umu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 36 of 36
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the 'Create feeds' function.
  • 1. Accinelli, Cesare
    et al.
    Saccà, Maria Ludovica
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Mencarelli, Mariangela
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Olsen, Björn
    Dissipation and removal of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) in different aquatic environments2010In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 79, no 8, 891-897 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu) has received recent attention due to the potential use as a first-line defense against H5N1 and H1N1 influenza viruses. Research has shown that oseltamivir is not removed during conventional wastewater treatments, thus having the potential to enter surface water bodies. A series of laboratory experiments investigated the fate and the removal of oseltamivir in two surface water ecosystems of Japan and in a municipal wastewater treatment plant located in Northern Italy. Persistence of oseltamivir in surface water ranged from non-detectable degradation to a half-life of 53d. After 40d, <3% of radiolabeled oseltamivir evolved as (14)CO(2). The presence of sediments (5%) led to a significant increase of oseltamivir degradation and mineralization rates. A more intense mineralization was observed in samples of the wastewater treatment plant when applying a long incubation period (40d). More precisely, 76% and 37% of the initial radioactivity applied as (14)C-oseltamivir was recovered as (14)CO(2) from samples of the biological tank and effluent water, respectively. Two bacterial strains growing on oseltamivir as sole carbon source were isolated and used for its removal from synthetic medium and environmental samples, including surface water and wastewater. Inoculation of water and wastewater samples with the two oseltamivir-degrading strains showed that mineralization of oseltamivir was significantly higher in both inoculated water and wastewater, than in uninoculated controls. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative PCR analysis showed that Tamiflu would not affect the microbial population of surface water and wastewater.

  • 2. Berg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Bäckström, Tobias
    Winberg, Svante
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Developmental exposure to fluoxetine modulates the serotonin system in hypothalamus2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 1, e55053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine (FLU, Prozac®) is commonly prescribed for depression in pregnant women. This results in SSRI exposure of the developing fetus. However, there are knowledge gaps regarding the impact of SSRI exposure during development. Given the role of serotonin in brain development and its cross-talk with sex hormone function, we investigated effects of developmental exposure to pharmacologically relevant concentrations of FLU (3 and 30 nM (measured)) on brain neurotransmitter levels, gonadal differentiation, aromatase activity in brain and gonads, and the thyroid system, using the Xenopus tropicalis model. Tadpoles were chronically exposed (8 weeks) until metamorphosis. At metamorphosis brains were cryosectioned and levels of serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and their metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovanillic acid were measured in discrete regions (telencephalon, hypothalamus and the reticular formation) of the cryosections using high-performance liquid chromatography. Exposure to 30 nM FLU increased the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in hypothalamus compared with controls. FLU exposure did not affect survival, time to metamorphosis, thyroid histology, gonadal sex differentiation, or aromatase activity implying that the effect on the serotonergic neurotransmitter system in the hypothalamus region was specific. The FLU concentration that impacted the serotonin system is lower than the concentration measured in umbilical cord serum, suggesting that the serotonin system of the developing brain is highly sensitive to in utero exposure to FLU. To our knowledge this is the first study showing effects of developmental FLU exposure on brain neurochemistry. Given that SSRIs are present in the aquatic environment the current results warrant further investigation into the neurobehavioral effects of SSRIs in aquatic wildlife.

  • 3. Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Khan, Ghazanfar Ali
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Abundance and dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in lake sediment microcosms2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 9, e108151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance in bacteria causing disease is an ever growing threat to the world. Recently, environmental bacteria have become established as important both as sources of antibiotic resistance genes and in disseminating resistance genes. Low levels of antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals are regularly released into water environments via wastewater, and the concern is that such environmental contamination may serve to create hotspots for antibiotic resistance gene selection and dissemination. In this study, microcosms were created from water and sediments gathered from a lake in Sweden only lightly affected by human activities. The microcosms were exposed to a mixture of antibiotics of varying environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e., concentrations commonly encountered in wastewaters) in order to investigate the effect of low levels of antibiotics on antibiotic resistance gene abundances and dynamics in a previously uncontaminated environment. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Abundances of seven antibiotic resistance genes and the class 1 integron integrase gene, intL1, were quantified using real-time PCR. Resistance genes sulI and ermB were quantified in the microcosm sediments with mean abundances 5 and 15 gene copies/10(6) 16S rRNA gene copies, respectively. Class 1 integrons were determined in the sediments with a mean concentration of 3.86x10(4) copies/10(6) 16S rRNA gene copies. The antibiotic treatment had no observable effect on antibiotic resistance gene or integron abundances.

  • 4. Fedorova, Ganna
    et al.
    Randak, Tomas
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Grabic, Roman
    Comparison of the quantitative performance of a Q-Exactive high-resolution mass spectrometer with that of a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer for the analysis of illicit drugs in wastewater2013In: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 0951-4198, E-ISSN 1097-0231, Vol. 27, no 15, 1751-1762 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RATIONALE Analysis of drugs in wastewater is gaining more interest, as new approaches to estimate drug consumption from the amount of drug residues in wastewater have been proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the quantitative performance of high-resolution mass spectrometry with that of triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    METHODS A Q-Exactive mass spectrometer was operated in full scan (HRFS) (70 000 FWHM) and product scan (HRPS) (17 500 FWHM) modes. The first and third quadrupoles of the QqQ MS/MS instrument were operated at 0.7 FWHM. A mass-extracted window of 5ppm around the theoretical m/z of each analyte was used to construct chromatograms. An HESI-II ion source was used for the ionization of target compounds. In-line-SPE-LC configuration was used for the extraction and separation of target analytes.

    RESULTS All three methods showed good linearity and repeatability. High-resolution detection of product ions exhibited better sensitivity and selectivity for some compounds. For most of the tested compounds, LOQs ranged from 0.46 to 20ngL(-1). Good agreement between measured and nominal concentrations was observed for most of the compounds at different levels of fortification. Both MS/MS methods showed good selectivity, while HRFS gave some false positive results.

