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  • 1. Aplander, Karolina
    et al.
    Marttila, Marko
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Manner, Sophie
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Sterner, Olov
    Ellervik, Ulf
    Molecular wipes: application to epidemic keratoconjuctivitis2011In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 54, no 19, 6670-6675 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) is a severe disease of the eye, caused by members of the Adenoviridae (Ad) family, with symptoms such as keratitis, conjunctivitis, pain, edema, and reduced vision that may last for months or years. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs available to prevent or treat EKC. It was found previously that EKC-causing Ads use sialic acid as a cellular receptor and demonstrated that soluble, sialic acid-containing molecules can prevent infection. In this study, multivalent sialic acid constructs based on 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PDA) have been synthesized, and these constructs are shown to be efficient inhibitors of Ad binding (IC(50) = 0.9 mu M) and Ad infectivity (IC(50) = 0.7 mu M). The mechanism of action is to aggregate virus particles and thereby prevent them from binding to ocular cells. Such formulations may be used for topical treatment of adenovirus-caused EKC.

  • 2.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Adenovirus E3 protein modulates leukocyte functions2013In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 110, no 50, 19976-19977 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Adenovirus receptors: implications for targeting of viral vectors2012In: TIPS - Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, ISSN 0165-6147, E-ISSN 1873-3735, Vol. 33, no 8, 442-448 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer, cardiovascular disease, and infectious diseases are all global health threats. To combat these diseases with gene therapies, adenovirus-based vectors have been developed. Although certain clinical trials appear successful, there is an obvious need to improve the efficacy of most adenovirus-based vectors. For the most commonly used vector (based on type 5; Ad5), a main problem is its accumulation in the liver, which can be attributed to interactions with specific host factors. The diverse tropism for types other than Ad5 implies that vectors based on alternative types could have advantages. The numerous interactions of different adenoviruses with host molecules - such as the recently identified desmoglein-2 receptor - may cause novel and unexpected obstacles, but also may provide possibilities for vectors based on alternative types. This review provides an update of new and previously known molecules that mediate cellular attachment of human adenoviruses and discusses how these may influence the targeting of adenovirus-based vectors.

  • 4.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Adenovirus receptors: implications for tropism, treatment and targeting2009In: Reviews in Medical Virology, ISSN 1052-9276, E-ISSN 1099-1654, Vol. 19, no 3, 165-178 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adenoviruses (Ads) are the most frequently used viral vectors in gene therapy and cancer therapy. Obstacles to successful clinical application include accumulation of vector and transduction in liver cells, coupled with poor transduction of target cells and tissues such as tumours. Many host molecules, including coagulation factor X, have been identified and suggested to serve as mediators of Ad liver tropism. This review summarises current knowledge concerning these molecules and the mechanisms used by Ads to bind to target cells, and considers the prospects of designing vectors that have been detargeted from the liver and retargeted to cells and tissues of interest in the context of gene therapy and cancer therapy.

  • 5.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Edlund, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Kidd, Alistair H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Wadell, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Adenovirus type 37 uses sialic acid as a cellular receptor2000In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 74, no 1, 42-48 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two cellular receptors for adenovirus, coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) alpha2, have recently been identified. In the absence of CAR, MHC-I alpha2 has been suggested to serve as a cellular attachment protein for subgenus C adenoviruses, while members from all subgenera except subgenus B have been shown to interact with CAR. We have found that adenovirus type 37 (Ad37) attachment to CAR-expressing CHO cells was no better than that to CHO cells lacking CAR expression, suggesting that CAR is not used by Ad37 during attachment. Instead, we have identified sialic acid as a third adenovirus receptor moiety. First, Ad37 attachment to both CAR-expressing CHO cells and MHC-I alpha2-expressing Daudi cells was sensitive to neuraminidase treatment, which eliminates sialic acid on the cell surface. Second, Ad37 attachment to sialic acid-expressing Pro-5 cells was more than 10-fold stronger than that to the Pro-5 subline Lec2, which is deficient in sialic acid expression. Third, neuraminidase treatment of A549 cells caused a 60% decrease in Ad37 replication in a fluorescent-focus assay. Moreover, the receptor sialoconjugate is most probably a glycoprotein rather than a ganglioside, since Ad37 attachment to sialic acid-expressing Pro-5 cells was sensitive to protease treatment. Ad37 attachment to Pro-5 cells occurs via alpha(2-->3)-linked sialic acid saccharides rather than alpha(2-->6)-linked ones, since (i) alpha(2-->3)-specific but not alpha(2-->6)-specific lectins blocked Ad37 attachment to Pro-5 cells and (ii) pretreatment of Pro-5 cells with alpha(2-->3)-specific neuraminidase resulted in decreased Ad37 binding. Taken together, these results suggest that, unlike Ad5, Ad37 makes use of alpha(2-->3)-linked sialic acid saccharides on glycoproteins for entry instead of using CAR or MHC-I alpha2.

  • 6.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Kidd, Alistair H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Edlund, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Pring-Åkerblom, Patricia
    Wadell, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Adenovirus type 37 binds to cell surface sialic acid through a charge-dependent interaction2002In: Virology, ISSN 0042-6822, E-ISSN 1096-0341, Vol. 302, no 1, 33-43 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most adenoviruses use the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) as a major cellular receptor. We have shown recently that adenovirus types 8, 19a, and 37, which are the major causes of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, use sialic acid rather than CAR as a major cellular receptor. The predicted isoelectric point of the receptor-interacting knob domain in the adenovirus fiber protein is unusually high (9.0-9.1) in type 8, 19a, and 37. The pKa of sialic acid is low, 2.6, implying a possible involvement of charge in fiber knob-sialic acid interactions. Here we show that (i) positively charged adenovirus knobs require sialic acid for efficient cell membrane interactions; (ii) viral and knob interactions with immobilized sialic acid or cell-surface sialic acid are sensitive to increased ionic strength; (iii) negatively charged molecules such as sulfated glycosaminoglycans inhibit the binding of virions to target cells in a nonspecific, charge-dependent manner; and that (iv) the ability of adenovirus knobs to interact with sialic acid correlates with the overall charge on the top surface of the respective knobs as predicted by homology modeling. Taken together, the results presented provide strong evidence for a charge mechanism during the interaction between the Ad37 fiber knob and sialic acid.

  • 7.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Kidd, Alistair H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Edlund, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Olfat, Farzad
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Wadell, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Initial interactions of subgenus D adenoviruses with A549 cellular receptors: sialic acid versus alpha(v) integrins2000In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 74, no 16, 7691-3 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selected members of the adenovirus family have been shown to interact with the coxsackie adenovirus receptor, alpha(v) integrins, and sialic acid on target cells. Initial interactions of subgenus D adenoviruses with target cells have until now been poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrate that adenovirus type 8 (Ad8), Ad19a, and Ad37 use sialic acid as a functional cellular receptor, whereas the Ad9 and Ad19 prototypes do not.

  • 8.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Mei, Ya Fang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Wadell, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Fiber genes of adenoviruses with tropism for the eye and the genital tract1997In: Virology, ISSN 0042-6822, E-ISSN 1096-0341, Vol. 227, no 1, 239-244 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have characterized the fibergenes of adenovirus type 19p (Ad19p), Ad19a, and Ad37 by sequencing. The fiber genes of Ad19a and Ad37 are identical and only five amino acids differ comparing Ad19a/Ad37 with Ad19p. Based on the translated sequences we calculated the isoelectrical points (Ips) and found that the fiber knobs of Ad19p, Ad19a, and Ad37 together with Ad8 display the highest Ips of all so far characterized. Two regions within the fiber knob with unusually basic characteristics have been identified. Sequence alignments revealed that the corresponding regions in other fiber knobs are highly antigenic in pepscan analysis and of importance for hemagglutination. Only two positions differ in the knobs comparing Ad19a/Ad37 with Ad19p. Hence, either of these or both amino acid residues should be expected to be responsible for the observed differences in hemagglutination between Ad19p and Ad19a/Ad37. Moreover, we have found two amino acids (Ala227 and Lys252) that are unique in their respective position in Ad19p, Ad19a, Ad37, and Ad8. Three amino acids (Lys236, Lys240, and Asn251) are unique in their respective position in Ad19a and Ad37, that manifest a tropism for the genital tract. All five amino acids colocalize within one of the two basic regions.

  • 9.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Pring-Akerblom, Patricia
    Wadell, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Adenovirus type 37 uses sialic acid as a cellular receptor on Chang C cells2002In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 76, no 17, 8834-8841 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) is a severe eye infection caused mainly by adenovirus type 8 (Ad8), Ad19, and Ad37. We have shown that the EKC-causing adenoviruses use sialic acid as a cellular receptor on A549 cells instead of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor, which is used by most adenoviruses. Recently, Wu et al. (Virology 279:78-89, 2001) proposed that Ad37 uses a 50-kDa protein as a receptor on Chang C conjunctival cells and that this interaction is independent of sialic acid. According to the American Type Culture Collection, this cell line carries HeLa cell markers and should be considered to be a genital cell line. This prompted us to investigate the function of sialic acid as a cellular receptor for Ad37 in Chang C cells. In this study, we demonstrate that enzymatic removal or lectin-mediated blocking of cell surface sialic acid inhibits the binding of Ad37 virions to Chang C cells, as does soluble, virion-interacting sialic acid-containing substances. The binding was Ca2+ or Mg2+ ion independent and mediated by the knob domain of the trimeric viral fiber polypeptide. Moreover, Ad37 virions infected Chang C cells and two other genital cell lines (HeLa and SiHa) as well as a corneal cell line in a strictly sialic acid-dependent manner. From these results, we conclude that Ad37 uses sialic acid as a major receptor in cell lines derived from both genital and corneal tissues.

  • 10. Blusch, Jürgen H
    et al.
    Deryckere, François
    Windheim, Mark
    Ruzsics, Zsolt
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Adrian, Thomas
    Burgert, Hans-Gerhard
    The novel early region 3 protein E3/49K is specifically expressed by adenoviruses of subgenus D: implications for epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and adenovirus evolution2002In: Virology, ISSN 0042-6822, E-ISSN 1096-0341, Vol. 296, no 1, 94-106 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The early transcription unit 3 (E3) of adenoviruses (Ads) encodes immunomodulatory functions. We previously described a novel gene of 49K within the E3 region of Ad19a, an Ad of subgenus D that is similar to Ad8 and Ad37 causes epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC). Interestingly, 49K was reported not to be present in Ad9 and Ad17, other subgenus D Ads not causing EKC. Therefore, we investigated whether 49K is selectively expressed in EKC-causing Ads. Using specific DNA probes, we detect 49K-homologous genes in all subgenus D Ads tested. Moreover, 49K-specific antibodies recognize a high molecular weight protein in cells infected with all subgenus D serotypes irrespective of their ability to cause EKC. Sequencing of several 49K genes reveals a high homology without a distinct feature recognizable for those of EKC-associated Ad strains. Thus, E3/49K is a subgenus D specific E3 protein whose expression does not correlate with the EKC-causing phenotype and thus may rather be implicated in illnesses commonly caused by this subgenus. Interestingly, the 49K sequences of Ad19a and Ad37 are identical. To estimate the extent of the sequence identity between these two viruses, we initially sequenced the right ITR and the hexon. This analysis revealed that the right ITR of Ad19a is identical to Ad37, while the hexon sequence is Ad19p-like. This suggested that the region of identity is much larger and that Ad19a arose by recombination of Ad37 with an Ad19p-like Ad. Further sequencing mapped the crossover within the DNA binding protein. Thus, Ad19a contains a large sequence block ( approximately 13 kb), from the 100K gene to the right ITR, identical to Ad37. The implications of these findings in light of the temporal appearance of the EKC-causing Ad strains are discussed.

  • 11. Burmeister, Wim P
    et al.
    Guilligay, Delphine
    Cusack, Stephen
    Wadell, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Crystal structure of species D adenovirus fiber knobs and their sialic acid binding sites2004In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 78, no 14, 7727-7736 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adenovirus serotype 37 (Ad37) belongs to species D and can cause epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, whereas the closely related Ad19p does not. Primary cell attachment by adenoviruses is mediated through receptor binding of the knob domain of the fiber protein. The knobs of Ad37 and Ad19p differ at only two positions, Lys240Glu and Asn340Asp. We report the high-resolution crystal structures of the Ad37 and Ad19p knobs, both native and in complex with sialic acid, which has been proposed as a receptor for Ad37. Overall, the Ad37 and Ad19p knobs are very similar to previously reported knob structures, especially to that of Ad5, which binds the coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR). Ad37 and Ad19p knobs are structurally identical with the exception of the changed side chains and are structurally most similar to CAR-binding knobs (e.g., that of Ad5) rather than non-CAR-binding knobs (e.g., that of Ad3). The two mutations in Ad19p result in a partial loss of the exceptionally high positive surface charge of the Ad37 knob but do not affect sialic acid binding. This site is located on the top of the trimer and binds both alpha(2,3) and alpha(2,6)-linked sialyl-lactose, although only the sialic acid residue makes direct contact. Amino acid alignment suggests that the sialic acid binding site is conserved in several species D serotypes. Our results show that the altered viral tropism and cell binding of Ad19p relative to those of Ad37 are not explained by a different binding ability toward sialyl-lactose.

  • 12.
    Caraballo, Rémi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Saleeb, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Bauer, Johannes
    Interfaculty Institute of Biochemistry, University of Tübingen, Germany.
    Liaci, Antonio-Manuel
    Interfaculty Institute of Biochemistry, University of Tübingen, Germany.
    Chandra, Naresh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Storm, Rickard J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Frängsmyr, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Qian, Weixing
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Stehle, Thilo
    Interfaculty Institute of Biochemistry, University of Tübingen, Germany ; Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, USA.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Triazole linker-based trivalent sialic acid inhibitors of adenovirus type 37 infection of human corneal epithelial cells2015In: Organic and biomolecular chemistry, ISSN 1477-0520, E-ISSN 1477-0539, Vol. 13, no 35, 9194-9205 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adenovirus type 37 (Ad37) is one of the principal agents responsible for epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC), a severe ocular infection that remains without any available treatment. Recently, a trivalent sialic acid derivative (ME0322, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2011, 50, 6519) was shown to function as a highly potent inhibitor of Ad37, efficiently preventing the attachment of the virion to the host cells and subsequent infection. Here, new trivalent sialic acid derivatives were designed, synthesized and their inhibitory properties against Ad37 infection of the human corneal epithelial cells were investigated. In comparison to ME0322, the best compound (17a) was found to be over three orders of magnitude more potent in a cell-attachment assay (IC50 = 1.4 nM) and about 140 times more potent in a cell-infection assay (IC50 = 2.9nM). X-ray crystallographic analysis demonstrated a trivalent binding mode of all compounds to the Ad37 fiber knob. For the most potent compound ophthalmic toxicity in rabbits was investigated and it was concluded that repeated eye administration did not cause any adverse effects.

  • 13. Cupelli, Karolina
    et al.
    Müller, Steffen
    Persson, David B
    Jost, Marco
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Stehle, Thilo
    Structure of adenovirus type 21 knob in complex with CD46 reveals key differences in receptor contacts among species B adenoviruses2010In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 84, no 7, 3189-3200 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complement regulation protein CD46 is the primary attachment receptor for most species B adenoviruses (Ads). However, significant variability exists in sequence and structure among species B Ads in the CD46-binding regions, correlating with differences in affinity. Here, we report a structure-function analysis of the interaction of the species B Ad21 knob with the two N-terminal repeats SCR1 and SCR2 of CD46, CD46-D2. We have determined the structures of the Ad21 knob in its unliganded form as well as in complex with CD46-D2, and we compare the interactions with those observed for the Ad11 knob-CD46-D2 complex. Surface plasmon resonance measurements demonstrate that the affinity of Ad21 knobs for CD46-D2 is 22-fold lower than that of the Ad11 knob. The superposition of the Ad21 and Ad11 knob structures in complex with CD46-D2 reveals a substantially different binding mode, providing an explanation for the weaker binding affinity of the Ad21 knob for its receptor. A critical difference in both complex structures is that a key interaction point, the DG loop, protrudes more in the Ad21 knob than in the Ad11 knob. Therefore, the protruding DG loop does not allow CD46-D2 to approach the core of the Ad21 knob as closely as in the Ad11 knob-CD46-D2 complex. In addition, the engagement of CD46-D2 induces a conformational change in the DG loop in the Ad21 knob but not in the Ad11 knob. Our results contribute to a more profound understanding of the CD46-binding mechanism of species B Ads and have relevance for the design of more efficient gene delivery vectors.

  • 14. Greber, Urs F.
    et al.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Wadell, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Benko, Maria
    Kremer, Eric J.
    Adenoviruses: from pathogens to therapeutics: a report on the 10th International Adenovirus Meeting2013In: Cellular Microbiology, ISSN 1462-5814, E-ISSN 1462-5822, Vol. 15, no 1, 16-23 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Johansson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Jonsson, Mari
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Marttila, Marko
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Persson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Fan, Xiao-Long
    Skog, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Frängsmyr, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Wadell, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Adenoviruses use lactoferrin as a bridge for CAR-independent binding to and infection of epithelial cells2007In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 81, no 2, 954-963 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most adenoviruses bind to the coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR). Surprisingly, CAR is not expressed apically on polarized cells and is thus not easily available to viruses. Consequently, alternative mechanisms for entry of coxsackievirus and adenovirus into cells have been suggested. We have found that tear fluid promotes adenovirus infection, and we have identified human lactoferrin (HLf) as the tear fluid component responsible for this effect. HLf alone was found to promote binding of adenovirus to epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner and also infection of epithelial cells by adenovirus. HLf was also found to promote gene delivery from an adenovirus-based vector. The mechanism takes place at the binding stage and functions independently of CAR. Thus, we have identified a novel binding mechanism whereby adenovirus hijacks HLf, a component of the innate immune system, and uses it as a bridge for attachment to host cells.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Susanne M C
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wadell, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Kihlberg, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Multivalent HSA conjugates of 3 '-siallyllactose are potent inhibitors of adenoviral cell attachment and infection2005In: ChemBioChem (Print), ISSN 1439-4227, E-ISSN 1439-7633, Vol. 6, no 2, 358-364 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adenoviruses of serotypes 8, 19 and 37 are the major cause of the severe eye infection EKC (epidemic keratoconjunctivitis). In general, all adenoviruses interact with their cellular receptors through the fibre proteins, which extend from the virus particle. Recently, adenovirus type 37 (Ad37) was found to bind and infect human corneal cells through attachment to carbohydrate structures that carry terminal alpha-(2-3)-linked sialic acids. Herein we present a synthetic route to a 3'-sialyllactose derivative and corresponding multivalent HSA conjugates with varying orders of valency. The potential of these compounds as inhibitors of EKC causing adenovirus of serotype Ad37, was studied with both binding assay and an infectivity assay. The results revealed that these compounds effectively prevent Ad37 from binding to and infecting human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells. Moreover, the inhibition is significantly increased with higher orders of multivalency.

  • 17.
    Johansson, Susanne M C
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Nilsson, Emma C
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ahlskog, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Kihlberg, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Multivalent sialic acid conjugates inhibit adenovirus type 37 from binding to and infecting human corneal epithelial cells2007In: Antiviral Research, ISSN 0166-3542, E-ISSN 1872-9096, Vol. 73, no 2, 92-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adenovirus type 37 is one of the main causative agents of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. In a series of publications, we have reported that this virus uses sialic acid as a cellular receptor. Here we demonstrate in vitro that on a molar basis, multivalent sialic acid conjugated to human serum albumin prevents adenovirus type 37 from binding to and infecting human corneal epithelial cells 1000-fold more efficiently than monosaccharidic sialic acid. We also demonstrate that the extraordinary inhibitory effect of multivalent sialic acid is due to the ability of this compound to aggregate virions. We conclude that multivalent sialic acid may be a potential new antiviral drug, for use in the treatment of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis caused by the adenoviruses that use sialic acid as cellular receptor.

  • 18.
    Johansson, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Qian, Weixing
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Kihlberg, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Design, synthesis and evaluation of N-acyl modified sialic acids as inhibitors of EKC-causing adenovirusesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Johansson, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Qian, Weixing
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Guilligay, Delphine
    Crepin, Thibaut
    Cusack, Stephen
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Design, synthesis, and evaluation of N-acyl modified sialic acids as inhibitors of adenoviruses causing epidemic keratoconjunctivitis2009In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 52, no 12, 3666-3678 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adenovirus serotype Ad37 binds to and infects human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells through attachment to cellular glycoproteins carrying terminal sialic acids. By use of the crystallographic structure of the sialic acid-interacting domain of the Ad37 fiber protein in complex with sialyllactose, a set of N-acyl modified sialic acids were designed to improve binding affinity through increased hydrophobic interactions. These N-acyl modified sialic acids and their corresponding multivalent human serum albumin (HSA) conjugates were synthesized and tested in Ad37 cell binding and cell infectivity assays. Compounds bearing small substituents were as effective inhibitors as sialic acid. X-ray crystallography and overlays with the Ad37-sialyllactose complex showed that the N-acyl modified sialic acids were positioned in the same orientation as sialic acid. Their multivalent counterparts achieved a strong multivalency effect and were more effective to prevent infection than the monomers. Unfortunately, they were less active as inhibitors than multivalent sialic acid.

  • 20.
    Jonsson, Mari
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Lenman, Annasara E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Frängsmyr, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Nyberg, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Abdullahi, Mohamed
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Coagulation factors IX and X enhance binding and infection of adenovirus types 5 and 31 in human epithelial cells2009In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 83, no 8, 3816-3825 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most adenoviruses bind directly to the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) on target cells in vitro, but recent research has shown that adenoviruses can also use soluble components in body fluids for indirect binding to target cells. These mechanisms have been identified upon addressing the questions of how to de- and retarget adenovirus-based vectors for human gene and cancer therapy, but the newly identified mechanisms also suggest that the role of body fluids and their components may also be of importance for natural, primary infections. Here we demonstrate that plasma, saliva, and tear fluid promote binding and infection of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) in respiratory and ocular epithelial cells, which corresponds to the natural tropism of most adenoviruses, and that plasma promotes infection by Ad31. By using a set of binding and infection experiments, we also found that Ad5 and Ad31 require coagulation factors IX (FIX) or X (FX) or just FIX, respectively, for efficient binding and infection. The concentrations of these factors that were required for maximum binding were 1/100th of the physiological concentrations. Preincubation of virions with heparin or pretreatment of cells with heparinase I indicated that the role of cell surface heparan sulfate during FIX- and FX-mediated adenovirus binding and infection is mechanistically serotype specific. We conclude that the use of coagulation factors by adenoviruses may be of importance not only for the liver tropism seen when administering adenovirus vectors to the circulation but also during primary infections by wild-type viruses of their natural target cell types.

  • 21.
    Kumlin, Urban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Olofsson, Sigvard
    Dimock, Ken
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Sialic acid tissue distribution and influenza virus tropism2008In: Influenza and other respiratory viruses, ISSN 1750-2659, Vol. 2, no 5, 147-154 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Avian influenza A viruses exhibit a strong preference for using alpha2,3-linked sialic acid as a receptor. Until recently, the presumed lack of this receptor in human airways was believed to constitute an efficient barrier to avian influenza A virus infection of humans. Recent zoonotic outbreaks of avian influenza A virus have triggered researchers to analyse tissue distribution of sialic acid in further detail. Here, we review and extend the current knowledge about sialic acid distribution in human tissues, and discuss viruses with ocular tropism and their preference for alpha2,3-linked sialic acid.

  • 22.
    Lenman, Annasara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Liaci, A. Manuel
    Liu, Yan
    Årdahl, Carin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Rajan, Anandi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Bradford, Will
    Kaeshammer, Lisa
    Jones, Morris S.
    Frängsmyr, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Feizi, Ten
    Stehle, Thilo
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Human Adenovirus 52 Uses Sialic Acid-containing Glycoproteins and the Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor for Binding to Target Cells2015In: PLoS Pathogens, ISSN 1553-7366, E-ISSN 1553-7374, Vol. 11, no 2, e1004657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most adenoviruses attach to host cells by means of the protruding fiber protein that binds to host cells via the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) protein. Human adenovirus type 52 (HAdV-52) is one of only three gastroenteritis-causing HAdVs that are equipped with two different fiber proteins, one long and one short. Here we show, by means of virion-cell binding and infection experiments, that HAdV-52 can also attach to host cells via CAR, but most of the binding depends on sialylated glycoproteins. Glycan microarray, flow cytometry, surface plasmon resonance and ELISA analyses reveal that the terminal knob domain of the long fiber (52LFK) binds to CAR, and the knob domain of the short fiber (52SFK) binds to sialylated glycoproteins. X-ray crystallographic analysis of 52SFK in complex with 2-O-methylated sialic acid combined with functional studies of knob mutants revealed a new sialic acid binding site compared to other, known adenovirus: glycan interactions. Our findings shed light on adenovirus biology and may help to improve targeting of adenovirus-based vectors for gene therapy.

  • 23.
    Lenman, Annasara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Mueller, Steffen
    Nygren, Mari I
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Frängsmyr, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Stehle, Thilo
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Coagulation factor IX mediates serotype-specific binding of species A adenoviruses to host cells2011In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 85, no 24, 13420-13431 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human species A adenoviruses (HAdVs) comprise three serotypes: HAdV-12, -18, and -31. These viruses are common pathogens and cause systemic infections that usually involve the airways and/or intestine. In immunocompromised individuals, species A adenoviruses in general, and HAdV-31 in particular, cause life-threatening infections. By combining binding and infection experiments, we demonstrate that coagulation factor IX (FIX) efficiently enhances binding and infection by HAdV-18 and HAdV-31, but not by HAdV-12, in epithelial cells originating from the airways or intestine. This is markedly different from the mechanism for HAdV-5 and other human adenoviruses, which utilize coagulation factor X (FX) for infection of host cells. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that the affinity of the HAdV-31 hexon-FIX interaction is higher than that of the HAdV-5 hexon-FX interaction and that the half-lives of these interactions are profoundly different. Moreover, both HAdV-31-FIX and HAdV-5-FX complexes bind to heparan sulfate-containing glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on target cells, but binding studies utilizing cells expressing specific GAGs and GAG-cleaving enzymes revealed differences in GAG dependence and specificity between these two complexes. These findings add to our understanding of the intricate infection pathways used by human adenoviruses, and they may contribute to better design of HAdV-based vectors for gene and cancer therapy. Furthermore, the interaction between the HAdV-31 hexon and FIX may also serve as a target for antiviral treatment.

  • 24.
    Marttila, Marko
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Ackelind, Pär
    Persson, David
    Stehle, Thilo
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    CD46 but not CD80 or CD86 serves as a cellular receptor for selected species B adenoviruses on human epithelial cellsManuscript (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Marttila, Marko
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Persson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Gustafsson, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Liszewski, M Kathryn
    Atkinson, John P
    Wadell, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    CD46 is a cellular receptor for all species B adenoviruses except types 3 and 72005In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 79, no 22, 14429-14436 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 51 human adenovirus serotypes are divided into six species (A to F). Adenovirus serotypes from all species except species B utilize the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor for attachment to host cells in vitro. Species B adenoviruses primarily cause ocular and respiratory tract infections, but certain serotypes are also associated with renal disease. We have previously demonstrated that adenovirus type 11 (species B) uses CD46 (membrane cofactor protein) as a cellular receptor instead of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (A. Segerman et al., J. Virol. 77:9183-9191, 2003). In the present study, we found that transfection with human CD46 cDNA rendered poorly permissive Chinese hamster ovary cells more permissive to infection by all species B adenovirus serotypes except adenovirus types 3 and 7. Moreover, rabbit antiserum against human CD46 blocked or efficiently inhibited all species B serotypes except adenovirus types 3 and 7 from infecting human A549 cells. We also sequenced the gene encoding the fiber protein of adenovirus type 50 (species B) and compared it with the corresponding amino acid sequences from selected serotypes, including all other serotypes of species B. From the results obtained, we conclude that CD46 is a major cellular receptor on A549 cells for all species B adenoviruses except types 3 and 7.

  • 26.
    Mistry, Nitesh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Inoue, Hirotoshi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Jamshidi, Fariba
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Storm, Rickard J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Oberste, M. Steven
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Coxsackievirus A24 variant uses aialic acid-containing O-Linked glycoconjugates as cellular receptors on human ocular cells2011In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 85, no 21, 11283-11290 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CVA24v) is a main causative agent of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC), which is a highly contagious eye infection. Previously it has been suggested that CVA24v uses sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates as attachment receptors on corneal cells, but the nature of these receptors is poorly described. Here, we set out to characterize and identify the cellular components serving as receptors for CVA24v. Binding and infection experiments using corneal cells treated with deglycosylating enzymes or metabolic inhibitors of de novo glycosylation suggested that the receptor(s) used by CVA24v are constituted by sialylated O-linked glycans that are linked to one or more cell surface proteins but not to lipids. CVA24v bound better to mouse L929 cells overexpressing human P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) than to mock-transfected cells, suggesting that PSGL-1 is a candidate receptor for CVA24v. Finally, binding competition experiments using a library of mono- and oligosaccharides mimicking known PSGL-1 glycans suggested that CVA24v binds to Neu5Ac alpha 2,3Gal disaccharides (Neu5Ac is N-acetylneuraminic acid). These results provide further insights into the early steps of the CVA24v life cycle.

  • 27. Neu, Ursula
    et al.
    Hengel, Holger
    Blaum, Bärbel S
    Schowalter, Rachel M.
    Macejak, Dennis
    Gilberg, Michel
    Wakarchuk, Warren W
    Immamura, Akihiro
    Ando, Hiromune
    Kiso, Makoto
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Garcea, Robert L
    Peters, Thomas
    Buck, Christopher B
    Stehle, Thilo
    Structures of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus VP1 Complexes Define a Sialic Acid Binding Site Required for Infection2012In: PLoS Pathogens, ISSN 1553-7366, Vol. 8, no 7, e1002738- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recently discovered human Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV or MCV) causes the aggressive Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in the skin of immunocompromised individuals. Conflicting reports suggest that cellular glycans containing sialic acid (Neu5Ac) may play a role in MCPyV infectious entry. To address this question, we solved X-ray structures of the MCPyV major capsid protein VP1 both alone and in complex with several sialylated oligosaccharides. A shallow binding site on the apical surface of the VP1 capsomer recognizes the disaccharide Neu5Ac-α2,3-Gal through a complex network of interactions. MCPyV engages Neu5Ac in an orientation and with contacts that differ markedly from those observed in other polyomavirus complexes with sialylated receptors. Mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site abolish MCPyV infection, highlighting the relevance of the Neu5Ac interaction for MCPyV entry. Our study thus provides a powerful platform for the development of MCPyV-specific vaccines and antivirals. Interestingly, engagement of sialic acid does not interfere with initial attachment of MCPyV to cells, consistent with a previous proposal that attachment is mediated by a class of non-sialylated carbohydrates called glycosaminoglycans. Our results therefore suggest a model in which sialylated glycans serve as secondary, post-attachment co-receptors during MCPyV infectious entry. Since cell-surface glycans typically serve as primary attachment receptors for many viruses, we identify here a new role for glycans in mediating, and perhaps even modulating, post-attachment entry processes.

  • 28.
    Nilsson, Emma C
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Jamshidi, Fariba
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Johansson, Susanne M. C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Oberste, M Steven
    Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Sialic acid is a cellular receptor for coxsackievirus A24 variant, an emerging virus with pandemic potential2008In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 82, no 6, 3061-3068 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Binding to target cell receptors is a critical step in the virus life cycle. Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CVA24v) has pandemic potential and is a major cause of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, but its cellular receptor has hitherto been unknown. Here we show that CVA24v fails to bind to and infect CHO cells defective in sialic acid expression. Binding of CVA24v to and infection of corneal epithelial cells are efficiently inhibited by treating cells with a sialic acid-cleaving enzyme or sialic acid-binding lectins and by treatment of the virus with soluble, multivalent sialic acid. Protease treatment of cells efficiently inhibited virus binding, suggesting that the receptor is a sialylated glycoprotein. Like enterovirus type 70 and influenza A virus, CVA24v can cause pandemics. Remarkably, all three viruses use the same receptor. Since several unrelated viruses with tropism for the eye use this receptor, sialic acid-based antiviral drugs that prevent virus entry may be useful for topical treatment of such infections.

  • 29.
    Nilsson, Emma C
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Storm, Rickard J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Bauer, Johannes
    University of Tübingen.
    Johansson, Susanne M C
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Lookene, Aivar
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia..
    Ångström, Jonas
    University of Göteborg.
    Hedenström, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Eriksson, Therese L
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Frängsmyr, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Rinaldi, Simon
    University of Glasgow.
    Willison, Hugh J
    University of Glasgow.
    Domellöf, Fatima Pedrosa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Ophthalmology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Stehle, Thilo
    University of Tübingen, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    The GD1a glycan is a cellular receptor for adenoviruses causing epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (Letter)2011In: Nature Medicine, ISSN 1078-8956, E-ISSN 1546-170X, Vol. 17, no 1, 105-109 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adenovirus type 37 (Ad37) is a leading cause of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC), a severe and highly contagious ocular disease. Whereas most other adenoviruses infect cells by engaging CD46 or the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR), Ad37 binds previously unknown sialic acid-containing cell surface molecules. By glycan array screening, we show here that the receptor-recognizing knob domain of the Ad37 fiber protein specifically binds a branched hexasaccharide that is present in the GD1a ganglioside and that features two terminal sialic acids. Soluble GD1a glycan and GD1a-binding antibodies efficiently prevented Ad37 virions from binding and infecting corneal cells. Unexpectedly, the receptor is constituted by one or more glycoproteins containing the GD1a glycan motif rather than the ganglioside itself, as shown by binding, infection and flow cytometry experiments. Molecular modeling, nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray crystallography reveal that the two terminal sialic acids dock into two of three previously established sialic acid-binding sites in the trimeric Ad37 knob. Surface plasmon resonance analysis shows that the knob-GD1a glycan interaction has high affinity. Our findings therefore form a basis for the design and development of sialic acid-containing antiviral drugs for topical treatment of EKC.

  • 30. Olofsson, Sigvard
    et al.
    Kumlin, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Dimock, Ken
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Avian influenza and sialic acid receptors: more than meets the eye?2005In: Lancet. Infectious diseases (Print), ISSN 1473-3099, E-ISSN 1474-4457, Vol. 5, no 3, 184-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given our recent discoveries that the ocular human pathogens adenovirus serotype 37 and enterovirus serotype 70 use sialic acid linked to galactose via alpha2,3 glycosidic bonds as a cellular receptor, we propose that the presence of this receptor in the eye also explains the ocular tropism exhibited by zoonotic avian influenza A viruses such as subtype H5N1 in Hong Kong in 1997, H7N7 in the Netherlands in 2003, H7N2 in the USA in 2003, and H7N3 in Canada in 2004. We also draw attention to the implications this hypothesis may have for epizootic and zoonotic influenza, and the initiation of future pandemics.

  • 31.
    Persson, B David
    et al.
    Interfaculty Institute for Biochemistry, University of Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.
    Müller, Steffen
    Interfaculty Institute for Biochemistry, University of Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.
    Reiter, Dirk M
    Interfaculty Institute for Biochemistry, University of Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.
    Schmitt, Benedikt B T
    Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.
    Marttila, Marko
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Sumowski, Chris Vanessa
    Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.
    Schweizer, Sabine
    Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.
    Scheu, Ulrike
    Interfaculty Institute for Biochemistry, University of Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.
    Ochsenfeld, Christian
    Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Stehle, Thilo
    Interfaculty Institute for Biochemistry, University of Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.
    An arginine switch in the species B adenovirus knob determines high-affinity engagement of cellular receptor CD46.2009In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 83, no 2, 673-686 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adenoviruses (Ads) are icosahedral, nonenveloped viruses with a double-stranded DNA genome. The 51 known Ad serotypes exhibit profound variations in cell tropism and disease types. The number of observed Ad infections is steadily increasing, sometimes leading to fatal outcomes even in healthy individuals. Species B Ads can cause kidney infections, hemorrhagic cystitis, and severe respiratory infections, and most of them use the membrane cofactor protein CD46 as a cellular receptor. The crystal structure of the human Ad type 11 (Ad11) knob complexed with CD46 is known; however, the determinants of CD46 binding in related species B Ads remain unclear. We report here a structural and functional analysis of the Ad11 knob, as well as the Ad7 and Ad14 knobs, which are closely related in sequence to the Ad11 knob but have altered CD46-binding properties. The comparison of the structures of the three knobs, which we determined at very high resolution, provides a platform for understanding these differences and allows us to propose a mechanism for productive high-affinity engagement of CD46. At the center of this mechanism is an Ad knob arginine that needs to switch its orientation in order to engage CD46 with high affinity. Quantum chemical calculations showed that the CD46-binding affinity of Ad11 is significantly higher than that of Ad7. Thus, while Ad7 and Ad14 also bind CD46, the affinity and kinetics of these interactions suggest that these Ads are unlikely to use CD46 productively. The proposed mechanism is likely to determine the receptor usage of all CD46-binding Ads.

  • 32. Persson, B David
    et al.
    Reiter, Dirk M
    Marttila, Marko
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Mei, Ya-Fang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Casasnovas, José M
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Stehle, Thilo
    Adenovirus type 11 binding alters the conformation of its receptor CD46.2007In: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, ISSN 1545-9993, E-ISSN 1545-9985, Vol. 14, no 2, 164-166 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adenoviruses (Ads) are important human pathogens and valuable gene delivery vehicles. We report here the crystal structure of the species B Ad11 knob complexed with the Ad11-binding region of its receptor CD46. The conformation of bound CD46 differs profoundly from its unbound state, with the bent surface structure straightened into an elongated rod. This mechanism of interaction is likely to be conserved among many pathogens that target CD46 or related molecules.

