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  • 1. Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Displaced diaspora second-home tourism: an explorative study of Swedish-Iranians and their second-home purchases in Turkey2019In: Tourism, ISSN 1332-7461, Vol. 67, no 3, p. 239-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This explorative study aims to gain more insight into Swedish-Iranians' purchase of second homes in Turkey. The study is based on 22 questionnaires (19 of them from owners and buyers), field observation, and participant observation. Motives behind owners' and buyers' purchases are: other Swedish-Iranian friends/relatives bought there; cultural proximity; absence of visa restriction for Iranian citizens; geographical proximity to Iran and relatives living in Iran; economic factors, including the low prices and costs and investment for retirement; and the climate. The respondents are well-integrated into Swedish society and have access to different types of resources which facilitate the purchase, but they also show the potential to partially become integrated socioculturally into their Turkish communities. A meaningful proportion of them are seriously planning to live permanently in Turkey after retirement, but the majority stay there for longer periods or semi-permanently. Despite some limitations, this study makes an important contribution to the area of diaspora second-home tourism and to the field of diaspora studies.

  • 2.
    Adamiak, Czeslaw
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Department of Spatial Planning and Tourism, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 87-100 Toruń, Poland.
    Szyda, Barbara
    Dubownik, Anna
    Garcia-Alvarez, David
    Airbnb Offer in Spain-Spatial Analysis of the Pattern and Determinants of Its Distribution2019In: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 8, no 3, article id 155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rising number of homes and apartments rented out through Airbnb and similar peer-to-peer accommodation platforms cause concerns about the impact of such activity on the tourism sector and property market. To date, spatial analysis on peer-to-peer rental activity has been usually limited in scope to individual large cities. In this study, we take into account the whole territory of Spain, with special attention given to cities and regions with high tourist activity. We use a dataset of about 250 thousand Airbnb listings in Spain obtained from the Airbnb webpage, aggregate the numbers of these offers in 8124 municipalities and 79 tourist areas/sites, measure their concentration, spatial autocorrelation, and develop regression models to find the determinants of Airbnb rentals' distribution. We conclude that apart from largest cities, Airbnb is active in holiday destinations of Spain, where it often serves as an intermediary for the rental of second or investment homes and apartments. The location of Airbnb listings is mostly determined by the supply of empty or secondary dwellings, distribution of traditional tourism accommodation, coastal location, and the level of internationalization of tourism demand.

  • 3.
    Adjei Korang, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Skogen som resurs in Region Västernorrland: näringslivsnalys 2002-20152019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkt i perspektivet att ekonomisk utveckling i grund och botten är betingat på de kompetenser som används i produktionen av varor och tjänster, har denna rapport analyserat skogsnäringarnas utveckling i Västernorrland 2002-2015 med avseende på sysselsättning, antal arbetsgivare och arbetsinkomster. Särskilt fokus ligger på hur Västernorrlands skogsindustri är kopplad till övriga delar av näringslivet i form av det humankapital som de delar med varandra. Detta görs empiriskt genom analyser av regionens skill-relatedness, det vill säga flöden av arbetskraft mellan sektorer i regionen, för att grafiskt visa i vilken grad olika sektorer är relaterade till varandra. Utifrån argumentet att humankapital är en central resurs för regional utveckling låter vi data visa hur regionens skogsnäringar är kopplade till övriga näringslivet, och därigenom belysa branschöverskridande relationer bortom gängse föreställningar om kopplingar drivna av det officiella industriklassificeringssystemet. 

    Även om inkomstutvecklingen och andelen kvinnor i Västernorrland följer riksgenomsnittet har både antalet företag och sysselsatta utvecklats betydligt sämre i Västernorrland. Generella utbildningsnivån har ökat både i riket och i regionen, men Västernorrland har generellt en lägre utbildningsnivå. Skogsnäringarna i Västernorrland bryter delvis mot detta generella regionala mönster. Både antalet sysselsatta och antalet arbetsställen inom skogsnäringarna har kraftigt minskat i antal och tvärtemot regionens generella utveckling har också andelen högutbildade (med minst treårig universitetsexamen) minskat liksom andelen kvinnor. Trots dessa kraftiga rationaliseringar på personalsidan är utvecklingen för skogsnäringarna inom Västernorrland betydligt mindre negativ än för riket i övrigt. Det gäller framförallt inkomstnivåerna bland de anställda. Inkomstnivåerna i Sveriges skogsnäring har sjunkit i relativa termer men ökat med drygt 20% i Västernorrland och ligger 2015 på en något högre nivå än övriga näringar i regionen. Det kan i sin tur tyda på en positiv omvandling mot mer kvalificerade arbetstillfällen, även om det också inneburit kraftiga rationaliseringar. 

    För att belysa hur skogsnäringarna är inbäddade i regionens struktur av kompetenser har vi kartlagt graden av specialisering (hur representerad en industri är i regionen relativ i riket), graden av relatedness(hur väl en industri är kopplad till andra industrier genom personalflöden), och graden av inbäddning (förekomsten av andra industrier i regionen som delar liknande kompetensresurser). När det gäller den relativa närvaron av skogsnäringar i regionen utifrån antalet sysselsatta finner vi att ingen av skogsnäringarna har en betydande relativ specialisering i Västernorrland. Det är endast tillverkning av wellpapp och pappers- och pappförpackningar som har en specialiseringsgrad över 1 (dvs högre än riksgenomsnittet). Det innebär med andra ord att trots ett relativt högt bidrag till regionalt förädlingsvärde och skatter är näringarna underrepresenterade på regionens arbetsmarknad. Det återspeglas bland annat i den relativt kraftiga minskningen av sysselsatta och arbetsställen vi identifierat (och som pågått långt innan den period denna rapport analyserar) men också den relativt kraftiga ökningen av inkomster (högre än riksgenomsnittet för skogsnäringarna och i paritet med regionen i övrigt). Skogsnäringarna har med andra ord genomfört produktivitetshöjande rationaliseringar vilket i sig kan gynna regionen.

    Utifrån vårt analytiska ramverk är det dock aningen mer problematiskt att de relativt få arbetsgivarna inom skogsnäringarna också är relativt isolerade i regionen utifrån ett kompetensresursperspektiv. Det är endast tillverkning av andra byggnads- och inredningssnickerier, skogsförvaltning, drivning och pappers- och papptillverkning som har en genomsnittlig koppling till andra näringar i regionen över gränsvärdet för en kompetensrelaterad verksamhet. Detta återspeglas också i hur inbäddad skogsnäringen är utifrån den relativa koncentrationen av kompetensrelaterade verksamheter. Det är endast ovan nämnda fyra näringar som är tydligt inbäddade i regionens näringslivsstruktur, och endast två (pappers- och papptillverkning och tillverkning av byggnads- och inredningssnickerier) som har ett inbäddningsindex över regionens medelvärde. Det innebär att skogsnäringarna generellt är relativt perifera när vi pratar om vilka kompetensresurser skogsnäringen delar med övriga regionen. Dock är teknisk konsultverksamhet direkt eller indirekt relaterat till flertalet skogsnäringar, vilket kan peka på ökade tekniknivåer och ökat behov av tekniska specialistkunskaper. Även om företag kan kompensera för en svag regional inbäddning genom utomregionala nätverk, innebär framförallt en svag inbäddning att det kan vara svårare för arbetskraften att finna nya produktiva uttryck för sina kompetenser i regionen vid framtida rationaliseringar. Det i sin tur kan driva på utflyttning till andra regioner.