    CONCLUSIONS The Q-Exactive mass spectrometer proved to be suitable for trace detection and quantification of most of the tested drugs in wastewater, with performance comparable to that of the commonly used MS/MS triple quadrupole, but with better selectivity.

    Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 5.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Larsson, Joakim D G
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bioconcentration of Pharmaceuticals2010In: Towards Sustainable Pharmaceuticals in a Healthy Society: MistraPharma Research / [ed] Christina Rudén, Karin Liljelund, Helene Hagerman, Stockholm: Elander Sverige AB , 2010, 1, 36-45 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Residues of human pharmaceuticals have been widely detected in various parts of the environment and trace concentrations are often found in sewage effl uent and surface waters, typically ranging from low ng L-1 to low μg L-1 levels (Lindberg et al., 2005; Nikolaou et al., 2007; Loos et al., 2009). These concentrations, however, are orders of magnitude below the therapeutic concentrations reached in human blood plasma. Thus, the potential for a physiological impact of pharmaceuticals on water-living organisms (such as fi sh) have been questioned. On the other hand, the levels measured in surface waters do not simply mirror the levels encountered by the receptors or enzymes present inside the fi sh living in these waters. Indeed, levels of pharmaceutical in for example fi sh blood plasma is sometimes much higher than the levels in the surrounding water. This can be explained by the concepts of bioconcentration and bioaccumulation.

  • 6.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Parkkonen, Jari
    Arvidsson, Björn
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    Therapeutic levels of levonorgestrel detected in blood plasma of fish: results from screening rainbow trout exposed to treated sewage effluents2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 7, 2661-2666 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals are found in surface waters worldwide, raising concerns about effects on aquatic organisms. Analyses of pharmaceuticals in blood plasma of fish could provide means to assess risk for pharmacological effects, as these concentrations could be compared with available human therapeutic plasma levels. In this study we investigated if fish exposed to sewage effluents have plasma concentrations of pharmaceuticals that are approaching human therapeutic levels. We also evaluated how well the bioconcentration of pharmaceuticals into fish blood plasma can be predicted based on lipophilicity. Rainbow trout were exposed to undiluted, treated sewage effluents at three sites in Sweden for 14 days. Levels of 25 pharmaceuticals in blood plasma and effluents were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. The progestin pharmaceutical levonorgestrel was detected in fish blood plasma at concentrations (8.5-12 ng mL(-1)), exceeding the human therapeutic plasma level. In total 16 pharmaceuticals were detected in fish plasma at concentrations higher than 1/1000 of the human therapeutic plasma concentration. Twenty-one pharmaceuticals were detected in either plasma or effluent, and 14 were detected in both compartments, allowing plasma bioconcentration factors to be determined. For 11 of these, theoretically calculated and experimentally measured values were in reasonably good agreement. However a few drugs, including levonorgestrel, did not bioconcentrate according to the screening model used. This study shows that rainbow trout exposed to sewage effluents have blood plasma levels of pharmaceuticals similar to human therapeutic concentrations, suggesting a risk for pharmacological effects in the fish. There is a particular concern about effects of progestin pharmaceuticals. For levonorgestrel, the measured effluent level (1 ng/L) was higher than water levels shown to reduce the fertility of fish.

  • 7.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    Predicted critical environmental concentrations for 500 pharmaceuticals2010In: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 58, no 3, 516-23 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing number of pharmaceuticals are found in surface waters worldwide, raising concerns about their effects on aquatic organisms and it is a major challenge to develop a rational strategy for prioritizing drugs on which to focus the most extensive environmental research efforts. However, in contrast to most other chemicals, very good understanding of the human potency of pharmaceuticals has been obtained through efficacy and safety testing. Assuming that a drug acts primarily through the same target(s) also in a non-target species, it would be possible to predict the likelihood for pharmacological interactions in wildlife. Among aquatic organisms, fish most often share drug targets with humans. In this study, we have calculated the predicted critical environmental concentration (CECs), i.e. the surface water concentration expected to cause a pharmacological effect in fish, for 500 pharmaceuticals, assuming equivalent pharmacological activity. The CECs are based on literature data on human potencies together with a predicted bioconcentration factor in fish for each drug based on lipophilicity. We propose that CECs could be used as preliminary indicators of specific drugs' potential to cause adverse pharmacological effects at specific water concentrations, used when selecting pharmaceuticals to include in screening campaigns and for assessing relevant detection limits.

  • 8.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Haemig, Paul D
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Olsen, Björn
    Antiviral oseltamivir is not removed or degraded in normal sewage water treatment: implications for development of resistance by influenza A virus2007In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 2, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oseltamivir is the main antiviral for treatment and prevention of pandemic influenza. The increase in oseltamivir resistance reported recently has therefore sparked a debate on how to use oseltamivir in non pandemic influenza and the risks associated with wide spread use during a pandemic. Several questions have been asked about the fate of oseltamivir in the sewage treatment plants and in the environment. We have assessed the fate of oseltamivir and discuss the implications of environmental residues of oseltamivir regarding the occurrence of resistance. A series of batch experiments that simulated normal sewage treatment with oseltamivir present was conducted and the UV-spectra of oseltamivir were recorded. Findings: Our experiments show that the active moiety of oseltamivir is not removed in normal sewage water treatments and is not degraded substantially by UV light radiation, and that the active substance is released in waste water leaving the plant. Our conclusion is that a ubiquitous use of oseltamivir may result in selection pressures in the environment that favor development of drug-resistance.

