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  • 1. Vissers, Linda E. T.
    et al.
    Sluijs, Ivonne
    van der Schouw, Yvonne T.
    Forouhi, Nita G.
    Imamura, Fumiaki
    Burgess, Stephen
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Boeing, Heiner
    Bonet, Catalina
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Franks, Paul W.
    Freisling, Heinz
    Gunter, Marc J.
    Ramón Quirós, J.
    Ibsen, Daniel B.
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Key, Timothy
    Khaw, Kay T.
    Kühn, Tilman
    Mokoroa, Olatz
    Nilsson, Peter M.
    Overvad, Kim
    Pala, Valeria
    Palli, Domenico
    Panico, Salvatore
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Tumino, Rosario
    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Riboli, Elio
    Sharp, Stephen J.
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Dairy Product Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in EPIC-InterAct: A Mendelian Randomization Study2019In: Diabetes Care, ISSN 0149-5992, E-ISSN 1935-5548, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 568-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the causal association between intake of dairy products and incident type 2 diabetes.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The analysis included 21,820 European individuals (9,686 diabetes cases) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study. Participants were genotyped, and rs4988235 (LCT-12910C>T), a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for lactase persistence (LP) that enables digestion of dairy sugar, i.e., lactose, was imputed. Baseline dietary intakes were assessed with diet questionnaires. We investigated the associations between imputed SNP dosage for rs4988235 and intake of dairy products and other foods through linear regression. Mendelian randomization (MR) estimates for the milk-diabetes relationship were obtained through a two-stage least squares regression.

    RESULTS Each additional LP allele was associated with a higher intake of milk (β 17.1 g/day, 95% CI 10.6–23.6) and milk beverages (β 2.8 g/day, 95% CI 1.0–4.5) but not with intake of other dairy products. Other dietary intakes associated with rs4988235 included fruits (β −7.0 g/day, 95% CI −12.4 to −1.7 per additional LP allele), nonalcoholic beverages (β −18.0 g/day, 95% CI −34.4 to −1.6), and wine (β −4.8 g/day, 95% CI −9.1 to −0.6). In instrumental variable analysis, LP-associated milk intake was not associated with diabetes (hazard ratioper 15 g/day 0.99, 95% CI 0.93–1.05).

    CONCLUSIONS rs4988235 was associated with milk intake but not with intake of other dairy products. This MR study does not suggest that milk intake is associated with diabetes, which is consistent with previous observational and genetic associations. LP may be associated with intake of other foods as well, but owing to the modest associations, we consider it unlikely that this caused the observed null result.

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