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• 1.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Sport Sciences Center.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Sport Sciences Center.
Injuries among weightlifters and powerlifters: a systematic review2017In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 211-219Article in journal (Refereed)

Background Olympic weightlifting and powerlifting are two sports that expose the body to great forces. Injury characteristics have not been systematically reviewed for these two growing sports.

Objective The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding various definitions of injuries used, injury localisation, the prevalence and incidence of injuries and the associated risk factors for injuries in weightlifting and powerlifting.

Design Systematic review.

Data sources Five databases, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Scopus and Web of Science, were searched between 9 March and 6 April 2015.

Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Studies assessing injury incidence and prevalence in Olympic weightlifting and powerlifting were included. The Quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies was used to assess methodological quality.

Results 9 studies were included in the review. Injury was defined fairly consistently across studies. Most studies were of low methodological quality. The spine, shoulder and the knee were the most common injury localisations in both sports. The injury incidence in weightlifting was 2.4–3.3 injuries/1000 hours of training and 1.0–4.4 injuries/1000 hours of training in powerlifting. Only one retrospective study had analysed possible risk factors.

Summary/conclusions The risk of injury in both sports were similar to other non-contact sports also requiring strength/power, but low compared to contact sports. The severity of injuries differed in the included studies. Since little has been studied regarding possible risk factors to injuries, further research is therefore warranted to explain why athletes get injured and how to prevent injuries.

Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42015014805.

• 2.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
Institutionen för laboratoriemedicin avd för klinisk fysiologi Karolinska institutet . Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Institutionen för laboratoriemedicin avd för klinisk fysiologi Karolinska institutet .
Hälsoresan till medelåldern2011In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 2, p. 4p. 40-43Article in journal (Other academic)

Vad är viktigast för att få en god hälsa som vuxen? Sedan 1974 har vi följt samma personer från 16 års ålder in i medelåldern och studerat deras hälsa från flera olika synvinklar. Nu pågår den tredje mätomgången.

Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
Ethnobotanical survey of medicinally important wild edible fruits species used by tribal communities of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan2013In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 148, no 2, p. 528-536Article in journal (Refereed)

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Present survey was conducted to explore ethnomedicinal uses and cultural importance of wild edible fruits species by the inhabitants of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Materials and methods: Information was obtained through informed consent semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, market survey, focus group conversation, unceremonious dialogue and village walks with key informants. Cultural significance of each species was calculated based on use report by participants at each study site. Results: A total of 35 wild edible fruits belonging to 21 genera and 17 families were used for the treatment of various ailments and consumed. Rosaceae was found dominating family with (8 spp.), followed by Moraceae (6 spp.), Rhamnaceae (5 spp.), Palmae and Vitaceae (2 spp. each) and remaining families were represented by one species each. Fruits (48%) were found highly utilized plant parts, followed by leaves (34%), bark, flowers and seeds (4% each), branches, latex and roots (2% each). Water was used as a medium for preparation while milk, ghee, oil, egg and butter are used for application. Modes of preparation were fall into seven categories like fresh parts eaten raw (38%), powder (24%), decoction (20%), extract (12 %), paste (4%), juice and latex (2% each). Based on cultural important index (CI) Morus nigra was found most significant species within top ten fruit plants followed by Morus alba, Olea ferruginea, Berberis lycium, Pyrus pashia, Ficus carica, Ficus palmata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Diospyros lotus and Ziziphus nummularia. Conclusions: Traditional uses of wild edible plant depend mainly on socio-economic factors rather than climatic conditions or wealth of flora. Use reports and citation demonstrated that there is a common cultural heritage regarding the gathered food plants. Further investigation is required for Antioxidant study, essential and toxic components, pharmacological applications; dietary requirements and biotechnological techniques to improve yields.

Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Quantum Chemical Designing of Efficient Sensitizers for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells2013In: Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society (Print), ISSN 0253-2964, E-ISSN 1229-5949, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 2093-2098Article in journal (Refereed)

Density functional theory (DFT) was used to determine the ground state geometries of indigo and new design dyes (IM-Dye-1 IM-Dye-2 and IM-Dye-3). The time dependant density functional theory (TDDFT) was used to calculate the excitation energies. All the calculations were performed in both gas and solvent phase. The LUMO energies of all the dyes were above the conduction band of TiO2, while the HOMOs were below the redox couple (except IM-Dye-3). The HOMO-LUMO energy gaps of new design dyes were smaller as compared to indigo. All new design dyes were strongly red shifted as compared to indigo. The improved light harvesting efficiency (LHE) and free energy change of electron injection Delta G(inject) of new designed sensitizers revealed that these materials would be excellent sensitizers. The broken coplanarity between the benzene near anchoring group having LUMO and the last benzene attached to TPA unit in all new design dyes consequently would hamper the recombination reaction. This theoretical designing will the pave way for experimentalists to synthesize the efficient sensitizers for solar cells.

• 5.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
Ämnesprovet i NO: biologi, fysik och kemi2013In: Ämnesproven 2012 i grundskolans årskurs 9 och specialskolans årskurs 10 / [ed] Skolverket, Stockholm: Skolverket , 2013, , p. 32-44p. 32-44Chapter in book (Other academic)
• 6.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
UHPLC-ESI/TOFMS Determination of Salicylate-like Phenolic Gycosides in Populus tremula Leaves2011In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 37, no 8, p. 857-70Article in journal (Refereed)

Associations of salicylate-like phenolic glycosides (PGs) with biological activity have been reported in Salix and Populus trees, but only for a few compounds, and in relation to a limited number of herbivores. By considering the full diversity of PGs, we may improve our ability to recognize genotypes or chemotype groups and enhance our understanding of their ecological function. Here, we present a fast and efficient general method for salicylate determination in leaves of Eurasian aspen that uses ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI/TOFMS). The time required for the liquid chromatography separations was 13.5 min per sample, compared to around 60 min per sample for most HPLC protocols. In leaf samples from identical P. tremula genotypes with diverse propagation and treatment histories, we identified nine PGs. We found the compound-specific mass chromatograms to be more informative than the UV-visible chromatograms for compound identification and when quantitating samples with large variability in PG content. Signature compounds previously reported for P. tremoloides (tremulacin, tremuloidin, salicin, and salicortin) always were present, and five PGs (2'-O-cinnamoyl-salicortin, 2'-O-acetyl-salicortin, 2'-O-acetyl-salicin, acetyl-tremulacin, and salicyloyl-salicin) were detected for the first time in P. tremula. By using information about the formic acid adduct that appeared for PGs in the LTQ-Orbitrap MS environment, novel compounds like acetyl-tremulacin could be tentatively identified without the use of standards. The novel PGs were consistently either present in genotypes regardless of propagation and damage treatment or were not detectable. In some genotypes, concentrations of 2'-O-acetyl-salicortin and 2'-O-cinnamoyl-salicortin were similar to levels of biologically active PGs in other Salicaceous trees. Our study suggests that we may expect a wide variation in PG content in aspen populations which is of interest both for studies of interactions with herbivores and for mapping population structure.

