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  • 1.
    Awad, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sunderby Research Unit, Umeå University, Sweden..
    Lundqvist, Robert
    Research and Innovation Unit, Norrbotten County Council, Luleå, Sweden..
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sunderby Research Unit, Umeå University, Sweden..
    Lower cognitive performance among long-term type 1 diabetes survivors: A case-control study2017In: Journal of diabetes and its complications, ISSN 1056-8727, E-ISSN 1873-460X, Vol. 31, no 8, 1328-1331 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction. The cognitive decrement is believed to depend on macro- and microvascular complications and long disease duration. Some patients do not develop these complications, but still report cognitive symptoms. We examined if long-standing T1D without complications is associated with lower cognitive performance.

    METHODS: A group of patients (n=43) with long-standing T1D (>30years) without micro- or macro vascular complications was compared with a non-diabetic control group (n=86) on six cognitive tests which probed episodic memory, semantic memory, episodic short-term memory, visual attention and psychomotor speed. Each patient was matched with two controls regarding age, gender and education. A linear mixed effect model was used to analyze the data.

    RESULTS: The mean age was 57years and mean duration was 41years. Patients with diabetes had lower diastolic blood pressure but BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and smoking did not differ between groups. Patients had lower results than non-diabetic controls in episodic short-term memory (p<0.001) and also lower values on a test that mirrors visual attention and psychomotor speed (p=0.019).

    CONCLUSIONS: Long-standing T1D was associated with lower cognitive performance, regardless of other diabetes-related complications.

  • 2.
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sahlén, Klas Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Nilsson, Ingeborg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Brändström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Elderly care in Swedish welfare state: implications of the population ageing2013In: Global aging issues and policies: understanding the importance of comprehending and studying the aging process / [ed] Yushi Li, Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publisher Ltd., 2013, 226-244 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Eriksson, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of perceived long-term stress on health and memory functioning2010In: Abstracts of the Psychonomic Society, 2010, 78-78 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined effects of perceived long-term stress on health and memory functioning in middle-aged individuals (40–60 years). Participants in the Betula study (Nilsson et al., 1997) describing themselves as being stressed in general over three measurement occasions (10 years in total) were compared with a matched (sex and education) group (n = 98) reporting no stress. The results revealed a higher incidence of depressive symptoms, flus, and not-healthy-ratings over time for the stress group. In addition, the stress group provided more negative subjective memory ratings, whereas time-related change in memory performance, indicative of a high degree of cognitive stability, did not differ from that of controls. Degree of perceived stress is discussed as a factor underlying variations in regard to the outcome of studies of perceived stress.

  • 4.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Social relationships and risk of dementia: a population-based study2015In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 27, no 8, 1391-1399 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The objective was to examine whether aspects of social relationships in old age are associated with all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD).

    Methods: We studied 1,715 older adults (≥ 65 years) who were dementia-free at baseline over a period of up to 16 years. Data on living status, contact/visit frequency, satisfaction with contact frequency, and having/not having a close friend were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regressions with all-cause dementia or AD as the dependent variable. To control for reverse causality and to identify potential long-term effects, we additionally performed analyses with delayed entry.

    Results: We identified 373 incident cases of dementia (207 with AD) during follow-up. The variable visiting/visits from friends was associated with reduced risk of all-cause dementia. Further, a higher value on the relationships index (sum of all variables) was associated with reduced risk of all-cause dementia and AD. However, in analyses with delayed entry, restricted to participants with a survival time of three years or more, none of the social relationship variables was associated with all-cause dementia or AD.

    Conclusions: The results indicate that certain aspects of social relationships are associated with incident dementia or AD, but also that these associations may reflect reverse causality. Future studies aimed at identifying other factors of a person's social life that may have the potential to postpone dementia should consider the effects of reverse causality.

