, however, assume that dropout at follow-up is ignorable (missing at random) given a set of observed characteristics at baseline. The objective of this study was to address non-ignorable dropout in investigating predictors of declining self-reported health (SRH) in older populations (50 years or older) in Sweden, the Netherlands, and Italy. We used the SHARE panel survey, and since only 2895 out of the original 5657 participants in the survey 2004 were followed up in 2013, we studied whether the results were sensitive to the expectation that those dropping out have a higher proportion of decliners in SRH. We found that older age and a greater number of chronic diseases were positively associated with a decline in self-reported health in the three countries studies here. Maximum grip strength was associated with decline in self-reported health in Sweden and Italy, and self-reported limitations in normal activities due to health problems were associated with decline in self-reported health in Sweden. These results were not sensitive to non-ignorable dropout. On the other hand, although obesity was associated with decline in a complete case analysis, this result was not confirmed when performing a sensitivity analysis to non-ignorable dropout. The findings, thereby, contribute to the literature in understanding the robustness of longitudinal study results to non-ignorable dropout while considering three different population samples in Europe.

  • 31.
    Gorbach, Tetiana
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Orädd, Greger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Longitudinal association between hippocampus atrophy and episodic-memory decline2017In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 51, p. 167-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is marked variability in both onset and rate of episodic-memory decline in aging. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed that the extent of age-related brain changes varies markedly across individuals. Past studies of whether regional atrophy accounts for episodic-memory decline in aging have yielded inconclusive findings. Here we related 15-year changes in episodic memory to 4-year changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter volume and in white-matter connectivity and lesions. In addition, changes in word fluency, fluid IQ (Block Design), and processing speed were estimated and related to structural brain changes. Significant negative change over time was observed for all cognitive and brain measures. A robust brain-cognition change-change association was observed for episodic-memory decline and atrophy in the hippocampus. This association was significant for older (65-80 years) but not middle-aged (55-60 years) participants and not sensitive to the assumption of ignorable attrition. Thus, these longitudinal findings highlight medial-temporal lobe system integrity as particularly crucial for maintaining episodic-memory functioning in older age. 

  • 32.
    Grip, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Selling, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Three dimensional kinematic analyses of finger movement control and association to brain activity responses: A pilot study on healthy individuals2017In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 57, p. 355-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: An increased knowledge of how the brain control finger movements give us keys to understand the recovery of motor function after a brain injury. This knowledge is crucial for the development of reliable and valid assessment methods in the clinical evaluation of hand function.

    Research question: How are individual finger movements represented in the brain? Investigating the associations between kinematics and brain activity responses in healthy individuals.

    Methods: Keeping the others still. Finger movements were performed lying in the MR scanner in order to register brain activity response during the task. Optoelectronic cameras simultaneously monitored the positions of reflective markers affixed to each finger. The marker position data were used to calculate each finger's movement frequency (MF),  movement independence (“Individuation Index”, II), stationary ability (Stationarity Index, SI)[1][1]. fMRI data was analyzed by contrasting the finger movements against its active rest.

    Results: Preliminary analyses showed that (1) the finger movements primarily activate sensorimotor areas in the contralateral hemisphere (Fig. 1A), (2) that use of kinematic parameters in the fMRI analyses improved spatial specificity and (3) II engage a number of cortical areas, while MF engage fewer areas (Fig. 1B–D). Further analyses will further explore activations maps for each individual finger.

    Discussion: The inclusion of movement parameters in the fMRI analyses improves the specificity in the derived activation map, increasing the interpretability of the neural correlates of movement control. This advancement carries the promise for the development of better assessment methods of the recovery of function post-stroke with usability in rehabilitation practices.