    Utifrån en smart specialiseringsagenda drar vi slutsatsen att policyinsatser bör verka för att öka graden av inbäddning för regionens nyckelindustrier då det kan underlätta en framgångsrik omvandling som bygger på regionens redan existerande kompetensresurser. 

  • 4.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Bonnedahl, Karl Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Enlund, Desirée
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Eriksson, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Helmersson, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Simonsson, Märit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Örestig, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    DN Debatt. 171 forskare: ”Vi vuxna bör också klimatprotestera”2019In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, , p. 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vuxna bör följa uppmaningen från ungdomarna i Fridays for future-rörelsen och protestera eftersom det politiska ledarskapet är otillräckligt. Omfattande och långvariga påtryckningar från hela samhället behövs för att få de politiskt ansvariga att utöva det ledarskap som klimatkrisen kräver, skriver 171 forskare i samhällsvetenskap och humaniora.

  • 5.
    Agbi, Anita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Social media platforms and travel destination choices among international students in umea.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media platforms have the potential to influence destination choice among potential travellers.Before potential travellers embark on a trip, they are faced with decision-making processes on whereto go, what to do, the best time to go, how to get there among other things. These pre-travel planning decisions can be influenced by their expectation of the experiences they will encounter at the destination and based on their perception of the destination. Their perception of destinations isusually informed by information found on social media platforms or passed on by family and friendswho have encountered similar travel experiences. Using Crompton’s model of destination choice set,this study explores the roles of social media platforms on destination choice among international students in the Umea university.

  • 6.
    Alexandersson, Linn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Turismdriven centrumförskjutning?: Exempel från svenska fjällen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to study population change in tourism intensive mountain municipalities. Then to investigate whether center displacement takes place from the municipality center to the area with growing tourism. Areas of growing tourism have in this study been delimited to ski resorts. To answer the study’s purpose and questions, both quantitative and qualitative methods have been used. Population statistics have been used to explain population change in Swedish mountain municipalities. Population statistics showed that there are four mountain municipalities that have a shrinking population in the municipality and in the municipality center, while there is a ski resort with population growth in the municipality. These mountain municipalities are Dorotea, Malung-Sälen, Storuman and Härjedalen. Interviews with officials from these municipalities have been used as a complement to analyze the findings from the population statistics. The result of the interviews shows that the ski resorts have characteristics of being so-called ‘center’ with reference to the center-periphery model. At the same time, it also appears that the informants do not think that it is possible to talk about any tourism-driven center displacement. At least not with regard to public service. The municipality house will be remain located where it is today. Based on the given results, this essay conclude that ski resorts should be regarded as commercial centers and that the municipality center is the public center. From this aspect this study also conclude that there is possible to talk about a patriell center displacement from the municipality center to the ski resorts. Which, based on this study, is explained as commercial. The study also conclude that the commercial supply is dependent on the tourist visitors and those who work on the ski resorts, where the result shows that much of those who live in the ski resorts work in the touristindustry. In this way, the commercial center displacement also becomes tourism-driven.

  • 7. Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Service logics and strategies of Swedish forestry in the structural shifts of forest ownership: challenging the "old" and shaping the "new"2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is one of the most forested countries in Europe, and it has one of the highest shares of productive forest. Production in forestry is largely reliant on the private non-industrial forest owners, who own half of the forest land. As in many countries, however, forest ownership is changing towards a higher extent of urban, female or non-forestry-background owners. This poses a challenge for the forestry services sector, mainly forest owners' associations and companies, but also broadly the sector at large. By exploring the sales and marketing processes, this paper analyses the service logics and strategies of Swedish forestry under changing forest ownership, drawing on an interview study covering all the large actors in the Swedish forestry sector. The study illustrates an increased focus of forestry organizations on services from a strategic and managerial perspective, in customer-oriented relationship development and in value creation and sales processes, specifically in order to manage "new" forest owners and the demand of forest industries. The results highlight the domination of service logics associated with timber production and the challenges for the service market and the provision of diversified services to forest owners.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Scocco, Sandro
    Arenagruppen, Arenaide, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Refugee immigration and the growth of low-wage work in the EU152019In: Comparative Migration Studies, ISSN 2214-8590, E-ISSN 2214-594X, Vol. 7, no 39, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our paper focuses on current trends in refugee migration and job polarization. In so doing, we assess the role of refugee migration in relation to institutional, technological and globalization factors in an effort to trace the factors underlying the growth of low-paying occupations in EU 15 between 1995 and 2017. Our empirical findings suggest that refugee migration has a small but positive and statistically significant impact on the growth of low-wage occupations in the EU 15 as a whole. However, the effect is attributed to Southern Europe and the UK and Irish economies. Despite hosting relatively large numbers of refugee migrants, the effects in the Nordic countries and Continental Europe are negligible, if present, and non-existent in the long run (5 years). When including all migrant workers, we find a limited impact on the growth of low-wage work in general, while the impact of immigrant workers from low-income third party countries becomes positive for the UK and Irish economy, but less for other European macro-regions. This suggests that institutional settings can play an important role in how the economy adjusts to migration. It also suggests that traditional fiscal cost calculations in relation to migration are often overestimated, as they implicitly build on the assumption that refugees and general immigration have great impacts on the growth of low-wage occupations.

  • 9.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University.
    Cultural promotion of place as 'northern' space: the case of the Umeå2014 - European Capital of Culture event2020In: Urban events, place branding and promotion: place event marketing / [ed] Waldemar Cudny, London: Routledge, 2020, 1, p. 25-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Culture is a sector that in last years have become more apparent in urban development strategies. A cultural driven growth strategy was visible in the northern Swedish city of Umeå, when hosting the European Capital of Culture in 2014. The choice of Umeå as the Swedish ECoC was heavily dependent on its focus on Sami culture. Single events within the yearlong program where mostly to be found within the city of Umeå. While Sami culture and other regional cultural expressions were part of representations of northern spaces transcending beyond the place space of urban Umeå. This spatial duality reflected in the Umeå2014 program is partly reproduced in the general promotion endeavors' of Umeå. The city is branded as a young, open, growing city and as a part of a larger regional setting containing natural and regional resources, including Sami culture. The chapter is based on literature review, thematic analysis of websites for Umeå2014, documents from Umeå municipality, and on author's direct observation. Analysis of the spatial dimensions expressed through single events included in the program year in Umeå2014 reveals mixed spatial references, with a particular focus on northern spaces.

  • 10.
    Arnlund, Oliver
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Trafikanternas syn på trafiksäkra åtgärder: En kvalitativ studie av trafiksäkerheten i Örnsköldsviks kommun2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11.
    Back, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Temporary resident evil?: Managing diverse impacts of second-home tourism2019In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Second-home tourism is a popular form of tourism in many countries. Sweden has over 600,000 second homes and more than half of the population have access to such properties. Previous literature on second-home tourism indicates that it impacts local communities and municipalities in many different ways, ranging from public services and land-use planning to the housing market and the local economy. However, it has not been sufficiently investigated how, where and by which spatial patterns these impacts might come into effect. Previous research has mostly been in the form of case studies, making generalizations difficult. This paper examines whether a theorized heterogeneity of second-home landscapes transfers into actual spatial variance in the impacts of second-home tourism. The investigation is done through semi-structured interviews with officials from 20 Swedish municipalities, selected using a theoretical model and comprehensive quantitative data. Results reveal considerable variance between different locations and argues for more context-aware second-home research.

