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  • 1. Caini, Saverio
    et al.
    Masala, Giovanna
    Saieva, Calogero
    Kvaskoff, Marina
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Savoye, Isabelle
    Hemmingsson, Oskar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Bech, Bodil Hammer
    Overvad, Kim
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Petersen, Kristina E. N.
    Mancini, Francesca Romana
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Cervenka, Iris
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Kuehn, Tilman
    Boeing, Heiner
    Floegel, Anna
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Valanou, Elisavet
    Kritikou, Maria
    Tagliabue, Giovanna
    Panico, Salvatore
    Tumino, Rosario
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as)
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Veierod, Marit B.
    Ghiasvand, Reza
    Lukic, Marko
    Ramon Quiros, Jose
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Salamanca Fernandez, Elena
    Larranaga, Nerea
    Zamora-Ros, Raul
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Ljuslinder, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Jirstrom, Karin
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Key, Timothy J.
    Wareham, Nick
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Gunter, Marc
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Murphy, Neil
    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Palli, Domenico
    Coffee, tea and melanoma risk: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition2017In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 140, no 10, p. 2246-2255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What's new? Laboratory studies suggest that coffee and tea protect against melanoma, but epidemiological findings are inconsistent. Here the authors studied more than 400,000 participants within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and confirmed an inverse association between caffeinated coffee consumption and melanoma risk. No association was found with decaffeinated coffee or tea. Interestingly, drinking coffee only protected men, but not women, from developing the often fatal skin cancer, raising interesting questions about gender-specific hormones or coffee habits influencing this association. In vitro and animal studies suggest that bioactive constituents of coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects against cutaneous melanoma; however, epidemiological evidence is limited to date. We examined the relationships between coffee (total, caffeinated or decaffeinated) and tea consumption and risk of melanoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a multicentre prospective study that enrolled over 500,000 participants aged 25-70 years from ten European countries in 1992-2000. Information on coffee and tea drinking was collected at baseline using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between coffee and tea consumption and melanoma risk. Overall, 2,712 melanoma cases were identified during a median follow-up of 14.9 years among 476,160 study participants. Consumption of caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with melanoma risk among men (HR for highest quartile of consumption vs. non-consumers 0.31, 95% CI 0.14-0.69) but not among women (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.62-1.47). There were no statistically significant associations between consumption of decaffeinated coffee or tea and the risk of melanoma among both men and women. The consumption of caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with melanoma risk among men in this large cohort study. Further investigations are warranted to confirm our findings and clarify the possible role of caffeine and other coffee compounds in reducing the risk of melanoma.

  • 2. Murphy, Neil
    et al.
    Ward, Heather A.
    Jenab, Mazda
    Rothwell, Joseph A.
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Carbonnel, Franck
    Kvaskoff, Marina
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Kühn, Tilman
    Boeing, Heiner
    Aleksandrova, Krasimira
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Skeie, Guri
    Borch, Kristin Benjaminsen
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Kyrø, Cecilie
    Overvad, Kim
    Dahm, Christina C.
    Jakszyn, Paula
    Sánchez, Maria-Jose
    Gil, Leire
    Huerta, José M.
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Ramón Quirós, J.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nick
    Bradbury, Kathryn E.
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    La Vecchia, Carlo
    Karakatsani, Anna
    Palli, Domenico
    Grioni, Sara
    Tumino, Rosario
    Fasanelli, Francesca
    Panico, Salvatore
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Gylling, Björn
    Myte, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Jirström, Karin
    Berntsson, Jonna
    Xue, Xiaonan
    Riboli, Elio
    Cross, Amanda J.
    Gunter, Marc J.
    Heterogeneity of Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors by Anatomical Subsite in 10 European Countries: A Multinational Cohort Study2019In: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, ISSN 1542-3565, E-ISSN 1542-7714, Vol. 17, no 7, p. 1323-1331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & Aims: Colorectal cancer located at different anatomical subsites may have distinct etiologies and risk factors. Previous studies that have examined this hypothesis have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because most studies have been of insufficient size to identify heterogeneous associations with precision.

    Methods: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, we used multivariable joint Cox proportional hazards models, which accounted for tumorsat different anatomical sites (proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum) as competing risks, to examine the relationships between 14 established/suspected lifestyle, anthropometric, and reproductive/menstrual risk factors with colorectal cancer risk. Heterogeneity across sites was tested using Wald tests.

    Results: After a median of 14.9 years of follow-up of 521,330 men and women, 6291 colorectal cancer cases occurred. Physical activity was related inversely to proximal colon and distal colon cancer, but not to rectal cancer (P heterogeneity = .03). Height was associated positively with proximal and distal colon cancer only, but not rectal cancer (P heterogeneity = .0001). For men, but not women, heterogeneous relationships were observed for body mass index (P heterogeneity = .008) and waist circumference (P heterogeneity = .03), with weaker positive associations found for rectal cancer, compared with proximal and distal colon cancer. Current smoking was associated with a greater risk of rectal and proximal colon cancer, but not distal colon cancer (P heterogeneity = .05). No heterogeneity by anatomical site was found for alcohol consumption, diabetes, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and reproductive/menstrual factors.

    Conclusions: The relationships between physical activity, anthropometry, and smoking with colorectal cancer risk differed by subsite, supporting the hypothesis that tumors in different anatomical regions may have distinct etiologies.

  • 3. Ward, Heather A.
    et al.
    Murphy, Neil
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Leitzmann, Michael F.
    Aglago, Elom
    Gunter, Marc J.
    Freisling, Heinz
    Jenab, Mazda
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Severi, Gianluca
    Carbonnel, Franck
    Kuehn, Tilman
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Boeing, Heiner
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Overvad, Kim
    Merino, Susana
    Zamora-Ros, Raul
    Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Perez-Cornago, Aurora
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Bamia, Christina
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Masala, Giovanna
    Grioni, Sara
    Tumino, Rosario
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Van Gils, Carla
    Nyström, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Rutegård, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Aune, Dagfinn
    Riboli, Elio
    Cross, Amanda J.
    Gallstones and incident colorectal cancer in a large pan-European cohort study2019In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 145, no 6, p. 1510-1516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gallstones, a common gastrointestinal condition, can lead to several digestive complications and can result in inflammation. Risk factors for gallstones include obesity, diabetes, smoking and physical inactivity, all of which are known risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC), as is inflammation. However, it is unclear whether gallstones are a risk factor for CRC. We examined the association between history of gallstones and CRC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, a prospective cohort of over half a million participants from ten European countries. History of gallstones was assessed at baseline using a self‐reported questionnaire. The analytic cohort included 334,986 participants; a history of gallstones was reported by 3,917 men and 19,836 women, and incident CRC was diagnosed among 1,832 men and 2,178 women (mean follow‐up: 13.6 years). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between gallstones and CRC were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models, stratified by sex, study centre and age at recruitment. The models were adjusted for body mass index, diabetes, alcohol intake and physical activity. A positive, marginally significant association was detected between gallstones and CRC among women in multivariable analyses (HR = 1.14, 95%CI 0.99–1.31, p = 0.077). The relationship between gallstones and CRC among men was inverse but not significant (HR = 0.81, 95%CI 0.63–1.04, p = 0.10). Additional adjustment for details of reproductive history or waist circumference yielded minimal changes to the observed associations. Further research is required to confirm the nature of the association between gallstones and CRC by sex.

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