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  • 1.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Exploring gender stereotypes about interpersonal behavior and personality factors using digital matched-guise techniques2019In: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 47, no 8, article id e8150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study explores gender stereotypes among Swedish university students (n=101) studying a course in psychology, using a matched-guise experimental design. The gender identity of a speaker in a dialogue, manifested by voice, was digitally manipulated to sound male or female. Responses to the recordings indicated that an actor with a male voice was rated significantly less conscientious, agreeable, extraverted, and open to experience than the same actor with a female voice. On social behavior, there was a tendency for the actor with a male voice to be rated as more hostile than the same actor with a female voice. The study suggests that stereotype effects rather than real behavioral differences may have an impact on perceived gender differences.

  • 2.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Modern Languages.
    Apologising in British English2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis explores the form, function and sociolinguistic distribution of explicit apologies in the spoken part of the British National Corpus. The sub-corpus used for the study comprises a spoken text mass of about five million words and represents dialogue produced by more than 1700 speakers, acting in a number of different conversational settings. More than 3000 examples of apologising are included in the analysis.

    Primarily, the form and function of the apologies are examined in relation to the type of offence leading up to the speech act. Aspects such as the sincerity of the apologies and the use of additional remedial strategies other than explicit apologising are also considered. Variations in the distributions of the different types of apologies found are subsequently investigated for the two independent variables speaker social identity (gender, social class and age) and conversational setting (genre, formality and group size). The effect of the speaker-addressee relationship on the apology rate and the types of apologies produced is also examined.

    In this study, the prototypical apology, a speech act used to remedy a real or perceived offence, is only one of a number of uses of the apology form in the corpus. Other common functions of the form include discourse-managing devices such as request cues for repetition and markers of hesitation, as well as disarming devices uttered before expressing disagreement and controversial opinions.

    Among the speaker social variables investigated, age and social class are particularly important in affecting apologetic behaviour. Young and middle-class speakers favour the use of the apology form. No substantial gender differences in apologising are apparent in the corpus. I have also been able to show that large conversational groups result in frequent use of the form. Finally, analysis of the effects of the speaker-addressee relationship on the use of the speech act shows that, contrary to expectations based on Brown & Levinson’s theory of politeness, it is the powerful who tend to apologise to the powerless rather than vice versa.

    The study implies that formulaic politeness is an important linguistic marker of social class and that its use often involves control of the addressee.

  • 3.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Creating Online Community: Challenges and Solutions2013In: Cases on Professional Distance Education Degree Programs and Practices: Successes, Challenges, and Issues / [ed] Kirk P.H. Sullivan, Peter E. Czigler and Jenny M. Sullivan Hellgren, Hershey: IGI Global, 2013, 1, p. 86-111Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenges in creating a collaborative environment for online learning are great. This chapter describes some practical examples of community building in online learning contexts and discusses the effects of such activities. It draws its data from six years of online courses in English at Mid Sweden University, where the author was employed from 2003-2009 and worked with development and implementation of their Internet course program. 

  • 4.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Debating across borders2011In: Informed design of educational technologies in higher education: enhanced learning and teaching / [ed] Anders D. Olofsson and J. Ola Lindberg, Hershey PA: Information Science Reference , 2011, 1, p. 241-269Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationally, virtual world environments such as Second Life® (SL) have become accepted as platforms for innovative educational activities at many universities in recent years. One such activity includes innovative ways of students coming in contact with other students in so-called telecollaborations. The present case study explores the initial stages in an Action Research process, namely the design and initial implementation of a telecollaborative language learning activity between four universities in Second Life under the EU-funded Avalon project. The chapter describes how theoretical frameworks including the Ecology of Language Learning (van Lier, 2004), the Five Stage Model of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (Salmon, 2004) and Activity Theory (Leont'ev, 1978) were used in order to address different aspects of the design of the course. Based on questionnaire responses from students and observations, the chapter then goes on to evaluate the relative success/failure of the first course trial. Finally, the chapter discusses the implications of the lessons learnt from this pilot project on further developments of the course concept in the action research process, and goes on to discuss implications of the findings for the use of virtual worlds in more mainstream educational settings.

  • 5.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Social variation in the use of apology formulae in the British National Corpus2006In: The changing face of corpus linguistics / [ed] Antoinette Renouf & Andrew Kehoe, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2006, 1, p. 205-221Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores sociolinguistic variation in the frequency of apologising in the spoken part of the British National Corpus. The starting point for the investigation is the apology formula, represented by the lexemes afraid, apologise, apology, excuse, forgive, pardon, regret and sorry. The sub-corpus used for the study comprises a spoken text mass of about five million words and represents dialogue produced by more than 1700 speakers acting in a number of different conversational settings. More than 3000 examples of apologising form the basis for the analysis. In the BNC, young and middle-class speakers favoured the use of the apology form. Only minor gender differences in apologising were apparent. The study implies that formulaic politeness is an important linguistic marker of social class and also shows that corpus linguistic methodology can successfully be used in socio-pragmatic research.