  • 12.
    Beckmann, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    GENDER RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AMONG SINGLE PARENTS IN ÖREBRO? A feminist investigation of settlement patterns in the wake of the building boom.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13.
    Begic, Ivona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    VÅLDETS RUM - KVINNORS UPPLEVELSER AV VÅLD I NÄRA RELATIONER2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 14.
    Berglin, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Hållbar stadsutveckling: Avvägningar, prioriteringar och kompromisser i planering Öst på stan i Umeå2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development is a crucial part of a successful city planning. Some scientists suggest urban densification as a method for achieving sustainable cities. In the best of worlds, a perfect balance between ecological, economic and social sustainability would be reached. However, that is rarely the case. Planners must consider the guidelines of planning documents as well as laws, political decisions and stakeholders. These interests can often be conflicting which leaves the planner with tough decisions. Social sustainability can be about achieving equality and healthy environments for all of society. It is therefore important to also include children in city planning.

    This study aims to examine the planning, which primarily concerns the densification, of the central borough Öst på stan in Umeå. The content, mainly concerning sustainable development, of the comprehensive planning in the municipality of Umeå as well as the planning of a specific quarter which includes dwellings, a preschool and a park, will therefore be described and analyzed. The quarter will also be examined further regarding the actual social sustainability, especially of the children’s environment. Trade-offs, priorities and compromises in planning the quarter will be discussed. In order to achieve the aim of this thesis mainly two research methods, in addition to thorough studying of literature, is being used; primarily planning documents from the municipality and secondly interviews as a complement.

    The results show that the new quarter is, in many ways, sustainable. The compromises throughout the planning process have however resulted in quite small outdoor spaces which none the least affects children. 

  • 15.
    Bohn, Dorothee
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    De Bernardi, Cecilia
    The different shades of snow: an analysis of winter tourism in European regional planning and policy documents2019In: Winter tourism: trends and challenges / [ed] Ulrike Pröbstl-Haider, Harold Richins, Stefan Tuerk, Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2019, p. 47-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Boström, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    En illustration av detaljplaneprocessen: Intervjustudie bland planarkitekter om utmaningar och möjligheter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to clarify what plan architects in Umeå municipality regard as challenges and opportunities in the detailed planning process. To be able to answer the aim and achieve an understanding about the plan architects view of the planning process’s pros and cons, qualitative research is the focus. Through semi structured individual interviews among five plan architects, opinions, thoughts and experiences are collected. Data is analysed using thematic analysis. The result describes three main themes considering the plan architects need of being flexible in the planning process, safeguard a democratic dialogue and represent an authority in their work with planning processes.

    The background to the study is the current discussion on the planning process, as it is often criticized as slow and ineffective. In Sweden, there is an urbanization trend and growth in cities generally and the need for housing is expected to continue to increase. In Umeå, the goal is to grow from approximately 125,000 to 200,000 inhabitants in coming years, through a strategy of densifying already built environments. Densifying cities affects many citizens and the number of appeals may affect the planning process and delay many projects. There is a catch that a dense settlement also makes detailed plans increasingly complex to create. However even though specified detailed plans takes time to create and more appeals may occur, simultaneously, the people’s opinion must be taken into account in the planning process.

    The result of the study highlights both challenges and opportunities for the plan architects to deal with in their work with planning processes. The result shows and gives incitement for where the chances are to develop and to streamline the planning process for the plan architects. Thereto, suggestions for improvements are proposed and ideas of future research to increase the knowledge of the planning processes complexity, are finally presented.

  • 17.
    Byström, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Mines, Tourism and Related Diversification in the Swedish Far NorthManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Byström, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå Universitet.
    Tourism Development in Resource Peripheries: conflicting and Unifying Spaces in Northern Sweden2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The northern Swedish inland is a sparsely populated area with a historical dependence upon natural-resource extraction. Therefore, this region has traditionally been defined as a resource periphery for extractive purposes. However, the rise of tourism challenges this narrative by producing a pleasure periphery for touristic purposes. A pleasure periphery in this context is linked to nature-based tourism that sells dreams of pristine nature and/or vast wilderness. This touristic “story” therefore becomes an antithesis to the region's industrial past. The overlapping touristic and extractive spaces, and their seemingly conflicting development narratives, constitute the theoretical approach to tourism development in the scope of this thesis. Further, this thesis adds to theorizing tourism development in northern peripheries, by contesting established development theories against each other in a northern Swedish setting. Multiple methods using both quantitative and qualitative data are used to answer the questions in this thesis.

    Three conclusions can be derived based on the empirical findings. Firstly, established tourism development theories are at risk of being invalid in more peripheral settings. As an example, protected areas constitute a poor development strategy, and are not producing tourism employment as shown in studies from more densely populated regions. Other destination-development theories presupposing urban-like infrastructure, which is absent in peripheries, also become invalid. Secondly, conflicts between tourism and extractive industries do occur at the discursive level where they tend to be described in dualistic terms. However, in terms of labor-market processes, findings show that tourism and resource extraction are actually rather interrelated. Within mining tourism, such a related diversification occurs due to the spatial distribution of mining and tourism skills and the interaction between them. Thirdly, the location of tourism destinations is broadly governed by resource-extractive infrastructure. Therefore, tourism destinations are normally located in places that have previously been made accessible via investments in the resource-extractive sector. Hence, resource extraction projects (unintentionally) produce accessibility to the touristic “wilderness”.

    In summary, resource extraction becomes a precondition for tourism development in northern Sweden, rather than a conflicting land-use competitor. Therefore, planners and decision makers should consider incorporating aspects of tourism in future plans for resource extraction as these industries often spatially overlap, intertwine, and consequently form a development symbiosis in northern resource peripheries.

  • 19.
    Byström, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Space Penetration in the Far North: Resource Extraction as Precondition for Tourism DevelopmentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 20. Carmo, Renato M.
    et al.
    Hedberg, Charlotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Translocal mobility systems: social inequalities and flows in the wild berry industry2019In: Geoforum, ISSN 0016-7185, E-ISSN 1872-9398, Vol. 99, p. 102-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses the lens of translocality to investigate the seasonal mobility system of Thai berry pickers in Sweden: the perspective highlights the local-to-local relations that constitute this transnational and fluid mobility system. In this paper, we add the aspect of social inequalities to translocal studies, while arguing that multi-sited and locally grounded recruitment processes are contributing to produce and reproduce the mobility system. In the migrant-receiving area, stereotyping processes are active in shaping the selection of workers based on ethnicity, whereas in the migrant-sending area local asymmetries are visible in the selectivity of workers on the basis of age, wealth, and gender. In this way, the aspect of social inequalities, locally embedded at both ends of the recruitment process, is highlighted as a dimension to consider in translocal mobility systems. This is achieved through the analysis of multi-sited fieldwork in Sweden and Thailand that consisted of observations and interviews with Thai workers and representatives of the Swedish berry business.

