umu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 13 of 13
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Granlund, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Fler konkurrenter är nyckelnför att sänka läkemedelspriserna2017In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 18-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi finner att fler konkurrenter på marknader för receptbelagda läkemedel varspatent löpt ut leder till lägre priser. Resultatet är väntat, men att empirisktkvantifiera effekten av ökad konkurrens på priset har visat sig vara förhållandevisbesvärligt. Orsaken till detta är problem såsom omvänd kausalitet ochicke-observerade kvalitetsskillnader, men på de marknader vi studerar är dessaproblem små. Resultaten visar att effekten av ytterligare konkurrenter är storäven när det befintliga antalet är betydande. Exempelvis medför en ökning frånsju till tio företag på lång sikt 21 procent lägre priser på generiska kopior.

  • 2. Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Granlund, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Reforming the Swedish pharmaceuticals market: consequences for costs per defined daily dose2016In: International Journal of Health Economics and Management, ISSN 2199-9023, E-ISSN 2199-9031, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 201-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009 and 2010, the Swedish pharmaceuticals market was reformed. One of the stated policy goals was to achieve low costs for pharmaceutical products dispensed in Sweden. We use price and sales data for off-patent brand-name and generic pharmaceuticals to estimate a log-linear regression model, allowing us to assess how the policy changes affected the cost per defined daily dose. The estimated effect is an 18 % cost reduction per defined daily dose at the retail level and a 34 % reduction in the prices at the wholesale level (pharmacies’ purchase prices). The empirical results suggest that the cost reductions were caused by the introduction of a price cap, an obligation to dispense the lowest-cost generic substitute available in the whole Swedish market, and the introduction of well-defined exchange groups. The reforms thus reduced the cost per defined daily dose for consumers while being advantageous also for the pharmacies, who saw their retail margins increase. However, pharmaceutical firms supplying off-patent pharmaceuticals experienced a clear reduction in the price received for their products.

  • 3. Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Granlund, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Squeezing the last drop out of your suppliers: an empirical study of market-based purchasing policies for generic pharmaceuticals2017In: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0305-9049, E-ISSN 1468-0084, Vol. 79, no 6, p. 28p. 969-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of the degree of exclusivity for the lowest bidder on the averageprice of generic pharmaceuticals in the short and long terms. Our results indicate that a1-percentage-point gain in market share of the lowest bidder reduces average costs by 0.2%in the short term and 0.8% in the long term, but also reduces the number of firms by 1%.We find that reducing the number of firms has a strong positive (and hence counteracting)effect on average prices, a 1% reduction raising prices by approximately 1%.

  • 4. Granlund, David
    En allt rikare befolkning kräver mer resurser till hälso- och sjukvård2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 3, p. 3-4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Granlund, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Medicin kostar mindre efter apoteksreformerna2017In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, no 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Granlund, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    The Effect of Pharmacies' Right to Negotiate Discounts on the Market Share of Parallel Imported Pharmaceuticals2015In: The B.E. Journals in Economic Analysis & Policy, ISSN 1935-1682, E-ISSN 1935-1682, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 1197-1235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how allowing pharmacies to negotiate discounts with parallel traders and producers affects the market share for parallel imports. Economic theory predicts that discount negotiations will promote products bought directly from the producers because producers have cost advantages, due to which they always underbid the marginal prices of parallel traders. A reform that allowed discount negotiations is found to reduce the market share for parallel imports by about 11 percentage points to reach 31%. The results clearly indicate that pharmacies have an important role in the choice between medically equivalent pharmaceuticals.

  • 7.
    Granlund, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Bergman, Mats
    Price competition in pharmaceuticals – evidence from 1303 Swedish markets2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the short- and long-term price effects of number of competing firms using panel-data on 1303 distinct pharmaceutical markets for 78 months. This is done using actual transaction prices in an institutional setting with little room for non-price competition and where simultaneity problem can be addressed effectively. In the long-term, the price of generics is found to decrease by 81% when the number of firms selling generics is increased from 1 to 10. Half of this reduction takes place immediately and 70% within three months. Also, prices of originals are found to react to competition, but far less and much slower; going from 1 to 10 firms reduces their price by 29% in the long term but by only 2% in the short term.

  • 8.
    Granlund, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Bergman, Mats
    Price competition in pharmaceuticals – evidence from 1303 Swedish markets2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the short- and long-term price effects of the number of competing firms, using panel-data on 1303 distinct pharmaceutical markets for 78 months. We use actual transaction prices in an institutional setting with little room for non-price competition and where simultaneity problem can be addressed effectively. In the long term, the price of generics is found to decrease by 81% when the number of firms selling generics with the same strength, form and similar package sizes is increased from 1 to 10. It is nearly only competition on this fine-grained level that matters. For example, the price effect of firms selling other products with the same active substance, but with different package size, form, or strength, is only a tenth as large. Half of the price reductions take place immediately and 70% within three months. Also, prices of originals are found to react to competition, but far less and much slower; going from 1 to 10 firms selling nearly identical generics reduces prices by 29% in the long term but by only 2% in the short term.