  • 33.
    Gustafsson, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Resumen de "'Para un vida mejor...' Un estudio sobre migración y salud en Nicaragua"2016In: Revista de Temas Nicaragüenses, ISSN 2164-4268, Vol. 104, no Diciembre, p. 84-99Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    Este es el Resumen en Español de la tesis doctoral "'Para un vida mejor...' Un estudio sobre migración y salud en Nicaragua" [“’For a better life…’ A study on migration and health in Nicaragua”] escrito por Cecilia Gustafsson, y publicado en 2014 en el Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Sweden (Series: GERUM 2014:2; ISSN:1402-5205; ISBN: 9789176011928). El Resumen en Español se republica en Revista de Temas Nicaragüenses con la autorización del autor y editor. Esta nueva versión contiene un cambio moderado del Resumen en Español originalmente publicado en la tesis doctoral; La autora ha hecho algunos cambios en los encabezados y las referencias, y ha incluido una lista bilbiográfica. La tesis doctoral fue escrita enteramente en inglés y puede descargarse de la URL: http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:773256/FULLTEXT01.pdf. 

  • 34.
    Gustafsson, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Äldre invandrares levnadsförhållanden i Sverige: En bakgrund inför framtida forskning2016Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Haage, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Disability in individual life and past society: life-course perspectives of people with disabilities in the Sundsvall region of Sweden in the nineteenth century2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What did a life with disability imply for individuals in a past society? Since disabled men and women have long been hidden in history, the aim with this thesis is to uncover them and their living conditions in nineteenth-century Sweden, represented by the Sundsvall region. The data consist of parish registers, which help to trace people’s life courses and the consequences if disabilities interfered with their lives. These records are digitized and stored by the Demographic Data Base (DDB), Umeå University, Sweden. The dataset under analysis comprises a population of some 36,000 observations from non-disabled and disabled individuals. Life-course perspectives and labeling theories are applied in all four studies in this thesis, even if different methods and events in life are taken into account. Studies II and IV examine the marriage propensities and the spouses, and show that disabled people did marry, and usually with a non-disabled partner in similar age and from similar socio-economic origin. However their marital chances were significantly smaller compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Study I reveals that disabilities implied significantly higher death risks, in particular among the men and those with mental disabilities of both genders. In Study III, the three events of getting a job, marrying and giving birth to a child were explored in parallel. The results reveal that even if some disabled people experienced all these events, they did so to a lower extent than non-disabled persons. Variations were found between men and women and different disabilities. The major conclusion of the thesis is that disabled people constituted a most heterogeneous group of individuals with different obstacles and opportunities in life in a past society, where gender and type of disability seem to have played a part in their level of labeling beyond the impairment itself. 

  • 36.
    Haage, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Whom to marry? Partner selection of people with disabilities in nineteenth-century northern SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Haage, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Gendered death risks among disabled individuals in sweden: A case study of the 19th-century Sundsvall region2016In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 160-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study follows around 500 disabled individuals over their lifespan to examine their risks of dying in 19th-century society, in comparison to a reference group of non-disabled people. The aim is to detect whether people, due to their disability, had a higher probability of meeting an untimely death. We use Sweden’s 19th-century parish registers to identify people the ministers defined as disabled, and to construct a reference group of individuals who were not affected by these disabilities. By combining the deviance theories from sociology studies with demographic sources and statistical methods, we achieve new insight into how life developed for disabled people in past societies. The results suggest that disability significantly jeopardized the survival of individuals, particularly men, but also that the type of disability had an impact. Altogether, we can demonstrate that the disabled constituted a disadvantaged but heterogeneous group of people whose demography and life courses must be further researched.

  • 38.
    Haage, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Opportunities of Work and Family in Young Disabled People’s Lives: A Comparative Study of Disabled and Non-disabled Young Adults in Nineteenth-century Northern Sweden Using Sequence Analysis2016In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Sequence Analysis and Related Methods (LaCOSA II) / [ed] Gilbert Ritschard and Matthias Studer, Lausanne: Université de Lausanne , 2016, p. 93-102Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     This study focuses on young adults with disabilities and their pathways towards work and family in past society. The aim is to explore their life trajectories and compare them to a non-disabled group of people who experienced the same time-space context, represented by the 19th-century Sundsvall region, Sweden. We employ sequence analyses on a series of demographic events that were to occur in the life of young adults: first occupation, marriage and parenthood. We also check for the events of death and out-migration. Disability studies show that disabled people were often subject to stigmatization caused by their impairment and prevailing perceptions about normalcy in in society. This would have limited their opportunities of work and family compared to non-disabled persons. Individual-level data consisting of parish registers digitized by the Demographic Data Base (DDB), Umeå University, Sweden, allow sequence analysis that helps to answer the questions of whether and how disability influenced people’s life trajectories. We obtain a holistic picture of how their life developed that suggests that disability substantially limited people’s opportunities to find job, marry and form a family. This indicates that a stigma was associated with disability beyond the impairment itself and worked to add to disabled individuals’ difficulties in both the labor market and marriage market.

  • 39.
    Haage, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Disabled and unmarried?: Marital chances among disabled people in nineteenth-century northern Sweden2017In: Essays in Economic & Business History, ISSN 0896-226X, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 207-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To marry and form a household of one's own was the expected life course of most people in the nineteenth century, but little is known about whether individuals with disabilities shared the same demographic experience of marriage as non-disabled did. This study examines this issue by analyzing the marital chances of a group of disabled people—i.e. blind, deaf mute, crippled and with mental disabilities—compared with a non-disabled reference group. Our results show that about a quarter of the disabled individuals did marry, even though their marital propensities were significantly lower than those of non-disabled people. These propensities also differed by gender and type of disability. We suggest that the lower marital chances and the variation we found within the group of disabled people indicate the level of social exclusion they faced in society.

  • 40.
    Haglund, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    The Invisible Sami Population: Regional Public Healthcare in Northern Sweden 1863–19502016In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 123-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Medicine and public health provision have often been used as instruments of power that have shaped relations between the colonizer and the colonized. The county councils, established in 1862 as regional self-governing authorities, became (and have remained) the main architects of Swedish public healthcare services. In this paper, we investigate the political praxis in regional public healthcare development in the three northernmost counties of Sweden, during 1863–1950. Our study finds that the "Lapp shall remain Lapp" policy, which dominated Swedish Sami policy at the time, had little if any influence on regional public healthcare politics. During the focal period, there were no public healthcare facilities and virtually no specific policies or directives aimed at improving access to healthcare for the Sami population.

  • 41.
    Hedlund, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lindström, Britta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Sojka, Peter
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Is better preservation of eccentric strength after stroke due to altered prefrontal function?2016In: Neurocase, ISSN 1355-4794, E-ISSN 1465-3656, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 229-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) is part of a network that exerts inhibitory control over the motor cortex (MC). Recently, we demonstrated that VLPFC was more activated during imagined maximum eccentric than during imagined concentric contractions in healthy participants. This was accompanied with lower activation levels within motor regions during imagined eccentric contractions. The aim was to test a novel hypothesis of an involvement of VLPFC in contraction mode-specific modulation of force. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine differences in VLPFC and motor regions during the concentric and the eccentric phases of imagined maximum contractions in a selected sample of subjects with stroke (n = 4). The subjects were included as they exhibited disturbed modulation of force. The previously demonstrated pattern within VLPFC was evident only on the contralesional hemisphere. On the ipsilesional hemisphere, the recruitment in VLPFC was similar for both modes of contractions. The findings support a hypothesis of the involvement of VLPFC in contraction mode-specific modulation of maximum force production. A disturbance of this system might underlie the lack of contraction mode-specific modulation commonly found among stroke subjects, often expressed as an increased ratio between eccentric and concentric strength.