  • 5.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, L-G
    Leisure-time activity in old age as predictors of impending dementia: A 15-year prospective study.2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the relationship between leisure activities and risk of dementia in a sample of healthy older individuals, dementia free at the beginning of the project. Data were drawn from a population-based longitudinal study (the Betula project) and the participants were followed up for 15 years. At baseline, participants were asked about their frequency of participation in 15 selected leisure activities. When age, gender, education, APOE and other potential confounders were controlled for, results revealed quite moderate effects on dementia after analysis of the activities separately. However, by weighting each activity into a mental, social and physical dimension (based on valuation by the participants), and then summarizing into a score for each dimension, we further investigated if level of engagement could predict impending dementia. Preliminary results indicate that the dimensions may have influence on the risk of dementia for certain age groups. The study also showed that the strongest predictor of dementia is being a carrier of the APOE ɛ4 allele. The outcomes are discussed in terms of important methodological difference between studies concerning the effects of leisure activities in preventing dementia diseases.

  • 6.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, 113 30 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social network size and cognitive functioning in middle-aged adults: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations2017In: Journal of Adult Development, ISSN 1068-0667, E-ISSN 1573-3440, Vol. 24, no 2, 77-88 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the present study was to examine relations between social network size and three cognitive abilities (episodic memory, semantic memory, visuospatial ability) in middle-aged adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data on social network size and cognitive functioning that were available for 804 participants aged 40–60 years. In addition, we examined 5- and 10-year follow-up measurements of cognitive functioning that were available for 604 and 255 participants, respectively. Cross-sectional analyses revealed a positive association between social network size and each of the three cognitive abilities. Baseline network size was positively related to 5-year changes in semantic memory, and to 10-year changes in semantic as well as episodic memory, but was unrelated to changes in visuospatial performance. A minor portion of the sample (n = 131) had 10-year follow-up data on network size. Cross-lagged panel correlations revealed that baseline network size was associated with follow-up measurement in cognitive functioning (episodic memory, semantic memory), whereas baseline cognitive performance was unrelated to future network size. Together, the results demonstrate a small but positive relation between network size and declarative memory abilities, in line with models proposing a cognitive reserve built up by factors such as the increased cognitive stimulation associated with a more extensive social network.

  • 7.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Leisure Activity in Old Age and Risk of Dementia: a 15-Year Prospective Study2014In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 69, no 4, 493-501 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate whether leisure activity is associated with incident dementia in an older sample.

    Method. We examined a sample of 1,475 elderly (>= 65 years) who were dementia free at baseline over a follow-up period of up to 15 years. In addition to analyses involving the total time period, separate analyses of three time periods were performed, 1-5, 6-10, and 11-15 years, following baseline measurement of leisure activity.

    Results. After controlling for a variety of potential confounders, analyses of data for the total time period revealed that higher levels of "Total activity" and "Social activity," but not "Mental activity," were associated with decreased risk of dementia. However, analyses of the separate time periods showed that this association was only significant in the first time period, 1-5 years after baseline.

    Discussion. The results from this study provide little support for the hypothesis that frequent engagement in leisure activities among elderly serve to protect against dementia diseases across a longer time frame. The finding of a relationship for the first time period, 1-5 years after baseline, could indicate short-term protective effects but could also reflect reverse causality.

  • 8.
    Mousavi-Nasab, SM Hossein
    et al.
    Centre for Health and Medical Psychology, Department of Psychology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Kormi-Nouri, Reza
    Centre for Health and Medical Psychology, Department of Psychology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden and Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    The effects of marital status on episodic and semantic memory in healthy middle-aged and old individuals2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 1, 1-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the influences of marital status on different episodic and semantic memory tasks. A total of 1882 adult men and women participated in a longitudinal project (Betula) on memory, health and aging. The participants were grouped into two age cohorts, 35–60 and 65–85, and studied over a period of 5 years. Episodic memory tasks concerned recognition and recall, whereas semantic memory tasks concerned knowledge and fluency. The results showed, after controlling for education, some diseases, chronological age and leisure activity as covariates, that there were significant differences between married and single individuals in episodic memory, but not in semantic memory. Married people showed significantly better memory performances than singles in both subsystems of episodic memory, that is, recall and recognition. Also, the rate of decline in episodic memory was significantly larger for singles and widowed than other groups over the 5-year time period in both age groups. The findings demonstrate that the positive relation found between marriage and health can be extended to the relation between marriage and cognitive performance. This effect might be explained by the role played by cognitive stimulation in memory and cognition.

