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  • 1.
    Abdullayev, Javid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    The importance of the event theme in residents’ support level for Event tourism in Muslim Majority societiesResidents’ perceptions towards the sociocultural impacts of the Eurovision Song Contest 20122012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2.
    Adama, Blekou
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Assessing the walking access to bus stops in Umeå urban area and the relationship with the socio-economic characteristics2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere and protect the environment, Swedish cities are heavily invested in sustainable development by developing pedestrian roads and intensifying public transport. Their goal is to make the population less dependent on cars by facilitating accessibility to transit transport. The urban area of ​​Umeå (Sweden), which is experiencing an annual increasing of it population due to urban development, includes 244 km of pedestrian or bike routes and an intensified bus network. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the walking accessibility of the population at bus stops and to analyze the socio-economic relationship. The use of GIS tools allowed to calculate the proportion of the population and the houses around the bus stop, the average distance accessibility. The use of 3D allowed the observation of access constraints related to the topography and to calculate the slope. The use of the multiple regression model has analyzed the relationship between the shortest accessibility distance and the socio-economic factors that are the income, gender and age. The results show that the average distance of access to the bus stop is 186m. 99.2% of the population lives within 800m from the bus stops. The results of the regression showed that income is the main factor that pushes people to take the bus and live in certain types of housing. The observation of the 3d map and the calculation of the slope made it possible to know the neighborhoods established in the hill and whose residents are susceptible to spend more energy than the other inhabitant living on flat ground. The results mean that most people living in the urban area of ​​Umeå have good access to the bus stop whatever the social group, the level of income and the type of housing.

  • 3. Adams, M.
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Veprauskaite, E.
    Competing models of organizational form: Risk management strategies and underwriting profitability in the Swedish fire insurance market between 1903 and 19392012In: Journal of Economic History, ISSN 0022-0507, E-ISSN 1471-6372, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 990-1014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutual and stock insurers have coexisted and competed against each other in insurance markets for centuries. In this article, we examine the risk management strategies and underwriting profitability of the different organizational forms in Sweden's property fire insurance market between 1903 and 1939. We demonstrate that stock insurers acted as intermediaries between policyholders and reinsurers to operate effectively in the potentially high-risk segments of the fire insurance market. In contrast, nationwide mutual insurers kept larger reserves to balance fluctuations in claims experiences, while local insurance pools relied on social obligation and trust to mobilize capital after adverse fire events.

  • 4. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Veprauskaite, Elena
    Managing policy lapse risk in Sweden’s life insurance market between 1915 and 19472018In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the challenges that Swedish life insurers faced in managing the lapse risk of policies written on the lives of the industrial urban working class between 1915 and 1947. We observe that with the threat of State socialisation of insurance in the 1930s, industrial life insurers modified their business practices to better control policy lapses. Using firm-level data, we also analyse the effect of socio-economic changes, such as rising real wages, interest rate fluctuations and unemployment on life insurance policy lapses. Our results support contemporary tests of the emergency fund and interest rate explanations for the voluntary premature termination of life insurance policies.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-08-22 00:00
  • 5. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Hardwick, Philip
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Firm size and growth in Sweden's life insurance market between 1855 and 1947: A test of Gibrat's law2014In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 956-974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data for the period from 1855 to 1947 and the two sub-periods, 1855-1902 and 1903-47, the article examines whether the organic growth rates of 38 Swedish life insurance firms are independent of size, as predicted by Gibrat's (1931) Law of Proportionate Effects. Using panel unit root tests and panel Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) regression, the article finds a significant difference between the growth rates of small and large Swedish life insurance firms (with smaller firms tending to grow faster than larger firms), a result that clearly contradicts Gibrat's Law as a long-run tendency in the Swedish life insurance sector. significant influences were also found on firm growth from profitability, organisational form, reinsurance, the real rate of interest and the Swedish regulatory environment.

  • 6.
    Adjei, Evans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Family firm and entrepreneurial capital: the importance of entrepreneurial capital for firm survival and growthManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the effects of current (family firms) and past family relations (entrepreneurial capital (EC) -inherited entrepreneurial practices from self-employed parents)on the survival and growth of new entrants, taking into account the regional context and the effects of the 2008 global financial crisis. Moreover, we examined whether familial relations also contribute to job creation. The guiding assumption is that the role of familial relations for start-ups is of primary importance for spatial variations of economic development. Using start-ups with a maximum of 50 employees in 2002 in Sweden, we followed each firm until the firm exited. The results indicate that the resilience of family firms is confounded by EC. Hence, it is not family firms per se that are more resilient but rather firms with entrepreneurial experience from self-employed parents; however, it is family firms that create more jobs. The results further indicate that the impacts of EC are predominantly found in rural regions. The analyses suggest that family firms and EC explain different aspects of the local economic development, which is a finding important for policy-making.

  • 7.
    Adjei, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Social proximity and firm performance: the importance of family member ties in workplaces2016In: Regional Studies, Regional Science, ISSN 0080-0694, E-ISSN 2168-1376, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 303-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study empirically assesses the role of social proximity, defined as the concentration of family members (FM) in firms, on firm performance. Based on longitudinal micro-data for the period 1995–2010 connecting information on workers and their workplaces in the Swedish labour market, the effects of FM (parents, children, siblings and grandparents) on per capita productivity in 15,359 firms were analysed. The results indicate that FM positively affect firm performance. In particular, the results suggest that in specialized regions (mainly small regions) FM have a positive influence on performance and can thus compensate for relative shortage of regional agglomeration economies.