  • 6.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Carita, Lundmark
    Högskolan i Kristianstad.
    “Let’s Keep it Informal, Guys”: a Study of the Effects of Teacher Communicative Strategies on Student Activity and Collaborative Learning in Internet-based English Courses2008In: Tidskrift för lärarutbildning och forskning, ISSN ISSN 1404-7659, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 36-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper explores the quantity and quality of communication produced by teachers in Internet courses of academic English, particularly during the initial stages of course activity. The courses are entirely conducted in virtual learning environments without physical meetings, and are part of the Bachelor programme (A–C level) of English at Mid Sweden University. The pedagogic design of the courses is based on collaborative learning, which presupposes a communicative environment with positive interdependence and interaction, where knowledge is shared by students questioning and challenging each other. Consequently, the teacher’s role in setting communicative norms which encourage an environment of high acceptance, where students feel that they can express their opinions freely, is of utmost importance. The results suggest that there are two important factors that affect student activity in the initial stages of an online course: how much the teacher communicates with the class and the manner in which he or she does so.

  • 7. Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Dyrvold, Kristian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Gregersdotter, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sheppard, Nicholas
    Mittuniversitetet.
    McIntyre, David
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Kollaborativ inlärning som startpunkt för utveckling av internetkurser inom ämnet engelska2006In: Från vision till praktik: språkutbildning och informationsteknologi / [ed] Patrik Svensson, Härnösand: Nätuniversitetet , 2006, 1, p. 215-240Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet granskar design för kollaborativ inlärning i engelska online-kurser

  • 8.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Peer-based intervention och key-stroke logging som hjälpmedel för att stimulera språkinlärning i översättningsundervisningen2005In: Forskning om undervisning i främmande språk: rapport från workshop i Växjö 10-11 juni 2004 / [ed] E. Larsson Ringqvist & I. Valfridsson, Växjö universitet: Växjö university press , 2005, 1, p. 65-75Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet undersöker 'Key-stroke logging' samt 'peer-based intervention' som vertyg för att utveckla översättning som utbildningsmoment

  • 9.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Peer-based intervention och key-stroke logging som hjälpmedel för att stimulera språkinlärning i översättningsundervisning2005In: Forskning om undervisning i främmande språk: rapport från workshop i Växjö 10-11 juni 2004 / [ed] Eva Larsson Ringqvist och Ingela Valfridsson, Växjö: Växjö University Press , 2005, p. 65-75Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Supporting Learning Reflection in the Language Translation Class2009In: International Journal of Information Communication Technologies and Human Development, ISSN 1935-5661, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 26-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a case study a University class undertook a translation from Swedish to English in a keystroke logging environment and then replayed their translations in pairs while discussing their thought processes when undertaking the translations, and why they made particular choices and changes to their translations.Computer keystroke logging coupled with peer-based intervention assisted the students in discussing how they worked with their translations, and enabled them to see how their ideas relating to the translation developed as they worked with the text. The process showed that Computer Keystroke logging coupled with peer-based intervention has potential to (1) support student reflection and discussion around their translation tasks, and (2) enhance student motivation and enthusiasm for translation.

  • 11.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Molka-Danielsen, Judith
    Molde University, Norway.
    Future Directions for Learning in Virtual Worlds2009In: Learning and Teaching in the Virtual World of Second Life / [ed] Molka-Danielsen, J & M. Deutschmann, Trondheim: Tapir Academic Press , 2009, 1, p. 185-190Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some may claim that this book has been a showcase of case studies, without common thread. However, the common goal that runs through each of these cases is the focus on learning and the roles of learners and educators in learning activities. Do virtual worlds assist learning and do they create new opportunities? The answer from these analyses is “Yes” and this book demonstrates “how” to make use of the affordances of the virtual word of Second Life as it exists today. Yet, many questions remain both for practitioners and researchers. To give some examples: On what principles should learners’ tasks be designed, who are doing research on education in virtual worlds and what is the future of virtual worlds in a learning context? In this chapter we attempt to address some of these issues.

  • 12.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Molka-Danielsen, Judith
    Molde University, Norway.
    Panichi, Luisa
    Pisa University.
    Analyzing the Design of Telecollaboration in Second Life Using Activity Theory2011In: Teaching and Learning in 3D Immersive Worlds: Pedagogical Models and Constructivist Approaches / [ed] Cheney, A. & R. L. Sanders, Hershey: IGI Global , 2011, 1, p. 151-168Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationally, Second Life (SL) has in recent years become accepted as a platform for innovative educational activities at many universities. One such activity includes ways of enabling students coming in contact with other students in so-called telecollaboration. Using an Activity Theoretical model, the present case study describes the design and initial implementation of a telecollaborative learning activity between four universities in Second Life. The four student groups were all attending quite different programs and the main challenges encountered were that of accommodating the different needs taking the diverse motivational objectives of each group into account, and making use of affordances the tool (SL) in this pursuit.

  • 13.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Molka-Danielsen, Judith
    Molde university.
    Richardson, David
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Carter, Bryan
    University of Central Missouri.
    Teaching Language in a Virtual World2007In: / [ed] Laurence Habib, Trondheim: Tapir University Press , 2007, p. 97-109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the development of a course for teaching a language in a virtual world. In particular we evaluated the' Course entitled, "Social English for Doctoral Students" that took place in the spring semester of 2007. This course activated learners and educators using a variety of support media including Marratech, an online conferencing system, and Second Life, a virtual world platform. The pilot course formed part of a one year project sponsored by The Norwegian University program(NUV) entitled "A Virtual Platform for Life Long Learning". In addition to the description of the course framework, we contribute with the development of an evaluation framework that may be applied to other courses taught in Second Life.