• 7.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Understanding Web Users Behaviour From A Web Video Camera2003Report (Other academic)

To develop a Real-Time system, which can capture and track the web user’s head motion. Based on the head motion information, the system should be able to identify whether the user is interested in the current homepage or not. A future system property would be to find out in which area of the homepage the user’s interest is moving.

Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
Chloroplast and mitochondrial proteases in Arabidopsis: a proposed nomenclature2001In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 125, no 4, p. 1912-1918Article in journal (Refereed)

The identity and scope of chloroplast and mitochondrial proteases in higher plants has only started to become apparent in recent years. Biochemical and molecular studies suggested the existence of Clp, FtsH, and DegP proteases in chloroplasts, and a Lon protease in mitochondria, although currently the full extent of their role in organellar biogenesis and function remains poorly understood. Rapidly accumulating DNA sequence data, especially from Arabidopsis, has revealed that these proteolytic enzymes are found in plant cells in multiple isomeric forms. As a consequence, a systematic approach was taken to catalog all these isomers, to predict their intracellular location and putative processing sites, and to propose a standard nomenclature to avoid confusion and facilitate scientific communication. For the Clp protease most of the ClpP isomers are found in chloroplasts, whereas one is mitochondrial. Of the ATPase subunits, the one ClpD and two ClpC isomers are located in chloroplasts, whereas both ClpX isomers are present in mitochondria. Isomers of the Lon protease are predicted in both compartments, as are the different forms of FtsH protease. DegP, the least characterized protease in plant cells, has the most number of isomers and they are predicted to localize in several cell compartments. These predictions, along with the proposed nomenclature, will serve as a framework for future studies of all four families of proteases and their individual isomers.

• 9.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
Prostate cancer induces C/EBPβ expression in surrounding epithelial cells which relates to tumor aggressiveness and patient outcomeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)

Implantation of rat prostate cancer cells into the normal rat prostate results in tumor-stimulating adaptations in the tumor-bearing organ. Similar changes are seen in prostate cancer patients and they are related to outcome. One gene previously found to be upregulated in the non-malignant part of a tumor-bearing prostate lobe in rats was the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-β (C/EBPβ). To explore this further, we examined C/EBPβ expression by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blot in normal rat prostate tissue surrounding slow-growing non-metastatic Dunning G, rapidly growing poorly metastatic (AT-1), and rapidly growing highly metastatic (MatLyLu) rat prostate tumors―and also by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray (TMA) from prostate cancer patients managed by watchful waiting.

In rats, C/EBPβ mRNA expression was upregulated in the surrounding tumor-bearing prostate lobe. In tumors and in the surrounding non-malignant prostate tissue, C/EBPβ was detected by immunohistochemistry in some epithelial cells and in infiltrating macrophages. The magnitude of glandular epithelial C/EBPβ expression in the tumor-bearing prostates was associated with tumor size, with distance to the tumor, and with tumor cell metastatic capacity.

In prostate cancer patients, high expression of C/EBPβ in glandular epithelial cells in the surrounding tumor-bearing tissue was associated with accumulation of M1 macrophages (iNOS+) and a favorable outcome. High expression of C/EBPβ in tumor epithelial cells was associated with high Gleason score, high tumor cell proliferation, the presence of metastases at diagnosis, and poor outcome.

• 10.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Alpha-actinin of Schizosaccharomyces pombeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
The growth chart - a road to health chart?: Maternal comprehension of the growth chart in two Somali villages1990In: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, ISSN 0269-5022, E-ISSN 1365-3016, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 340-350Article in journal (Refereed)

Growth monitoring is so far not implemented on a large scale in the Somali health services. Available reports indicate that growth faltering is common. However, the use of growth charts as a tool for health education has been questioned. This study examines the ability of 199, predominantly illiterate, rural Somali mothers to understand the growth chart message after an intensive period of growth chart use and education. During a home-based interview the mothers were asked to combine a set of four growth curves with a set of four pictures, showing the corresponding developments of four children. The mothers managed significantly better to interpret the charts than could be expected by chance alone. Maternal age, number of children and literacy did not differ much between those who correctly and incorrectly combined pictures and charts. Almost all mothers recognised the value of the growth chart as being good for the control and promotion of their children's health and/or growth. We conclude that the growth chart may be an applicable and appropriate tool even with illiterate mothers, provided that other prerequisites for successful growth monitoring, e.g. appropriate health services, are available.

Användbarhetsstudie av Nätuniversitetets webbportal: en uppföljning 20052006Report (Other academic)
• 13.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
Gapet har minskat: skillnader mellan hög- och lågpresterande flickors och pojkars attityder till biologi, fysik och kemi 1995 och 20072011In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed)

This article explores the change over time of boys’ and girls’ attitudes towards biology, physics and chemistry. We use data from the TIMSS studies for grade 8 in Sweden to investigate how the attitudes for high- and low performing pupils have changed between 1995 and 2007. The attitude is measured by four questions from the student questionnaire in the TIMSS study. The results indicate that there have been some changes in attitudes between 1995 and 2007. High-achieving pupils and especially boys have a more negative attitude towards all three subjects, biology, physics and chemistry, in 2007 compared to 1995. The low-achieving students think that they are performing better in all three subjects 2007 compared to 1995. The difference between the group that are most positive to physics and chemistry and the least positive group has diminished between the two years. The results are discussed in relation to the changes in Swedish schools during the period.

• 14.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden; Department of Banking and Finance, University of Professional Studies, Accra, Ghana.
The transition between energy efficient and energy inefficient states in Cameroon2016In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 54, p. 248-262Article in journal (Refereed)

I use a two-state (energy efficient/inefficient) Markov-switching dynamic model to study energy efficiency in Cameroon in a novel manner, employing yearly data covering 1971 to 2012. I find that the duration of an energy inefficient state is about twice as long as an energy efficient state, mainly due to fuel subsidies, low income, high corruption, regulatory inefficiencies, poorly developed infrastructure and undeveloped markets. To escape from an energy inefficient state a broad policy overhaul is needed. Trade liberalization and related growth policies together with the removal of fuel subsidies are useful, but insufficient policy measures; the results suggest that they should be combined with structural policies, aiming at institutional structure and investment in infrastructure. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

• 15.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
Escalating commitment in the death zone: new insights from the 1996 Mount Everest disaster2011In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 971-985Article in journal (Refereed)

The procession of people and organisations that pour resources into evidently failing causes is surprising and seemingly never-ending. This phenomenon, which is called “escalating commitment” (Staw, 1976), refers to situations in which people are incapable of turning future disasters into sound current decisions. The purpose of this paper is to use the, in project management literature (Kloppenborg and Opfer, 2002), non-traditional case of the 1996 Mt Everest disaster to explain and analyse escalating commitment determinants and processes. Not only does the paper identify and add a determinant to escalation but it also treats determinants and processes in a novel and intertwined fashion. The conceptual developments and findings suggest that escalating commitment strives on conditions that are inherent to any project, which consequently project managers should be aware of. Based on the results project failures could be better explained and understood by examining several explanatory levels simultaneously.