  • 8.
    Adjei, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Familial relationships and firm performance: the impact of entrepreneurial family relationships2018In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the family may serve as a resource for entrepreneurs, it has been studied separately in different disciplines. In this paper, we combine the arguments on familial relationships (family firm literature) and skill variety (regional learning literature) to analyse how different forms of entrepreneurial family relationships (co-occurrences) facilitate firm performance, and how familial relationships moderate the effects of skill variety on firm performance. Using longitudinal data (2002-2012) on a sample of privately owned firms with up to 50 employees with matched information on all employees, our results show that entrepreneur children relationship is the dominant dyad familial relationship in family firms. The fixed effects estimates demonstrate that entrepreneurial family relationships do affect firm performance but that this is dependent on the type of familial relationship. Children and spouses show a positive relationship with firm performance while siblings of the entrepreneur show no significant relationship with performance. The estimates further indicate that familial relationships involving spouses abate the negative effects of having too similar or too different types of skills. The paper thus contributes to new knowledge regarding not only whether family relationships matter for performance, but also in what way they matter.

  • 9.
    Adjei, Evans Korang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Relatedness through kinship: the importance of family co-occurrence for firm performance2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to analyse the effects of family co-occurrence and past familial relationships (inherited entrepreneurial abilities) on firm performance. This aim is motivated by the contemporary arguments that social relations (e.g. family ties) are important in the analysis of today’s space economy. In most studies, the point of departure in the analysis of firm performance has often been to analyse and examine the cognitive resources available in a firm, as well as a firm’s geographical closeness to related firms and industries. However, this argument has been challenged, and it is further suggested that social relations, and for that matter family relations (or family co-occurrence), may be important in the analysis of firm performance. To test this argument, the analysis is based on longitudinal data comprising various register data on the Swedish population and firms.

    To examine the aim, three different but related questions were analysed: the first analysed the prevalence of family employment across different regions and how this affects firm performance; the second examined the relationship between entrepreneurs’ familial relations (co-occurrence of different family relations) and skill variety, on one hand, and how the relationship affects firm performance on the other; and the third examined the effects of present family relations (family firms) and entrepreneurial capital (EC, past family relations) on the survival and growth of new entrants. Questions 1 and 2 were explored by applying simple ordinary least squares (OLS) and fixed effects (FE) regressions, respectively. Question 3 was explored by employing an event-history analysis (survival analysis) to determine the time to exit and OLS for the growth analysis.

    The results show that family co-occurrence in firms (be they family or non-family firms) positively affect labour productivity. At the same time, the results show that some specific family relationships are more important than others in terms of impacting labour productivity. Moreover, the results indicate that family firms, in particular, benefit the most from having family members employed in the firm, especially when this involves family relationships such as couples and/or children. The co-occurrence of couples and/or children in family firms moderates the negative impacts of similarities and unrelatedness of skills on productivity. The results show that the impacts of family co-occurrence are greater in smaller specialized regions than diverse and larger ones. Thus, while the family positively correlates with firm performance, this is mainly the case in specialized regions. The results further show that family firms are not more resilient, as the literature argues; but this effect is confounded by EC. The implication is that it is not family firms per se that are resilient but rather firms with entrepreneurial experience from parents, especially in rural regions; meanwhile, family firms create more jobs. However, the analysis could not identify a clear regional effect of the role of family firm on job creation. In this sense, the present thesis provides important insight into why the family constitutes an important part of the firm production setup. The findings show that it is necessary and important to consider the family, and family firms, in the larger regional development framework. Moreover, while reflecting on the uniqueness of the family as a social group whose shared identity and mutual trust can enhance firm performance and regional development, we should also not lose sight of the fact that there is a latent risk: it is not a problem—until it becomes a problem.

  • 10.
    Adjei Korang, Evans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Regional Income differences in Ghana: the importance of socio-demography and ethnicity2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Following the increased attention income differences/inequality has gained within the area of economic geography and among policy-planning; this study seeks to explore and analyze the factors affecting income differences in the regions of Ghana. From the use of regional (10 regions) panel data for 1960, 1970, 1984 and 2000; the results show a direct link between socio-demographic factors and regional income differences/inequality and also the impact of ethnic and religious composition on regional income differences. It was identified that ethnicity and religious compositions have different impacts on regional income differences. Christians have positive effect on regional income due to their fairly representation in almost all the regions likewise the Akans, but have negative effect on regional income. And also high population density in a region reduces the mean regional income, similarly high concentration of population aged 60years and over reduces the regional income. Evidence from the results empirically conclude that regions with high share of aged population, Akans, Muslims and high population density have low regional income compared with regions with high share of Christians. 