  • 9.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Changing scenes: Memory for naturalistic events following change blindness2004In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 12, no 6, 696-706 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on scene perception indicates that viewers often fail to detect large changes to scene regions when these changes occur during a visual disruption such as a saccade or a movie cut. In two experiments, we examined whether this relative inability to detect changes would produce systematic biases in event memory. In Experiment 1, participants decided whether two successively presented images were the same or different, followed by a memory task, in which they recalled the content of the viewed scene. In Experiment 2, participants viewed a short video, in which an actor carried out a series of daily activities, and central scenes' attributes were changed during a movie cut. A high degree of change blindness was observed in both experiments, and these effects were related to scene complexity (Experiment 1) and level of retrieval support (Experiment 2). Most important, participants reported the changed, rather than the initial, event attributes following a failure in change detection. These findings suggest that attentional limitations during encoding contribute to biases in episodic memory.

  • 10.
    Oudin, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lind, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Oudin Åström, Daniel
    Family medicine, cardiovascular epidemiology and lifestyle, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Is long-term exposure to air pollution associated with episodic memory?: a longitudinal study from northern Sweden2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 12789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Associations between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and cognitive function have been observed in a few longitudinal studies. Our aim was to investigate the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and episodic memory, a marker of early cognitive decline. We used data from the Betula study in Northern Sweden, and included participants 60 to 85 of age at inclusion, 1,469 persons in total. The participants were followed for up to 22 years, five years apart between 1988 and 2010. A composite of five tasks was used as a measure of episodic memory measure (EMM), and the five-year change in EMM score (ΔEMM) was calculated such that a participant could contribute with up to four measurement pairs. A Land Use Regression Model was used to estimate cumulative annual mean of NOx at the residential address of the participants (a marker for long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution). There did not seem to be any association between exposure to traffic air pollution and episodic memory change, with a ΔEMM estimate of per 1 µg/m3 increase in NOx of 0.01 (95% Confidence Interval: -0.02,0.03). This is in contrast to a growing body of evidence suggesting associations between air pollution and cognitive function.

  • 11. Persson, Ninni
    et al.
    Lavebratt, Catharina
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Fischer, Håkan
    Pulse Pressure magnifies the effect of COMTVal158Met on 15 Year Episodic Memory Trajectories2016In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 8, 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether a physiological marker of cardiovascular health, pulse pressure (PP), and age magnified the effect of the functional COMT Val(158)Met (rs4680) polymorphism on 15-years cognitive trajectories [episodic memory (EM), visuospatial ability, and semantic memory] using data from 1585 non-demented adults from the Betula study. A multiple-group latent growth curve model was specified to gauge individual differences in change, and average trends therein. The allelic variants showed negligible differences across the cognitive markers in average trends. The older portion of the sample selectively age-magnified the effects of Val(158)Met on EM changes, resulting in greater decline in Val compared to homozygote Met carriers. This effect was attenuated by statistical control for PP Further, PP moderated the effects of COMT on 15-years EM trajectories, resulting in greater decline in Val carriers, even after accounting for the confounding effects of sex, education, cardiovascular diseases (diabetes, stroke, and hypertension), and chronological age, controlled for practice gains. The effect was still present after excluding individuals with a history of cardiovascular diseases. The effects of cognitive change were not moderated by any other covariates. This report underscores the importance of addressing synergistic effects in normal cognitive aging, as the addition thereof may place healthy individuals at greater risk for memory decline.

  • 12.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Self-reported memory failures: associations with future dementia in a population-based study with long-term follow-up2015In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 63, no 9, 1766-1773 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between self-reported memory failures and incident dementia in individuals aged 60 and older.

    DESIGN: Longitudinal, community based.

    SETTING: Betula Prospective Cohort Study, a population-based study in Umea, Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with a mean age of 71.5 +/- 8.8 (range 60-90) (N = 1,547).

    MEASUREMENTS: Participants rated the frequency of everyday memory failures using the 16-item Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) and underwent objective memory testing at baseline. Participant self-reports of complaints of poor memory by family and friends were evaluated. Dementia status was followed-up for 10 to 12 years.

    RESULTS: Over the study period, 225 participants developed dementia (132 with Alzheimer's disease (AD)). In Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusted for demographic factors, PRMQ z-scores predicted incident dementia (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.21 for all-cause dementia; HR = 1.25 for AD, Ps < .01). The significant associations remained when depressive symptoms and objective memory performance were adjusted for, when low performers on objective memory (= 1 standard deviations below the age group mean) were excluded, and in analyses with delayed entry (survival time = 5 years). Similar patterns were observed for the prospective and retrospective subscales, although including how often participants self-reported that others complained about their poor memory eliminated the association between PRMQ scores and dementia and itself emerged as a significant predictor.

    CONCLUSION: Self-reported memory failure predicted future dementia or AD independent of objective memory performance. Subjective reports of complaints by family and friends appear to be an even more-important indicator of preclinical impairments, and physicians should not ignore them, even in the absence of objective memory deficits.

  • 13.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Subjective memory impairment in older adults predicts future dementia independent of baseline memory performance: Evidence from the Betula prospective cohort study2015In: Alzheimer's & Dementia, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 11, no 11, 1385-1392 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The objective was to examine whether subjective memory impairment (SMI) predicts all-cause dementia or Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a population-based study with long-term follow-up (median = 10 years).

    METHODS: A total of 2043 initially dementia-free participants (≥ 60 years) made three memory ratings ("compared with others", "compared with five years ago", and "complaints from family/friends") at baseline. During follow-up, 372 participants developed dementia (208 with AD).

    RESULTS: Cox regression revealed that subjective memory impairment ratings predicted all-cause dementia in models adjusting for age and sex (hazard ratio or HR from 2.04 to 3.94), with even higher values for AD (HR from 2.29 to 5.74). The result persisted in models including other covariates, including baseline episodic memory performance, and in analyses restricted to participants with long time to dementia diagnosis (≥ 5 years).

    DISCUSSION: The findings underscore the usefulness of subjective memory assessment in combination with other factors in identifying individuals at risk for developing dementia.

  • 14.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Goran
    Effects of Perceived Long-Term Stress on Subjective and Objective Aspects of Memory and Cognitive Functioning in a Middle-Aged Population-Based Sample2013In: The Journal of Genetic Psychology, ISSN 0022-1325, E-ISSN 1940-0896, Vol. 174, no 1, 25-41 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The longitudinal effects of perceived stress on measures of memory and two other cognitive functions (word fluency, visuospatial ability) in a middle-aged sample (4060 years, M age = 47.1 years, SD = 6.1 years; n = 192) were examined. A group describing themselves as stressed in general at baseline, and at follow-up measurement 5 and 10 years later (n = 96) was compared with a matched (age, sex) low-stress group (n = 96). The results revealed more depressive symptoms over time in the high-stress group. With regard to memory, a dissociation between subjective and objective measures was observed. Specifically, participants in the high-stress group rated their memory as worse over time as compared with controls, and reported a higher frequency of occurrence of everyday memory failures, effects partly independent of depressive symptoms. However, the groups did not differ in terms of objective episodic memory performance, word fluency or block design performance, with stable levels of performance over time regardless of perceived stress. The lack of effects of stress on cognitive performance is discussed in the light of factors such as stress level, age of the participants, and other individual difference factors.

  • 15.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Interindividual differences in general cognitive ability from age 18 to age 65 years are extremely stable and strongly associated with working memory capacity2015In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 53, 59-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to examine the degree of stability of interindividual differences in general cognitive ability (g) across the adult life span. To this end, we examined a sample of men (n = 262), cognitively assessed for the first time at age 18 (conscript data). The sample was reassessed at age 50 and at five year intervals up to age 65. Scores from conscript tests at age 18 were retrieved and three of the subtests were used as indicators of g in early adulthood. At age 50–65 years, four indicators served the same purpose. At the 15-year follow-up (age 65) two working memory measures were administered which allowed examination of the relationship with working memory capacity. Results from structural Equation Modelling (SEM) indicated extremely high level of stability from young adulthood to age 50 (standardized regression coefficient = − 95) as well as from age 50 to age 55, 60 and 65 with stability coefficients of .90 or higher for the for the latent g factor. Standardized regression coefficients between young-adult g and the g factor in midlife/old age were .95 from age 18 up to age 50 and 55, .94 up to age 60, and .86 up to age 65. Hence, g at age 18 accounted for 90–74% of the variance in g 32–47 years later. A close association between g and working memory capacity was observed (concurrent association: r = .88, time lagged association: r = .61). Taken together, the present study demonstrates that interindividual differences in g are extremely stable over the period from 18 to midlife, with a significant deviation from unity only at age 65. In light of the parieto-frontal integration theory (P-FIT) of intelligence, consistent with the close association between g and working memory capacity, midlife may be characterized by neural stability, with decline and decreased interindividual stability, related to loss of parieto-frontal integrity, past age 60.

  • 16.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Midlife level and 15-year changes in general cognitive ability in a sample of men: the role of education, early adult ability, BMI, and pulse pressure2017In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 61, 78-84 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to examine determinants of midlife level and long-term changes in a general cog-nitive ability (g) factor. The data were from a Swedish sample of men (n=262;M=49.9years,SD=4.0)forwhich cognitive (conscript) test scores at age 18 were retrieved. In midlife the men completed a battery of cog-nitive tests that was re-administered atfive-year intervals up to 15 years after the baseline assessment. Second-order latent growth curve models were used to examine predictors of midlife level and longitudinal changes in agfactor reflecting four cognitive measures (WAIS-R Block Design, vocabulary, action recall, and wordfluency).The results showed education (years of schooling) to be related to ability level (intercept) before (β= 0.71),but not after (β= 0.09), adjustment of an early adult (age 18)gfactor (reflecting three different cognitive mea-sures)that washighly predictive of midlifeglevel (adjustedβ= 0.89). Neither education norgat age 18 (or mid-lifeglevel) was related to long-term changes ing, though. Conversely,baseline age, BMI, and pulse pressure wereunrelated to midlife ability level, but higher baseline age, higher BMI and higher pulse pressure in midlife werepredictive of cognitive decline. Thus, whereas higher levels of initial ability or educational attainment do not ap-pear to buffer against onset of age-related decline ingin midlife and young-old age, maintenance of lower levelsof pulse pressure and body weight could possibly have such an effect. However, further research is required toevaluate the mechanisms behind the observed relationships of the targeted variables and cognitive decline.

  • 17.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Lifestyle factors, genetics and cognitive aging2008In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, International Journal of Psychology, Vol. 43, 477-477 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mild head injury: Relation to cognition, dementia, fatigue & genetics2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Following a mild head injury (MHI), a person may report a variety of symptoms such as headache, memory disturbance, dizziness, and concentration difficulties. For most persons the symptoms are transient, but some suffer persistent symptoms that can have a major impact on everyday life. It remains poorly understood why some but not others have full recovery after MHI. The aim of this thesis was to investigate outcomes after MHI, with particular focus on neuropsychological functioning, fatigue, and risk of dementia. A related objective was to examine the potential association of a genetic factor, Apolipoprotein (APOE), with MHI outcome. The APOE є4 allele has been associated with unfavorable outcomes after moderate or severe head injury, but little is known about its influence on outcome after MHI. In Study I and II, data from a population-based longitudinal study were used to compare neuropsychological functioning and fatigue before and after MHI. The results from Study I showed a post-injury decline in neuropsychological performance for є4-carriers, whereas the performance remained unchanged for non-carriers. Study II showed an increase in self-reported fatigue after MHI for both є4-carriers and non-carriers, with a more pronounced increase for є4-carriers. In Study III, a case-control study was conducted to examine whether a history of MHI increased the risk of developing dementia later in life. It was found that MHI alone did not increase the risk, but the combination of MHI and APOE є4 was associated with increased risk of dementia. Taken together, the studies generally indicate a positive outcome after MHI, but in combination with APOE є4 even mild head injury may lead to long-lasting negative outcomes. Consideration of pre-injury level of functioning and genetic factors seems critical for a complete understanding of the impact of MHI.