• 16.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology.
Ligniners reaktioner med alkalisk väteperoxid1981Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

Under alkaline conditions hydrogen peroxide can be used either as a 1ignin-degrading or a 1ignin-preserving bleaching agent. If heavy metal ions are present and/or silicate is absent in the reaction medium, hydrogen peroxide decomposes via hydroxyl radicals and superoxide ions to oxygen and water. These decomposition products are able to react for example with phenolic lignin structures and thereby cause a partial degradation of lignin. In such a system peroxide could act as a bleaching and delignifying agent at the same time and these properties can be utilized for the bleaching of chemical pulps.In order to elucidate the factors which influence the degradation of phenolic structures by oxidation with alkaline hydrogen peroxide the lignin model compounds-methylsyringyl alcohol was studied.By determining the first order reaction rate constants for the oxidation, the main results which were obtained indicate that phenolic lignin structures can be efficiently degraded especially if:A. The pH in the bleaching liquor is close to the pK -valueàfor hydrogen peroxide.B. The ionic strength in the bleaching medium is as high as possible.C. A fixed amount of heavy metal ions (manganese) is added to the bleaching liquor.In the presence of silicate and diethylentriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) hydrogen peroxide is stabilized against decomposition. Under these conditions alkaline hydrogen peroxide is able to react only with lignin units containing conjugated carbonyl groups such as quinone, aryl-oe-carbonyl and cinnamaldehyd structures, leading to an elimination of the chromophoric structures without any substantial dissolution of lignin. In this part of work we have elucidated the kinetic behavior and the reaction products from lignin model compounds of the aryl-of- carbonyl and cinnamaldehyde types.1,2-Diarylpropan-1,3,-diol structures constitute an important building unit in native lignins. We have demonstrated that under hydrogen peroxide bleaching conditions the model compound 2,3--bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-ethoxy-propanol was converted to stilbenes, ûe. structures which when present in pulps may contribute to a rapid yellowing. The results obtained with model compounds under simulated lignin retaining bleaching conditions demonstrate that there are possibilities to improve the bleaching of mechanical pulps with hydrogen peroxide if:A. The remaining heavy metal ions complexed with DTPA are present in their lowest valence states.B. The concentration of hydroperoxy ions can be maintained at a high level at the lowest possible pH-value.

• 17.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
Actin is bundled in activation-tagged tobacco mutants that tolerate aluminum2007In: Planta, ISSN 0032-0935, E-ISSN 1432-2048, Vol. 225, no 2, p. 451-468Article in journal (Refereed)

A panel of aluminum-tolerant (AlRes) mutants was isolated by protoplast-based T-DNA activation tagging in the tobacco cultivar SR1. The mutants fell into two phenotypic classes: a minority of the mutants were fertile and developed similarly to the wild type (type I), the majority was male-sterile and grew as semi-dwarfs (type II). These traits, along with the aluminum tolerance, were inherited in a monogenic dominant manner. Both types of mutants were characterized by excessive bundling of actin microfilaments and by a strongly increased abundance of actin, a phenotype that could be partially phenocopied in the wild type by treatment with aluminum chloride. The actin bundles could be dissociated into finer strands by addition of exogenous auxin in both types of mutants. However, actin microfilaments and leaf expansion were sensitive to blockers of actin assembly in the wild type and in the mutants of type I, whereas they were more tolerant in the mutants of type II. The mutants of type II displayed a hypertrophic development of vasculature, manifest in form of supernumerary leaf veins and extended xylem layers in stems and petioles. Whereas mutants of type I were characterized by a normal, but aluminum-tolerant polar auxin-transport, auxin-transport was strongly promoted in the mutants of type II. The phenotype of these mutants is discussed in terms of reduced endocytosis leading, concomitantly with aluminum tolerance, to changes in polar auxin transport.

• 18.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Umeå Neurosteroid Research Center, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Umeå Neurosteroid Research Center, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Umeå Neurosteroid Research Center, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Umeå Neurosteroid Research Center, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Umeå Neurosteroid Research Center, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
Acute intermittent porphyria symptoms during the menstrual cycle2015In: Internal medicine journal (Print), ISSN 1444-0903, E-ISSN 1445-5994, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 725-731Article in journal (Refereed)

Background: Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), a life-threatening form of the disease, is accompanied by several pain, mental and physical symptoms.

Aims: In this study, we evaluated the cyclicity of AIP and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms in 32 women with DNA-diagnosed AIP during their menstrual cycles, in northern Sweden.

Methods: The cyclicity of AIP symptoms and differences in them between the follicularand luteal phases, and the cyclicity of each symptom in each individual woman indifferent phases of her menstrual cycle were analysed with a prospective daily ratingquestionnaire. PMS symptoms were also evaluated in the patients on a daily rating scale.

Results: Of the 32 women, 30 showed signiﬁcant cyclicity in at least one AIP or PMS symptom (P < 0.05–0.001). Back pain (10/32) was the most frequent AIP pain symptomand sweet craving (10/15) was the most frequent PMS symptom. Pelvic pain (F = 4.823,P = 0.036), irritability (F = 7.399, P = 0.011), cheerfulness (F = 5.563, P = 0.025), sexualdesire (F = 8.298, P = 0.007), friendliness (F = 6.157, P = 0.019), breast tenderness (F =21.888, P = 0.000) and abdominal swelling (F = 16.982, P = 0.000) showed signiﬁcantcyclicity. Pelvic pain and abdominal swelling (rs= 0.337, P < 0.001) showed the strongest correlation. The age of women with latent AIP was strongly correlated with abdominal swelling during the luteal phase (rs= 0.493, P < 0.01).

Conclusion: Our results suggest that the symptoms of AIP patients change during their menstrual cycles.

• 19.
Bauhaus Universität Weimar, Deutschland.
• 20.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
• 21.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Many-body effects on tracer particle diffusion with applications for single-protein dynamics on DNA2015In: New Journal of Physics, ISSN 1367-2630, E-ISSN 1367-2630, Vol. 17, article id 043036Article in journal (Refereed)

30% of the DNA in E. coli bacteria is covered by proteins. Such a high degree of crowding affects the dynamics of generic biological processes (e.g. gene regulation, DNA repair, protein diffusion etc) in ways that are not yet fully understood. In this paper, we theoretically address the diffusion constant of a tracer particle in a one-dimensional system surrounded by impenetrable crowder particles. While the tracer particle always stays on the lattice, crowder particles may unbind to a surrounding bulk and rebind at another, or the same, location. In this scenario we determine how the long time diffusion constant D (after many unbinding events) depends on (i) the unbinding rate of crowder particles k(off), and (ii) crowder particle line density rho, from simulations (using the Gillespie algorithm) and analytical calculations. For small k(off), we find D similar to k(off)/rho(2) when crowder particles do not diffuse on the line, and D similar to root Dk(off)/rho when they are diffusing; D is the free particle diffusion constant. For large k(off), we find agreement with mean-field results which do not depend on k(off). From literature values of k(off) and D, we show that the small k(off) -limit is relevant for in vivo protein diffusion on crowded DNA. Our results apply to single-molecule tracking experiments.