  • 11.
    Agdahl, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Bröd till varje pris: spannmålsprisernas utveckling i Västerbotten 1805-1815 och det Finska krigets inverkan2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 12.
    Agdahl, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    THE INTEGRATION PROCESS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION FOR FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN SPATIAL PLANNING: DRAWING EXAMPLES FROM ÄLVSTADEN-GOTHENBURGBETWEEN 1999-20152017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to climate change and natural variations in the hydrological cycle, global mean sea levels are increasing, causing the mean sea levels in different regions of the world to increase. In Sweden, coastal cities are facing rising water levels which is increasing flooding. The coastal community of Gothenburg, Sweden was identified the 18th most vulnerable city in the country both to flooding induced by water level rise and other climate change related impacts. Its location, in proximity of Lake Vänern, and in the mouth of the Göta River and its tributaries: Säveån, Mölndalsån and Lärjeån is heightening flood risk and vulnerability in the area. This thesis aims to contribute in comprehending the integration process of natural hazard and climate change adaptation for flood management in Älvstaden- central Gothenburg between 1999 and 2015. With the main objectives being” how the municipality of Gothenburg has applied the urban land use planning theory for the integration of natural hazard and climate change adaptation, with regards to adaptation for flood management in Älvstaden between 1999 and 2015? “What climate change adaptation policies for flood management have been implemented in Gothenburg within this time frame, and how the policies have been revised to match the reality of flood issues?” And “What improvements would be made in the integration process to better address adaptation for flood management?” A desk-based research and one case study approach was adopted for this study. The findings indicate that although the city has systematically used the steps involved in the integration process of natural hazard and climate change adaptation for flood management, it does not link the policies and the measures applied to adaptation for flood management. Which is an issue as it has led to the exclusion of vital functions of the integration process. Suggestions on how the integration process could be improved are provided.

  • 13.
    Ahlberg, Caroline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Planering av fritidshus: En studie om Stockholms skärgårds planaktörer och dilemmat fritidshus2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim for this bachelor thesis is to identify how second homes are applied in planning strategies between different levels of planning. The planning levels are identified by municipality’s and part-regional levels. Furthermore, this thesis aims to analyze in which contexts second homes brings consequences in both positive and negative ways. To answer the purpose of this analyze a case study based on Stockholm archipelago was made. Two part-regional documents, seven documents for the municipalities in the archipelago and two semi-structured interviews with stakeholders was conducted to answer the aim.

    Second homes indicate the change of where a resident primarily lives depending on season. Which means that planning strategies should take into consideration for a phenomenon that doesn’t dwell on an all year basis. Due to this analyze, six themes were identified for the implementation of second homes in the planning strategies. Two main themes were identified. The first theme is in regards of the change that plays out when a second home becomes the primary dwelling and on the other hand when the primary dwelling becomes a second home. This in a combination with the second theme which indicates that the localization of the dwellings is of high priority for planning strategies in Stockholm archipelago. Remaining themes are identified in the planning strategies for the municipalities, which is the local level in this study. They indicate for example that second homes can provide profit for the local organizations and stakeholders, but some contexts also include the opposite implication as well. Furthermore, the themes apply to restrictions of use, constructions and the local conditions. 

  • 14. Ahmed, Bayes
    et al.
    Hasan, Rakibul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Maniruzzaman, K. M.
    Urban Morphological Change Analysis of Dhaka City, Bangladesh, Using Space Syntax2014In: ISPRS International journal of geo-information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 1412-1444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on a study of the morphological changes of Dhaka City, the capital of Bangladesh. The main objective of the research is to study the transformation of urban morphology in Dhaka City from 1947 to 2007. Three sample wards (18, 19 and 72) of Dhaka City Corporation are strategically selected as the study areas. Ward 72 has an indigenous type of organic settlement, whereas ward 19 is a planned area, and ward 18 represents a mixed (both planned and informal) type of settlement. In this research, the transformation of urban settlement pattern is examined through space syntax. The results show that the organic settlements (ward 72) are highly integrated both in terms of the local and global syntactic measures (lowest standard deviation for local and global integration, with the highest intelligibility values), and are more connectivity. The scenario is opposite in the case of planned settlements. The characteristics of mixed areas (ward 18) lie in between the organic and planned settlements. Therefore, in summary, it can be stated that the integration, connectivity and intelligibility measures of Dhaka City are found to be high, medium and low for the indigenous, mixed and planned settlement types; respectively.

  • 15.
    Akhmetzyanova, Leyla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Modeling Income-Based Residential Segregation in Moscow, Russian Federation2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates spatial patterns of income-based residential segregation at the neighborhood level in the Russian capital city Moscow within new administrative boundaries, which have received relatively little attention in prior studies. It is argued that Moscow faces high levels of income inequality exacerbated by growing levels of spatial segregation between the affluent and prestigious Center – South-West and poor industrial South – South-East. Applying a whole set of quantitative methods complemented with computer mapping techniques, based on the latest 2013 data by the City of Moscow Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics and 2010 Census data, this study provides new insights into spatial differentiation processes and elaborates policy solutions aimed at addressing economic disparities in the city. A key finding of this thesis is that income segregation in the study area has been driven to a larger extent by the isolation of very poor neighborhoods from middle- and upper-income areas.

  • 16.
    Alacevska, Zorica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Pausgympa på arbetstid: För Vårdadministratörer/medicinska sekreterare2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17.
    Alcazar, Liza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Att inte bli iakttagen men ändå bli sedd: En studie om tjejers trygghet i det offentliga rummet och hur det kan planeras för trygga och jämställda miljöer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Making individuals feel safe in public space is an increasingly relevant issue in planning the city's public space. However, fear is not easy to explain or counteract as this is something that is highly subjective. Many urban planning projects are being carried out today focusing on creating safe and equal environments. Such a project is Frizon in Umeå municipality, which is a meeting place based on young girls' experience of security and gender equality.This study tries to create an understanding of how planners can work with girls' safety in the public space, as well as create an understanding of how places that are planned based on security and gender equality can be perceived.The study has been conducted through interviews, surveys and observations, in which young girls experience the city of Umeå and the meeting place Frizon has been the focus.The result shows that the city is primarily a place to hang out with friends and the places most used by the girls in the city are the central parts for shopping and food, but also some of the city's parks.Many of the girls who participated in the study feel insecure sometimes when in the city, but this is something that occurs mainly when they are alone. Hanging out with their friends is not just something they do for socializing, but this is also something that gives them a sense of security. The result also shows that Frizon is an appreciated place by many girls, but that the site partially feels somewhat unavailable during certain times of the day and year.