  • 14.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Nykvist, Bengt
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Enhancement of In-Service Teachers Training Programme through Mobile Phones in Tanzania2009In: E-learning Africa, 4th International Conference on ICT for Development, Education and Training / [ed] Rebecca Stromeyer, 2009, p. 17-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spurred on by the development of ICT technologies, learning and teaching practices are changing in Africa as well as in the rest of the world. This change is particularly evident in distance learning, where computers, but also other technical devices, are opening up for new modes of distributing learning materials and also for enabling communication between course participants. In an ongoing project in Tanzania for in-service education of secondary school teachers, the use of mobile phones for teaching and learning, both for communication and as media players, is tested.

     In Tanzania the greater number of primary school leavers has created a shortage of secondary school teachers with adequate capacity. At the same time, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training in Tanzania (MoEVT) has developed an ICT Policy for Basic Education. The MoEVT believes that the use of ICT in teaching and learning as well as administration and management provides a powerful tool to achieve educational and national development objectives. The project "ICT-Based In-Service Teacher Education for Secondary School Teacher in Tanzania" (ICT BITES) is one such initiative. It was set up to deal with the above mentioned shortage of qualified teachers. The project was initiated by MoEVT and is funded by SPIDER, The Swedish Program for ICT in Developing Regions.  

    There is a special focus in the project on in-service education of "licensed teachers", teachers with only a few weeks of formal teacher education. A number of these licensed teachers are enrolled in an education program run by the Open University of Tanzania. It is planned that 50 students in this group shall participate in a project pilot, using ICT, including mobile phones, to increase their capacity as teachers. 

  • 15.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Nykvist, Bengt
    Mittuniversitetet.
    M-learning to empower the learner and to facilitate informal study groups2010In: eLearning Africa 2010, 5th International Conference on ICT for Development, Education and Training / [ed] Rebecca Stromeyer, Berlin: ICWE GmbH , 2010, p. 356-359Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present the findings from a m-learning project with teacher trainess at the Open University of Tanzania.

  • 16. Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Panichi, Luisa
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Schneider, Christel
    Virtual Learning, Real Heritage Benefits and Challenges of VirtualWorlds for the Learning of Indigenous Minority Languages2010In: Conference Proceedings International Conference ICT for Language Learning3rd Conference Edition, Florence: Pixel , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will present the Island of Avalon Learning in the virtual world of Second Life® (SL). Avalon Learning has been created under the ongoing European projectAVALON for the design, testing and implementation of language teaching and learning in virtual worlds. Avalon (Access to Virtual and Action Learning live ONline) is a 2 year multilateral project funded under the EU EACEA Life Long Learning Programme (LLP) and runs until December 2010. The 10 participating European partners include 5 state funded universities (University of Manchester, University of Vienna, University of Pisa, Molde University College and Mid Sweden University) and 5 other public and private organisations (Verein Grenzenlos — Interkultureller Austausch, Verein Offenes Lernen — Sektion ‘TALKADEMY’, ICC International Language Network (International Certificate Conference e. V.), LANCELOT School GmbH and the British Council) operating in the following areas: language education, teacher training, intercultural training, language testing and certification, online education, publishing, business communication and networking, design of 3D environments and language learning in virtual worlds.The project is also associated with 5 other universities and 11 smaller educational institutions. The project is a transversal programme which targets language learners from the Leonardo da Vinci, Erasmus and Grundtvig communities. Not only does the project aim to create a platform in which these diverse learning communities can come together but it also has a particular interest in providing access to technology and language learning to learners in remote locations. The ultimate aim of the project is to create both a virtual environment and a sustainable community of practitioners and users which will outlive the project itself. Recent literature in the field endorses virtual worlds as a particularly appropriate platform for the development of oral language proficiency in distance education, collaborative and intercultural learning contexts and vocational training. The free client programme of Second Life®, for example, is a 3D virtual world accessible via the Internet and which enables its users to interact with each other through ‘Avatars’. An ‘avatar’ is the graphical representation of a computer user representing himself/herself or alter ego and communication with others is possible via both voice and text chat. Examples of learning scenarios from the Beginners Course of North Sami carried out in conjunction with the Avalon project will help to illustrate some of the benefits and challenges of using virtual worlds for the teaching and learning of languages in general and for indigenous minority languages in particular. Some of the benefits include the provision of online synchronous communication for linguistic communities which are dispersed over vast geographical areas, the co/re-construction of cultural and linguistic identity, opportunities for authentic language contact between native, heritage and L2 learners, the unparalleled creative dimension of the platform in particular in terms of individual and collaborative building and learner movement and freedom within the environment. This paper will conclude with a discussion of some of the challenges of using virtual worlds as a distance education platform in different language education contexts and how they may be overcome.

  • 17.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Panichi, Luisa
    Pisa University, Italy.
    Instructional Design: Teacher Practice and Learning Autonomy2009In: Learning and Teaching in the Virtual World of Second Life / [ed] Judith Molka-Danielsen & Mats Deutschmann, Trondheim: Tapir Academic Press , 2009, 1, p. 24-44Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter is based on the experiences from language proficiency courses given on Kamimo education island and addresses concerns related to teacher practice in Second Life. We examine preparatory issues, task design and the teacher’s role in fostering learner autonomy in Second Life. Although the chapter draws mainly on experiences from and reflections in the domain of language education, it has general pedagogical implications for teaching in SL.

  • 18.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Panichi, Luisa
    Pisa University, Itlay.
    Talking into empty space?: signalling involvement in a virtual language classroom in Second Life2009In: Language Awareness, ISSN 0965-8416, Vol. 18, no 3-4, p. 310-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we compare the first and the last sessions from an online oral proficiencycourse aimed at doctoral students conducted in the virtual world Second Life. The study attempts to identify how supportive moves made by the teacher encourage learners to engage with language, and what type of linguistic behaviour in the learners leads to engagement in others. We compare overall differences in terms of floor space and turn-taking patterns, and also conduct a more in-depth discourse analysis of parts of the sessions focusing on supportive moves such as back-channelling and elicitors. There are indications that the supportive linguistic behaviour of teachers is important in increasing learner engagement. In our studywe are also able to observe a change in student linguistic behaviour between the first and the last sessions with students becoming more active in signalling involvement as the course progresses. Finally, by illustrating some of the language awareness issues that arise in online environments, we hope to contribute to the understanding of the dynamics of online communication.

  • 19.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Panichi, Luisa
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Towards Models for Designing Language Learning in Virtual Worlds2013In: International Journal of Virtual and Personal Learning Environments, ISSN 1947-8518, E-ISSN 1947-8526, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 65-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents some of the overall frameworks and models for language learning that were used under Avalon (Access to Virtual and Action Learning live ONline), an EU co-funded project aimed at developing language-learning scenarios in virtual worlds. The introduction and background summarize some of the theories that constitute the starting points for the designs and are followed by a discussion of how the affordances of virtual worlds support the communicative language-learning model used in the project. The authors’ main focus then turns to pedagogic design, where the authors present the methods used during the project and some generic aspects of course designs that were developed. The article ends with a more specific look at examples of task design from the courses given under the project framework.

  • 20.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Panichi, Luisa
    Pisa University, Italy.
    Molka-Danielsen, Judith
    Molde University, Norway.
    Designing oral participation in second life: a comparative study of two language proficiency courses2009In: ReCALL, ISSN 0958-3440, E-ISSN 1474-0109, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 206-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The following paper presents two stages of an action research project involving two oral proficiency courses held in the virtual world Second Life. Course 1 was conducted during the Autumn of 2007. Based on the experiences of this course, we redesigned many aspects of it in order to improve student activity in terms of oral participation and gave the course again in Spring 2008. By analysing the recordings of four 90-minute sessions, two from each course, we were able to measure student participation based on floor space, turn lengths and turn-taking patterns, and in the study we discuss how different changes in design may have contributed to more favourable outcomes. Results seem to indicate that meaning focussed task design, which involves authenticity and collaborative elements, has a direct impact on learner participation and engagement. Furthermore, our results seem to suggest that technical and social initiations into a complex environment such as SL are important factors that have to be worked into the course design.

  • 21.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Richardson, David
    Linnaeus University.
    Framåtblick2013In: Nätbaserad utbildning: en introduktion / [ed] Stefan Hrastinski, Malmö: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 2, p. 99-102Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Richardson, David
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Framåtblick2009In: Nätbaserad utbildning: en introduktion / [ed] Stefan Hrastinski, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, 1, p. 117-121Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Identifying Identity: Using Second Life in the Teaching of Sociolinguistics for the Raising of Gender Awareness2012In: EuroCall Review, ISSN 1695-2618, Vol. 20, p. 49-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents further innovative use of virtual worlds under the pilot stages of ASSIS (A Second Step in Second Life), a project funded by Umeå University. One of the aims of the project is to make use of the affordances offered by Second Life in order to raise sociolinguistic language awareness among teacher trainees and other students studying courses in sociolinguistics. Several experiments were conducted where creative use of the avatar in combination with so-called “voice morphing” (a tool which allows the voice of the speaker to be distorted so that a male speaker can sound more feminine and vice versa) allowed students to enter the virtual world incognito in order to “experience” a different linguistic identity. Activities were conducted in cross-cultural settings involving students from Sweden and Chile. The paper presents the initial stages of development of a model for how language awareness issues can be internalised through first-hand experience in virtual worlds.

  • 24.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lagerström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Gender-Bending in Virtual Space: Using Voice-Morphing in Second Life to Raise Sociolinguistic Gender Awareness2011In: Learning a Language in Virtual Worlds: A Review of Innovation and ICT in Language Teaching Methodology, International Conference, Warsaw, 17th November 2011 / [ed] Sławomir Czepielewski, Warsaw: Warsaw Academy of Computer Science, Management and Administration , 2011, p. 54-61Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents further innovative use of virtual worlds under the pilot stages of ASSIS (A Second Step in Second Life), a project funded by Umeå University. One aim of the project is to make use of the affordances offered by Second Life in order to raise sociolinguistic language awareness among teacher trainees and other students studying sociolinguistics. Several experiments have been conducted where creative use of the avatar in combination with so-called “voice-morphing” allowed students to be exposed to, or experience different linguistic identities. In the following paper, we describe four such experiments.In the First one, we recreated a classic sociolinguistic experimental design, the so-called matched-guise test, in order to test whether our female students were evaluated differently on various personal characteristics when they appeared as male avatars. Contrary to previous match-guise studies, our results showed that all the females were more positively evaluated than all the ‘males’. However, this overall pattern was very likely a result of the poor quality of the female-to-male voice-morph. In the second experiment, students were offered the possibility of experiencing the opposite gender in a cross-cultural course setting in SL, in order to reflect over how this “gender change” affected the way they were treated in conversations. Only one student took this opportunity leaving few conclusions, except awareness of the ethically problematic aspects of such arrangements. In the third experiment, we used voice-morphing in SL to raise students’ awareness of how gender stereotypes can influence their perception of teachers. In addition to the real (male) teacher, we created two voice-morphed teacher assistant avatars in SL, one male and one female. Student evaluations showed that they were partly influenced by stereotypes and partly not. The design of the experiment was criticized by the students, however, as they felt that they had had too little time with the teacher assistants to evaluate them properly and therefore gave average ratings. In the fourth study we used similar characters as in the previous study, but in an online lecture during which the real teacher spoke as himself and also gave talks, one as his female and one as his male 55PhD student. The students listening to the lecture evaluated the female PhD student as more likeable and the male PhD student as more intelligent. After, the design was revealed and the students reflected extensively on the result and how unconscious gender stereotypes influence how we judge people. The models and studies presented here point to the potential of virtual worlds as tools for awareness-raising activities regarding gender as a social construct