  • 21. Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Disasters, market changes and 'The Big Smoke': understanding the decline of remote tourism in Katherine, Northern Territory Australia2019In: Perspectives on rural tourism geographies: case studies from developed nations on the exotic, the fringe and the boring bits in between / [ed] Rhonda L. Koster and Doris A. Carson, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 93-114Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines the decline of tourism in Katherine, one of the Northern Territory's iconic remote destinations. While the decline coincided with severe floods damaging much of the town and its tourism infrastructure in 1998, other factors such as the overall decline of Outback tourism in Australia and changes in key markets such as backpackers and self-drive tourists contributed to the difficulty in reviving Katherine's tourism industry following the floods. Katherine tourism demonstrates characteristics consistent with the Beyond Peripherymodel of tourism development in remote or sparsely populated areas. The chapter argues that Katherine has become even more distant and disconnected from tourist markets, investors and policy makers since the floods. Key issues for future development include an increasingly uneven relationship between Katherine and the capital city of Darwin, and an inability to identify alternative markets and development paths independent of the dominant tourism structures in the Northern Territory. Katherine is an example of a remote destination which initially had substantial competitive advantages because of its location and levels of local investment in tourism, but has since lost those advantages due to a failure to respond to changing market forces. The chapter thus emphasises the fragile nature of tourism in remote locations, and its vulnerability to exogenous shocks and changing government priorities, reminding us of the broader challenges for economic development in remote resource peripheries.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-04-01 13:00
  • 22.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Prideaux, Bruce
    Central Queensland University.
    Porter, Rob
    Charles Darwin University.
    Vuin, Ana
    Charles Darwin University.
    Transitioning from a local railway hub to a regional tourism system: the story of Peterborough, South Australia2019In: Perspectives on rural tourism geographies: case studies from developed nations on the exotic, the fringe and the boring bits in between / [ed] Rhonda L. Koster and Doris A. Carson, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 173-196Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines the tourism development path of Peterborough, a former single-industry railway town in rural South Australia. Drawing on theoretical perspectives from evolutionary, institutional and relational economic geography, the aim of the chapter is to identify how issues around path dependence influence the abilities of peripheral single-industry towns to operate as part of interactive and collaborative regional tourism innovation systems. The case study documents the difficult transition of Peterborough from a relatively independent major railway hub to a minor tourist transit stopover requiring stronger partnerships within a broader regional tourism destination. The findings identify a range of challenges for local tourism that point to issues around single-industry path dependence and 'lock-in', including: an entrenched dependence on government leadership and investment; a lack of home-grown entrepreneurship willing to address gaps in the homogeneous product portfolio; limited local acceptance and understanding of tourism; resistance to outsiders as new knowledge brokers; and truncated network capabilities within the local system. The chapter also shows how the unique spatial and socio-economic contexts of peripheral 'low-amenity' areas may reinforce path dependence by limiting opportunities to diversify incoming (tourist and migrant) mobilities. Some of the weaknesses within the local tourism system may be bridged by proactive local government and public sector leadership, yet we question the long-term sustainability of such approaches.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-04-01 13:25
  • 23.
    Christofel, Aditya Billy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    OOPS! THEY BUILD IT AGAIN: A suitability analysis for future wind farm location in Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world energy needs increasing in a significant number and currently it is mainly sourced from the finite fossil fuel. Other than that, fossil fuel is the main source of CO2 emissions that leads to the increasing rate of global warming that will ultimately change the earth's climate. Thus, researcher began to look for alternative energy that is renewable and has the least impact to the world's climate; one example is wind energy.

    Sweden has experienced a significant increase in wind energy generation, where the wind production constantly grows in the double-digit rates since 2010. However, developing a wind energy requires a significant research and feasibility study in order to provide an economically sustainable operation. Wind farm needs to be located in areas with a good wind potential, however there are several technical and economic limitation on where the wind farm should be located. On top of that, social rejection might also hinder the development of wind energy. Audio-visual obstruction and disturbance to the natural state of the environment are the main arguments that were used to challenge the development of wind farm. Therefore, a multi-disciplinary study needs to be conducted in order to find the perfect balance; which is exactly what this study is all about.

    The result of this study shows that despite the threat of climate change, wind farm in Sweden could thrive due to the increasing wind speed across the country. It was also discovered that around 30% of the country is suitable, from the social, technical, and economic point of view, as a new location for wind farms. This study also reveals that most of the canceled / rejected wind farms were probably caused by the social rejection due to their proximity to population center or conservation areas. This study also discussed the concept of place attachment and identity that leads to the NIMBY attitude and reflects the concept of the social acceptance issue that happened in Sweden and on how to localize the wind farm concept to the local residence.

  • 24.
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Tokmakcioglu, Kaya
    Department of Management Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Impacts of Climate Change on Second Home Property Values in the Swedish Mountain2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has and will have its impacts on the tourism industry, especially where weather-dependent amenities constitute the key attractions. In this study, our aim is to assess the impacts of climate change on existing and proposed second homes in and around ski resorts in the Swedish mountains, which are determined as among the most attractive locations for such development. It is thought that, along with climate change induced natural disasters and phenomena such as landslides, avalanches, floods and permafrost thaw, property value loss (or gain) is a major climate change impact that needs to be considered in conjunction with the vulnerability of skiing-based second homes and their immediate and wider regions. For this purpose, firstly, corresponding (and lagged) states of the ski climate are treated as estimators for second home sales prices for the 2000-2016 period and, secondly, the quantified relationship is simulated according to future climate projections, based on data available from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The results are mapped in terms of existing and potential skiing-based second home regions, the latter with a certain focus on the "winners", and according to different representative concentration pathways.

  • 25.
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Development of downhill skiing tourism in Sweden: past, present, and future2019In: Winter tourism: trends and challenges / [ed] Ulrike Pröbstl-Haider, Harold Richins and Stefan Türk, CABI Publishing, 2019, p. 305-323Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Establishing Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) in Azerbaijan, Cameroon and Iran2019In: AIRTH 2019,  Innovation and Entrepreneurship for Sustainable SuccessInnsbruck, Austria, September 12–14, 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Steiger, Robert
    Pons, Marc
    Chihaya Da Silva, Guilherme Kenjy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Aall, Carlo
    Swedish Ski Tourism and Climate Change: Agent-Based Modelling with Discrete Choice Experiment, the Ski Climate Index and Geographical Information Systems2019In: International Mountain Conference, Innsbruck, September 8-12, 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One main goal of sustainability is climate action, which is determined by the United Nations as one that encourages climate resilience and mitigating emissions. Sweden is a leading country to follow this global agenda with major efforts on decarbonization and adaptation. For these purposes, however, detailed analyses are required to assess the trajectories by and the impacts on various sectors. Regarding tourism, which is a main sector of the Swedish economy that significantly fosters regional development, not much scientific foundation has been laid so far. This is especially true for the highly climate-dependent ski tourism sub-sector, albeit Sweden is among the top players of the global ski market, following a growth trend unlike many other conventional destinations. This study aims for a detailed assessment on the vulnerability of Swedish ski tourism to climate change and its implications and consequences for resilience building and mitigation efforts by pursuing an interdisciplinary methodology that employs and combines discrete choice experiment, geographical information systems, agent-based modelling and the newly proposed Ski Climate Index. The specific research questions are; (1) “how exposed are the existing and the potential ski areas in Sweden to climate change?”, (2) “how sensitive and adaptive is the Swedish ski tourism market to climate change?”, and (3) “what are the potential risks of increased emissions due to adaptation efforts of the Swedish ski tourism sector as well as any counterproductivity associated with further introduction of mitigation policies, and what measures could be taken to avoid any increase in such ‘rebound’ effects?”. In this respect, the results are expected to provide the stakeholders with a thorough agenda for adaptation that takes account of its interrelationship with mitigation and to contribute to literature with the interdisciplinary methodology and the geographical scope. Implications for the Nordic and the global scales are further discussed.