  • 18.
    Algotsson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lika men ändå olika: En fallstudie om löparevenemangen Vindelälvsloppet och Sankt Olavsloppet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 19.
    Almstedt, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Post-productivism in rural areas: A contested concept2013In: Natural resources and regional development theory / [ed] Linda Lundmark, Camilla Sandström, Umeå: Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Umeå universitet , 2013, p. 8-22Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Almstedt, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Beyond Post-productivism: From Rural Policy Discource to Rural Diversity2014In: European Countryside, ISSN 1803-8417, E-ISSN 1803-8417, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 297-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a strong discourse in public policy aimed at transforming rural places from venues of primary production into truly diverse socioeconomic landscapes. Yet conceptualisations of the rural as envisioned in the policy and politics of the ‘new economy’ often prove to be elusive on the ground. However, post-productive activity in rural areas has become a major focus for rural studies scholars. This paper investigates the ideas of post-productivism in the existing literature, and argues for a holistic understanding of post-productivism as an idea and political ambition rather than an imperative and irreversible change of rural economic activity. The purpose of the study is to make clear the division between post-productivism and the related concepts of post-production and post-productive activities in order to better understand processes of rural change in relation to different geographical contexts. It is argued that post-productivism as a concept stands apart from de facto post-production and alternative concepts such as multifunctionality and should be regarded as part of broader regional development discourses. The paper outlines several important fields in which post-productivism is a necessary component for rural transformation and development. While it is not always easily captured in indicators or empirical studies in rural locations, post- productivism exists at the level of discourse and planning and thus has real effects on the ground. The paper concludes by offering suggestions on how to apply the concepts of post-productivism, post-production and multifunctionality in future studies. 

  • 21.
    Almstedt, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    The role of market measures in forest governance: the example of forest certification in boreal forests2017In: CAB Reviews, ISSN 1749-8848, Vol. 12, no 11, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Almstedt, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Public spending on rural tourism in Sweden2016In: Fennia, E-ISSN 1798-5617, Vol. 194, no 1, p. 18-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism is an important part of rural policies in European countries. An increased demand for rural amenities is seen as creating a more diversified labour market and contributing to the restructuring of the economy, from primary sectors and manufacturing to a more service-oriented economy, which has been termed a "new rural economy". As a result, and as often presented in many policy documents, tourism is now seen as a universal tool for rural development. The purpose of this study is to investigate the distribution of public spending on tourism in rural areas in Sweden. It focuses on public spending on the main programme for rural development, the Swedish rural development programme, but also on the regional structural funds programmes, from 2000 to 2013. Another subject of interest is how policy makers understand rural tourism as presented in policy documents since these documents, to a great extent, direct programme spending in terms of projects and their content. This study is based on register data on programme spending, policy documents and programme evaluation reports. Results show that a relatively small amount of total public spending targets tourism – mainly going to accommodation, activities and marketing efforts – indicating that tourism is still not a prioritised area despite policy makers’ understanding of rural tourism as expressed in policy documents. Thus, although public efforts target adequate parts of the tourism industry, they cannot be expected to contribute significantly to the restructuring of the rural economy.

  • 23.
    Almstedt, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Reed, Maureen G.
    Introducing a framework for good and adaptive governance: an application to fire management planning in Canada's boreal forest2013In: Forestry Chronicle, ISSN 0015-7546, Vol. 89, no 5, p. 664-674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning for and managing disturbances in protected areas requires governance arrangements that are both adaptive to changing conditions and effective in dealing with multiple challenges. This paper presents a framework composed of principles and criteria of good and adaptive governance that pays attention to inclusiveness, responsibility, fairness, strategic vision, performance orientation, and adaptiveness. The framework was empirically tested on fire management planning in Prince Albert National Park, Saskatchewan, Canada, involving interactions between Parks Canada and Saskatchewan Environment. Our results suggest that while the principle of performance orientation was upheld, principles such as inclusiveness and adaptiveness were only partially supported. Additional testing beyond fire management planning can help determine the utility of the framework for other environmental management situations.

  • 24.
    Amukena Nyqvist, Benjamin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Företagskluster och närhet i Katutura, Namibia: En studie kring småföretag, närhet och klusterfördelar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Economic Geography, there has been a strong interest of how different forms of proximity impacts businesses. In addition, there is also a strong interest in business agglomeration, as a result businesses cluster together through physical proximity, networks and knowledge. In the development sector, there is a strong interest on how to best support the creations and growth of small enterprises.

    This essay emphasises on the business cluster formations in Katutura, a suburb to Windhoek the capital city of Namibia. It oversees the impacts of different types of cluster formations and their effects on the businesses. In addition, this essay will identify the main clusters in Katutura and state what makes them unique from each other and what is a common cluster feature. Furthermore, it will give answers to the questions that follows: How does these forms of clusters influence businesses in Katutura? How are businesses conducted in different clusters? What benefits will the businesses derive from these forms of proximity and clustering?