  • 25.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lagerström, Anna
    Raising language awareness using digital media: methods for revealing linguistic stereotyping2016In: Research methods for creating and curating data in the digital humanities / [ed] Matt Hayler and Gabrielle Griffin, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2016, p. 158-180Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether we are aware of it or not, language is at the heart of the mechanisms leading to stereotyping and inequality. It is one of the major factors that we evaluate when we meet others, and it has long been demonstrated that individuals are judged in terms of intellect and other character traits on the basis of their language output (e.g. Cavallaro & Chin 2009). We also adapt our own language to fit underlying norms and preconceived social stereotypes when we communicate with others. In this way, we help to shape individuals through the way we treat them linguistically, and social identity expressed through language is consequently something that is renegotiated during every meeting between humans (Crawford 1995). An awareness of such mechanisms is especially important for teachers.

    In most language courses aimed at student teachers of various levels, students are given a theoretical overview of research on aspects related to identity (gender, ethnicity, social class etc.) and language. But however well intended, there is a real danger that research focussed on identifying differences also strengthens stereotypes. Further, there is a risk that such theoretical knowledge remains just that; creating the link between so-called factual knowledge – for example, theoretical frameworks and previous studies – and internalized knowledge, applicable in our everyday lives, is especially challenging. This is particularly true in the domain of language, where metalinguistic knowledge ideally should be translated into professional language practice, a key skill for anyone working with human interaction.

    The Chapter explores  preliminary experiments conducted in 2011 where we were able to use digital media in order manipulate identity variables such as gender, and describes the aim of the current project - to further develop and explore experiential pedagogic approaches aimed at raising sociolinguistic language awareness about conceived identity-related phenomena in language, and to systematically test the effects of these methods. The project thereby combines the fields of sociolinguistics, social psychology and digital humanities in an innovative way with the objective to produce tested methods for exposing and combatting linguistic stereotyping. 

  • 26.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Vu, Mai Trang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Computer assisted language learning in language education: an overview of theories, methods, and current practices2015In: Språkdidaktik: researching language teaching and learning / [ed] Eva Lindgren & Janet Enever, Umeå: Department of Language Studies, Umeå University , 2015, 1, p. 43-60Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Zelime, Justin
    University of Seychelles.
    “I used to like writing in Kreol but now I only use English”: an exploratory study of language attitudes and examination performance among primary and secondary school pupils in the Seychelles2015In: Island Studies, ISSN 1694-2582, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 36-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a colonial legacy, numerous nations have been struggling to find the role of indigenous languages in officialdom. In many such contexts, the ex-colonial language/s (often English) still represent the path to economic success and prestige, while local vernaculars are low in status and confined to less formal domains. In this respect, Creole languages have traditionally been particularly stigmatised.

    In the following article, we will examine pupils’ (year one to nine) language attitudes towards the three national languages in the Seychelles – the mother tongue Kreol Seselwa, and the two ex-colonial languages English and French – in two schools, and explore how these attitudes compare with the general performance in the national examinations. The results show that pupils in primary school are positive towards Kreol in all four literacy skill domains, and that these positive attitudes are mirrored in the P6 national examinations. In contrast, there is a clear change in attitudes towards writing and reading in Kreol, once pupils enter the secondary level; secondary school pupils do not seem to favour Kreol as a written medium. We are also able to show that the positive attitudes pupils in primary and secondary schools also hold towards English are not reflected in exam results. English together with Mathematics are the two subjects with the lowest national average grades in the P6 examinations. Finally, our results indicate that girls hold more favourable attitudes towards all the key literacy skills in all the languages investigated, and that these attitudes are reflected in the performance in the national examinations; girls outscore boys in all the language subjects and the poor performance of boys, especially in written English, is of concern. We argue that the positive attitudes and results in Kreol in primary school should be built on in order to increase general literacy in all language subjects, and that extending the role of Kreol as an academic subject into secondary levels may help in this pursuit and raise literacy levels as well as the general status of the language. Further the findings have greater implications for language-in-education policies in post-colonial contexts, some of which are discussed below. 

  • 28.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Zelime, Justin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Towards a framework for investigating Language-in-education policies in second-language medium of instruction contexts2014In: Island Studies, ISSN 1694-2582, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 68-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have shown that Second Language (L2) Medium of Instruction (MoI) policies in Africa are linked to educational inequity, substandard teaching practice, low literacy skills and poor overall academic performance. In the light of this background, this paper proposes a framework for making more thorough enquiries into questions related to L2 as MoI, L2 writing and academic success. The framework uses the Seychelles, a small island nation in the Indian Ocean, as its point of departure. Here the L1, Seychelles Creole, is used as MoI during the first two years of education and is then abruptly replaced by English – a practice model typical in the region. Given that primary six and secondary five national exams indicate that many learners have limited literacy skills in English, it is reasonable to postulate that current policies may contribute to educational inequity, especially given that the present-day system relies heavily on written examinations.

    Taking its vantage point from a Social Practice (Street, 1984) model of literacy (Purcell-Gates, Perry & Briseño, 2011), the proposed framework approaches the “problem” from several perspectives such as curriculum questions related to L2 and L1 literacy and how/whether these live up to practical student needs; the learner perspective and how external factors may affect learners’ prerequisites to acquire adequate L2 literacy skills; teaching aspects that may affect learning; the role of L1 literacy in L2 literacy development, and sociolinguistic factors such as the status of the languages in question in society. An eclectic approach is proposed in order to shed more light on the effects of L2 MoI in the Seychelles, with the ultimate aim to provide a more informed foundation for future educational policy making. The proposed framework is highly relevant for all post-colonial contexts where L2s are used as MoIs.

  • 29.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Ädel, Anneli
    Stockholms universitet.
    Garettson, Gregory
    Walker, Terry
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Introducing Mini-McCALL: a pilot version of the Mid-Sweden Corpus of Computer-Assisted Language Learning2009In: ICAME journal, ISSN 0801-5775, no 33, p. 21-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present Mini-McCALL, a 1.3-million-word corpus of computer-mediated communication in the context of online English university courses.The data consist of three types of written communication – both between students and between students and teachers – in English: discussion forum messages, e-mail messages, and documents handed in as assignments.This pilot corpus comprises the first stage of a proposed 10-million-word corpus of computer-assisted language learning based on the online English courses offered by the Department of Humanities at Mid-Sweden University (Mittuniversitetet).In what follows, we first consider e-learning – online, off-campus study,where the medium of instruction and communication involves computer technology– from a theoretical perspective, and the need for such a corpus as ours to facilitate research into this new learning environment, as well as into the language used in e-learning. We then describe the structure and content of Mini-McCALL and highlight both the research potential of the material and studiescurrently underway, as well as looking forward to the future development of the full Mid-Sweden Corpus of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (McCALL).Both Mini-McCALL and the ultimate McCALL corpus will be made freely available to the research community.

  • 30.
    Ivanov, Sergej
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Enever, Janet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Researching language-in-education policies: evidence from the Seychelles, Russia and the European Union2015In: Språkdidaktik: researching language teaching and learning / [ed] Eva Lindgren and Janet Enever, Umeå: Department of Language Studies, Umeå University , 2015, p. 85-101Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Zhao, Huahui
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Developing Peer-to-Peer Supported Reflection as a Life-Long Learning Skill: an Example from the Translation Classroom2011In: Human Development and Global Advancements through Information Communication Technologies: New Initiatives / [ed] Susheel Chhabra & Hakikur Rahman, Hershey USA: IGI publishing , 2011, 1, p. 188-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life-long learning skills have moved from being a side-affect of a formal education to skills that are explicitly trained during a university degree. In a case study a University class undertook a translation from Swedish to English in a keystroke logging environment and then replayed their translations in pairs while discussing their thought processes when undertaking the translations, and why they made particular choices and changes to their translations. Computer keystroke logging coupled with Peerbased intervention assisted the students in discussing how they worked with their translations, enabled them to see how their ideas relating to the translation developed as they worked with the text, develop reflection skills and learn from their peers. The process showed that Computer Keystroke logging coupled with Peer-based intervention has to potential to (1) support student reflection and discussion around their translation tasks, (2) enhance student motivation and enthusiasm for translation and (3) develop peer-to-peer supported reflection as a life-long learning skill.

  • 32.
    Minugh, David
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Shaw, Philip
    Stockholms universietet.
    Hincks, Rebecca
    KTH.
    Hudson, Jean
    Malmö högskola.
    Nygren, Åse
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    An Inter-University Platform for Sharing and Collaborating in English Studies: Creating SEED (Sweden's English Educational Database for tertiary education)2009In: Language and Learning: Papers from the ASLA Symposium in Stockholm, 7-8 November, 2008 / [ed] Päivi Juvonen, Uppsala: Swedish Science Press , 2009, p. 127-140Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Molka-Danielsen, Judith
    et al.
    Molde University, Norway.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Examining the Design of Learning Activities in Second Life through the Lens of Activity Theory2009In: NOKOBIT 2009 / [ed] John Krogstie, 2009, p. 1-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Second Life (SL) has in recent years become accepted as a platform for educational activities, supporting a range of activities from informal meetings to complete courses offered in the 3D world as part of a university’s curriculum (Molka-Danielsen, 2009). Learning activities within SL can be identified as a form of e-learning[1], but one which in many ways differs from more traditional set-ups in Learning Management Systems (LMS). The goals and objectives of e-learning can vary widely. But, e-learning should ideally offer innovative ways of coming in contact with students. Such innovation can give universities access to new markets such as the support of distance students or lifelong learners. At present, e-learning for many universities is practiced as blended learning, and implemented more commonly through university administered LMSs. Studies support that most teachers do not innovate or change their way of teaching when adopting LMS systems. They use the LMS in the delivery of course content, but do not have learning activities that take advantage of the LMS functions that activate students or create relationships within groups. Similarly we hypothesize that teachers that are new adopters of SL may attempt to replicate real world classroom activities, instead of designing learning activities that take advantage of the pedagogic aspects of the SL environment. Such learning systems fail to support social constructivist pedagogies and as such the value to the students may be diminished. In this paper, we use the theoretical lens of Activity Theory to examine the operational mechanisms behind this issue.