  • 28.
    Demiroglu, Osman Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Saarinen, Jarkko
    Oulun yliopisto, Oulu, Finland; University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    The last resort?: Ski tourism and climate change in Arctic Sweden2019In: Journal of Tourism Futures, ISSN 2055-5911, E-ISSN 2055-592XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the external and internal factors that support or challenge a possible transformation of Arctic Sweden into a major ski destination under a changing climate. Design/methodology/approach – The paper questions future availability of the physical and the human factors that foster ski tourism development in Arctic Sweden and suggests a comparative case study in relation to the already existing large resort-based ski destinations in Arctic Finland. Findings – Preliminary documentary analysis shows that the governmental and the industrial discourses over the past decade have acknowledged a competitive edge for Sweden and its northernmost regions in particular and may even propose a structural shift for ski tourism in the near future agenda. The visualisations based on natural snow projections presented in this paper confirm this comparative advantage but other technical and socioeconomic development factors are further discussed, in relation to Arctic Finland. Research limitations/implications – Future research agenda is suggested to cover, first, assessment of natural and technical snow reliability of existing and all potential ski areas in Sweden and within its competitive set extending to all the Nordics and the Alps, then, incorporation of adaptive capacities of the suppliers but especially the likely substitution tendencies of the consumers, and finally, evaluation of the overall situation in terms of the regional development needs. Social implications – It is apparent that land use conflicts will arise in case of large ski resort-based destination development in Arctic Sweden, especially around the environmentally protected areas, which are not only already important attractions for nature-based tourism but also traditional livelihoods for the Sami. Originality/value – This is the first paper to discuss a potential regional and structural shift of ski tourism in Sweden.

  • 29.
    Edholm, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Property Crime in The City and County of San Francisco 2016 - 2017: Applying GIS to Crime Pattern Theory2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study’s aim is to reveal statistically significant hot spots and temporal patterns of property crime in the City and County of San Francisco and to also analyse the relationship between property crimes and the environment in which these crimes occur by using Geographic Information System (GIS). Crime pattern theory was used as the framework for the analysis of environmental surroundings and occurrence of crime. This theory indicates that certain places can be crime generators and attractors. The result showed that there are hot spots of crime in the north-eastern part of San Francisco, and that crime in these high-risk areas are intensifying. Then, by visual examination of density maps of property crime and facilities, such as shopping centres, pubs/bars/nightclubs and Bay Area Rapid Transit stations, it is shown that these facilities can explain concentrations of crime in certain areas. Furthermore, this study shows GIS can be a practical tool to utilize when presenting data of crime when used in combination with social theories which focuses on the causes of crime occurrence. 

  • 30.
    Eerbeek, van, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Thai local brokers in the Swedish berry industry: Roles and positions across time and space2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, each year 2500 - 6000 Thai go to Sweden to work as berry pickers during the berry season via a regulated system of temporary work permits. Bangkok-based staffing agencies rely on the networks of local brokers to recruit workers in Thailand’s more peripheral northeastern Isan region, as part of the larger migration industry in Thailand. During the berry season, these local brokers also travel to Sweden and are part of the division of labour. Next to picking berries, their jobs can be cook, camp leader, and driver. Key concerns raised in relation to this seasonal work are precarity and vulnerability to exploitation, resulting from to the need to pay high fees to staffing agencies and a piece-rate wage-system.

    This thesis aims to analyze roles and positions across time and space of local Thai brokers. It does so by examining how they have come to occupy their current positions, and what their roles are in the recruitment process in Thailand and during the during the berry season in Sweden. Moreover, it investigates the interlinkages between these two roles, and how differences in remuneration and payments of fees shape precarity at the micro-scale.

    Based on the analysis of semi-structured interviews conducted in the Kaeng Khro district in Thailand in March 2019, this study suggests that the local brokers are industry veterans. Moreover, is suggests a large degree of variation in size and scope of local brokerage. During the berry season in Sweden, the local brokers tend to occupy positions above the regular berry pickers. Moreover, it is suggested that there is a differentiated precarity within the group of brokers, resulting from differences in the payment of wages and the need to pay fees to staffing agencies.

  • 31.
    Einarsson, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Meet the locals: Ett bidrag till ökad hållbarhet?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    People all over the world have always been sharing things and experiences but due to rapid technological development, new digital platforms emerged which led to a new way of sharing and the phenomenon sharing economy started to be a common concept.

    The purpose of this study is to explore how Turistrådet Västsveriges newly launched platform Meet the locals could contribute to increased social and economic sustainability. Using existing theories such as sense of place, types of tourists and the host-tourist relationship this was done through multiple interviews together with locals in the project Meet the locals - a platform where you are given opportunities to ‘explore the Swedish lifestyle from a local perspective’.

    The data collected from the interviews were transcribed and analyzed using the thematic analysis which aimed to find connections with the chosen themes based on the theories. These themes were; place attachment, the meeting between host and tourist and sustainability.

    The results in this study establish that sustainability is important for the locals interviewed. However, it is unclear how Meet the locals really are contributing to social and economic sustainability since sustainability is still a complex subject and the project itself is still growing.

  • 32.
    Eklund, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Unequal opportunities in the knowledge economy: A social network analysis of formal and informalnetworks2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A new capitalistic era known as the knowledge economy has emerged since the middle of the 20thcentury, identified by ‘knowledge-based work’ and ‘immaterial labor’ generating innovation inleading-edge sectors, and recognized as a driver for economic change and future growth. As aspatial consequence, the importance of regions as economic entities has increased. Where regionsoften are dependent on innovative activities to generate competitive advantage and prospect. Topromote a socially inclusive regional economic development, scholars stress the significance of

    addressing issues of gender, particularity in male-dominated occupations such as knowledge-intensive industries, where masculine cultures tend to be deeply rooted. However, the regional

    learning and innovation literature is criticized for being firm-centric, gender-blind and ignoringthe wider existence of the knowledge worker, thus reproducing patterns of gender constraintssuch as barriers of equal advancements, discriminatory practices and social exclusion. This thesisaims to address these ignored issues by conducting a social network analysis on formal andinformal network within firms in the knowledge economy, and examine how individual

    characteristic might affect a workers position within these networks. A case study of Umeå ICT-industry was carried out where intra-firm social networks were analyzed of 16 firms and 204

    workers. The result from the analysis indicates that female knowledge worker tends to be sociallyexcluded within the informal network of these firms, while at the same time more dependent ona well-connected social position to be able to advance to a more influential position within firm’sformal networks. These findings support earlier claims that there is a need to incorporate a genderperspective into future research agendas as well as regional economic policymaking.