• 22.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå , Sweden. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
Effects on physical performance and pain from three dynamic training programs for women with work-related trapezius myalgia2001In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 162-9Article in journal (Refereed)

To compare training programs for women with trapezius myalgia regarding physical performance and pain, 102 women were randomized to strength, endurance, co-ordination and non-training groups. Before and after the intervention, static strength and dynamic muscular endurance in shoulder muscles were measured on a Cybex II dynamometer. Muscle activity in shoulder muscles was monitored via surface EMG. The signal amplitude ratio between the active and passive phase of repeated contractions indicated the ability to relax. Pain at present, pain in general and pain at worst were measured on visual analogue scales. After training, within group comparisons showed that the training groups rated less pain, and in the strength training group ratings of pain at worst differed from the non-training group. Using the non-training group as a reference, static strength increased in the strength and endurance training groups and muscular endurance in all training groups. The study indicates that regular exercises with strength, endurance or co-ordination training of neck/shoulder muscles might alleviate pain for women with work-related trapezius myalgia.

• 23.
Department of Ecology and Evolution (Limnology), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Environmental Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
Fatty Acid Ratios in Freshwater Fish, Zooplankton and Zoobenthos - Are There Specific Optima?2009In: Lipids in Aquatic Ecosystems / [ed] Martin Kainz, Michael T. Brett, Michael T. Arts, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2009, p. 147-178Chapter in book (Other academic)

Two groups of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), termed omega-3 and omega-6 in food (or here as n-3 and n-6 PUFA, respectively), are essential for all vertebrates and probably also for nearly all invertebrates. The absolute concentrations of the different PUFA are important, as is an appropriate balance between the two. The optimal ratio of n-3/n-6 is not known for most organisms but is anticipated to be more or less species-specific (Sargent et al. 1995). The three most important PUFA in vertebrates are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6). Both EPA and ARA are precursors for biologically active eicosanoids that are vital components of cell membranes and play many dynamic roles in mediating and controlling a wide array of cellular activities (Crawford et al. 1989; Harrison 1990; Henderson et al. 1996; see Chap. 9). Since n-3 and n-6 PUFA cannot be synthesized de novo by most metazoans, they must be included in the diet, either as EPA, DHA and ARA, or as their precursors, such as α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3, precursor of EPA and DHA) and linoleic acid (LIN, 18:2n-6, precursor of ARA) (Bell et al. 1986; Sargent et al. 1995). Both ALA and LIN are produced in the thylacoid membranes of algae and plants with chlorophyll (Sargent at al. 1987).

• 24.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
Imaging the pancreatic beta cell: chapter 132011In: Type 1 diabetes: pathogenesis, genetics and immunotherapy / [ed] David Wagner, InTech, 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)

This book is a compilation of reviews about the pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes. T1D is a classic autoimmune disease. Genetic factors are clearly determinant but cannot explain the rapid, even overwhelming expanse of this disease. Understanding etiology and pathogenesis of this disease is essential. A number of experts in the field have covered a range of topics for consideration that are applicable to researcher and clinician alike. This book provides apt descriptions of cutting edge technologies and applications in the ever going search for treatments and cure for diabetes. Areas including T cell development, innate immune responses, imaging of pancreata, potential viral initiators, etc. are considered.

• 25.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Ophthalmology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology.
Central nervous system and ophthalmic involvement in nephropathia epidemica (European type of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome)1998In: Journal of Infection, ISSN 0163-4453, E-ISSN 1532-2742, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 149-155Article in journal (Refereed)

Central nervous system (CNS) - related symptoms occur in haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). To study the CNS and ophthalmic involvement in nephropathia epidemica (NE), the European type of HFRS, we included 26 patients in a prospective study. Most common CNS-related symptoms were headache (96%), insomnia (83%), vertigo (79%), nausea (79%), and vomiting (71%). Ophthalmic symptoms were reported by 82% of patients; 41% had photophobia and 50% had impaired vision. A transient loss of vision was recorded in one patient, who also had a generalized seizure. Minor white matter lesions were found in about half of the patients investigated with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Electroencephalography (EEG) showed severe alterations in only one patient, and slight and reversible patterns in another two patients. Neopterin, interleukin-6 and interferon-gamma levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were elevated, which may indicate immune activation. However, we found no evidence of intrathecal NE virus replication. We conclude that CNS-related symptoms are common in NE, and transient ophthalmic involvement can be demonstrated in about half of the patients.

• 26.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
Skoglig zooekologi, SLU, Umeå. Smittskyddsinstitutet. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Virologi, SVA, Uppsala. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
Serologic evidence of Puumala virus infection in wild moose in northern Sweden2000In: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, ISSN 0002-9637, E-ISSN 1476-1645, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 106-111Article in journal (Refereed)

Puumala (PUU) virus is the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica, the Scandinavian form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The infection is acquired by airborne transmission of PUU virus from its rodent reservoir, the bank vole. Besides serologic data indicating that the virus may spread also to heterologous rodents, there is little information on the susceptibility of wild living animals to PUU virus. We studied the occurrence of antibodies to PUU virus in serum samples from 427 wild-living moose, of which 260 originated from the PUU virus-endemic northern and central parts of Sweden and 167 originated from the southern, nonendemic part of Sweden. Samples from 5 animals showed reactivity in an ELISA for recombinant PUU virus nucleocapsid protein, an immunofluorescent assay, and a neutralization test. These 5 animals all originated from the PUU virus-endemic northern part of Sweden. In conclusion, 5 of 260 moose from the endemic region showed convincing serologic evidence of past PUU virus infection. The seroprevalence was low, suggesting that the moose is subjected to endstage infection rather than being part of an enzootic transmission cycle.

• 27. Ahlsson, Anders
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
A Swedish consensus on the surgical treatment of concomitant atrial fibrillation2012In: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, ISSN 1401-7431, E-ISSN 1651-2006, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 212-218Article, review/survey (Refereed)

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia among patients scheduled for open heart surgery and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. According to international guidelines, symptomatic and selected asymptomatic patients should be offered concomitant surgical AF ablation in conjunction with valvular or coronary surgery. The gold standard in AF surgery is the Cox Maze III ("cut-and-sew") procedure, with surgical incisions in both atria according to a specified pattern, in order to prevent AF reentry circuits from developing. Over 90% of patients treated with the Cox Maze III procedure are free of AF after 1 year. Recent developments in ablation technology have introduced several energy sources capable of creating nonconducting atrial wall lesions. In addition, simplified lesion patterns have been suggested, but results with these techniques have been unsatisfactory. There is a clear need for standardization in AF surgery. The Swedish Arrhythmia Surgery Group, represented by surgeons from all Swedish units for cardiothoracic surgery, has therefore reached a consensus on surgical treatment of concomitant AF. This consensus emphasizes adherence to the lesion pattern in the Cox Maze III procedure and the use of biatrial lesions in nonparoxysmal AF.

