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  • 1.
    Dutton, Edward
    et al.
    Ulster Institute for Social Research, London, UK.
    Bakhiet, Salaheldin Farah Attallah
    King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Essa, Yossry Ahmed Sayed
    King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Rajeh, Mohammed Yahya Mohammed
    King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Sex differences on Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices within Saudi Arabia and across the Arab world: Females’ advantage decreases from childhood to adolescence2018In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 134, p. 66-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex differences in intelligence are of great importance with regard to understanding intelligence's underlyingevolutionary forces. Previous research in this area has had a strong focus on Western countries and data acrossdevelopmental stages are fragmented. Here, we present new data on Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices fromthree samples in Saudi Arabia, and combine these with nine previously published studies from other Arabcountries, which also provide data for each year of age. We specifically consider Lynn's developmental theory ofsex differences in intelligence, whereby a female advantage becomes pronounced due to earlier average pubertyand then decreases as males enter puberty. The estimates for each age do not differ significantly from zero, andvery few from each other, apparently due to large heterogeneity across studies. Nevertheless, the age trend islargely consistent with Lynn's model. Moreover, its specific predictions are seemingly borne out in many individualcountries. Plausible explanations for incongruities in Sudan, Libya, Yemen and Saudi Arabia are alsoexamined.

  • 2. Dutton, Edward
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Why do middle-class couples of European descent adopt children from Africa and Asia? Some Support for the Differential K Model2018In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 130, p. 156-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patterns of adoption behaviour are starkly asymmetric across populations. To better understand this phenomenon we conducted a systematic review of transracial adoption and adoption in general. We found six quantitative studies from the USA (with representative samples comprising a total of 117,000 participants) which had examined sex, race, and SES in relation to differences in behaviours and attitudes regarding both transracial adoption and adoption in general. A secondary analysis of these data found that transracial adopting is predicted by being female, white (as opposed to black), and of higher SES. These data are consistent with group differences in Life History Strategy – the Differential K model – regarding males and females, SES differences, and white and black people, but not with the fact that both transracial adoption and adoption rates in general seem to be lower in Northeast Asian countries. The influence of cultural factors upon these patterns may be addressed by future studies.

  • 3.
    Dutton, Edward
    et al.
    Ulster Institute for Social Research, London, UK.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University.
    Dunkel, Curtis
    Erasmus University Rotterdam.
    The mutant says in his heart, "There is no God": the rejection of collective religiosity centred around the worship of moral gods is associated with high mutational load2018In: Evolutionary Psychological Science, E-ISSN 2198-9885, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 233-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialisation leads to relaxed selection and thus the accumulation of fitness-damaging genetic mutations. We argue that religion is a selected trait that would be highly sensitive to mutational load. We further argue that a specific form of religiousness was selected for in complex societies up until industrialisation based around the collective worship of moral gods. With the relaxation of selection, we predict the degeneration of this form of religion and diverse deviations from it. These deviations, however, would correlate with the same indicators because they would all be underpinned by mutational load. We test this hypothesis using two very different deviations: atheism and paranormal belief. We examine associations between these deviations and four indicators of mutational load: (1) poor general health, (2) autism, (3) fluctuating asymmetry, and (4) left-handedness. A systematic literature review combined with primary research on handedness demonstrates that atheism and/or paranormal belief is associated with all of these indicators of high mutational load.

  • 4.
    Woodley of Menie, Michael
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Dutton, Edward
    Figueredo, Aurelio-Jose
    University of Arizona.
    Carl, Noah
    Debes, Frodi
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Hertler, Steven
    Irwing, Paul
    Kura, Kenya
    Lynn, Richard
    Ulster Institute.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Meisenberg, Gerhard
    Miller, Edward
    te Nijenhuis, Jan
    University of Amsterdam.
    Nyborg, Helmuth
    Rindermann, Heiner
    Chemnitz University of Technology .
    Communicating intelligence research: media misrepresentation, the Gould Effect and unexpected forces2018In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 70, p. 80-87Article in journal (Refereed)
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