    The data presented in the essay was collect from different clusters of business with regard to utilities, knowledge and skills, finances, and other important indicators of business wellbeing. The data is used to compare the different clusters and their forms of proximity within them.

    It is then concluded in the essay that the most successful clusters are those that are located at the incubation centres in terms of turn over but not with profit margins. Also, it was observed that these clusters are specialized. Furthermore, it was also observed that businesses seem to invest more in clusters with the highest innovation and diversification. In addition to the concluded observation, it was also observed that there is evolutionary processes amongst the clusters in Katutura such as described in the literature. 

  • 25.
    Andersson, Amandah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Ensamstående mödrar i den jämställda föräldraledigheten: Den historiska utvecklingen i relationen mellan föräldrapenning och ensamstående mödrar från 1880 till 20172018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats handlar om relationen mellan föräldraledighet och ensamstående mödrar. Med ett långt tillbakagående historiskt avstamp, ämnar uppsatsen undersöka normer omkring föräldraskap, när och hur föräldraledighet först infördes och hur den utvecklats, och hur den ensamstående modern inkluderats, eller exkluderats, i sammanhanget. Uppsatsen avhandlar en tid om 137 år, som är uppdelad i fyra mindre tidsperioder. Utifrån en genuskonstruktivistisk teoriram bestående av fyra element – ett kulturellt, ett normativt, ett institutionellt och ett om subjektiv identitet – appliceras en analysmodell i respektive tidsperiod, för en strukturell bearbetning av material som bidrar till uppsatsens övergripande syfte. Tack vare en periodindelning, synliggörs förändringar men det är också möjligt att identifiera vilka normer som kvarstår. Genusroller har gett stor påverkan på kvinnor och mäns förväntade antaganden och medborgaransvar över en lång tid och fastän förändringar har skett, har vissa strukturer överlevt.

    Inom ramen för den svenska föräldraförsäkringen, får juridiska vårdnadshavare till barn som omfattas av den svenska socialförsäkringen 480 dagar i föräldrapenning, som kan tas ut i ändamål att avstå arbete för att ta hand om barn med ekonomisk ersättning. Vid fall då barnet har en juridisk vårdnadshavare, tillfaller alla föräldrapenningdagar denna, men om barnet har två juridiska vårdnadshavare – vilket en majoritet av alla barn i Sverige har idag – delas föräldrapenningen rakt av mellan dem 150 av de 240 föräldrapenningdagarna en förälder får överföringsbara, men 90 dagar är öronmärkta för respektive förälder. När föräldraförsäkringen infördes år 1974 – innan föräldraförsäkringen fanns en moderskapsförsäkring som endast riktade sig mot mödrar – var inga dagar reserverade för någon förälder, men över tiden då mönstret att kvinnor tog ut en stor majoritet av all föräldrapenning vidtog politiker åtgärder för att jämna ut den sneda fördelningen av föräldraledighetsuttag: jämställdhetsåtgärder! Från och med 1995 har föräldrapenningdagar öronmärkts i tre etapper i jämställdhetens namn.

    För föräldrar som inte lever ihop kan det vara praktiskt svårt att dela på en föräldraledighet med ett litet barn. Historiskt sett är det oftast kvinnor som lever ensamma med barn och idag är det vanligast att även separerade föräldrar har gemensam vårdnad, alltså delas föräldrapenningen mellan föräldrar som inte lever ihop. Med ett stort historiskt perspektiv, söker studien förklaring på hur normer producerats och vilka som upprätthålls i konstruktionen av villkoren för föräldraledighet: på vilka premisser är den formulerad, vilken funktion ämnar den att fylla? Utifrån dessa förställningar reflekteras därefter ensamstående mödrars villkor i fråga om föräldraledighet.

    Uppsatsens slutsatser är att föräldraledighetsvillkoren, för det första, är baserade på en stark tvåsamhetsnorm. Detta har lett till att det jämställdhetskoncept som innebär att logiken för att syftet med jämställdhetsåtgärderna – det vill säga att män ska ta ut en högre andel föräldrapenning – är anpassat för att män ska ersätta kvinnors traditionella tid och ansvar i hemmet. Detta jämställdhetskoncept är sedermera inte applicerbart på ensamstående mödrar, då hon inte har någon man som ersätter henne i hemmet. För det andra, saknar jämställdhetssträvan i en stor utsträckning en nyansering av maktrelationer och inkludering av fler perspektiv än enbart den normativa tvåsamhetens.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Beatrice
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Välfärdens framtida utmaningar och möjligheter: En jämförande studie mellan långtidsutredningarna från 1999/2000 och 20152017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 27. Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Adaptation to climate change?: Why business-as-usual remains the logical choice in Swedish forestry2018In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 48, p. 76-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The two latest IPCC assessment reports have concluded that knowledge is not sufficient for inducing action on climate change. This study problematizes the issue of going beyond business-as-usual through a study of the forestry sector in Sweden, which is a large economic sector and could be expected to be an early adapter, given that newly planted forest may stand some 70-90 years into the future. Therefore resources, economic motivation in the longer term and environmental foundations for early adaptation action could be expected to exist. This study draws upon the Foucauldian conceptualization of governmentality to explain the particular institutional logics that nevertheless lead to business-as-usual arguments dominating discussion on adaptation in the case of Swedish forestry. The study emphasizes that adaptation must be seen as steered and limited by existing institutional, social system logics, rather than by externally defined "rational" motivations. Efforts on adaptation to climate change must thus be considered in relation to, and seek to change, existing institutionally based motivational and incentive structures, and must thus be conceived through social rather than environmental logics. In fact, social logics may even define the types of actions that may be regarded as adaptations.