• 28.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
Selection of foundational ontology for collaborative knowledge modeling in healthcare domain2010In: Artificial intelligence: methodology, systems, and applications / [ed] Dicheva, Darina; Dochev, Danail, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, p. 261-262Conference paper (Refereed)

Ontology design is an important process for structuring knowledge to be reused in different projects in the health domain. In this paper, we describe an ontology design for the collaborative knowledge building system ACKTUS to be used for developing personalized knowledge applications for different domains. Different foundational ontologies were compared with respect to selected criteria considered vital for the project, such as modularity and descriptiveness.

• 29.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Ophthalmology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Ophthalmology.
Human extraocular muscles in ALS2010In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 51, no 7, p. 3494-3501Article in journal (Refereed)

PURPOSE. To investigate the general morphology, fiber type content, and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition of extraocular muscles (EOMs) from postmortem donors with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to evaluate whether EOMs are affected or truly spared in this disease. METHODS. EOM and limb muscle samples obtained at autopsy from ALS donors and EOM samples from four control donors were processed for immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies against distinct MyHC isoforms and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. In addition, hematoxylin and eosin staining and nicotinamide tetrazolium reductase (NADH-TR) activity were studied. RESULTS. Wide heterogeneity was observed in the appearance of the different EOMs from each single donor and between donors, irrespective of ALS type or onset. Pathologic morphologic findings in ALS EOMs included presence of atrophic and hypertrophic fibers, either clustered in groups or scattered; increased amounts of connective tissue; and areas of fatty replacement. The population of fibers stained with anti-MyHCslow tonic was smaller than that of MyHCIpositive fibers and was mostly located in the orbital layer in most of the ALS EOM samples, whereas an identical staining pattern for both fiber populations was observed in the control specimens. MyHCembryonic was notably absent from the ALS EOMs. CONCLUSIONS. The EOMs showed signs of involvement with altered fiber type composition, contractile protein content, and cellular architecture. However, when compared to the limb muscles, the EOMs were remarkably preserved. EOMs are a useful model for the study of the pathophysiology of ALS.

• 30. Ahmed, Bayes
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
Urban Morphological Change Analysis of Dhaka City, Bangladesh, Using Space Syntax2014In: ISPRS International journal of geo-information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 1412-1444Article in journal (Refereed)

This article is based on a study of the morphological changes of Dhaka City, the capital of Bangladesh. The main objective of the research is to study the transformation of urban morphology in Dhaka City from 1947 to 2007. Three sample wards (18, 19 and 72) of Dhaka City Corporation are strategically selected as the study areas. Ward 72 has an indigenous type of organic settlement, whereas ward 19 is a planned area, and ward 18 represents a mixed (both planned and informal) type of settlement. In this research, the transformation of urban settlement pattern is examined through space syntax. The results show that the organic settlements (ward 72) are highly integrated both in terms of the local and global syntactic measures (lowest standard deviation for local and global integration, with the highest intelligibility values), and are more connectivity. The scenario is opposite in the case of planned settlements. The characteristics of mixed areas (ward 18) lie in between the organic and planned settlements. Therefore, in summary, it can be stated that the integration, connectivity and intelligibility measures of Dhaka City are found to be high, medium and low for the indigenous, mixed and planned settlement types; respectively.

• 31.
Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, History and Theory of Art.
Norrbyskär: om tillkomsten av ett norrländskt sågverkssamhälle på 1890-talet1978Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
• 32.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
Regulation of Yersinia Yop-effector delivery by translocated YopE2008In: International Journal of Medical Microbiology, ISSN 1438-4221, E-ISSN 1618-0607, Vol. 298, no 3-4, p. 183-192Article in journal (Refereed)

The bacterial pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis uses a type III secretion (T3S) system to translocate Yop effectors into eukaryotic cells. Effectors are thought to gain access to the cytosol via pores formed in the host cell plasma membrane. Translocated YopE can modulate this pore formation through its GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity. In this study, we analysed the role of translocated YopE and all the other known Yop effectors in the regulation of effector translocation. Elevated levels of Yop effector translocation into HeLa cells occurred by YopE-defective strains, but not those defective for other Yop effectors. Only Yersinia devoid of YopK exhibits a similar hyper-translocation phenotype. Since both yopK and yopE mutants also failed to down-regulate Yop synthesis in the presence of eukaryotic cells, these data imply that translocated YopE specifically regulates subsequent effector translocation by Yersinia through at least one mechanism that involves YopK. We suggest that the GAP activity of YopE might be working as an intra-cellular probe measuring the amount of protein translocated by Yersinia during infection. This may be a general feature of T3S-associated GAP proteins, since two homologues from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, exoenzyme S (ExoS) and exoenzyme T (ExoT), can complement the hyper-translocation phenotypes of the yopE GAP mutant.

• 33.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
Functional analysis of the YopE GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis2006In: Cellular Microbiology, ISSN 1462-5814, E-ISSN 1462-5822, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 1020-1033Article in journal (Refereed)

YopE of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis inactivates three members of the small RhoGTPase family (RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42) in vitro and mutation of a critical arginine abolishes both in vitro GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity and cytotoxicity towards HeLa cells, and renders the pathogen avirulent in a mouse model. To understand the functional role of YopE, in vivo studies of the GAP activity in infected eukaryotic cells were conducted. Wild-type YopE inactivated Rac1 as early as 5 min after infection whereas RhoA was down regulated about 30 min after infection. No effect of YopE was found on the activation state of Cdc42 in Yersinia-infected cells. Single-amino-acid substitution mutants of YopE revealed two different phenotypes: (i) mutants with significantly lowered in vivo GAP activity towards RhoA and Rac1 displaying full virulence in mice, and (ii) avirulent mutants with wild-type in vivo GAP activity towards RhoA and Rac1. Our results show that Cdc42 is not an in vivo target for YopE and that YopE interacts preferentially with Rac1, and to a lesser extent with RhoA, during in vivo conditions. Surprisingly, we present results suggesting that these interactions are not a prerequisite to establish infection in mice. Finally, we show that avirulent yopE mutants translocate YopE in about sixfold higher amount compared with wild type. This raises the question whether YopE's primary function is to sense the level of translocation rather than being directly involved in downregulation of the host defence.

