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Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Optical sensor solution for anti-pendulation system2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

MacGregor Cranes Örnsköldsvik currently has a solution called Swing Defeater to reduce payload oscillations for their developed cranes. It uses an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) with gyroscopes and accelerometers that determines angles; angular velocities and acceleration of the hook block connected to the crane. The information is transmitted through wireless communication and all components of the IMU is powered by a rechargeable battery. The existing solution currently works well for hook blocks attached to two or more wires. With the introduction of their latest crane, the Lattice Boom Crane, which features a hook block attached to one wire, an optional solution to reduce payload oscillations needs to be developed. The new solution needs to be able to produce results similar to the IMU at a sampling frequency of at least 10 Hz. The sensors should also be resistant to temperature, rain and dust to some extent. It is preferred if no sensors are mounted on the hook block to avoid the need for a battery as a power source. In addition it also needs to be viable for a real-time outdoors application.

To solve this problem, this thesis investigates three different optical solutions. A Laser Measurement System (LMS), a Time of Flight (ToF) camera system, and a triangulation setup with a camera and line laser. According to this study the LMS approach is the most promising. However, the other two methods require more thorough testing. First, the tested ToF camera was not suited for outdoor use and experiments on the wires connected to the cranes could not be performed. Also, the ToF camera implementation required image filtering to process the data. But the analyzed data showed that a ToF camera could be a plausible solution. Second, the triangulation setup was tested once indoors which only gave information about the accuracy of the setup. The measurement uncertainty of the triangulation was $\pm$2 cm for distances up to 2 meters.

The results from the LMS method were compared to data from the IMU and it was found that they showed similar patterns. A cross-correlation analysis determined that the measured wire angle with the LMS was more exact than that of the IMU when compared against a theoretically expected output. Thus, the LMS therefore has potential to be used in an anti-pendulation system. It can handle situations when only one wire is connected to the hook block in addition to the existing two-wire setups.

MacGregor Cranes is recommended to consider the LMS solution for further development.

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