  • 19.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. CEDAR.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Percieved loneliness and risk of dementia2016In: Percieved loneliness and risk of dementia, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Bergdahl, M
    Public Dental Service Competence Centre of Northern Norway (TkNN), PB 2406, N-9271, Norway .
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Cognitive status in persons with amalgam-related complaints2010In: Journal of Dental Research, ISSN 0022-0345, E-ISSN 1544-0591, Vol. 89, no 11, 1236-1240 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-reported cognitive symptoms are frequent in persons with amalgam-related complaints, but few studies have focused on their cognitive function. The aim was to examine a symptom profile and whether participants with amalgam-related complaints have cognitive deficits in comparison with control individuals. We drew 342 participants with amalgam-related complaints and 342 one-to-one matched control individuals from a longitudinal population-based study. For 81 of the participants with amalgam-related complaints and controls, data were available approximately five years before the onset of complaints, making a longitudinal analysis possible. All participants were assessed by a self-reported health questionnaire and a comprehensive cognitive test battery. The participants with amalgam-related complaints reported more symptoms, mainly musculoskeletal and neuropsychological, compared with control individuals (p < 0.001). The results revealed no significant difference between the amalgam and control group, either cross-sectionally or longitudinally, for any of the cognitive tests. These results suggest that cognitive decline is not associated with amalgam-related complaints.

  • 21.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. CEDAR.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Nyberg, Lars
    Bergdahl, Maud
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Amalgam-related complaints and cognition2011In: Dental Abstracts, Vol. 56, no 2, 83- p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. CEDAR.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Nyberg, Lars
    Bergdahl, Maud
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Amalgam-related complaints and life events2011In: Dental Abstracts, Vol. 56, no 5, 261-262 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Bergdahl, Maud
    Institute of Clinical Dentistry, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Stressful negative life events and amalgam-related complaints2011In: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 39, no 1, 12-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:  The role of stressful life events in the onset of self-reported amalgam-related complaints is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between life events and amalgam-related complaints.

    Method:  The participants were selected from a longitudinal population-based study. One-to-one matching of 337 participants with amalgam-related complaints to 337 participants without such complaints was performed. For 81 of the participants with amalgam-related complaints and their matched controls, data was also available approximately 5 years before the onset of complaints, making longitudinal analysis possible. All participants completed questionnaires assessing the occurrence of 55 life events.

    Results:  The results showed that many participants with amalgam-related complaints experienced negative life events before and at the onset of amalgam-related complaints. They also reported more unexpected and uncontrollable events difficult to adjust to in comparison with controls. The groups did not differ on positive or neutral life events. Somatic illness or surgical operation was the most common life event. Death of a very close family member and a major change in financial situation were also commonly reported.

    Conclusions:  This study indicates that adverse negative life events could play a vital role in understanding and explaining amalgam-related complaints.

  • 24.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Cruts, M.
    Depatrment of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Van Broeckhoven, C.
    Depatrment of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    APOE influences on neurosychological function after mild head injury: within-person comparisons2004In: Neurology, ISSN 0028-3878, E-ISSN 1526-632X, Vol. 62, no 11, 1963-1966 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the relationship between neuropsychological outcome following mild head injury (MHI) and APOE genotype.

    Methods: Data from a population-based longitudinal study (n = 3,500) were used to identify 34 adults who experienced MHI during the course of the study. Their pre- and postinjury performances on a battery of nine neuropsychological tests were compared within person, and the postinjury performance was compared with that of age- and gender-matched control subjects.

    Results: The within-person comparisons showed that participants with at least oneAPOE ε4 allele (n = 11) had a significantly decreased postinjury performance on three of the tests, whereas the postinjury performance for APOE ε4-negative participants (n = 23) was unchanged. There was no significant difference in postinjury performance between participants with/without the ε4 allele, and neither group was impaired relative to controls.

    Conclusions: APOE genotype may influence the outcome following an MHI. Pre/postinjury within-person comparisons seem more sensitive than control group comparisons for detecting injury-related effects.