• 34.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Flow-flame interaction in a closed chamber2008In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 055107-055121Article in journal (Refereed)

Numerous studies of flame interaction with a single vortex andrecent simulations of burning in vortex arrays in open tubesdemonstrated the same tendency for the turbulent burning rate$\propto U_{rms}\lambda^{2/3}$, where  $U_{rms}$ is theroot-mean-square velocity and $\lambda$ is the vortex size. Here itis demonstrated that this tendency is not universal for turbulentburning. Flame interaction with vortex arrays is investigated forthe geometry of a closed burning chamber using direct numericalsimulations of the complete set of gas-dynamic combustion equations.Various initial conditions in the chamber are considered, includinggas at rest and several systems of vortices of different intensitiesand sizes. It is found that the burning rate in a closed chamber(inverse burning time) depends strongly on the vortex intensity; atsufficiently high intensities it increases with $U_{rms}$approximately linearly in agreement with the above tendency. On thecontrary, dependence of the burning rate on the vortex size isnon-monotonic and qualitatively different from the law$\lambda^{2/3}$. It is shown that there is an optimal vortex size ina closed chamber, which provides the fastest total burning rate. Inthe present work the optimal size is 6 times smaller than thechamber height.

• 35.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
The HAL3-PPZ1 dependent regulation of nonsense suppression efficiency in yeast and its influence on manifestation of the yeast prion-like determinant [ISP(+)].2007In: Genes to Cells, ISSN 1356-9597, E-ISSN 1365-2443, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 435-546Article in journal (Refereed)

The efficiency of stop codons read-through in yeast is controlled by multiple interactions of genetic and epigenetic factors. In this study, we demonstrate the participation of the Hal3-Ppz1 protein complex in regulation of read-through efficiency and manifestation of non-Mendelian anti-suppressor determinant [ISP(+)]. Over-expression of HAL3 in [ISP(+)] strain causes nonsense suppression, whereas its inactivation displays as anti-suppression of sup35 mutation in [isp(-)] strain. [ISP(+)] strains carrying hal3Delta deletion cannot be cured from [ISP(+)] in the presence of GuHCl. Since Hal3p is a negative regulatory subunit of Ppz1 protein phosphatase, consequences of PPZ1 over-expression and deletion are opposite to those of HAL3. The observed effects are mediated by the catalytic function of Ppz1 and are probably related to the participation of Ppz1 in regulation of eEF1Balpha elongation factor activity. Importantly, [ISP(+)] status of yeast strains is determined by fluctuation in Hal3p level, since [ISP(+)] strains have less Hal3p than their [isp(-)] derivatives obtained by GuHCl treatment. A model considering epigenetic (possibly prion) regulation of Hal3p amount as a mechanism underlying [ISP(+)] status of yeast cell is suggested.

• 36. Aksenova, N.A.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Structure studies of C60 polymerized at low pressures1997In: Fullerenes: Recent Advances in the Chemistry and Physics of Fullerenes and Related Materials, vol. 5, Pennington, NJ: The Electrochemical Society , 1997, p. 687-694Conference paper (Refereed)

The structure and lattice properties of a polymerized C60 sample were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction over the range from liquid-nitrogen to room temperature. The aim of these studies was to establish the effect of low-pressure compression (up to 1.1 GPa) on the phase composition of the sample, to determine the structure of the phases involved, to obtain the variation of the lattice parameters with temperature, to observe eventual phase transformation in polymerized C60, and to elucidate the evolution of the orientational order with varying temperature. Analysis of the room-temperature diffraction patterns indicates that the sample contained at least two major phases, namely rhombohedral and and tetragonal with the polymerization array close to two-dimensional. Our data obtained on samples annealed at 300 C in the air allow us to conclude that polymerized C60 converts to a mixture of the fcc structure plus a new phase, presumably C60O.

• 37.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
Self-reported vision health status among older people in the Kassena-Nankana District, Ghana2013In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 6, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)

Background: If current trends continue, Ghana's aged population will increase in the coming decades. Currently, there is little knowledge on the health of the aged in Ghana. Research on vision problems among this group is virtually non-existent. This research gap needs to be filled immediately in order to promote the general health among older people in Ghana.

Objective: The objective of the study was to analyse vision health and its determinants among the older adult population in a district in one of the poorest regions in Ghana - the Kassena-Nankana district.

Methods: Data were obtained from the WHO multi-country studies unit (SAGE). A total of 4,294 people over the age of 50 responded to the survey. Data analysis was conducted using Stata statistical package. The aim of the analysis was to identify the prevalence of self-reported vision problems and assistive device use. Age, level of education, marital status, living arrangement, socio-economic status and proportion of people aged 50 and over in a household were used as determinants of vision health.

Results: In total, 54 and 63% (p-value, 0.00) of men and women reported having far-sightedness, while 35% of men and 40.6% of women reported having near-sightedness (p-value, 0.00). In total, 33.5% of men and 38.6% of women reported having both near-sightedness and far-sightedness (p-value, 0.00). Of those who reported having either vision problems, 2.9% reported the use of visual assistive devices. Men had a higher assistive device use of 4.5% compared to 2.1% among women (p = 0.002). Age and household socio-economic status was positively associated with reporting vision problems and assistive device use, respectively.

Conclusions: The results from this analysis showed that despite the high reporting of vision problems, only 2.9% reported using assistive devices. This outcome shows that there is a need to prevent vision problems and increase access to assistive devices among older people in the Kassena-Nankana district in Ghana.

• 38.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
Histopathological and immunocytochemical studies in age-associated dementias: the importance of rigorous histopathological criteria for classification of progressive dementia disorders1985Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Dementia is an age-associated organic brain disorder, recogniz­able by the essential features of psychological or behavioral abnormality associated with permanent dysfunction of the brain interfering with social and occupational functioning.

There are two clinical and three histopathological forms of dementia 1) primary degenerative dementia, (PDD), or Alzhei­mer's dementia/Senile dementia of Alzheimers type (AD/SDAT) which is associated with clinical features of uniform progres­sion and insidious onset of symptoms and histopathologically i- dentified by the occurrence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and senile/neuritic plaques (SP/NP) in various cortical and subcor- tical regions; 2) vascular dementia, or multi-infarct dementia (MID), which is associated with clinical features of stepwise progress and patchy distribution of deficits, and histopatholo­gically identified by the occurrence of multiple large and/or small haemorrhagic and/or ischaemic infarcts in various cortical and subcortical regions and 3) intermediate form of dementia or "mixed” ("combined") dementia (AD-MID), which is histopatho- logically associated with the coexistance of symptoms and le­sions observed in AD/SDAT and MID, and clinically referred to the MID group. The DSM-III criteria separate the demented into two groups, AD/SDAT and MID, while there are no unique clinical criteria for the AD-MID patients. The clinical diagnosis of dementia according to the DSM-III criteria was shown to be in­sufficient . Histopathological diagnostic criteria were postu­lated by us for 1) pathological changes developing in mentallyunimpaired ageing, 2) AD/ SPAT, 3) MID and 4) AD-MID.

These histopathological classes could be separated, by means of multivariate data analysis. The pathology in AD-MID was shown not to be merely a linear combination of the AD/SDATand MID pathology.

Intrathecal synthesis of Ig, oligoclonal bands or other abnormal proteins in the CSF could not be demonstrated in aged non-demen- ted and demented patients.

The blood-cerebrospinal barrier (B-CSF-B) or blood-brain barrier (BBB) function alters with age and this alteration was shown to be more pronounced in MID and AD-MID patients. In MID and AD-MID patients the BBB alteration involves primarily the grey matter while in AD/SDAT patients the alteration would appear to involve only the white matter. The BBB dysfunction and a possible complement activation, either through antibody-anti- gen activation or other complement activators, was visualized in MID and AD-MID patients as perivascular serum protein depo­sits in the grey matter, always with a capillary in the center. The occurrence of some serum proteins in plaques, and the previously descibed localization of plaques in close relation­ship to the capillaries, suggest that altered BBB function and serum factors may be involved in the etiology and maturation of plaques while the etiology and maturation of tangles may not be directly dependent on these factors, as they were never labelled with any of the antisera studied.

• 39.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of islet-infiltrate interactions based on optical projection tomography assessments of the intact adult mouse pancreas2008In: Journal of Biomedical Optics, ISSN 1083-3668, E-ISSN 1560-2281, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 054070-Article in journal (Refereed)

A predicament when assessing the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of type-1 diabetes (T1D) has been to maintain simultaneous global and regional information on the loss of insulin-cell mass and the progression of insulitis. We present a procedure for high-resolution 3-D analyses of regions of interest (ROIs), defined on the basis of global assessments of the 3-D distribution, size, and shape of molecularly labeled structures within the full volume of the intact mouse pancreas. We apply a refined protocol for optical projection tomography (OPT)-aided whole pancreas imaging in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy of site-directed pancreatic microbiopsies. As such, the methodology provides a useful tool for detailed cellular and molecular assessments of the autoimmune insulitis in T1D. It is anticipated that the same approach could be applied to other areas of research where 3-D molecular distributions of both global and regional character is required.

• 40.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
• 41.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
Endophytic fungi in European aspen (Populus tremula) leaves - diversity, detection, and a suggested correlation with herbivory resistance2010In: Fungal diversity, ISSN 1560-2745, E-ISSN 1878-9129, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 17-28Article in journal (Refereed)

According to the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution (GMTC), clines of traits reflecting local co-adaptation (including resistance genes) should be common between a host and its parasite and should persist across time. To test the GMTC-assumption of persistent clinal patterns we compared the natural prevalence of two parasites on aspen Populus tremula trees: mining moths of the genus Phyllocnistis and leaf rust Melampsora spp. Damage data were collated from the Swedish National Forest Damage Inventory (2004–2006). In addition, occurrence of the parasites was scored in field conditions in two common gardens in the north and south of Sweden over five growing seasons (2004–2008), then related to biomass (stem height and diameter) and to concentrations of eleven leaf phenolics. Phyllocnistis mainly occurred in the northern garden, a distribution range which was confirmed by the countrywide inventory, although Phyllocnistis was more abundant on southern clones, providing evidence for possible local maladaptation. Melampsora occurred all over the country and in both gardens, but built up more quickly on northern clones, which suggests a centre of local clone maladaptation in the north. Stem growth also followed a clinal pattern as did the concentration of three phenolic compounds: benzoic acid, catechin and cinnamic acid. However, only benzoic acid was related to parasite presence: negatively to Phyllocnistis and positively to Melampsora and it could thus be a potential trait under selection.

In conclusion, clines of Phyllocnistis were stronger and more persistent compared to Melampsora, which showed contrasting clines of varying strength. Our data thus support the assumption of the GMTC model that clines exist in the border between hot and cold spots and that they may be less persistent for parasites with an elevated gene flow, and/or for parasites which cover relatively larger hot spots surrounded by fewer cold spots.

• 42.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
Urban Policy in the Structural Policy of the European Union2000Report (Other academic)

The objective of this paper is to give a short overview of the actual discussionsand actions concerning urban policy in the European Union.No complete picture is given but this survey covers some importantactors and activities. The paper is concentrated on how urban policy isimplemented within the European Union structural policy during thelast ten years, and the period 2000–2006.

A short overview is also given of discussions on urban policy in otherinternational organisations and in Sweden.

At the end of the paper there is an attempt to summerize the effectsof the actual discussion about urban policy for the European Unionand for Sweden, in the framework of regional development and structuralpolicy.

• 43. Aleksandrovskii, A. N.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Negative thermal expansion of fullerite C60 at helium temperatures1997In: Low temperature physics (Woodbury, N.Y., Print), ISSN 1063-777X, E-ISSN 1090-6517, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 943-946Article in journal (Refereed)

The thermal expansion of fullerite C60 has been measured in the temperature range 2–9 K. A compacted fullerite sample with a diameter of about 6 mm and height of 2.4 mm was used. It was found that at temperatures below ~ 3.4 K the linear thermal expansion coefficient becomes negative. At temperatures above 5 K our results are in good agreement with the available literature data. A qualitative explanation of the results is proposed

• 44. Aleksandrovskii, A. N.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Thermal expansion of single-crystal fullerite C60 at helium temperatures2000In: Low temperature physics (Woodbury, N.Y., Print), ISSN 1063-777X, E-ISSN 1090-6517, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 75-80Article in journal (Refereed)

The thermal expansion of single-crystal fullerite C60 has been studied in the range of liquid-helium temperatures (2–10 K). At temperatures below ~4.5 K the thermal expansion of fullerite C60 becomes negative, in agreement with the previous results on polycrystalline materials. A qualitative explanation of the results is proposed.

• 45. Aleman, J
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
Saving more neonates in hospital: an intervention towards a sustainable reduction in neonatal mortality in a Nicaraguan hospital1998In: Tropical doctor, ISSN 0049-4755, E-ISSN 1758-1133, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 88-92Article in journal (Refereed)

A process of change was initiated in a Nicaraguan regional hospital in order to achieve a sustainable reduction of early neonatal mortality. A series of organizational, educational and hygienic measures was introduced, involving all staff in antenatal care, delivery care and neonatal care. Neonatal mortality decreased from 56/1000 live births in 1985 to 11/1000 in 1993. A commission of maternal and child health, a weekly perinatal audit, the active involvement of all staff and dedicated work of key individuals, as well as national policy decisions, are considered important determinants of the process. Keeping neonatal mortality in focus through continuous analysis of care routines, and through external exchange of ideas is important in order to sustain improvements and to decrease further the mortality.

• 46.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
Determinants of survival in adult HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy in Oromiyaa, Ethiopia2010In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 3, article id 5398Article in journal (Refereed)

Background: The antiretroviral treatment (ART) scale-up service has been a recent development in Ethiopia, but its impact on mortality has not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the early survival outcome of the scale-up service by utilizing routine hospital data.

Methods: All adult HIV/AIDS patients who started on antiretroviral treatment in Shashemene and Assela hospitals from January 1, 2006 to May 31, 2006 were included and followed up for 2 years. Data were extracted from standard patient medical registrations. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate survival probability and the Cox proportional hazard model was applied to determine predictors of mortality. Two alterative assumptions (real case and worst case) were made in determining predictors of mortality.

Results: The median age of patients was 33 years and 57% were female. Eighty-five percent had CD4 <200 cells/mu L with a median CD4 count of 103 cells/mu L. The median survival time was 104.4 weeks. A total of 28 (10.3%) deaths were observed during the 2-year period and 48 patients (18%) were lost to follow up. The majority of deaths occurred in the first 4 months of treatment. In multivariate analysis, 2-year survival was significantly associated with the clinical stage of the disease, baseline hemoglobin, and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis therapy (CPT) at or before ART initiation in both assumptions. The median CD4 count and body weight showed a marked improvement during the first 6 months of treatment, followed by stagnation thereafter.

Conclusion: The study has shown an overall low mortality but a high loss to follow-up rate of the cohort. Advanced clinical stage, anemia, low body weight, and lack of CPT initiation were independent predictors of mortality - but not gender. CPT initiation should be encouraged in routine HIV care services, and patient retention mechanisms have to be strengthened. Stagnation in immunological and weight recovery after the first 6 months should be further investigated. The utilization of routine data should be encouraged in order to facilitate appropriate decision making.

• 47.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
Handheld ECG in analysis of arrhythmia and heart rate variability in children with Fontan circulation2014In: Journal of Electrocardiology, ISSN 0022-0736, E-ISSN 1532-8430, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 374-382Article in journal (Refereed)

Background: Our aim was to evaluate the intermittent use of a handheld ECG system for detecting silent arrhythmias and cardiac autonomic dysfunction in children with univentricular hearts. Methods: Twenty-seven patients performed intermittent ECG recordings with handheld devices during a 14-day period. A manual arrhythmia analysis was performed. We analyzed heart rate variability (HRV) using scatter plots of all interbeat intervals (Poincare plots) from the total observation period. Reference values of HRV indices were determined from Holter-ECGs in 41 healthy children. Results: One asymptomatic patient had frequent ventricular extra systoles. Another patient had episodes with supraventricular tachycardia (with concomitant palpitations). Seven patients showed reduced HRV. Conclusions: Asymptomatic arrhythmia was detected in one patient. The proposed method for pooling of intermittent recordings from handheld or similar devices may be used for detection of arrhythmias as well as for cardiac autonomic dysfunction.

• 48.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Division of Cardiology, Department of Paediatrics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden. Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Paediatrics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden. Department of Paediatrics, Children’s Hospital, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. Paediatric Cardiac Surgical Unit, Children’s Hospital, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
Heart rate variability in children with fontan circulation: lateral tunnel and extracardiac conduit2012In: Pediatric Cardiology, ISSN 0172-0643, E-ISSN 1432-1971, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 307-315Article in journal (Refereed)

The technique in Fontan surgery has developed from the lateral tunnel (LT) toward the extracardiac conduit (EC) used to reduce long-term complications such as atrial arrhythmia and sinus node dysfunction. Heart rate variability (HRV) examines cardiac nervous activity controlling the sinus node. This study aimed to investigate HRV in a cohort of children with univentricular hearts, focusing on the relation between HRV and surgical procedure. For 112 children with Fontan circulation, HRV was analyzed using power spectral analysis. Spectral power was determined in three regions: very-low-frequency (VLF), low-frequency (LF), and high-frequency (HF) regions. Patients were compared with 66 healthy controls subject. Patients with LT were compared with patients who had EC. The children with Fontan circulation showed a significantly reduced HRV including total power (P < 0.0001), VLF (P < 0.0001), LF (P < 0.0001), and HF (P = 0.001) compared with the control subjects. The LT and EC patients did not differ significantly. Reduced HRV was found in both the LT and EC patients. In terms of HRV reduction, EC was not superior to LT.

• 49. Alexandrie, A K
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
CYP1A1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms affect urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels after PAH exposure2000In: Carcinogenesis, ISSN 0143-3334, E-ISSN 1460-2180, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 669-676Article in journal (Refereed)

Certain human biotransformation enzymes have been implicated in the formation and scavenging of the ultimate reactive metabolites, the diolepoxides, from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the present study, performed on aluminum smelter workers, we have analyzed airborne PAH, the pyrene metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in urine, and genotypes for biotransformation enzymes involved in PAH metabolism. The aim was to evaluate the correlation between external exposure and biomarkers of exposure and to investigate to what extent genetic polymorphism in metabolic enzymes can explain interindividual variation in urinary 1-OHP levels. DNA was prepared from blood samples from 98 potroom workers and 55 controls and altogether eight polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, mEH, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 genes were analyzed. The 1-OHP excretion was found to correlate significantly (P </= 0.005) to the exposure. The interindividual difference in excretion of 1-OHP was vast (>100-fold) and univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to find the variables that could determine differences in excretion. The variation could, to some degree, be explained by differences in exposure to airborne particulate-associated PAHs, the use of personal respiratory protection devices, smoking habits and genetic polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 enzymes. The part of the variance that could be explained by differences in biotransformation genotypes seemed to be of the same order of magnitude as the variance explained by differences in exposure. In the control group as well as in the occupationally exposed group, the highest 1-OHP levels were observed in individuals carrying the CYP1A1 Ile/Val genotype who were also of the GSTM1 null genotype. The results show that urinary 1-OHP is a sensitive indicator of recent human exposure to PAHs and that it may also to some extent reflect the interindividual variation in susceptibility to PAHs.

• 50.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Skoglig Zooekologi, SLU, Umeå. Skoglig Zooekologi, SLU, Umeå. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
A minority of seropositive wild bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) show evidence of current Puumala virus infection1998In: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 419-425Article in journal (Refereed)

Bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) serve as the reservoir for Puumala (PUU) virus, the aetiologic agent of nephropathia epidemica. The animals are believed to be persistently infected and the occurrence of serum antibodies is usually taken as an evidence of active infection. We found serum antibodies to PUU virus in 42 of 299 wild bank voles captured in a PUU virus endemic area. PUU virus RNA was demonstrated in lung specimens of 11 of these 42 animals and in 2 of them antigen was also found. Thus in the lungs of 31 of 42 seropositive animals neither PUU virus RNA nor antigen was detected. In 2 of 257 seronegative animals, lung specimens showed presence of PUU virus antigen and RNA. Isolation of PUU virus from lung tissue was successful in all 4 antigen-positive bank voles but in none of 16 tested antigen-negative animals. In conclusion, only a minority of bank voles with serum antibodies to PUU virus showed evidence of current infection.

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