  • 9.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Söderström, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Phan, Chau
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    Contamination of surface, ground, and drinking water from pharmaceutical production2009In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 28, no 12, 2522-2527 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low levels of pharmaceuticals are detected in surface, ground, and drinking water worldwide. Usage and incorrect disposal have been considered the major environmental sources of these micro-contaminants. Recent publications, however, suggest that wastewater from drug production can potentially be a source of much higher concentrations in certain locations. We investigated the environmental fate of active pharmaceutical ingredients in a major production area for the global bulk-drug market. Water samples were taken from a common effluent treatment plant near Hyderabad, India, which receives process water from about 90 bulk drug manufacturers. Surface water was analyzed from the recipient stream and from two lakes that are not contaminated by the treatment plant. Water samples were also taken from wells in six nearby villages. The samples were analyzed for the presence of twelve pharmaceuticals with LC-MS/MS. All wells were determined to be contaminated with drugs. Ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, cetirizine, terbinafine and citalopram were detected at >1microg l-1 in several wells. Very high concentrations of ciprofloxacin (up to 14 mg L-1) and other pharmaceuticals (up to 2 mg L-1) were found in the effluent of the treatment plant and in the two lakes (up to 6.5 mg L-1). Thus, insufficient wastewater treatment in one of the world's largest centers for bulk drug production leads to unprecedented drug contamination of surface, ground, and drinking water. This raises serious concerns regarding the development of antibiotic resistance, and it creates a major challenge for producers and regulatory agencies to improve the situation.

  • 10. Gillman, Anna
    et al.
    Muradrasoli, Shaman
    Söderström, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Nordh, Johan
    Bröjer, Caroline
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Olsen, Björn
    Järhult, Josef D
    Resistance Mutation R292K Is Induced in Influenza A(H6N2) Virus by Exposure of Infected Mallards to Low Levels of Oseltamivir2013In: PloS one, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 8, e71230- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) is problematic as these drugs constitute the major treatment option for severe influenza. Extensive use of the NAI oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) results in up to 865 ng/L of its active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) in river water. There one of the natural reservoirs of influenza A, dabbling ducks, can be exposed. We previously demonstrated that an influenza A(H1N1) virus in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) exposed to 1 µg/L of OC developed oseltamivir resistance through the mutation H274Y (N2-numbering). In this study, we assessed the resistance development in an A(H6N2) virus, which belongs to the phylogenetic N2 group of neuraminidases with distinct functional and resistance characteristics. Mallards were infected with A(H6N2) while exposed to 120 ng/L, 1.2 µg/L or 12 µg/L of OC in their sole water source. After 4 days with 12 µg/L of OC exposure, the resistance mutation R292K emerged and then persisted. Drug sensitivity was decreased ≈13,000-fold for OC and ≈7.8-fold for zanamivir. Viral shedding was similar when comparing R292K and wild-type virus indicating sustained replication and transmission. Reduced neuraminidase activity and decrease in recovered virus after propagation in embryonated hen eggs was observed in R292K viruses. The initial, but not the later R292K isolates reverted to wild-type during egg-propagation, suggesting a stabilization of the mutation, possibly through additional mutations in the neuraminidase (D113N or D141N) or hemagglutinin (E216K). Our results indicate a risk for OC resistance development also in a N2 group influenza virus and that exposure to one NAI can result in a decreased sensitivity to other NAIs as well. If established in influenza viruses circulating among wild birds, the resistance could spread to humans via re-assortment or direct transmission. This could potentially cause an oseltamivir-resistant pandemic; a serious health concern as preparedness plans rely heavily on oseltamivir before vaccines can be mass-produced.

  • 11.
    Grabic, Roman
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fedeorova, Ganna
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Multi-residue method for trace level determination of pharmaceuticals in environmental samples using liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry2012In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 100, 183-195 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-residue method for the simultaneous determination of more than 90 pharmaceuticals in water samples was developed and validated. The developed method utilizes a single liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) run after sample enrichment using solid-phase extraction (SPE). The pharmaceuticals included in this method were chosen based on their potency (effect/concentration ratio) and potential to bioaccumulate in fish. Because the selection was based on ecotoxicological criteria and not on ease of detection, the pharmaceuticals have a wide range of physico-chemical properties and represent twenty-seven distinct classes. No method for surface, waste water or similar matrices was previously described for 52 of the 100 target analytes. Four chromatographic columns were tested to optimize the separation prior to detection by mass spectrometry (MS). The resulting method utilizes a Hypersil Gold aQ column. Three different water matrices were tested during method validation: Milli-Q water, surface water (river water from the Umea River) and effluent from the Umea waste water treatment plant (WWTP). Four of the selected pharmaceuticals exhibited poor method efficiency in all matrices. Amiodarone, Dihydroergotamine, Perphenazine and Terbutalin were omitted from the final analytical method (). In addition, five compounds were excluded from the method for surface water (Atorvastatin, Chloropromazin, Dipyridamol, Furosemid and Ranitidin) and three other pharmaceuticals (Glibenclamid, Glimepirid and Meclozine) from waste water method respectively. Absolute recoveries were above 70% for Milli-Q water, surface water, and sewage effluent for most pharmaceuticals. The limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.05 to 50 ng L−1 (median 5 ng L−1). The use of matrix-matched standards led to the elimination of ionization enhancement or suppression. The recoveries of the method for real matrices were in the range of 23% to 134% for surface water (only three compounds were outside of the range of 40–130%) and in the range of 47% to 162% for waste water (five compounds were outside of the range of 40–130% at lower validated concentration).

  • 12. Grabicova, Katerina
    et al.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Östman, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Grabic, Roman
    Randak, Tomas
    Larsson, DG Joakim
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tissue-specific bioconcentration of antidepressants in fish exposed to effluent from a municipal sewage treatment plant2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 488, 46-50 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tissue-specific bioconcentration of selected antidepressants was studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to undiluted effluent from a Swedish municipal sewage treatment plant for 13 days. Citalopram, sertraline and venlafaxine were found in the brains and livers of most fish, but not in blood plasma or muscle. Venlafaxine was the only drug found in plasma (3/20 fish). Fluoxetine was not detected in any fish tissue, in accordance with a low concentration in the effluent and a comparably high limit of quantification in tissues. Concentrations of citalopram, sertraline and venlafaxine in fish brain were up to 1/12, 1/8 and 1/26, respectively, of the lowest concentrations found in the brains of mammals treated with therapeutic doses. Thus, given coexposure to several antidepressants and an assumed similar potency in fish, the margin of safety for targetrelated effects in fish residing in effluent-dominated streams is relatively low. Furthermore, the non-detectable levels of these drugs in blood plasma suggest that analyses of concentrations in target tissues (brain) would be more informative in field studies and other studies with environmentally realistic exposure concentrations.