  • 25.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Cruts, M.
    Depatrment of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    van Broeckhoven, C.
    Depatrment of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Fatigue before and after mild traumatic brain injury: Pre-post-injury comparisons in relation to Apolipoprotein E2007In: Brain Injury, ISSN 0269-9052, E-ISSN 1362-301X, Vol. 21, no 10, 1049-1054 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Primary objective: To assess the incidence of fatigue for persons following a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and to evaluate the relationship between fatigue and APOE genotype. As fatigue is often found to be influenced by anxiety, depression and sleep disturbance, these factors were also measured. Methods and procedures: Thirty-one persons who sustained a MTBI were drawn from a population-based longitudinal study. Each person who sustained a MTBI was matched by age, gender, education and APOE genotype with two non-head injury controls. Self-reported pre- and post-injury incidence of fatigue, anxiety, depression and sleep disturbance was compared within-group and between groups. Results: For the MTBI group, incidence of fatigue was almost twice as common post- than pre-injury, whereas there was no corresponding change in a non-injured control group. Within the MTBI-group, post-injury fatigue was particularly common for carriers of the APOE ε4 allele. Conclusions: Fatigue is common sequela after a MTBI and especially pronounced for carriers of the APOE ε4 allele.

  • 26.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Cruts, M.
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Van Broeckhoven, C.
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Increased risk of dementia following mild head injury for carriers but not for non-carriers of the APOE ε4 allele2007In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 19, no 1, 159-165 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE) and head injury are risk factors for dementia diseases, and may act synergistically to further increase the risk. The aim of this study was to examine the association between mild head injury, APOE and dementia.

    Methods: Data were obtained from the Betula prospective population-based study of aging, memory, and health. The study included 543 participants in the age range 40–85 years, free of dementia at baseline, who were followed up within a 5-year interval. Dementia was classified using DSM-IV criteria. Information on previous head injury was obtained through screening of the participants' answers to health questionnaires at baseline and at follow-up.

    Results: Subjects with head injury but without APOE ε4 had no increased risk of dementia. Subjects with APOE ε4 had an increased risk and those with both APOE ε4 and head injury had the highest risk of dementia (odds ratio = 5.2).

    Conclusions: APOE ε4 constitutes a risk factor for dementia, mild injury in isolation does not increase the risk, but head injury in combination with the APOE ε4 leads to increased risk of dementia.

  • 27.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Cognitive performance before and after mild head injury.2002In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. Suppl, no B77, 60- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    APOE influences in neuropsychological function after mild head injury: Within-person comparisons - Reply2004In: Neurology, ISSN 0028-3878, E-ISSN 1526-632X, Vol. 63, 2460- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stressful life events are not associated with development of dementia.2014In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 26, 147-154 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The impact of stressful life events as a risk factor of dementia diseases is inconclusive. We sought to determine whether stressful negative life events are associated with incidental dementia in a population-based study with long-term follow-up. We also tested the hypothesis that the occurrence of positive life events could mitigate or overcome the possible adverse effects of negative life events on dementia conversion.

    Methods: The study involved 2,462 dementia-free participants aged 55 years and older. Information on life events was ascertained at baseline from a comprehensive Life Event Inventory, which included 56 questions about specific life events. For each life event, the emotional impact (both positive and negative) and emotional adjustment were asked for.

    Results: During follow-up, 423 participants developed dementia; of these, 240 developed Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cox regression analysis showed no association between the total number of negative life events and the incidence of dementia when adjusted solely for age and gender (hazard ratio = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.92-1.02), or with multiple adjustments for a range of covariates (hazard ratio = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.01). Similarly, neither emotional impact nor emotional adjustment to these life events was associated with incident dementia. A separate analysis of AD did not alter the results.

    Conclusions: The result of this population-based study finds no association between negative or positive life events and dementia. Accordingly, our results reject the hypothesis that stressful life events trigger the onset of dementia diseases.