  • 28. Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Technology use in Swedish reindeer husbandry through a social lens2017In: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 19-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationalizing production more effectively, technological developments and innovations also have effects on, for example, skills, knowledge and social relations, that connect the specific technique to large processes and rationalities. In the conflict between user rights and ownership rights in northern Sweden, the introduction of new techniques within reindeer husbandry is studied on a local and embodied level. Through observations and interviews, the tension between empowerment and control in their implementation is further explored by utilizing a labor process theoretical framework. The results illustrate a shift in the definition of skills and knowledge, in relation to the use of GPS and GIS, that reshape, reorganize, restructure and embody the labor process of reindeer husbandry and spatial, temporal and ecological relations. Through its production of subjective conditions and dependence, the disciplinary logic of these techniques contributes to shape and enact governable spaces and subjects within the context. Operating as technologies of government, the techniques emphasize the responsibilities of the reindeer herding community and shape their participation, by reinforcing the demand for certain kind of subjectivities and accountability – governmental rationales that contribute to a technologicalization and depoliticizing of policy and conflict managing.

  • 29.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lawrence, Anna
    Adaptation to climate change in forestry: a perspective on forest ownership and adaptation responses2017In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 8, no 12, article id 493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptation to climate change has often been discussed from the perspectives of social vulnerability and community vulnerability, recognising that characteristics at local level will influence the particular adaptations undertaken. However, the extent to which national-level systemic factors influence and shape measures defined as adaptations has seldom been recognised. Focusing on adaptation to climate change in forestry, this study uses the example of two countries in the northern hemisphere with different forest ownership structures, forestry industry and traditions: Sweden, with strong private, non-industrial ownership, dominant forest industry and long forestry traditions; and Scotland, with forest ownership dominated by large estates and investment forestry based on plantations of exotic conifer species. The study shows how adaptation to climate change is structurally embedded and conditioned, which has resulted in specific challenges and constraints for different groups of forest owners within these two different contexts. This produces a specific set of political spaces and policy tools by rendering climate change in relation to forestry manageable, negotiable and practical/logical in specific ways. It is recommended that the focus of future work on climate-related issues and development of adaptation measures and policy should not be primarily on climate-related factors, but on institutional analysis of structural factors and logics in target sectors, in order to critically explore concepts of agency and power within these processes.

  • 30.
    Andersson, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Are You Staying?: A Study of In-movers to Northern Sweden and the Factors Influencing Migration and Duration of Stay2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of the population has multiple implications on regional development and planning. In-migration is frequently seen as the only possible solution in order to rejuvenate the population and stimulate regional development in sparsely populated regions. A population increase results in greater tax revenues, meaning that local authorities can plan for their inhabitants and expenditures in a more sufficient way. In addition, certain professionals are needed in order to support essential local services such as schools and hospitals. Place marketing with the intention of attracting in-movers has become increasingly popular, especially for rural, sparsely populated Swedish municipalities. Still, the outcome from place marketing efforts are dubious and in addition, migration has a temporal aspect and individual migration propensity usually fluctuates over time. This begs the question – how long do in-movers stay? Is there potential for long lasting development in sparsely populated regions connected to in-movers or is it temporary?

    This study focuses on the duration of time until an in-mover re-migrates from Region 8 in northern Sweden and which socioeconomic and demographic factors that influences the out- migration. This is studied by applying an event history method with discrete-time logistic regressions. The study follows individuals in working age that moved to any of nine specified municipalities in Västerbotten and Norrbotten County, sometime between 2000 and 2011. Questions posed for the study is: i) On average, how long did people who moved to Region 8 between the years 2000-2011 stay in the region? ii) What are the socioeconomic and demographic factors that influence the out-migration from the region? iii) Do the influencing factors differ between women and men?

    The results show that the time perspective matters as the risk of moving out was highest in the initial years and that it declines with time. 30 % of the sampled in-movers had moved out again within the time of observation, and on average the in-movers stayed for nine years. The regression results indicated that the factors that had the greatest influence on the out- migration was unemployment, being between 20-26 years old, high education, having and unemployed partner, and having children below school age. Women had a slightly lower likelihood of moving out compared to men, and the most prominent influential factor to outmigration that varied between women and men was unemployment. 

  • 31.
    Andersson, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Att kommersialisera och sälja en plats: en analys av resereklam, representationer och geografiska föreställningar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pictures are often used when marketing a tourist destination. Photographs of a place, a destination, are used to convince customers and stimulate daydreaming in order to turn a potential customer into a real customer. For some people the photographic representations of a place is the only one they experience. With this in mind, it is reasonable to question how representations of places and geographical imaginations are being (re)produced when marketing a destination by using photographs. This paper aims to study how representations of place and people are used when marketing a tourist destination via travel commercial. The study was conducted by analysing images used for marketing tourist destinations located outside Europe, with a focus on photographs portraying people. The pictures included in this study were found in five travel catalogues for the Swedish market. The sample was narrowed down and reduced to three pictures, which were analysed by using a semiotic image analysis. The study aim to answer the following questions: When marketing a tourist destination how are people in the tourism advertising being presented? In what way can the images that are being used for tourism advertising generate stereotypes about places/people?