    (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 13. Gyllenhammar, Irina
    et al.
    Eriksson, Hanna
    Söderqvist, Anneli
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Berg, Cecilia
    Clotrimazole exposure modulates aromatase activity in gonads, brain during gonadal differentiation in Xenopus tropicalis frogs2009In: Aquatic Toxicology, Vol. 91, no 2, 102-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clotrimazole is a pharmaceutical used for treatment of fungal infections. It has been found in surface waters outside municipal waste water treatment plants but data are scarce regarding its effects on aquatic organisms. It is known that clotrimazole and other imidazole fungicides are inhibitors of the enzyme aromatase (CYP 19). Aromatase converts androgens into estrogens and is suggested to be involved in the sex differentiation in amphibians. The aim of the present study was to evaluate effects of larval exposure to clotrimazole on aromatase activity in brain and gonads, and on gonadal differentiation in Xenopus tropicalis frogs. Another purpose was to determine if larval exposure to ethynylestradiol (EE2), at a concentration known to cause male-to-female sex reversal, affects aromatase activity in brain and gonads during gonadal differentiation. Tadpoles were exposed from shortly after hatching (Nieuwkoop and Faber developmental stage 47-48) until complete metamorphosis (NF stage 66) to 6, 41, and 375 nM clotrimazole or 100 nM (nominal) EE2. Aromatase activity was measured in the brain and gonad/kidney complex of tadpoles during gonadal differentiation (NF stage 56) and, in the clotrimazole experiment, also at metamorphosis. In clotrimazoleexposed tadpoles gonadal aromatase activity increased over exposure time in the 41- and 375 nM groups but did not differ significantly from the control group. Gonadal aromatase activity was increased in both sexes exposed to 41 and 375 nM clotrimazole at metamorphosis. Brain aromatase activity was decreased in tadpoles (NF stage 56) exposed to 375 nM clotrimazole, but at metamorphosis no differences were seen between groups or between sexes. No effects of clotrimazole on sex ratio or gonadal histology were noted at completed metamorphosis. EE2-exposed tadpoles had a slightly decreased gonadal aromatase activity, though not significantly different from control group, and there was no effect of EE2 on brain aromatase activity. All EE2-exposed tadpoles developed ovaries. These findings indicate that estrogen-induced ovarian differentiation is not paralleled by increased gonadal aromatase activity in X. tropicalis. Further studies are needed, especially on developmental reproductive toxicity, to assess the risk for endocrine disruption in wild amphibians posed by clotrimazole and other imidazole fungicides.

  • 14. Jarnheimer, Per-åke
    et al.
    Ottoson, Jakob
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Stenström, Thor-axel
    Johansson, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Winner, Mari-mall
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics in a Hospital Sewage Line; Occurrence, Distribution and Impact on Bacterial Resistance2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 36, no 10, 752-5 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In hospital sewage lines, human faecal bacteria are exposed to antibiotics, posing a risk for selection of antibiotic resistant microorganisms. We constructed a system for continuous sampling in a hospital sewage line that allowed us to study longitudinal establishment of bacteria, concentrations of antibiotics, and selection of bacterial resistance in waste water, sediment and biofilm. The focus in this study was on fluoroquinolones, a widely used group of antibiotics with increasing resistance problems. We found low levels of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin in waste water but high concentrations in sediment. Despite the high levels of fluoroquinolones bound to sediment, we did not find any development of resistance against fluoroquinolones in Enterobacteriacae spp. and faecal enterococci isolated from sediment.

  • 15.
    Johansson, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry. Umeå University.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Screening av antibiotikai avloppsvatten, slam och fisk under 2002/2003:  2003Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tretton olika antibiotika har undersökts i en screeningstudie i Sverige under 2002/2003. Avloppsvatten, slam och fiskprover har ingått i denna studie. Provtagningar har genomförts vid två tillfällen och fem reningsverk av olika karaktärer. Kemiska analysmetoder har utvecklats och validerats för samtliga dessa matriser. För första gången har intern standard metoden (struktur analoger) utnyttjats fullt ut för bestämningar av antibiotika i miljöprover. Resultaten visar att penicilliner och cefalosporiner har korta halveringstider. Enstaka substanser av dessa grupper har detekterats i 50 % av alla avloppsvattenprover och då endast i undantagsfall i utgående vatten. Fluorokinoloner, trimetoprim och doxycyklin har detekterats i samtliga avloppsvattenprover (20 av 20). I slam förekommer främst fluorokinoloner och doxycyklin. Fluorokinolonerna förekommer i relativt höga halter (summa fluorokinoloner ~6.5 mg kg-1 TS). Detta kan utgöra en risk om detta material sprids ut i miljön men mer kunskap krävs om dessa substansers mobilitet och toxicitet för att göra denna bedömning.

  • 16. Kallenborn, R
    et al.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Moe, M
    Nielsen, K M
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Vasskog, T
    Pharmaceutical residues in Northern European Environments: Consequences and Perspectives2008In: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: Sources, Fate, Effects and Risks, 2008, 61-74 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Khan, Ghazanfar Ali
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    The development and application of a system for simultaneously determining anti-infectives and nasal decongestants using on-line solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry2012In: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, ISSN 0731-7085, E-ISSN 1873-264X, Vol. 66, 24-32 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for the simultaneous analysis of antibiotics, antiviral and nasal decongestants in treated sewage effluent and surface water has been developed and validated. The method uses on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) of injected high-volume samples in conjunction with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This method includes a range of antibiotics (Trimethoprim, Oxytetracycline, Ofloxacin, Norfloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Azithromycin, Doxycycline, Sulfamethoxazole, Erythromycin and Clarithromycin), an antiviral (Oseltamivir) and nasal decongestants (Naphazoline, Oxymetazoline and Xylometazoline). The method's detection limits (MDLs) ranged from (0.2ngL(-1)) to (3.1ngL(-1)), based on a 1mL extraction volume. Its intra-day precision was determined by performing nine runs with 200ngL(-1) samples; the intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 1% to 19%. Inter-day precision was determined by analyzing samples in triplicate over the course of three days, yielding relative standard deviations ranging from <5% to <26%. The linearity (R(2)) for all compounds tested was >0.90. Spike relative recoveries ranged from 40% to 157% and 40% to 152% for STP effluent and surface water samples, respectively. Finally, the method was used to analyze real effluent and surface water.