  • 9.
    Granlund, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Bergman, Mats
    Price competition in pharmaceuticals: evidence from 1303 Swedish markets2018In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 61, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the short- and long-term price effects of the number of competing firms, using panel-data on 1303 distinct pharmaceutical markets for 78 months within a reference-price system. We use actual transaction prices in an institutional setting with little scope for non-price competition and where simultaneity problems can be addressed effectively. In the long term, the price of generics is found to decrease by 81% when the number of firms selling generics with the same strength, form and similar package size is increased from 1 to 10. Nearly only competition at this fine-grained level matters; the effect of firms selling other products with the same active substance, but with different package size, form, or strength, is only a tenths as large. Half of the price reductions take place immediately and 70% within three months. Also, prices of originals are found to react to competition, but far less and much slower.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-08-03 09:23
  • 10.
    Granlund, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Indén, Tobias
    Lundberg, Johan
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Wikström, Magnus
    Det offentliga som konkurrent på kommersiella marknader - En samhällsekonomisk analys med exemplet konferensmarknaden2017Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Granlund, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Köksal-Ayhan, Miyase Yesim
    EU Enlargement, Parallel Trade and Price Competition in Pharmaceuticals: has the Price Competition increased?2016In: The B.E. Journals in Economic Analysis & Policy, ISSN 1935-1682, E-ISSN 1935-1682, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 1069-1092Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the cost of trade and availability of pharmaceuticals, the driving force for parallel trade is the price difference between the source (exporting) and the destination (importing) country. An increase in the price difference or in the availability of pharmaceuticals for parallel trade should increase price competition in the destination country. Using 2003-2007 data from Sweden we investigated whether EU enlargement in 2004, when new countries with low pharmaceutical prices joined the EU, increased competition from parallel imports. Drugs facing competition from parallel imports are found to have on average 17% to 21% lower prices than they would have had if they had never faced such competition. But, contrary to expectation, EU enlargement is not found to have increased this effect, which might be explained by derogations and changes in consumer perceptions of parallel imports.

  • 12.
    Granlund, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Risker och kostnader för prissamordningar på den svenska generikamarknaden2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Företag som ofta möter varandra på en eller flera marknader kan ibland genom att observera varandras tidigare priser lyckas samordna sina priser. Konkurrensen sätts då ur spel och priserna blir högre än de annars skulle ha varit. I denna rapport visar vi att den svenska generikamarknaden har många egenskaper som underlättar prissamordning, exempelvis att priserna kan ändras varje månad, att företagen lätt kan observera varandras priser, och att konkurrensen främst sker i en variabel, priser. Vi redogör även för empiriska resultat som indikerar att prissamordningar ibland förekommer på marknaden, samt att dessa då orsakar läkemedelsförmånen och konsumenterna betydande merkostnader. Dessa uppskatter vi till i storleksordningen 50 till 200 miljoner kronor per år.

    Ett sätt att minska risken för prissamordning är att förlänga tiden mellan att företag kan observera konkurrenters priser och att de kan ändra sina egna priser. Det är sedan länge välkänt inom nationalekonomin att denna tid har en avgörande betydelse för risken för prissamordning. Tiden kan förlängas genom att priserna endast tillåts ändras exempelvis kvartalsvis eller halvårsvis och/eller genom att kräva att företagen meddelar sina priser längre tid i förväg innan prisperioderna börjar. En förlängning av prisperioderna till 3-6 månader skulle troligen ha mycket små oönskade effekter samtidigt som det skulle minska möjligheterna för företag att samordna sina priser. Sammantaget skulle därför en sådan förändring troligen minska läkemedelsförmånens och konsumenternas kostnader.

    Ett annat sätt att minska risken för att företag samordnar sina priser är att sänka marknadsandelen för periodens vara genom att minska kraven att de förskrivna varorna byts ut på apoteken. Detta skulle öka betydelsen av andra faktorer än priset och göra det svårare för företag att över tid dela försäljningen lika, vilket minskar risken för prissamordning. En tidigare studie visar också att detta skulle leda till fler konkurrerande företag på marknaden, vilket även det minskar risken för att företag samordnar sina priser. En lägre marknadsandel för periodens vara skulle dock kunna leda till svagare konkurrens och ökade kostnader för läkemedel på marknader som inte påverkas av prissamordningar. För hela generikamarknaden skulle en liten sänkning av marknadsandelen för periodens vara kunna bli kostnadsneutral, men det är inte säkert att detta resultat håller om prisperioderna förlängs.

  • 13.
    Granlund, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Sundström, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Physicians prescribing originals causes welfare losses2018In: Economics Letters, ISSN 0165-1765, E-ISSN 1873-7374, Vol. 170, p. 143-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze 319,000 choices of medically equivalent drugs at Swedish pharmacies. The results show that patients dislike substitutions for the prescribed product and that this effect is larger when the prescribed product is an original. At the same time, patients have strong preferences to buy the cheapest generic product. This implies that patients in most cases buy the cheapest generic product and experience welfare losses when the physician has prescribed another product.

1 - 13 of 13
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf