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  • 1.
    Dahlbäck, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish Polar Research Secretariat.
    van der Watt, Lize-Marié
    Swedish Polar Research Secretariat.
    Jagodziński, Kamil
    Arctic Centre, University of Lapland.
    Kankaanpää, Paula
    Arctic Centre, University of Lapland.
    European Arctic Initiatives Compendium: Preparatory Action, Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment of development of the Arctic2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    Eklund, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    van der Watt, Lize-Marié
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Refracting (geo)political choices in the Arctic2017Inngår i: The Polar Journal, ISSN 2154-896X, E-ISSN 2154-8978, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 86-103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Geopolitics as a field was originally intended as a theoretical modelling of the relationship between fixed geographical circumstances and political choice. Now, the field is largely dominated by critical studies. It is almost considered axiomatic to include geopolitics as a theme in descriptive and analytical studies of the Arctic in global, regional, national and local contexts. This essay aims to review the core tenets of geopolitical thought and trace the categories and distinctions between the classical and critical approaches as applied in Arctic scholarship. It draws on highlights from the Arctic policy texts of three states demonstrating how assumptions and political options in terms of Arctic geographies can be expressed in different geopolitical frameworks. It is argued that revisiting and reviewing the core categories of geopolitics and their application in Arctic affairs can contribute to a better-informed understanding of how developments in the Arctic may unfold, as well as provide insights into the different functionalities of geopolitics.

  • 3.
    Goodsite, Michael Evan
    et al.
    Department of Technology and InnovationUniversity of Southern Denmark.
    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø
    Tromsø University.
    Cassotta Pertoldi-Bianchi, Sandra
    rctic Research CentreAarhus University.
    Ren, Jingzhen
    Department of Technology and InnovationUniversity of Southern Denmark.
    van der Watt, Lize-Marié
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Johansson, Halldor
    Arctic Portal.
    The role of science diplomacy: a historical development and international legal framework of arctic research stations under conditions of climate change, post-cold war geopolitics and globalization/power transition2016Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, ISSN 2190-6483, E-ISSN 2190-6491, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 645-661Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic is undergoing transformation, where three important drivers are climate change, post-Cold War geopolitics and globalization/power transition from the rise of China. This transformation defines the nexus between science diplomacy, geopolitics, law and globalization under climate change, which is shaping the future of the Arctic and will bring considerable opportunity at national, regional and global levels. Research infrastructures (research stations both military and non-military, observation and monitoring networks) are opening access and data to new Arctic and non-Arctic players. Additional logistics hubs than those already existing are and should be established. Countries are sustaining and building new research as well as search and rescue bases/stations. Stations can be used as indicator of this transformation as well as their implications to improve cooperation, engage in multilateral rather than unilateral actions to protect the Arctic infrastructures and to improve military capabilities. These actions have started to attract also non-Arctic actors, such as China and the European Union (EU), which are developing new policies. Stations may not be developed and maintained only not only for the purpose of the scientific understanding of climatic and environmental impacts but also for function as entities that legitimize national or sovereign claims. At the nexus are the scientists that utilize the research bases and their international colleagues. Arctic/Northern bases are primarily military for historical reasons and for reasons of logistics and expertise, as historically indicated through the American presence in Alaska. This is not the same as saying that the bases are militarized—or part of some national militarization strategy in the Arctic. New steps to identify the role of stations at national, regional and global levels are needed. In this essay, we explore the implications and opportunities for these stations to act as pivots between scientific and geopolitical issues. We argue that where there is scientific collaboration, there is less risk of military conflict and that the Arctic is not “militarized” based on the international politics and science diplomacy of the Arctic.

  • 4.
    Roberts, Peder
    et al.
    Department for History of Science, Technology and Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dodds, Klaus
    Department of Geography, Royal Holloway, University of London.
    van der Watt, Lize-Marié
    Department for History of Science, Technology and Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    ''But why do you go there?': Norway and South Africa in the Antarctic during the 1950s2013Inngår i: Science, geopolitics and culture in the Polar region: Norden beyond borders / [ed] Sverker Sörlin, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2013, s. 79-107Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Roberts, Peder
    et al.
    Department for History of Science, Technology and Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    van der Watt, Lize-Marié
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum). Swedish Polar Research Secretariat.
    On past, present and future Arctic expeditions2015Inngår i: The new Arctic / [ed] Birgitta Evengård, Joan Nymand Larsen, Øyvind Paasche, Cham: Springer, 2015, s. 57-68Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today the term "Arctic expedition" conjures up images of heroic men chasing knowledge, but also personal and national glory. Geographical goals such as the North Pole, the Northwest and Northeast Passages and the discovery of new lands became major cultural touchstones during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Individuals such as Sir John Franklin, Fridtjof Nansen, and Robert E. Peary became household names. Many smaller expeditions also ventured to the Arctic from Eurasia and North America. This chapter is about how large, publicity-friendly expeditions related to smaller, more prosaic ventures, and how the term expedition is used in the present to denote everything from seasonal fieldwork conducted by scientists to one-off feats of travel. We conclude with some reflections on how Arctic expeditions may look in the future – and how the term expedition continues to carry meaning in terms of culture and memory.

  • 6.
    van der Watt, Lize-Marié
    Department of Philosophy and History, KTH Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm, Sweden.
    Return to Gondwanaland: South Africa, Antarctica, minerals and apartheid2013Inngår i: The Polar Journal, ISSN 2154-896X, E-ISSN 2154-8978, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 72-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1980s, the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) faced intense international scrutiny. A new power bloc of developing countries, utilising the language of colonialism and using the United Nations as one of their main platforms, called into question the legitimacy of the ATS. The developing countries’ lobby also challenged apartheid South Africa’s membership of the Antarctic Treaty. One of the main driving forces behind these tensions was widely acknowledged to be resources, living and mineral and the rights of access to them. The debate on mineral exploration and extraction culminated in the Convention on the Regulation of the Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities (CRAMRA). Preparations started in the mid-1970s, CRAMRA was adopted in 1988 but it never went into force. This article investigates some of the historical complexities and contingencies involved in the CRAMRA process, using South Africa as a case study. It looks at how Gondwanaland–broadly conceived–surfaced in the debates in terms of geology as well as geopolitics. “Gondwanaland” highlighted the proximity of South Africa to Antarctica, and the shared geological formations between parts of southern Africa and Antarctica implied shared mineral potential. In South Africa, debates about Antarctic mineral resources and the Antarctic Treaty were invested with concerns about the apartheid state’s status as pariah state on the one hand, and its “first world”, anti-communist status on the other. Diplomats were anxious for South Africa to maintain its membership of the Treaty, one of the few multilateral bodies that still welcomed the country. In public, fears about a “third world grab” in the Antarctic resonated with the “total onslaught” rhetoric of the South African police state.

  • 7.
    van der Watt, Lize-Marié
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum). Swedish Polar Research Secretariat.
    Riedel, Arne
    Dahlbäck, Björn
    Tedsen, Elizabeth
    Jagodziński, Kamil
    Kankaanpää, Paula
    European Arctic initiatives: capacities, gaps and future opportunities2016Inngår i: The changing Arctic and the European Union / [ed] Adam Stępień, Timo Koivurova and Paula Kankaanpää, Amsterdam: Brill Nijhoff, 2016, s. 243-295Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
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