  • 18.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fedorova, Ganna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Zatisi 728/II, 389 25 Vodnany, Czech Republic.
    Blum, Kristin M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Pulit-Prociak, Jolanta
    Gillman, Anna
    Järhult, Josef
    Appelblad, Patrik
    Söderström, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography using bonded zwitterionic stationary phases and tandem mass spectrometry for rapid environmental trace analysis of highly polar hydrophilic compounds – Application for the antiviral drug Zanamivir2015In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 141, 164-169 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Zanamivir (Za) is a highly polar and hydrophilic antiviral drug used for the treatment of influenza A viruses. Za has been detected in rivers of Japan and it's environmental occurrence has the risk of inducing antiviral resistant avian influenza viruses. In this study, a rapid automated online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography method using bonded zwitterionic stationary phases and tandem mass spectrometry (SPE/LC–MS/MS) for trace analysis of Za was developed. Furthermore, an internal standard (IS) calibration method capable of quantifying Za in Milli-Q, surface water, sewage effluent and sewage influent was evaluated. Optimum pre-extraction sample composition was found to be 95/5 v/v acetonitrile/water sample and 1% formic acid. The developed method showed acceptable linearities (r2≥0.994), filtration recovery (≥91%), and intra-day precisions (RSD≤16%), and acceptable and environmentally relevant LOQs (≤20 ng L−1). Storage tests showed no significant losses of Za during 20 days and +4/−20 °C (≤12%) with the exception of influent samples, which should be kept at −20 °C to avoid significant Za losses. The applicability of the method was demonstrated in a study on phototransformation of Za in unfiltered and filtered surface water during 28 days of artificial UV irradiation exposure. No significant (≤12%) phototransformation was found in surface water after 28 days suggesting a relatively high photostability of Za and that Za should be of environmental concern.

  • 19.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Screening of antimycotics in Swedish sewage treatment plants - Waters and sludge2010In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 44, no 2, 649-57 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of six pharmaceutical antimycotics were determined in the sewage water, final effluent and sludge of five Swedish sewage treatment plants (STPs) by solid phase extraction, liquid/solid extraction, and liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The antimycotics were quantified by internal standard calibration. The results were used to estimate national flows that were compared to predictions based on sales figures. Fluconazole was the only one of the six investigated antimycotics that was detected (at concentrations ranging from 90 to 140ngL(-1)) in both raw sewage water and final effluent. Negligible amounts of this substance were removed from the aqueous phase, and its levels were below the limit of quantification in all of the analyzed sludge samples. In contrast, clotrimazole, ketoconazole and econazole were present in all of the sludge samples, at concentrations ranging between 200 and 1000mugkg(-1), dry weight. There were close correlations between the national measured and predicted antimycotic mass flows. Antimycotic fate analysis, based on sales figures, indicated that 53% of the total amount of fluconazole sold appeared in the final effluents of the STPs, while 1, 155, 35, 209 and 41% of the terbinafine, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, econazole and miconazole sold appeared in the digested dewatered sludge.

  • 20.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Rendahl, Per
    Johansson, Magnus I
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, Barbro AV
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Behavior of fluoroquinolones and trimethoprim during mechanical, chemical, and active sludge treatment of sewage water and digestion of sludge2006In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 40, no 3, 1042-1048 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The behavior and fate of three fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin), one sulfonamide (sulfamethoxazole), and trimethoprim were investigated at a sewage treatment plant in Umeå, Sweden, in 2004. This plant uses conventional mechanical, chemical, and activated sludge methods to treat the sewage water and digest the sludge; the dewatered digested sludge is pelleted (dry weight > 90% of total weight). Raw sewage water and particles as well as effluents and sludge from specific treatment areas within the plant were sampled. In addition to quantifying the antibiotics within the plant, we characterized the sample matrixes to facilitate evaluation of the results. Of the five substances examined, only norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim were present in concentrations higher than their limits of quantification. Norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin sorbed to sludge in a manner that was independent of changes in pH during sewage treatment, and more than 70% of the total amount of these compounds passing through the plant was ultimately found in the digested sludge. The results suggest that fluoroquinolones undergo thermal degradation during pelleting, but more studies are needed to confirm this. Trimethoprim was found in the final effluent at approximately the same concentration and mass flow as in the raw sewage, and could not be quantified in any solid sample. Predicted environmental concentrations, based on consumption data for Umeå municipality, correlated well with the results obtained, especially when the predicted concentrations were corrected to account for the amount of each active substance excreted in urine. The results obtained were compared to those of previous studies of these three substances' behavior and fate and were found to be similar, although some of the other plants studied employed the various treatment steps in different orders.

  • 21.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sahlén, Kenneth
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Occurrence and distribution of synthetic organic substances  in boreal coniferous forest soils fertilized with hygienized municipal sewage sludge2013In: Antibiotics, ISSN 2079-6382, Vol. 2, no 3, 352-366 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence and distribution of synthetic organic substances following application of dried and granulated (hygienized) municipal sewage sludge in Swedish boreal coniferous forests were investigated. Elevated concentrations of triclosan (TCS), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in the humus layer. Concentrations of ethinyl estradiol (EE2), norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin (FQs), and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were not significantly influenced. Maximum concentrations in humus were as follows (in ng/g dry matter): TCS; 778; PBDEs; 25; and PCB7; 16.7. Fertilization did not alter the levels of the substances in mineral soil, ground water, and various types of samples related to air. Further research within this area is needed, including ecotoxicological effects and fate, in order to improve the knowledge regarding the use of sludge as a fertilizing agent. Continuous annual monitoring, with respect to sampling and analysis, should be conducted on the already-fertilized fields.