  • 33.
    Elekes, Zoltán
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Västernorrlands styrkeområden: Detaljstudie av de funktionella arbetsmarknaderna i Örnsköldsvik, Sollefteå, Kramfors och Sundsvall2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla lokala arbetsmarknader i Västernorrland har jämfört med Sverige i övrigt tydliga specialiseringar inom offentligt finansierad service (skola, vård och omsorg samt till viss del offentlig service och tjänster i alla arbetsmarknader förutom Örnsköldsvik). Två andra gemensamma karaktärsdrag är koncentrationer i skogsnäringarna även om det finns viss variation i vilka skogsnäringar respektive region är specialiserad inom (tex massa och papper i Kramfors, Örnsköldsvik och Sundsvall, sågning/hyvling i Kramfors och drivning och skogsskötsel i framförallt Sollefteå). Utöver detta delar alla av regionens lokala arbetsmarknader en tydlig profil kring maskinindustriell tillverkning. Här bör det noteras att dessa tydliga regionala specialiseringar också är märkbart könsuppdelade då de offentligt finansierade verksamheterna (framförallt vård och omsorg) domineras av kvinnor medan tillverkningsindustri och skogsnäringarna i högre utsträckning domineras av män. Denna könsfördelning är också sammankopplad med skillnader i inkomstnivåer då de mer kvinnodominerande verksamheterna har avsevärt lägre lönenivåer än de mansdominerande tillverkningssektorerna.

    Utöver dessa gemensamma karaktärsdrag finns också tydliga lokala specialiseringar som inom mer funktionella gränser kanske bättre speglar regionens näringsliv än vad den övergripande regionala strukturen gör. Örnsköldsvik är föga förvånande relativt specialiserad inom fordonstillverkning och teknisk konsultverksamhet, men har inte lika tydlig närvaro av exempelvis offentlig förvaltning, finans och försäkring eller IKT. Sollefteå å andra sidan har inte lika tydliga specialiseringar och det är framförallt offentligt finansierade verksamheter som dominerar liksom besöksnäringar, transport samt kraftförsörjning. I Kramfors och framförallt i Sundsvall återfinns de tydligaste koncentrationerna av finans och försäkring. I Kramfors återfinns också tydliga koncentrationer av offentliga tjänster samt sågning/hyvling och tillverkning av kablar och maskiner liksom besöksnäringar. Sundsvall speglar å andra sidan en mer servicebetonad del av näringslivet där förutom ett tydligt kompetensknippe kring finans och försäkring återfinns specialiseringar inom IKT och media, teknisk konsultverksamhet, detaljhandel och offentlig förvaltning.

    Den övergripande slutsatsen vi kan dra av detta fokus på de funktionella arbetsmarknaderna är att en generell regional utvecklingsstrategi för hela regionen också måste ta hänsyn till de lokala variationerna då respektive arbetsmarknad består av olika kompetensresurser och därmed också har olika förutsättningar för framtida specialiseringar. Utöver skogsnäringarna återfinns inte någon av regionens identifierade styrkeområden i alla fyra av regionens arbetsmarknader. Istället är det mer lokala specialiseringar som karaktäriserar sammansättningen av regionens näringsliv. Det innebär i princip två olika vägar för framtida regionala utvecklingsstrategier. Antingen kan dessa skillnader bejakas och utveckla respektive delarbetsmarknad utifrån vad som finns där idag då det kan gynna hela regionens utveckling, eller verka för att regionens styrkeområden bättre ska representeras i hela regionen. För en mer hållbar utveckling som bygger på befintliga lokala resurser bör dessa lokala särdrag bejakas då det underlättar bildandet av nya framtida specialiseringar (Elekes & Eriksson 2019a). Det är också främst inom den funktionella arbetsmarknaden där den lokala kompetensstrukturen reproduceras genom att det möjliggör jobbyten utan att nödvändigtvis behöva byta bostadsort.

    Slutligen bör framtida strategier tydligt verka för att öka mångfalden inom respektive del av arbetsmarknaden. En tydlig utmaning ligger i att exempelvis öka andelen kvinnor i de mer tillverkningsorienterade specialiseringarna. Framtida studier bör därför särskilt betona hur strukturomvandlingen (skapandet av nya och försvinnandet av gamla specialiseringar) påverkar män respektive kvinnor. Ytterligare studier på yrkesstrukturers förändring kan också tydligare fånga förändrade kompetensbehov inom sektorer, huruvida det påverkar könsfördelningen i näringslivet, och om det skiljer sig mellan de lokala arbetsmarknaderna

  • 34.
    Elekes, Zoltán
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Västernorrlands styrkeområden: Detaljstudie av skogsnäringarna, fordonsindustrin, IKT, bank/försäkring samt teknisk konsultverksamhet ur ett kompetensperspektiv2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport analyserar några av Region Västernorrlands styrkeområden (skogsnäringarna, fordonsindustrin, IKT, bank/finans och teknisk konsultverksamhet) genom att lyfta fram det industriella system de tillhör utifrån de kompetenser de delar, och sätta det i relation till specialiseringsgrad och inkomstnivåer.

    Rapporten visar att styrkeområdena i stort tillhör både de mest inbäddade och högavlönade sektorerna i regionen. De olika styrkeområdena skiljer sig dock i avseende med vilka sektorer de är kopplade till ur ett kompetensperspektiv. Skogsnäringarna är generellt väl inbäddade, men i huvudsak med andra skogs- och jordbruksrelaterade verksamheter. Fordonsindustrin är visserligen starkt inbäddade, men endast med ett fåtal sektorer som alla har avsevärt lägre inkomstnivåer. Det pekar dels mot ett tydligt fordonsindustriellt system, men att det är väldigt beroende av Militära fordon. IKT och Finans har relativt hög inbäddning, men samtidigt en relativt låg specialiseringsgrad. Mest noterbart är dessa styrkeområdens ömsesidiga kompetensstrukturer. Då graden av relaterade verksamheter kan härledas till kompetensförsörjningsfrågor (många relaterade sektorer ökar sannolikheten att kunna rekrytera kompetent arbetskraft) bör fokus också riktas mot dessa typer av verksamheter i strävan att diversifiera näringslivet genom att skapa nya specialiseringar.

  • 35.
    Elekes, Zoltán
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Västernorrlands styrkeområden: översikt av näringslivets styrkeområden och relationer till varandra ur ett kompetensperspektiv2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkt i perspektivet att ekonomisk utveckling i grund och botten är betingat på de kompetenser som används i produktionen av varor och tjänster, har föreliggande rapport gjort en översiktlig analys av Västernorrlands näringslivsstruktur. Detta gjordes genom att teckna ett så kallat industry-spacesom visar vilka sektorer som är starkt närvarande i regionen, men också i vilken utsträckning sektorerna är kopplade till varandra genom att vara beroende av liknande kompetenser. 

     

    I korthet pekar rapporten på att av de 15 sektorer med högst specialiseringsgrad i regionen så utgör endast pappers och massatillverkning (2,7%) samt försäkring (1,7)% någon av de 15 sysselsättningsrikaste sektorerna. De 15 mest specialiserade sektorerna utgör sammanlagt endast 12% av regionens totala sysselsättning 2016 vilket går att jämföra med de 15 största sektorerna som tillsammans utgör nästan hälften av den totala sysselsättningen. Med andra ord ligger regionens ekonomiska tyngdpunkt på andra ställen i näringslivet än i de relativt sett mest närvarande sektorerna. Det kan i sin tur medföra att en regionalpolitik som fokuserar på existerande starkt regionalt koncentrerade sektorer riskerar att exkludera stora delar av den regionala ekonomin. Exempelvis kan skillnader i mans- respektive kvinnodominerande yrken förstärkas. 