  • 42.
    Ingole, Vijendra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Vadu Rural Health Program, KEM Hospital Research Centre, Pune 411011, India; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Kovats, Sari
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Hajat, Shakoor
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Juvekar, Sanjay
    Armstrong, Ben
    Socioenvironmental factors associated with heat and cold-related mortality in Vadu HDSS, western India: a population-based case-crossover study2017In: International journal of biometeorology, ISSN 0020-7128, E-ISSN 1432-1254, Vol. 61, no 10, p. 1797-1804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambient temperatures (heat and cold) are associated with mortality, but limited research is available about groups most vulnerable to these effects in rural populations. We estimated the effects of heat and cold on daily mortality among different sociodemographic groups in the Vadu HDSS area, western India. We studied all deaths in the Vadu HDSS area during 2004-2013. A conditional logistic regression model in a case-crossover design was used. Separate analyses were carried out for summer and winter season. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for total mortality and population subgroups. Temperature above a threshold of 31 A degrees C was associated with total mortality (OR 1.48, CI = 1.05-2.09) per 1 A degrees C increase in daily mean temperature. Odds ratios were higher among females (OR 1.93; CI = 1.07-3.47), those with low education (OR 1.65; CI = 1.00-2.75), those owing larger agricultural land (OR 2.18; CI = 0.99-4.79), and farmers (OR 1.70; CI = 1.02-2.81). In winter, per 1 A degrees C decrease in mean temperature, OR for total mortality was 1.06 (CI = 1.00-1.12) in lag 0-13 days. High risk of cold-related mortality was observed among people occupied in housework (OR = 1.09; CI = 1.00-1.19). Our study suggests that both heat and cold have an impact on mortality particularly heat, but also, to a smaller degree, cold have an impact. The effects may differ partly by sex, education, and occupation. These findings might have important policy implications in preventing heat and cold effects on particularly vulnerable groups of the rural populations in low and middle-income countries with hot semi-arid climate.

  • 43.
    Ingole, Vijendra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Vadu Rural Health Program, KEM Hospital Research Centre, Pune 411011, India.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Juvekar, Sanjay
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Impact of Heat and Cold on Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in Vadu HDSS: A Rural Setting in Western India2015In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 12, no 12, p. 15298-15308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many diseases are affected by changes in weather. There have been limited studies, however, which have examined the relationship between heat and cold and cause-specific mortality in low and middle-income countries. In this study, we aimed to estimate the effects of heat and cold days on total and cause-specific mortality in the Vadu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area in western India. We used a quasi-Poisson regression model allowing for over-dispersion to examine the association of total and cause-specific mortality with extreme high (98th percentile, >39 °C) and low temperature (2nd percentile, <25 °C) over the period January 2003 to December 2012. Delays of 0 and 0-4 days were considered and relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Heat was significantly associated with daily deaths by non-infectious diseases (RR = 1.57; CI: 1.18-2.10). There was an increase in the risk of total mortality in the age group 12-59 years on lag 0 day (RR = 1.43; CI: 1.02-1.99). A high increase in total mortality was observed among men at lag 0 day (RR = 1.38; CI: 1.05-1.83). We did not find any short-term association between total and cause-specific mortality and cold days. Deaths from neither infectious nor external causes were associated with heat or cold. Our results showed a strong and rather immediate relationship between high temperatures and non-infectious disease mortality in a rural population located in western India, during 2003-2012. This study may be used to develop targeted interventions such as Heat Early Warning Systems in the area to reduce mortality from extreme temperatures.

  • 44.
    Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Lundgren, Anna Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR)/Ageing and Living Conditions programme.
    Fantasies of scientificity: ethnographic identity and the use of QDA software2016In: Research methods for reading digital data in the digital humanities / [ed] Griffin, G. & Hayler, M., Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2016, p. 148-164Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Jonasson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Aerobic fitness and healthy brain aging: cognition, brain structure, and dopamine2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Performing aerobic exercise and maintaining high levels of aerobic fitness may have positive effects on both brain structure and function in older adults. Despite decades of research however, there is still a rather poor understanding of the neurocognitive mechanisms explaining the positive effects of aerobic exercise on cognition. Changes in prefrontal gray matter as well as dopaminergic neurotransmission in striatum are both candidate neurocognitive mechanisms. The main aims of this thesis are: 1. To investigate the effects of aerobic exercise and fitness on cognition and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) derived gray matter volumes using data from a 6 month physical exercise intervention in older adults (Study I). 2. To simulate the effect of atrophy in longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET) which could pose a challenge to interpreting changes in longitudinal PET imaging (Study II). 3. To study the influence of aerobic exercise and fitness on the dopamine D2-receptor (D2R) system in striatum using [11C]raclopride PET as a potential mechanism for improved cognition (Study III).