  • 22.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Östman, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Ulrika
    Grabic, Roman
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Occurrence and behaviour of 105 active pharmaceutical ingredients in sewage waters of a municipal sewer collection system2014In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 58, 221-229 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations and behaviour of 105 different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the aqueous phase of sewage water within a municipal sewer collection system have been investigated. Sewage water samples were gathered from seven pump stations (one of which was located within a university hospital) and from sewage water treatment influent and effluent. The targeted APIs were quantified using a multi-residue method based on online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The method was thoroughly validated and complies with EU regulations on sample handling, limits of quantification, quality control and selectivity. 51 APIs, including antibiotics, antidepressants, hypertension drugs, analgesics, NSAIDs and psycholeptics, were found frequently within the sewer collection system. API concentrations and mass flows were evaluated in terms of their frequency of detection, daily variation, median/minimum/maximum/average concentrations, demographic dissimilarities, removal efficiencies, and mass flow profiles relative to municipal sales data. Our results suggest that some APIs are removed from, or introduced to, the aqueous phase of sewage waters within the studied municipal collection system.

  • 23.
    Lindberg, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Jarnheimer, Per-Åke
    Olsen, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Determination of antibiotic substances in hospital sewage water using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and group analogue internal standards2004In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, Vol. 57, no 10, 1479-88 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for determination of antibiotics in hospital sewage water has been developed and validated. Analogue internal standards for fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, β-lactams (penicillins and cephalosporines), nitroimidazoles and tetracyclines were successfully used for calibration and shown to generally improve precision compared to external calibration. Matrix components caused ion suppression/enhancement effects during the MS detection for all analytes studied. Two effects were observed: general suppression and short-term variations in the MS response.

    In the hospital sewage water large temporal variations in the analyte concentration were observed during the course of the sampling period (seven grab samples in 13 h). Analyte concentrations varied within the following ranges (in μg l−1): ciprofloxacin, 3.6–101.0; metronidazole, 0.1–90.2; sulfamethoxazole, 0.4–12.8; ofloxacin, 0.2–7.6; trimethoprim, 0.6–7.6; and doxycycline, 0.6–6.7.

  • 24.
    Lindberg, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Johansson, Magnus I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Screening of human antibiotic substances and determination of weekly mass flows in five sewage treatment plants in Sweden2005In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, no 10, 3421-3429 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twelve antibiotic substances for human use, including trimethoprim and representatives of the fluoroquinolone (FQ), sulfonamide (SA), penicillin (PE), cephalosporin (CE), nitroimidazole (NI), tetracycline (TC), and macrolide (MA) groups, were subjected to a screening study at five Swedish sewage treatment plants (STPs) during one week in 2002 and one week in 2003. The analytes were extracted from raw sewage water, final effluent, and sludge by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-solid extraction (as appropriate) and then identified and quantified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The most frequently detected antibiotics in the matrices considered in this study were norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and doxycycline. The other analytes were only detected in a few samples. Analysis of the weekly mass flows through each STP showed that FQs were partly eliminated from the water during sewage water treatment and the highest amounts of these substances were found in sludge. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim were mainly found in raw sewage water and final effluent, but these substances had balancing mass flows, indicating that they too can withstand sewage water treatment. The mass flow patterns for doxycycline were more complex, with high amounts occurring in sludge in some cases, suggesting that the behavior of this analyte may be more strongly influenced by the treatment process and other variables at individual STPs. The environmental load (the sum of the amounts in the final effluent and sludge) normalized to the number of inhabitants in the catchment area of each investigated STP compared with theoretical predictions based on consumption data (in parentheses) showed good correlations: norfloxacin, 0.8 (0.9); ofloxacin, 0.3 (0.2); ciprofloxacin, 1.3 (3.5); sulfamethoxazole, 0.2 (0.4); trimethoprim, 1.1 (1.0); and doxycycline, 0.7 (0.4) mg per person per week. The results show that reasonably accurate predictions of environmental load of these antibiotics can be time-effectively derived from consumption data without additional measurements.

  • 25. Loos, Robert
    et al.
    Carvalho, Raquel
    António, Diana C
    Comero, Sara
    Locoro, Giovanni
    Tavazzi, Simona
    Paracchini, Bruno
    Ghiani, Michela
    Lettieri, Teresa
    Blaha, Ludek
    Jarosova, Barbora
    Voorspoels, Stefan
    Servaes, Kelly
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Schwesig, David
    Gawlik, Bernd M
    EU-wide monitoring survey on emerging polar organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents2013In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 47, no 17, 6475-6487 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the year 2010, effluents from 90 European wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for 156 polar organic chemical contaminants. The analyses were complemented by effect-based monitoring approaches aiming at estrogenicity and dioxin-like toxicity analyzed by in vitro reporter gene bioassays, and yeast and diatom culture acute toxicity optical bioassays. Analyses of organic substances were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) or gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Target microcontaminants were pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), veterinary (antibiotic) drugs, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), organophosphate ester flame retardants, pesticides (and some metabolites), industrial chemicals such as benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), iodinated x-ray contrast agents, and gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging agents; in addition biological endpoints were measured. The obtained results show the presence of 125 substances (80% of the target compounds) in European wastewater effluents, in concentrations ranging from low nanograms to milligrams per liter. These results allow for an estimation to be made of a European median level for the chemicals investigated in WWTP effluents. The most relevant compounds in the effluent waters with the highest median concentration levels were the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and sucralose, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), several organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (e.g. tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate; TCPP), pharmaceutical compounds such as carbamazepine, tramadol, telmisartan, venlafaxine, irbesartan, fluconazole, oxazepam, fexofenadine, diclofenac, citalopram, codeine, bisoprolol, eprosartan, the antibiotics trimethoprim, ciprofloxacine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycine, the insect repellent N,N'-diethyltoluamide (DEET), the pesticides MCPA and mecoprop, perfluoroalkyl substances (such as PFOS and PFOA), caffeine, and gadolinium.

  • 26. Ludovica Saccà, Maria
    et al.
    Accinelli, Cesare
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Olsen, Björn
    Environmental fate of the antiviral drug Tamiflu in two aquatic ecosystems2009In: Chemosphere, Vol. 75, no 1, 28-33 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The antiviral drug Tamiflu (Oseltamivir Phosphate, OP), has been indicated by the World Health Organization as a first-line defense in case of an avian influenza pandemic. Recent studies have demonstrated that Oseltamivir Carboxylate (OC), the active metabolite of the prodrug OP, has the potential to be released into water bodies. The present laboratory study focused on basic processes governing the environmental fate of OC in surface water from two contrasting aquatic ecosystems of northern Italy, the River Po and the Venice lagoon.

    Results of this study confirmed the potential of OC to persist in surface water. However, addition of 5% of sediments resulted in rapid OC degradation. Estimated half-life of OC in water/sediment of the River Po was 15 days. After three weeks of incubation at 20 °C, more than 8% of 14C-OC evolved as 14CO2 from water/sediment samples of the River Po and Venice lagoon. At the end of the 21-day incubation period, more than 65% of the 14C-residues were recovered from the liquid phase of both Po and Venice water/sediment samples. OC was moderately retained onto coarse sediments from the two sites. In water/sediment samples of the River Po and Venice lagoon treated with 14C-OC, more than 30% of the 14C-residues remained water-extractable after three weeks of incubation. The low affinity of OC to sediments suggests that presence of sediments would not reduce its bioavailability to microbial degradation.

  • 27.
    Nguyen Van, Dong
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Frech, Wolfgang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Redistribution reactions of butyl- and phenyltin species during storage in methanol2005In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, Vol. 20, 266-72 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of organotin species, which are frequently used as standards, in methanol has been investigated by gas chromatography coupled to either quartz furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or mass spectrometry. Ethylation with sodium tetraethylborate was used during sample preparation. The species composition of single or mixed standard solutions at a concentration of 10 µg g–1 was investigated after storing at –20 °C, +4 °C and +22 °C for various time periods. All butyltin species (monobutyltin—MBT, dibutyltin—DBT and tributyltin—TBT) were found to be stable for all storage conditions, even when mixed. The single triphenyltin (TPhT) standard was also stable, whereas mono-and diphenyltin (MPhT; DPhT) were unstable. MPhT redistributed to DPhT and inorganic tin (IOT), while DPhT redistributed to MPhT and to a minor extent to TPhT. In a mixture containing MBT, DBT, TBT, MPhT, DPhT and TPhT, besides the above mentioned reactions, DPhT was found to react strongly with MBT forming up to 73% monobutyl-monophenyltin (MBMPhT) and MPhT. The composition of MBMPhT was investigated by GC-MS. Suggestions for the type of reactions leading to the redistribution of OT species are outlined and suggestions on how to prepare stable OT standards are made.

  • 28. Papa, Ester
    et al.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Johansson, Magnus
    Gramatica, Paola
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Multivariate Chemical Mapping of Antibiotics and Identification of Structurally Representative Substances2007In: Environ. Sci. Technol, Vol. 41, no 5, 1653-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine have been found in samples from diverse environments in many parts of the world. To assess the environmental risks associated with them, data regarding their toxicity, occurrence, and fate are needed, but gathering such data is time-consuming and expensive. An efficient approach to address these difficulties would be to select a small subset of antibiotics with a wide variation in chemical characteristics, perform experimental tests on this subset, and then extrapolate the results to larger numbers of antibiotics, including the most potentially hazardous compounds. To assess the potential utility of such an approach, a set of 92 antibiotics for human use was studied and their structural properties were described with 24 chemical descriptors that included information on their steric, lipophilic, and electronic properties. Principal component analysis in combination with statistical experimental design was used to map the chemical diversity of the antibiotics and to select a small subset, a "training set", of 20 antibiotics. The chemical representativity of the training set was assessed in a quantitative structure-activity model established to predict ultimate biodegradation. The selected antibiotics showed to cover the chemical variation of the studied antibiotics and are suggested for use in future testing programs to assess antibiotics' fate and effects in the environment.

  • 29. Siedlecka, A
    et al.
    Wiklund, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Péronne, M-A
    Micheli, F
    Lesniewska, J
    Sethson, Ingmar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Edlund, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sundberg, B
    Mellerowicz, J. E
    Pectin methyl esterase inhibits intrusive and symplastic cell growth in developing wood of Populus treesManuscript (Other academic)
  • 30. Singer, Andrew C.
    et al.
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Khan, Ghazanfar A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fedorova, Ganna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bowes, Michael J.
    Olsen, Björn
    Söderström, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Compliance to Oseltamivir among two populations in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom affected by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, November 2009: a waste water epidemiology study2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 4, e60221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antiviral provision remains the focus of many pandemic preparedness plans, however, there is considerable uncertainty regarding antiviral compliance rates. Here we employ a waste water epidemiology approach to estimate oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) compliance. Oseltamivir carboxylate (oseltamivir's active metabolite) was recovered from two waste water treatment plant (WWTP) catchments within the United Kingdom at the peak of the autumnal wave of the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 pandemic. Predictions of oseltamivir consumption from detected levels were compared with two sources of national government statistics to derive compliance rates. Scenario and sensitivity analysis indicated between 3-4 and 120-154 people were using oseltamivir during the study period in the two WWTP catchments and a compliance rate between 45-60%. With approximately half the collected antivirals going unused, there is a clear need to alter public health messages to improve compliance. We argue that a near real-time understanding of drug compliance at the scale of the waste water treatment plant (hundreds to millions of people) can potentially help public health messages become more timely, targeted, and demographically sensitive, while potentially leading to less mis- and un-used antiviral, less wastage and ultimately a more robust and efficacious pandemic preparedness plan.