     

    När det kommer till etableringen av nya specialiseringar (och försvinnandet av existerande) finner vi en tydlig korrelation till hur inbäddad sektorn är i regionens kompetensstruktur. Kraftigt inbäddade sektorer (som delar liknande humankapital som många andra sektorer i regionen) har högre sannolikhet att etablera nya specialiseringar (eller öka sin relativa närvaro) medan mindre inbäddade sektorer har högre sannolikhet att minska sin relativa regionala närvaro. Då detta kan härledas till kompetensförsörjningsfrågor (många relaterade sektorer ökar sannolikheten att kunna rekrytera kompetent arbetskraft) bör fokus också riktas mot dessa typer av verksamheter i strävan att diversifiera näringslivet genom att skapa nya specialiseringar. 

  • 36.
    Enlund, Desirée
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Rural peripheries and the promise of asylum immigration?2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Amid an increasingly hostile climate toward asylum seekers in Europe, rural Swedish municipalities have come to view asylum seekers as a possibility for rural revival. This has had varying results but ultimately proves difficult in reversing the long-term problems with which rural areas contend.

  • 37.
    Enlund, Desirée
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Westergren, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Bylund, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Ett samtal om makten över samhället, arbetet och livet2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Klapwijk, Maartje J.
    Attitudes towards biodiversity conservation and carbon substitution in forestry: a study of stakeholders in Sweden2019In: Forestry (London), ISSN 0015-752X, E-ISSN 1464-3626, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 219-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global change has fueled debates on forest use and management, including the need to adapt management to mitigate future risks in forestry. Additionally, forests are important for biodiversity conservation and could be used in climate change mitigation. The opinions of stakeholders towards acceptable forest use deserve consideration. This study examined relations between environmental problem awareness, forest beliefs and environmental management attitudes (biodiversity conservation and carbon substitution) among stakeholders in Sweden, and explored the effect of a local biodiversity versus global climate change frame on attitudes. Stakeholders were recruited from ownership and environmental/recreational interest groups (owner and nature group, respectively) (membership sample) and among students (student sample). Whereas the owner group was more positive towards carbon substitution in forestry, the nature group was more positive towards biodiversity conservation and carbon storage. In the membership sample, awareness of biodiversity loss and eco-social forest beliefs influenced attitudes towards biodiversity conservation. In contrast, positive attitudes towards carbon substitution stemmed from lower awareness of biodiversity loss, less emphasis on openness towards new methods in forestry and greater emphasis on production in forestry. While framing did not influence attitudes, the cognitive hierarchy was useful in providing a nuanced understanding of stakeholders, valuable for policy and practice.

  • 39.
    Eriksson, Madeleine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Tollefsen, Aina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundgren, Anna Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    From blueberry cakes to labor strikes: Negotiating “legitimate labor” and “ethical food” in supply chains2019In: Geoforum, ISSN 0016-7185, E-ISSN 1872-9398, no 105, p. 43-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish wild-berry industry has become increasingly dependent on migrant workers. As the world market's demand for health and food ingredients increased, Swedish forest berries are exported to China to become nutraceutical products, while most berries consumed in Sweden now are imported cultivated berries. These changing geographies of production and consumption have resulted in a system of supply chains, that reproduce and manage difference between groups of workers and thus, make it difficult to safeguard labor rights. Moreover, this new“global standard” has great impacts on the cultural and political meanings of food. The aim of this paper is to study new emerging practices within the industry and to shed light on the production of representations of certain types of workers and work, and how this relate to supply chain capitalism. From the starting point of narratives collected within the different nodes of the supply chain, the paper focuses on the production, distribution and consumption of berry products as means to address how meanings of work and berries are negotiated. A specific focus is put on the narrated events during and after a strike where migrant workers tried to fight for better wages and living conditions. The workers not only lost the battle, but they were also expelled from Sweden without being paid. The work of the pickers and their agency is disconnected from discourses of labor and from Swedish laws and regulations, and the injustice is further justified and obscured through the lens of memories and nostalgia among Swedish consumers of berries.

  • 40.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institution of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The effect of neighbourhood social capital on child injuries: a gender-stratified analysis2019In: Health & Place, Vol. 60, article id 102205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We designed a longitudinal retrospective cohort study to analyse the associations between neighbourhood social capital and child injures. Register data from the Umeå Simsam Lab in Sweden was used to measure child injuries and demographic and socioeconomic factors at individual, household and neighbourhood level. A social capital score from a previous survey was used to measure neighbourhood social capital. We conducted a three-level multilevel negative binomial regression analysis, with children (level 1, N = 77,193) nested within households (level 2, N = 10,465), and households nested within neighbourhoods (level 3, N = 49). The incidence rate of child injuries was lower in high social capital neighbourhoods. When controlling for factors at individual, household and neighbourhood levels, living in a high social capital neighbourhood was protective of injuries among girls, but not among boys. Promoting social capital in local neighbourhoods could be seen as a prevention strategy for injuries among girls.

  • 41.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Rataj, Marcin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    The geography of starts-ups in Sweden: The role of human capital, social capital and agglomeration2019In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 31, no 9-10, p. 735-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In academia as well as in policy circles, entrepreneurial activities are placed at the focal point for regional development. However, geographical factors such as urbanization and peripherality are often neglected in this strand of research despite the increasing need for place-specific policies. The aim of this paper is therefore to analyse how start-up rates vary across municipalities in Sweden 2002–2012 by focussing on spatial differences of human capital, social capital, entrepreneurial culture and industrial specialization. Our multilevel models show how the degree of rurality and peripherality, respectively, moderates the role of different regional resources. The paper concludes by suggesting the formulation of separate policies considering urban, rural and more peripheral regions.

  • 42.
    Fors, Karola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Barns vardagsresor och föräldrars val av färdsätt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children’s everyday travel and parents’ choices of mode of travel.

     

    Karola Fors, Department of Geography, Umeå University, Sweden

     

     

    Abstract

    The purpose of this interview study was to investigate parents’ choice of travel mode for their child and behavioral change towards sustainable travel. The study was conducted in Umeå, a city in northern Sweden, in March and April 2019. The interview focused on parents describing from travel journals one week of their child’s travel arrangements. The analysis of the interviews was based on The Theory of Planned Behavior (Azjen 1991). Attitude, perceived Control and Norms, lead to the Intentions to change behavior and this is described by Azjen (1991) and is also noticeable in the study conducted. Mobility Management projects in the municipalities aim to increase the use of sustainable travel modes. The parents described that the reasons for choosing their child’s mode of travel was time, distance, safety and weather conditions as determined by seasons. Some described practical reasons, age and maturity. None of the parents described health and environmental concerns when describing the choice of travel mode. The travel journals showed that most commutes were made by car, especially concerning trips to leisure activities. The intention to make changes towards sustainable travel modes varied in accordance to attitude, perceived control and norms described. Some described the child biking or taking the bus more often, others described future trips mainly by car. The norms in society is a challenge for Mobility Management projects in establishing habits towards sustainable travel modes.