  • 30.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. CEDAR.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Marital status and risk of dementia: a nationwide population-based prospective study2015In: Marital status and risk of dementia: a nationwide population-based prospective study, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Kotyrlo, Elena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Marital status and risk of dementia: a nationwide population-based prospective study from Sweden2016In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6, no 1, e008565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine the association between marital status and dementia in a cohort of young-old (50-64) and middle-old (65-74) adults, and also whether this may differ by gender. Design: Prospective population-based study with follow-up time of up to 10 years. Setting: Swedish national register-based study. Participants: 2 288 489 individuals, aged 5074 years, without prior dementia diagnosis at baseline. Dementia was identified using the Swedish National Patient Register and the Cause of Death Register. Outcome measures: The influence of marital status on dementia was analysed using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted stepwise for multiple covariates (model 1: adjusted for age and gender; and model 2: additionally adjusted for having adult children, education, income and prior cardiovascular disease). Results: During follow-up, 31 572 individuals in the study were identified as demented. Cox regression showed each non-married subcategory to be associated with a significantly higher risk of dementia than the married group, with the highest risk observed among people in the young-old age group, especially among those who were divorced or single (HRs 1.79 vs 1.71, fully adjusted model). Analyses stratified by gender showed gender differences in the young-old group, with indications of divorced men having a higher relative risk compared with divorced women (HRs 2.1 vs 1.7, only-age adjusted model). However, in the fully adjusted model, these differences were attenuated and there was no longer any significant difference between male and female participants. Conclusions: Our results suggest that those living alone as non-marrieds may be at risk for early-onset and late-onset dementia. Although more research is needed to understand the underlying mechanism by which marital status is associated with dementia, this suggests that social relationships should be taken seriously as a risk factor for dementia and that social-based interventions may provide an opportunity to reduce the overall dementia risk.

  • 32.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Mousavi-Nasab, Hossein
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    The relationship between marital and parental status and the risk of dementia2014In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 26, no 5, 749-757 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study examines the association between marital and parental status and their individual and combined effect on risk of dementia diseases in a population-based longitudinal study while controlling for a range of potential confounders, including social networks and exposure to stressful negative life events. Methods: A total of 1,609 participants without dementia, aged 65 years and over, were followed for an average period of 8.6 years (SD = 4.8). During follow-up, 354 participants were diagnosed with dementia. Cox regression was used to investigate the effect of marital and parental status on risk of dementia. Results: In univariate Cox regression models (adjusted for age as time scale), widowed (hazard ratio (HR) 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-1.78), and not having children (HR 1.54, 95% CI = 1.15-2.06) were significantly associated with incident dementia. In multivariate analyses that included simultaneously marital and parental status and covariates that were found to be significant in univariate models (p < 0.10), the HR was 1.30 (95% CI = 1.01-1.66) for widowed, and 1.51 (95% CI = 1.08-2.10) for those not having children. Finally, a group of four combined factors was constructed: married parents (reference), married without children, widowed parents, and widowed without children. The combined effect revealed a 1.3 times higher risk (95% CI = 1.03-1.76) of dementia in widow parents, and a 2.2 times higher risk (95% CI = 1.36-3.60) in widowed persons without children, in relation to married parents. No significant difference was observed for those being married and without children. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that marital- and parental status are important risk factors for developing dementia, with especially increased risk in those being both widowed and without children.

  • 33.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Mousavi-Nasab, SM Hossein
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Relationship between marital and parental status and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease2013In: Alzheimer's & Dementia, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 9, no 4, Supplement, P631- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is increasing evidence that social network factors may affect risk of developing dementia. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between marital and parental status separately and their combined effect on the risk of incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: A total of 1707 members of a population-based prospective cohort study aged 65 and over were followed for an average period of 9.5 years. During follow-up, 393 participants were diagnosed with dementia, including 221 of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Age, sex, education, smoking, vascular diseases, depressive symptoms, and stressful negative life events were used as covariates. Results: Cox logistic regression revealed that unmarried have a greater incidence of dementia and AD compared to married. Participants that were childless were also more likely to develop dementia and AD than those who were parents. Examining the combined effects of marital and parental status revealed that the already negative effect of being unmarried was further enhanced if the individuals were also childless. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that both marital and parental statuses are associated with risk of dementia and that the effect of marital status need to be examined while taking into account parenthood. Further studies are needed to confirm our finding and to explore the mechanisms underlying this association.

1 - 33 of 33
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