    Results: In Study I, aerobic exercise was found to improve cognitive performance in a broad, rather than domain-specific sense. Moreover, aerobic fitness was related to prefrontal cortical thickness, and improved aerobic fitness over 6 months was related to increased hippocampal volume. In Study II, we identified areas in the striatum vulnerable to the effect of shrinkage, which should be considered in longitudinal PET imaging. Finally, in Study III, the effect of being aerobically fit, and improving fitness levels was found to impact dopaminergic neurotransmission in the striatum, which in turn mediated fitness-induced improvements in working memory updating performance.

    Conclusion: The findings in this thesis provide novel evidence regarding the neurocognitive mechanisms of aerobic exercise-induced improvements in cognition, and impacts the interpretation of longitudinal PET imaging. Performing aerobic exercise and staying aerobically fit at an older age have positive effects on cognition and brain systems important for memory and cognition. Specifically, fitness-induced changes to the dopaminergic system stands out as one novel neurocognitive mechanism explaining the positive effects of aerobic fitness on working-memory performance in healthy older adults.

  • 46.
    Jonasson, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Simulating effects of brain atrophy in longitudinal PET imaging with an anthropomorphic brain phantom2017In: Physics in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0031-9155, E-ISSN 1361-6560, Vol. 62, no 13, p. 5213-5227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET), the presence of volumetric changes over time can lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the true changes in the quantified PET signal due to the partial volume effect (PVE) introduced by the limited spatial resolution of existing PET cameras and reconstruction algorithms. Here, a 3D-printed anthropomorphic brain phantom with attachable striata in three sizes was designed to enable controlled volumetric changes. Using a method to eliminate the non-radioactive plastic wall, and manipulating BP levels by adding different number of events from list-mode acquisitions, we investigated the artificial volume dependence of BP due to PVE, and potential bias arising from varying BP. Comparing multiple reconstruction algorithms we found that a high-resolution ordered- subsets maximization algorithm with spatially variant point-spread function resolution modeling provided the most accurate data. For striatum, the BP changed by 0.08% for every 1% volume change, but for smaller volumes such as the posterior caudate the artificial change in BP was as high as 0.7% per 1% volume change. A simple gross correction for striatal volume is unsatisfactory, as the amplitude of the PVE on the BP differs depending on where in the striatum the change occurred. Therefore, to correctly interpret age-related longitudinal changes in the BP, we must account for volumetric changes also within a structure, rather than across the whole volume. The present 3D-printing technology, combined with the wall removal method, can be implemented to gain knowledge about the predictable bias introduced by the PVE differences in uptake regions of varying shape.

  • 47.
    Jonasson, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Kramer, Arthur F
    Departments of Psychology and Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark..
    Aerobic fitness influences working memory updating via the striatal dopaminergic system in older adultsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is much evidence that dopamine is vital for cognitive functioning in aging. Here we tested the hypothesis that aerobic exercise and fitness influences dopaminergic neurotransmission in the striatum as measured by positron emission tomography (PET) and the non-displacable binding potential (BPND ) of [11C]raclopride, and in turn performance on offline working-memory updating tasks. In a sample of 58 older sedentary adults undergoing a six-months exercise intervention, aerobic exercise compared to stretching, toning, and resistance training did not have a differential effect on BPND . At baseline, higher aerobic fitness levels (VO2peak ) were associated with higher BPND  in the striatum. Following the intervention, for both forms of training, we found reduced BPND , indicating increased dopamine (DA), in a cluster in the anterior striatum in individuals with larger improvements in VO2peak . This reduction in BPND  mediated a positive indirect effect of VO2peak  on working-memory updating performance. Collectively these findings implicate DA as a neurocognitive mechanism explaining the positive effects of staying physically active at an old age for working memory.

