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  • 1.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Scocco, Sandro
    Arenagruppen, Arenaide, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Refugee immigration and the growth of low-wage work in the EU152019In: Comparative Migration Studies, ISSN 2214-8590, E-ISSN 2214-594X, Vol. 7, no 39, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our paper focuses on current trends in refugee migration and job polarization. In so doing, we assess the role of refugee migration in relation to institutional, technological and globalization factors in an effort to trace the factors underlying the growth of low-paying occupations in EU 15 between 1995 and 2017. Our empirical findings suggest that refugee migration has a small but positive and statistically significant impact on the growth of low-wage occupations in the EU 15 as a whole. However, the effect is attributed to Southern Europe and the UK and Irish economies. Despite hosting relatively large numbers of refugee migrants, the effects in the Nordic countries and Continental Europe are negligible, if present, and non-existent in the long run (5 years). When including all migrant workers, we find a limited impact on the growth of low-wage work in general, while the impact of immigrant workers from low-income third party countries becomes positive for the UK and Irish economy, but less for other European macro-regions. This suggests that institutional settings can play an important role in how the economy adjusts to migration. It also suggests that traditional fiscal cost calculations in relation to migration are often overestimated, as they implicitly build on the assumption that refugees and general immigration have great impacts on the growth of low-wage occupations.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Välfärden, skatterna, baumoleffekten och högerpopulismens framväxt2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 33-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi ser i dag en förtroendekris för de politiska krafter som under hela efterkrigstiden har fört en kamp kring avvägningen mellan skatter och offentligt finansierad välfärd under förutsättning att den makroekonomiska jämvikten inteäventyras. Utmanare är högerpopulismen som vunnit mark genom utpekandetav invandring som en allmän förklaring till höga skatter och upplevda brister ivälfärden. Men lika lite som invandringen egentligen kan förklara långsiktigtstigande skatter, lika bortglömd tycks Baumoleffekten vara. Bristen på strukturellekonomisk-historisk analys för att förstå utmaningarna för välfärdsfinansieringär uppenbara

  • 3.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History. 19720206-8982.
    Renewing Business History in the Era of the Anthropocene2019In: Business history review, ISSN 0007-6805, E-ISSN 2044-768X, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 3-24Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History. 19720206-8982.
    Cole, Shawn A
    Ehrenfeld, John
    King, Andrew A
    Schendler, Auden
    Understanding and Overcoming Roadblocks to Environmental Sustainability: Past Roads and Future Prospects2019In: Business history review, ISSN 0007-6805, E-ISSN 2044-768X, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 127-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines key barriers to business sustainability discussed at a multidisciplinary conference held at the Harvard Business School in 2018. Drawing on perspectives from both the historical and business literatures, speakers debated the historical success of and future opportunities for voluntary business actions to advance sustainability. Roadblocks include misaligned incentives, missing institutions, inertia of economic systems, and the concept of sustainability itself. Overcoming these roadblocks will require systematic interventions and alternative normative concepts.

  • 5.
    Bränberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Kriget mot spriten: En historia om amerikansk och svensk alkoholpolitik 1900-19332018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 6.
    Dakouri, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Vad förklarar Sverigedemokraternas relativa valframgång?: Hur röstbeteendet i de Skånska kommunvalen 2018 påverkades av ekonomisk-strukturella faktorer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relative success of Swedish right-wing party Swedish Democrats in the municipal election of 2018. The focus of this paper is to see how the voting behaviour could be explained using socioeconomic variables.

    The study consists of statistics from SCB concerning level of education, income, number of immigrants in the municipality and if the municipality receives benefits from the government from the 33 municipalities in the region of Skane, Sweden.

    The results shows that there is a correlation between the high education and income voters have in municipality and their tendency to vote for the Swedish Democrats. Those municipalities where most citizens have a higher education and a higher income where municipalities where the Swedish Democrats did not receive a lot of votes. There results did however not show a correlation between the number of votes for the Swedish Democrats and the number of immigrants living in the municipalities.

  • 7.
    Forsman, Olivia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Frihet under ansvar?: En studie av åren med motboken och kvinnors rättigheter 1919-19552018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the economic-historical development of the Swedish restriction system against alcohol abuse. It has been of interest to examine how it was designed and then implemented during the period of 1919–1955.

    The study includes a discussion on how the restrictions affected women's opportunities to acquire alcohol, based on gender norms. Therefore, the thesis has been strengthened by a gender-based analysis.

    The material that has been studied for the purpose is real decisions by the government for men and women who have applied for the right of purchasing alcohol.

    This paper has found that men were more often granted their applications, and because women had more difficult conditions. The reason seems to be that gender norms ruled higher than the formal rights.

     

    Key words: economic history, gender, alcohol, restriction system

  • 8.
    Gunnarsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Sam fak övr vh.
    Eriksson, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Social rättvisa är en förutsättning för hållbara skatter2019In: Hur kan skattesystemet förändras?: Fackliga och politiska inspel, Stockholm: Arena Idé och Kommunal , 2019, p. 10-29Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Lantz, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    An indirect route to equality: taxing consumers to build the Swedish welfare state2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of who paid for the welfare state in postwar Sweden has been subject to extensive debate. Many have focused on the comparatively high, and steeply progressive, taxes on income. Others have claimed that low and middle earners paid disproportionately more, pointing to the comparatively high revenue share of value added tax (VAT) for instance. No convincing assessment has been made of the extent to which consumption taxes counteracted the progressivity of income taxes. The thesis presents new estimates based on tax assessments and household surveys, which show that consumption taxes did offset tax progressivity considerably. Moreover, they were important even before the VAT. There was not a sharp break, but a gradual transition from excise and customs duties to general sales tax to VAT. The VAT meant a shifting of the weight more towards the lower end of the income distribution.

    This insight begs the question of what caused such a fiscal arrangement. What made postwar Sweden’s labour governments favour a tax that fell disproportionately on low earners, a core part of their constituency? Through an analysis of policy documents, the author shows that the governing Social Democrats were well aware of the dilemma. The party leaders used general consumption taxes explicitly as a ‘lesser evil’ component in a strategy for expanding the public sector and welfare systems. That aspect has previously been neglected when telling the story of this formative era. The thesis demonstrates that it deserves to be brought into a central place in that story.

    Corporatism remains a valid explanatory factor. The business community had an influence on determining the details of the general sales tax, albeit not the overall level. Tax reliefs on certain important inputs such as building materials and were granted after a series of appeals. The author argues that the transition from sales tax to VAT can be seen as a final solution to these protests about business inputs being unfairly taxed. The will of the domestic business community was of a more immediate importance for the switch to VAT than any potential tendency of compliance towards supranational organisations such as the EEC pushing the government to follow their edicts concerning VAT, as has otherwise been suggested.

    The political left in Sweden was initially against the general sales tax because of its burden on low earners. The political right opposed the general sales tax because it would increase the overall tax take, and risked becoming an all too convenient revenue machine for the government. The left changed position and began framing it as a tool for realising welfare state expansion. The right reframed it as a tool for keeping the progressivity of taxation down.

  • 10.
    Lilljegren, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Networks that organised competition: corporate resource sharing between Swedish property underwriters 1875-19502019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the corporate networks of Swedish property underwriters 1875-1950. During this period, networks of increasing intensity was an essential part in the organisation of the Swedish property insurance market. Corporate resource sharing allowed underwriters to accommodate the ever-changing industrialised demand for property insurance. Interlocking directorates, ownership ties and membership in collaborative organisations were the vessels of this corporate resource sharing.

    This study proposes a network perspective on the organisation of competition and collaboration. It finds that networks lowered firms’ cost-threshold for underwriting diversification, causing wellconnected firms to expand into new markets more easily. An essential resource to underwriters was information, and information exchange motivated several interfirm rapprochements. The driving forces for the organisational shift towards increased networking were, however, complex, and included both socioeconomic and strategic factors.

    Through networks of mutual resource sharing, the consolidation that appears in the industry after 1950 was preceded by a long historical process in which firms who would later merge developed measurably clustered network structures as early as in the 1910s. In the 1920s the networks already contributed to a high market concentration. Networks thereby conditioned the underwriting operation of individual firms as well as the structural evolution of the Swedish insurance market as a whole.

  • 11.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Tillväxten och de stigande förväntningarnas missnöje2019In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 75-76Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Lindqvist, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Varför välja vårdcentral?: Vägen till privatisering av primärvården i Västerbottens läns landsting 1983 – 20152019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna magisteruppsats i Ekonomisk Historia avser undersöka drivkrafter och motiv bakom de institutionella förändringar som svensk sjukvård genomgått och hur det i sin tur ledde fram till Lagen om valfrihetssystem. Vidare undersöks hur LOV påverkat utbudet av vårdcentraler inom Västerbottens läns landsting. Undersökningsperioden är 1983 – 2015. På 1980-talet skedde institutionella förändringar som var förutsättningar för den liberalisering av svensk sjukvård som skedde på 1990-talet. Kostnaderna för svensk sjukvård steg årligen från mitten på 1960-talet och när krisen slog till på 1990-talet skedde omfattande förändringar. Stora delar av offentlig sektor rationaliserades och öppnades upp för privata aktörer. Detta skedde även inom VLL. I mitten på 2000-talet började LOV utredas och argumenten för ett genomförande av reformen var framförallt att den konkurrens som skulle uppstå skulle leda till bättre vård för vårdtagarna. Befolkningen skulle via LOV få möjlighet att digitalt välja sin vårdcentral. Inom VLL uppkom 5 privata vårdcentraler. Den största Umeå Vårdcentral/ Dragonens hälsocenter lades ut på upphandling 2004 och försattes i drift juni år 2006. Ersättningen från VLL till Carema fick korrigeras årligen vilket indikerade på hur komplext det är att kalkylera för kostnader inom sjukvården. Efter avtalsperioden fanns en möjlighet att förlänga med 24 månader men VLL valde att inte förlänga med Carema utan krävde en omförhandling då vårdbolaget misskött sig på ett flertal punkter. Bland annat så saknades sjukgymnaster och det fanns inte möjlighet till kontinuerlig läkarkontakt för patienterna. Detta visar på den problematik som kan uppstå vid privatisering av offentlig verksamhet, när den ofrånkomliga vinstjakten leder till att kostnader ska hållas nere för att uppnå större marginaler. Samtidigt bör politikers önskan om valfrihet och privatiseringar ifrågasättas då det finns få tecken på att det är befolkningens önskan.

  • 13.
    Lunner, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Oljekrisens akuta och långsiktiga verkningar: En kvalitativ studie om hur oljekrisen påverkade Umeå kommun2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 14.
    Näsman, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Green capitalism? Business and the environment in the twentieth century2018In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Svensson, Tilde
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Flottning i Västerbotten: Avvecklandet av flottningen i Umeälven mellan 1930-19802018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay will present the driving forces behind the liquidation of log-driving from 1930 to log-drivings end in 1980 in Umeälven. The debate about the log-drivers status in the river was multifold. The locals saw log-driving as an inhibiting process where, besides work, nothing good came. The hydroelectric stations saw the log-driving as an unnecessary tool because the hydroelectric stations had a larger purpose and were more prosperous than the log-driving. The underlying factors that evoked the log-drivings dismantling were several. Local people, fishing, hydro, but also the increased demand for forest and technology development. The timber became less ”float-friendly” and the forest road network was developed so that trucks became a more efficient and cheaper alternative, which led to the fact that log-floating was an unnecessary tool for the forest industry.

  • 16.
    Westin, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Stage, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Konkurrensneutralt transportbidrag: betänkande från Transportbidragsutredningen1997Book (Other academic)
1 - 16 of 16
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