  • 43.
    Frisk, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Resmönster & attityder: En studie kring resmönster och attityder för Österbotten och Västerbotten region2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Finns visit Sweden to a greater extent than Swedes visit Finland. This travel pattern also holds true for the regional travel pattern between Österbotten and Västerbotten. This study examines if the distinctive travel habits of each population and the attitudes towards each other can explain the uneven travel pattern between the two regions.

    Tourism between Österbotten and Västerbotten is a valuable source of income for both regions. In order to further develop the tourism routes between the regions, it’s important to examine their travel habits, motives and attitudes. Furthermore, this study will gather in depth data on size of travel groups, travel frequency, travel companionship and common destinations.

    An mixed methods approach will be used in order to understand and explain the uneven travel patterns between both regions. Data is collected through an online survey published in both Österbotten and Västerbotten. The results show differences and similarities between how the populations of both regions tend to travel. These differences could support an explanation for the uneven travel patterns between the regions. The empirical data shows that the populations of both regions hold predjucice attitudes towards each other. However, this only affects travel patterns from Västerbotten to Österbotten negatively.

  • 44.
    Gidlund, Andrea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Kvinnors upplevda trygghet i offentliga rum2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 45.
    Gustavsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Granskning av åtgärdsvalsstudier från Region Nord & Region Mitt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine how two of Swedish Transport Administration- regions perceive the tutorial of actions that the Swedish Transport Administration published as a template. The study examines four reports that investigate problems in the transport system. The tutorial that the Swedish transport administration presented contains guidelines regarding investigations in the transport system. The reports investigate what the problem or the lack of safety depends on. The result from the report is solutions that will solve and meet the problem.

    The result of this study shows that both regions follow the tutorial of actions and fulfils all the guidelines and demands. The regions present overall similar content. Although, with the same guidelines the reports are different from each other. Differences regarding presentation and the constructions of the reports is clear. The guidelines could be developed with new clarifications. New clarifications should reduce own interpretations and pander the work with reports that investigate problems in the transport system. The solutions that the reports present in the result are relevant, realistic and according to the tutorial approved as solid solutions.

  • 46.
    Hammar, Adrian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    ”INGEN BYGGER BOSTÄDER AV FILANTROPI” En studie om arbetet mot boendesegregation i kommunerna Gävle, Uppsala och Värmdö2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of this study is to examine segregation in the three Swedish municipalities of Uppsala, Gävle and Värmdö. The study attempts to describe the current situation in regards to segregation in the chosen municipalities, the reasons for this and what the municipalities can do to prevent further segregation.

    In an attempt to find answer to these questions, a literature study has been done and three semi structured interviews with planners working for the municipalities in question.

    The study shows that different socio economic groups are indeed spatially clustered and a big reason for this is historic decisions in regard to large scale planning and Sweden’s historic housing policies.

    The interviews show that there are many possible tools for a planner to use when trying to decrease segregation. A large focus is put on creating mixed types of housing in each part of the city and municipality. Creating places for social interaction and good communications are also an important part according to all interviewees.

    The challenges faced by the planners are lack of economic incentive, the limitations of the planning system and preferences of the population.

  • 47.
    Hellnersson, André
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Tillväxtens baksida: En studie om hur Umeå kommun behandlar boendesegregation för att uppnå en hållbar urban utveckling2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine the extent of residential segregation in Umeå by describing differences in socioeconomic structure between urban districts. Furthermore, the study also aims to analyse how Umeå municipality is considering residential segregation in their plans for urban development and how this can affect the extent of the segregation. In order to present the socioeconomic differences between the urban districts in Umeå statistics showing income, education and employment was used. Information about the municipal priorities regarding the development of the urban environment was gathered by reading and analysing municipal documents that is used to guide physical planning in the city. The results of the study show that there are differences in the socioeconomic structure of Umeås urban districts. These differences show that residential segregation is an occurring phenomenon in Umeå since residents with different characteristics are living separated from each other. Results gathered by studying and analysing the municipal documents show that Umeå municipality prioritises sustainable growth and want to condensate the city in order to achieve a mixed supply of housing in attractive locations with different sizes, prices, and forms of tenure. Thus, the results imply that Umeå municipality has a good chance of reducing the residential segregation of the urban districts in the future.

  • 48.
    Hjelte, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Så bygger man en destination: En studie om möjligheter och utmaningar för samarbete mellan Umeå och Bjurholms kommun2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increased travel has led to greater competition between destinations. Therefore, actors in the tourism industry are constantly seeking new ways to remain competitive, in which collaborations have often been viewed as a solution. This study will focus on the collaboration in tourism issues in the Umeå region, Sweden. The aim of this study is to examine, from a producer perspective, opportunities and challenges for collaboration between different actors in the municipality of Umeå and Bjurholm. The study also examines whether and how Bjurholm municipality can be a shadow destination to Umeå. To do this, interviews were conducted with various actors in the municipality of Umeå and Bjurholm.

    The results show that the differences between the municipalities are both seen as a great opportunity but also a major challenge for the collaboration. Furthermore, the study found that Bjurholm shows some characteristics of being a shadow destination to Umeå.

  • 49.
    Hoogendoorn, Gijsbert
    et al.
    University of Johannesburg.
    Back, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Snowballing in 35oC: an inquiry into second-home tourism in Mozambique2019In: Tourism, ISSN 1332-7461, Vol. 67, no 3, p. 311-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased mobility has played an important role in promoting and developing tourism as a global phenomenon. One result since the late 1990s has been the development of the well-researched second-home tourism phenomenon in the Global North. Fewer studies on second-home tourism have been carried out in the Global South, especially in the least developed countries (LDCs). The difficulty of collecting reliable data in LDCs is presented as a key contributing factor to the lack of studies. Whereas researchers in, for example, the Nordic countries have access to comprehensive public registries of second homes enabling large-scale data-driven research, studying this phenomenon in data-poor contexts requires appropriate fieldwork methods and strategies. The following research note discusses snowballing and participant observation methods employed in fieldwork on second-home tourism in two small coastal Mozambican towns. It concludes with a brief discussion on the findings and the prospects for future research in historically and socio-economically comparable locations.

  • 50.
    Hylén, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Utmaningar, problem och möjligheter: En studie om renoveringar i miljonprogram med fokus på social hållbarhet och dialog2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to shed a light over the challenges, possibilities and problems regarding renovation and rehabilitation of the million program housing. Many million program housing is in acute need of restoration and the monetary cost is high since the housings represent one fourth of the Swedish housing. This will be from a social sustainability perspective and investigate how different parts of the property owners incorporate social sustainability during their changes and modifications in their projects. While visiting these strategies and looking into the social sustainability a issue is also due to see if there is any overall dialog between companies in order to share information and experiences. Qualitative methods were used to conduct this study, even more specific interviews with following thematic analysis. The results found that the strategies for public utility and private housing differs when it comes to renovation million program housings. They operate in different practical methods and has difference in the ambitions of social sustainability.

    Three actors from different branches in the million program housing is interview to contain different perspectives to widen the reach and deepen the analysis on how the problems and strategies should be perceived and what they struggle with and find promising for the future.

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