    [1] To give a more general definition, e-learning is the mediation of learning through mediating artifacts such as information communication technology (ICT).

  • 34.
    Molka-Danielsen, Judith
    et al.
    Molde University, Norway.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Learning and Teaching in the Virtual World of Second Life2009 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The book disseminates the experiences and lessons learned in various educational projects in Second Life.

  • 35.
    Molka-Danielsen, Judith
    et al.
    Molde University College, Norway.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Panichi, Luisa
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Designing Transient Learning Spaces in Second Life: a case study based on the Kamimo experience2009In: Designs for Learning, ISSN 1654-7608, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 22-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the grant “Virtual Campus for Life Long Learning” (NUV, 2007), we have gained experience in the design and building of a virtual island or “sim” in Second Life for the purpose of education.  This paper discusses the virtual representations, tools, context and spaces used in courses. While SL can replicate the classroom lecture, it gives further opportunities for interactive and active teaching as learning activities can be in dispersed and diversified virtual spaces. These are transient learning spaces because participants, activities and representations are in frequent change. Designing transient learning spaces raises different challenges and opportunities from the traditional physical classroom. Challenges include enabling new users to know where to go or how to behave. One opportunity is the ability to design and develop a new space for each course. This article will help the teacher and “sim” designers to recognize the factors of designing effective transient learning spaces.

  • 36.
    Molka-Danielsen, Judith
    et al.
    Molde university, Norway.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Panichi, Luisa
    Pisa university, Italy.
    Reward Models for Active Language Learning in 3D Virtual Worlds2010In: Proceedings of the 3rd Int. Conf. on Information Systems and Interaction Sciences (IEEE), Chengdu, China: IEEE , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Games are often used as incentive based approaches in learning a foreign language. A common part of DVD based toolkits; for example, include vocabulary, sound clips of the target language, exercises for learners to record their own voice, and games. The games can be matching exercises involving sound, text and images. What is missing from such standalone tools are other active speakers. Chat rooms can somewhat address this, but students often meet other students at the same level. In contrast, the 3D multi user virtual environment (MUVE) of Second Life, also referred to as a virtual world, offers social context that can allow for voice and text communication for language learning, often with native speakers of the target language. Reward models in such social contexts can have greater effect on the engagement and motivation of language learners. This article first presents a literature review of reward models used in learning and teaching in virtual worlds. We secondly identify the elements that need to be included in a reward model for active language learning in Second Life. We describe the stakeholders’ perspectives (educators and students) and suggest how the model should be integrated into the design of the virtual island or “sim” and into a course design.

  • 37.
    Panichi, Luisa
    et al.
    Hull University, England and Pisa University, Italy.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Language learning in virtual worlds: Research issues and methods2012In: Researching Online Foreign Language Interaction and Exchange: Theories, Methods and Challenges / [ed] Dooly, Melinda & Robert O'Dowd, Bern: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2012, 1, p. 205-232Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter addresses three central issues related to research into the use of virtual world environments for language learning, namely the increasing interest in such environments by educational communities and bodies, the nature of communication and human interaction in educational processes in these environments and the methods and tools currently at disposal for investigation.

    The first part of the chapter gives an overview of the present status of virtual worlds in language education and discusses current best practice models. Why are educators opting for this particular type of platform?  In what way does it differ from other CMC tools and face-to-face learning? Can it be classified as a multimodal environment or is it something different again? What is the added educational value, i.e. the special affordances and situations that these types of environments represent both for teachers and learners in terms of motivation, immersion and participation How does created identity or lack of identity (the hiding behind the avatar issue, or even manipulation of identity through the avatar) affect the learning situation and communication? What are the parallels with gaming environments?

    The second section takes up specific examples of research fields. One example is the type of research the authors already have conducted, i.e. the investigation of language pragmatic issues in an environment where traditional visual cues are more or less absent. This part also presents some viable methodological research frameworks such as Action research and Activity Theory models. The question of quantitative vs. qualitative research is also discussed.

    The final part of the chapter deals with practical and ethical issues in this type of research. Practical issues include those of data collection (i.e. tools for recording), identification of relevant data (a constant problem in this area is that often too much data is collected) and interpretation of data and contextualisation of data. Issues of identity are central here – is a female avatar the same thing as a female student, for example? Ethical issues are also addressed with particular reference to the open and anonymous nature of virtual worlds. How do we inform and get our respondents’ consent? Can an avatar sign a consent form and is it legally binding? And how can we be sure that the avatars really represent the real people they claim to represent? 

  • 38.
    Panichi, Luisa
    et al.
    Pisa University, Italy.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Molka-Danielsen, Judith
    Molde University, Norway.
    Virtual Worlds for Language Learning and Intercultural Exchange: Is it for real?2010In: Telecollaboration 2.0 / [ed] Sarah Guth & Francesca Helm, Bern: Peter lang , 2010, 1, p. 165-198Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current debate in education suggests the need to promote learning contexts where learners can become increasingly active in the co-construction of knowledge within their learning community. Ironically, Second Life’s potential to simulate real-life face-to-face learning brings to the forefront traditional pedagogic concerns such as teacher/learner roles, methodology, syllabus and materials design and the validity of assessment procedures.