  • 33. Rebetz, Johan
    et al.
    Na, Manli
    Su, Changqing
    Holmqvist, Bo
    Edqvist, Anna
    Nyberg, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Widegren, Bengt
    Salford, Leif G
    Sjögren, Hans Olov
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Qian, Qijun
    Fan, Xiaolong
    Fiber mediated receptor masking in non-infected bystander cells restricts adenovirus cell killing effect but promotes adenovirus host co-existence2009In: PloS one, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 4, no 12, e8484- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The basic concept of conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAD) as oncolytic agents is that progenies generated from each round of infection will disperse, infect and kill new cancer cells. However, CRAD has only inhibited, but not eradicated tumor growth in xenograft tumor therapy, and CRAD therapy has had only marginal clinical benefit to cancer patients. Here, we found that CRAD propagation and cancer cell survival co-existed for long periods of time when infection was initiated at low multiplicity of infection (MOI), and cancer cell killing was inefficient and slow compared to the assumed cell killing effect upon infection at high MOI. Excessive production of fiber molecules from initial CRAD infection of only 1 to 2% cancer cells and their release prior to the viral particle itself caused a tropism-specific receptor masking in both infected and non-infected bystander cells. Consequently, the non-infected bystander cells were inefficiently bound and infected by CRAD progenies. Further, fiber overproduction with concomitant restriction of adenovirus spread was observed in xenograft cancer therapy models. Besides the CAR-binding Ad4, Ad5, and Ad37, infection with CD46-binding Ad35 and Ad11 also caused receptor masking. Fiber overproduction and its resulting receptor masking thus play a key role in limiting CRAD functionality, but potentially promote adenovirus and host cell co-existence. These findings also give important clues for understanding mechanisms underlying the natural infection course of various adenoviruses.

  • 34.
    Segerman, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Erikson, Anders
    Lindman, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Wadell, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    There Are Two Different Species B Adenovirus Receptors: sBAR, Common to Species B1 and B2 Adenoviruses, and sB2AR, Exclusively Used by Species B2 Adenoviruses: THERE ARE TWO DIFFERENT SPECIES B ADENOVIRUS RECEPTORS2003In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, Vol. 77, no 2, 1157-1162 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Segerman, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Atkinson, John P.
    Marttila, Marko
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Dennerquist, Veronica
    Wadell, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Adenovirus type 11 uses CD46 as a cellular receptor2003In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 77, no 17, 9183-9191 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 51 human adenovirus serotypes are divided into six species (A to F). Many adenoviruses use the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) for attachment to host cells in vitro. Species B adenoviruses do not compete with CAR-binding serotypes for binding to host cells, and it has been suggested that species B adenoviruses use a receptor other than CAR. Species B adenoviruses mainly cause disease in the respiratory tract, the eyes, and in the urinary tract. Here we demonstrate that adenovirus type 11 (Ad11; of species B) binds to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with CD46 (membrane cofactor protein)-cDNA at least 10 times more strongly than to CHO cells transfected with cDNAs encoding CAR or CD55 (decay accelerating factor). Nonpermissive CHO cells were rendered permissive to Ad11 infection upon transfection with CD46-cDNA. Soluble Ad11 fiber knob but not Ad7 or Ad5 knob inhibited binding of Ad11 virions to CD46-transfected cells, and anti-CD46 antibodies inhibited both binding of and infection by Ad11. From these results we conclude that CD46 is a cellular receptor for Ad11.

  • 36.
    Spjut, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Qian, Weixing
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Bauer, Johannes
    Storm, Rickard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Frängsmyr, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Stehle, Thilo
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    A Potent Trivalent Sialic Acid Inhibitor of Adenovirus Type 37 Infection of Human Corneal Cells2011In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 50, no 29, 6519-6521 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Spjut, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Qian, Weixing
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bauer, Johannes
    Interfaculty Institute for Biochemistry, University of Tübingen .
    Storm, Rickard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Stehle, Thilo
    Interfaculty Institute for Biochemistry, University of Tübingen.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Synthesis and evaluation of tri- and tetravalent sialic acid inhibitors of EKC-causing adenovirusesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Storm, Rickard J
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Nygård Skalman, Lars
    Frängsmyr, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Lindström, Mona
    Lundmark, Richard
    Pedrosa-Domellöf, Fatima
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Involvement of corneal integrins during infection of human adenovirus type 37Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 39. Zocher, Georg
    et al.
    Mistry, Nitesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Frank, Martin
    Hähnlein-Schick, Irmgard
    Ekström, Jens-Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Stehle, Thilo
    A sialic acid binding site in a human picornavirus2014In: PLoS Pathogens, ISSN 1553-7366, E-ISSN 1553-7374, Vol. 10, no 10, e1004401- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The picornaviruses coxsackievirus A24 variant (CVA24v) and enterovirus 70 (EV70) cause continued outbreaks and pandemics of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC), a highly contagious eye disease against which neither vaccines nor antiviral drugs are currently available. Moreover, these viruses can cause symptoms in the cornea, upper respiratory tract, and neurological impairments such as acute flaccid paralysis. EV70 and CVA24v are both known to use 5-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) for cell attachment, thus providing a putative link between the glycan receptor specificity and cell tropism and disease. We report the structures of an intact human picornavirus in complex with a range of glycans terminating in Neu5Ac. We determined the structure of the CVA24v to 1.40 angstrom resolution, screened different glycans bearing Neu5Ac for CVA24v binding, and structurally characterized interactions with candidate glycan receptors. Biochemical studies verified the relevance of the binding site and demonstrated a preference of CVA24v for alpha 2,6-linked glycans. This preference can be rationalized by molecular dynamics simulations that show that alpha 2,6-linked glycans can establish more contacts with the viral capsid. Our results form an excellent platform for the design of antiviral compounds to prevent AHC.

1 - 39 of 39
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