    The study indicates that, according to the included sample, the people portrayed in tourism advertising are being presented in a stereotypical manner. 

  • 32.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Between private interests and the state: corporatist strategies in the Swedish railway council, 1902-19672015In: Journal of Transport History, ISSN 0022-5266, E-ISSN 1759-3999, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 151-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the strategies employed by the Swedish Railway Council to influence national railway policy from 1902 to 1967. The Council was a corporatist arrangement and functioned as a broker between industrial and regional interests and the public railways. The results show that though the Council's policy influence in many cases was marginal, there were occasions when the members could use the Council as a tool to influence railway policy, most notably the division of the network into profitable and unprofitable lines, with different forms of government subsidies. The Council's influence increased through a shift in arguments, from a position that tariffs should be high enough to deliver a return on the invested capital, to an emphasis on having tariffs that could support national and regional economic development, even if it created commercial losses. When Swedish transport policy shifted in the 1960s, the Railway Council gradually lost its importance and eventually dissolved.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Journal via nätet: "Den ökade digitaliseringen av vården"2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 34.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Järnvägen omistlig del av Umeåregionens utveckling2013In: Umeå 1314-2014: 100 berättelser om 700 år / [ed] Lars-Gunnar Olsson, Susanne Haugen; Lars-Erik Edlund och Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Skellefteå: Artos & Norma bokförlag, 2013, p. 142-143Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Insurance models and climate risk assessments in a historical context2016In: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 219-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptation to the consequences of climate change has developed as a growing field of concern in the insurance business. However, climate related risks is not entirely a new field in insurance. Historically, a large number of insurance organizational choices and strategies have been used to mitigate the financial impacts of extreme events and uncertainties associated with climate change. Taking the case of forest in Sweden, this paper reviews the ways in which climate related risks such as storm/wind and fire risks have been assured. The study shows that climate related risks generally has increased over time and that major hazard events have been decisive for the strategy and organization choices. The 20th century development shows that corporate insurance coverage increased by higher anticipated risk, while self-insurance and public insurance was reduced. However, in more recent time the expansion of corporate insurance has stagnated. Raised premiums and tighten terms following historically extreme weather events has led government and forest owners to assume more climate risks.

  • 36.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Sickness absence in compulsory and voluntary health insurance: the case of Sweden at the turn of the twentieth century2017In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 6-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the turn of the twentieth century, Swedish health insurance was organised according to the Western European models of both voluntary, `fraternal´ principles and compulsory, `factory scheme´ principles. In this paper, we trace the characteristics of both organisational forms, and compare the sickness absence by considering the role of risk selection and mitigation across a large panel of voluntary and compulsory health insurance societies operating in Sweden between 1900 and 1910. We find that voluntary societies used a wide set of rules and practices in order to select and monitor members in order to keep down the number of sick cases. Compulsory societies applied shorter waiting periods and offered more medical treatment, leading to more frequent but shorter sickness absences.

  • 37.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Profits, dividends and industry restructuring: the Swedish paper and pulp industry between 1945 and 19772016In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 278-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the role of profit distribution in the restructuring of the Swedish paper and pulp industry between 1945 and 1977. In addressing this issue, we will draw on the life-cycle theory and market imperfection arguments to examine whether the less profitable firms shared more of their profits as dividends, or remained on the market longer by reinvesting the majority of the profits. Our study shows that an increasing share of the profits was distributed to owners over time, and thus less profit was reinvested in industrial renewal. We find that the observed general upward trend in dividends can be attributed to the decline in profit and firm legacy, as firms in the Swedish pulp and paper industry kept dividends up while reducing reinvestment as their profit margins decreased over time. Our study shows that the market imperfections related to capital taxation and investment funds increased rather than decreased dividends.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Danley, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Henning, Martin
    Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Workers’ participation in regional economic change following establishment closure2018In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses if and when workers affected by economic destruction in the form of establishment closures move to more productive or newly started establishments in the region, become self-employed, leave the region or become displaced. Results from multinominal probit models show that the majority of these workers face destructive employment outcomes from a Schumpeterian point of view compared to a matched sample of workers not subject to a closure. However, we do find indications of a creative destruction as a small, albeit significant, share become employed in young establishments. Different types of human capital influence the likelihood of triggering positive or negative regional outcomes. While higher education significantly decreases the risk for unemployment, high-income earners more often become engaged in creative outcomes. Firm tenure increases the likelihood of becoming employed in younger establishments. There are significant spatial differences where metropolitan regions excel as loci of creative change, whereas smaller and peripheral regions face far less creative outcomes of economic transformation.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Exclusion of women and organizational characteristics: Swedish mutual health insurance 1901-19102018In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutual societies have been recognised for their ability to mitigate information asymmetry. Although successful in reducing sickness claims, the exclusion of women was common. Health insurance societies argued the exclusion was a means to reduce adverse selection and moral hazard since women were regarded as higher risk. In this paper, we explore differences in organisational characteristics between societies that excluded and societies that did not exclude women as members between 1901 to 1910. Based on panel data, the study shows that societies that excluded women were less successful in keeping down sickness claims, in relation to benefits, than gendermixed societies

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-07-29 00:00
  • 40.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    The compulsory public pension and the demand for life insurance: the case of Sweden, 1884–191412015In: Economic history review, ISSN 0013-0117, E-ISSN 1468-0289, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 244-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We employ cost-of-living surveys, business archives, and firm data to examine the impact of the compulsory pension on the demand for life insurance in Sweden from 1884 to 1914—a period that covers the implementation of the first public compulsory old-age pension reform and the take-off of industry life insurance. As predicted on the basis of the contemporary literature on crowding-out effects, we find that the compulsory pension reduced the demand for life insurance. Our panel-data analysis of lapse rates on insurance policies shows a significant crowding-out effect of pension payments. We conclude that the introduction of the general compulsory pension had a crowding-out effect on households’ holdings of insurance policies.