  • 48.
    Jonasson, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Kramer, Arthur
    Departments of Psychology and Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Aerobic Exercise Intervention, CognitivePerformance, and Brain Structure: results from the Physical Influences on Brain in Aging (PHIBRA) Study2017In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 8, p. 1-15, article id 336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that aerobic exercise has the potential to improve cognition and reduce brain atrophy in older adults. However, the literature is equivocal with regards to the specificity or generality of these effects. To this end, we report results on cognitive function and brain structure from a 6-month training intervention with 60 sedentary adults (64–78 years) randomized to either aerobic training or stretching and toning control training. Cognitive functions were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery in which cognitive constructs were measured using several different tests. Freesurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness in frontal regions and hippocampus volume. Results showed that aerobic exercisers, compared to controls, exhibited a broad, rather than specific, improvement in cognition as indexed by a higher “Cognitive score,” a composite including episodic memory, processing speed, updating, and executive function tasks (p = 0.01). There were no group differences in cortical thickness, but additional analyses revealed that aerobic fitness at baseline was specifically related to larger thickness in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and hippocampus volume was positively associated with increased aerobic fitness over time. Moreover, “Cognitive score” was related to dlPFC thickness at baseline, but changes in “Cognitive score” and dlPFC thickness were associated over time in the aerobic group only. However, aerobic fitness did not predict dlPFC change, despite the improvement in “Cognitive score” in aerobic exercisers. Our interpretation of these observations is that potential exercise-induced changes in thickness are slow, and may be undetectable within 6-months, in contrast to change in hippocampus volume which in fact was predicted by the change in aerobic fitness. To conclude, our results add to a growing literature suggesting that aerobic exercise has a broad influence on cognitive functioning, which may aid in explaining why studies focusing on a narrower range of functions have sometimes reported mixed results.

  • 49.
    Josefsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Larsson, Maria
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Olofsson, Jonas
    APOE-ɛ4 effects on longitudinal decline in olfactory and non-olfactory cognitive abilities in middle-aged and old adults2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 1286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Characterizing aging-related decline trajectories in mental abilities, and relationships of the ɛ4 allele of the Apolipoprotein gene, helps to identify individuals at high risk for dementia. However, longitudinal changes in olfactory and non-olfactory cognitive abilities have not been investigated in relation to the ɛ4 allele. In the present study, participants from a large population-based study (657 middle-aged and 556 old) were tested over 10 years on their performance on an odor identification task and three non-olfactory cognitive tasks; MMSE, episodic memory, and semantic memory. Our key finding is that in middle-aged participants, odor identification declined twice as fast for ɛ4/4 homozygotes, compared to non-carriers. However, in old participants, the ɛ4/4 homozygotes showed an impaired odor identification ability, but they declined at a similar rate as the non-carriers. Furthermore, in old participants all assessments displayed aging-related declines, but exaggerated declines in ɛ4-carriers were found only in MMSE and episodic memory assessments. In sum, we present evidence that odor identification ability starts to decline already in middle-aged, and that carriers of ɛ4/4, who are at highest risk of developing dementia, decline twice as fast. Our results may have implications for use of odor identification assessment in detection of early-stage dementia.

  • 50.
    Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Shared practices: social networks and fertility decline during the Swedish demographic transition, 1850-19502018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies how social interactions influenced the fertility decline during the Swedish demographic transition between 1850 and 1950. This, to gain insights into how and why norms and values affected married couples' birth control practices, and how this shaped the fertility decline. Social interaction effects are studied in two different networks, voluntary associations and spatial communities using regression-based methods, in four research papers. The relationship between social interactions and fertility, in turn, is studied at different levels of society, on a macro-, meso- and micro-level. The results show that married couples reproductive practices were affected by social interactions during the whole study period. Members of unions, free churches and temperance associations had, in general, lower fertility than others. Additionally, couples living near a union or a free-church was also more inclined to limit their fertility. Finally, the results show significant spatial autocorrelations in fertility of neighbours and couples in adjacent neighbourhoods. These results suggest that increased use of birth control was diffused within social networks through social interaction mechanisms and collective action. However, the most substantial effects are seen during the fertility transition. This was a time of large-scale societal changes, which made the perceived net benefits of childbearing more uncertain. The results of this thesis indicate that couples drew upon the experiences of others to make more informed decisions. Over time, these new shared practices were formed into social norms, connecting ideas of respectability with family limitation, diffused within social networks.

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