    The challenge for educators is thus to design tasks and promote teacher-learner interaction that encourage learner engagement, participation, autonomy and creativity within the practical constraints of SL and the administrative demands of the institutions we operate in.

    Based on research and experiences taken primarily from the domain of language learning, we argue that there are several issues related to task design and teacher practice that educators need to be aware of when designing/coordinating learning activities in SL

  • 39.
    Wang, Airong
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Towards a model for mapping participation: Exploring factors affecting participation in a telecollaborative learning scenario in Second Life2013In: The JALTCALLJournal, ISSN 1832-4215, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 3-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to examine factors affecting participation in telecollaborative language courses conducted in virtual world environments. From recordings of a course in sociolinguistics conducted in Second Life (SL), we determine degrees of linguistic participation (voice and chat), and triangulate these data with questionnaire responses and observations in order to elucidate demographic, behavioural, and contextual factors that may have affected the outcomes. Findings suggest that power relations in terms of educational level, the task design (creating engagement), the presence of the teacher (evening out participation), the medium – SL (both negative and positive) and technological issues (negative) are of primary importance.

  • 40.
    Wang, Airong
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Who owns the floor?: Examining participation in a collaborative learning scenario between student teachers and active professionals in second life2014In: International Journal of Virtual and Personal Learning Environments, ISSN 1947-8518, E-ISSN 1947-8526, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 34-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effects of unequal power relations on participation in a group of student teachers and invited professionals in two collaborative workshops in Second Life. The data includes recordings, group reflections, and individual questionnaires. Participation was examined from the aspects of floor space, turn length, and utterance functions and complemented with student reflections. The results show that at a general level, the differences of floor space and turn length between the invited professionals and the students were small. Moreover, the invited professionals did more conversational management than the students, while the students performed more supportive speech acts. There were, however, individual variations.

  • 41.
    Zelime, justin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Conflicting ideologies: When the ideological Meets the Perceived and Operational- A Study of primary teachers' attitudes, perceptions and practice of Seychelles Creole (Kreol Seselwa) and English as mediums of instruction in the Seychelles Primary Schools.2018In: Norsk og internasjonal lærerutdanningsforskning: Hvor er vi? Hvor vil vi gå? Hva skal vi gjøre nå? / [ed] Kari Smith, Norway: Fagbokforlaget, 2018, p. 129-151Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper builds on Zelime & Deutschmann, 2016, where we examined language ideologies/directives in the Ideological and Formal domains of the curriculum in a multilingual postcolonial context – the Seychelles. Our overall conclusion from this work was that there was a clear mismatch between the roles that different languages were ascribed in these two domains. In this paper we look at manifestations of the Ideological and Formal curricula in the Perceived and Operational domains of the curriculum, more specifically, the language beliefs, attitudes and classroom practices of primary school teachers. We base our findings on questionnaire answers from 142 respondents in 22 primary schools, coupled with classroom observations and teacher interviews. The Seychelles has a fairly typical postcolonial language-in-education system and follows a transitional model of medium of instruction (hereafter MoI). In this system children are taught in Kreol Seselwa (hereafter K.S.), the mother tongue of the vast majority, during the first two years of schooling after which it is replaced by English. Officially, K.S. retains its role as a “support language”, but in reality, controversies surround this practice. Our results indicate that while K.S. plays a central role in the everyday lives of the teachers, they are surprisingly negative to its role in education. The majority want to see it removed altogether and replaced by an English-only model. At the same time most teachers also acknowledge the importance of K.S. as a support language. Using a framework of postcolonial theory, we try to explain this inconsistency.

  • 42.
    Zelime, Justin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Revisiting the Trilingual Language-in-Education policy in the Seychelles National Curriculum Framework and Subject Curricula: Intentions and Practice2016In: Island Studies, Indian Ocean/Océan Indien, ISSN 1694-2582, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 50-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The policy documents of a country’s education system can provide evidence of that particular country’s vision for its people’s socio-economic, socio-cultural and academic development. Such documents can also say much about the power relations between different languages that might be represented within it. Educators, policy makers, educational leaders, teachers, learners and parents are some key players directly or indirectly affected by these policy documents. Using Critical Discourse Analysis and Spolsky’s (2004, 2012) framework for language policy analysis, this paper investigates the trilingual language-in-education policy in the Seychelles National Curriculum Framework (2013) and three Subject Curricula (English, Kreol Seselwa and French), with the aim to explore how the documents relate at the levels of policy planning, implementation and practice. Our findings reveal that there are discrepancies between the overarching Curriculum Framework, where all three national languages are given central roles and equal status, and the Subject Curricula, where clear differences in the power and functions of the languages emerge. Further, on a more pragmatic level, it is of concern that the current policy documents do not explicitly acknowledge the role of the language instruction as a vehicle for learning when describing learning goals and terminal objectives – a good understanding of English (the current L2 medium of instruction) is a prerequisite for succeeding in education. Further, the lack of attention to the question of L2 writing literacy and the fact that Seychellois students have to become fairly advanced English writers at an early age if they want to communicate their knowledge across the curriculum is particularly disconcerting.

     

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