  • 41.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Adams, Mike
    School of Management, University of Bath.
    Upreti, Vineet
    School of Management, University of Bath.
    The determinants of investment returns in the fire insurance industry: the case of Sweden, 1903-19392013In: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 73-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weemploy a panel data research design to examine the determinants of investmentreturns in the Swedish property fire insurance industry from 1903 to 1939 – aperiod of great economic and political uncertainty. Contrary to expectations,we find that mutual fire insurers generated systematically higher investmentreturns than stock fire insurers. Investment returns are inversely related toleverage but positively related to liquidity, showing that firms adopting amore precautionary investment strategy attain higher returns.

  • 42.
    Andersson, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Journal på nätet: Utifrån vårdadministratörens synvinkel2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 43.
    Andersson, Sarah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Hur stor "plats" får platsen ta när hotell marknadsför sig online?: En innehållsanalysav platsens vikt i online-markandsföring av fem hotell i Umeå.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 44.
    Andersson Skog, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Gunnarsson, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Forum for Studies on Law and Society.
    Between Family and Market – A Feminist Story about Individual versus Joint Taxation in Relation to Swedish Business Taxation 1928-19772016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A general bias in most welfare states has been to use public revenues to deal with inequality in social and economic programmes. However, tax policies and regulatory tax reforms very seldom consider that gender norms and practices have had profound effects in shaping tax systems, which has become hindrance for achieving economic gender equality.

    By applying a gender perspective on family and business taxation we want to show that breadwinning and support of the family are common dominators for how the modern income taxation was constructed. A common understanding is that the consequence of this transformation from family economy to market economy also lead to a permanent and clear cut between these two spheres of economy. We will show that this idea of separation is more of a fiction than the reality.

  • 45.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    "...att befordra landets förkofvran...": ekonomiska reformer i brytningstid 1846-18902013In: Näringsfrihetens tid: reformer, industriutveckling, kulturklimat, Bromma: Centrum för näringslivshistoria , 2013, p. 21-41Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Belysning av relationen mellan entreprenörskap och varumärke: recension av "Entreprenörskap och varumärken" Karin Winroth (red.) & Mats Larsson & Mikael Lönnborg2014In: Respons, no 4Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    ikea markandsför det svenska folkhemmet2015In: Respons, no 1Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 48.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Kriser, motståndskraft och förändringsförmåga2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Mellan försörjning och tillväxt: Arbetsmarknad, företagnade och ekonomisk politik efter 19502012In: Den hållbara svenska modellen: Innovationskraft, förnyelse och effektivitet / [ed] Lars Magnusson & Jan Ottosson, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2012, 1, p. 126-143Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    "Såsom allmänna inrättningar till gagnet, men affärsföretag till namnet": SJ, järnvägspolitiken och den ekonomiska omvandlingen efter 19201993Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the extent and nature of the interaction between the political, institutional andeconomical development in the Swedish railway sector 1920-1980. The work deals with two main issuse,which may be summarized in the following question: has the Swedish railway policy contributed to orcounterbalanced the stagnation of the railways, especially in the post-war period? The basic premise has beenthat the institutional framework from the 19th century, was well adjusted to the requirements in thecontemporary industrialization process. The adaption of the regulations, obligations and economic principlesfrom the inter-war years and henceforth was more problematic. A growing discrepancy between economicconditions and policy goals emerged. Ulis affected the function of the Sate Railways (SJ).The interesting issue is to explain the process of renewal and abandonment of the original institutionalarrangements. There are two distinctive driving forces in this process. Firstly the demand for transport in theeconomy of the society changed. This interacted with the expansion of motorvehicles. Motor vehicles, and lateron civil aviation, have taken over parts of traditional railway transports. Of greater significance though, is thefact that railways have not been able to compete with motorvehicles on a number of growing markets in theeconomy of society. This has been of major importance to the diminishing economic returns and the decliningcompany profitability in the railway sector. The second driving force is to be found in the institutional setting inthe railway sector. The institutional principles and the railway policy gave social and economic responsibilitypriority over business profitability as the managerial strategy for SJ. SJ was used to fulfil regional and generaleconomic policy goals. As a consequence the unprofitable private railways were nationalized to save theregional transport system. To succeed on the competitive transport market in the post-war period it becamenecessary for SJ to act as a profit-seeking company. This created a long period of political struggle inParliament concerning the institutional principles. In order to keep the social economic principles, the monetaryclaims were reduced. Subsidies were given to try to save SJ s profitability as a business company. The mixtureof social and monetary principles from 1960 and onwards, could neither solve the railway's market problems,nor could they keep the regional railway system intact. This failure led to the abandonment of the originalinstitutional framework. In the late 1980 s it was totally replaced. Hie guiding rules for the State Railways arenow concentrated on competition and company profitability.

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