  • 31. Singer, Andrew C
    et al.
    Järhult, Josef D
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Vodnany, Czech Republic.
    Khan, Ghazanfar A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fedorova, Ganna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Vodnany, Czech Republic.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bowes, Michael J
    Olsen, Björn
    Söderström, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Intra- and inter-pandemic variations of antiviral, antibiotics and decongestants in wastewater treatment plants and receiving rivers2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 9, e108621- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentration of eleven antibiotics (trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, cefotaxime, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin), three decongestants (naphazoline, oxymetazoline, xylometazoline) and the antiviral drug oseltamivir's active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), were measured weekly at 21 locations within the River Thames catchment in England during the month of November 2009, the autumnal peak of the influenza A[H1N1]pdm09 pandemic. The aim was to quantify the pharmaceutical response to the pandemic and compare this to drug use during the late pandemic (March 2010) and the inter-pandemic periods (May 2011). A large and small wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were sampled in November 2009 to understand the differential fate of the analytes in the two WWTPs prior to their entry in the receiving river and to estimate drug users using a wastewater epidemiology approach. Mean hourly OC concentrations in the small and large WWTP's influent were 208 and 350 ng/L (max, 2070 and 550 ng/L, respectively). Erythromycin was the most concentrated antibiotic measured in Benson and Oxford WWTPs influent (max = 6,870 and 2,930 ng/L, respectively). Napthazoline and oxymetazoline were the most frequently detected and concentrated decongestant in the Benson WWTP influent (1650 and 67 ng/L) and effluent (696 and 307 ng/L), respectively, but were below detection in the Oxford WWTP. OC was found in 73% of November 2009's weekly river samples (max = 193 ng/L), but only in 5% and 0% of the late-and inter-pandemic river samples, respectively. The mean river concentration of each antibiotic during the pandemic largely fell between 17-74 ng/L, with clarithromycin (max = 292 ng/L) and erythromycin (max = 448 ng/L) yielding the highest single measure. In general, the concentration and frequency of detecting antibiotics in the river increased during the pandemic. OC was uniquely well-suited for the wastewater epidemiology approach owing to its nature as a prodrug, recalcitrance and temporally-and spatially-resolved prescription statistics.

  • 32.
    Söderström, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Järhult, Josef D
    Olsen, Björn
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tanaka, Hiroaki
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Detection of the antiviral drug oseltamivir in aquatic environments2009In: PloS one, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 4, no 6, e6064- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) is the most important antiviral drug available and a cornerstone in the defence against a future influenza pandemic. Recent publications have shown that the active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), is not degraded in sewage treatment plants and is also persistent in aquatic environments. This implies that OC will be present in aquatic environments in areas where oseltamivir is prescribed to patients for therapeutic use. The country where oseltamivir is used most is Japan, where it is used to treat seasonal flu. We measured the levels of OC in water samples from the Yodo River system in the Kyoto and Osaka prefectures, Japan, taken before and during the flu-season 2007/8. No OC was detected before the flu-season but 2-58 ng L(-1) was detected in the samples taken during the flu season. This study shows, for the first time, that low levels of oseltamivir can be found in the aquatic environment. Therefore the natural reservoir of influenza virus, dabbling ducks, is exposed to oseltamivir, which could promote the evolution of viral resistance.

  • 33.
    Söderström, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Strategies for monitoring the emerging polar organic contaminants in water with emphasis on integrative passive sampling2009In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Tools for the REACH Programme - analytical methods for the evaluation of industrial contaminants, Vol. 1216, no 3, 623-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although polar organic contaminants (POCs) such as pharmaceuticals are considered as some of today's most emerging contaminants few of them are regulated or included in on-going monitoring programs. However, the growing concern among the public and researchers together with the new legislature within the European Union, the registration, evaluation and authorisation of chemicals (REACH) system will increase the future need of simple, low cost strategies for monitoring and risk assessment of POCs in aquatic environments. In this article, we overview the advantages and shortcomings of traditional and novel sampling techniques available for monitoring the emerging POCs in water. The benefits and drawbacks of using active and biological sampling were discussed and the principles of organic passive samplers (PS) presented. A detailed overview of type of polar organic PS available, and their classes of target compounds and field of applications were given, and the considerations involved in using them such as environmental effects and quality control were discussed. The usefulness of biological sampling of POCs in water was found to be limited. Polar organic PS was considered to be the only available, but nevertheless, an efficient alternative to active water sampling due to its simplicity, low cost, no need of power supply or maintenance, and the ability of collecting time-integrative samples with one sample collection. However, the polar organic PS need to be further developed before they can be used as standard in water quality monitoring programs.

  • 34. Thomas, Kevin V
    et al.
    Bijlsma, Lubertus
    Castiglioni, Sara
    Covaci, Adrian
    Emke, Erik
    Grabic, Roman
    Hernández, Félix
    Karolak, Sara
    Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lopez de Alda, Miren
    Meierjohann, Axel
    Ort, Christoph
    Pico, Yolanda
    Quintana, José B
    Reid, Malcolm
    Rieckermann, Jörg
    Terzic, Senka
    van Nuijs, Alexander L N
    de Voogt, Pim
    Comparing illicit drug use in 19 European cities through sewage analysis2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 432, 432-439 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The analysis of sewage for urinary biomarkers of illicit drugs is a promising and complementary approach for estimating the use of these substances in the general population. For the first time, this approach was simultaneously applied in 19 European cities, making it possible to directly compare illicit drug loads in Europe over a 1-week period. An inter-laboratory comparison study was performed to evaluate the analytical performance of the participating laboratories. Raw 24-hour composite sewage samples were collected from 19 European cities during a single week in March 2011 and analyzed for the urinary biomarkers of cocaine, amphetamine, ecstasy, methamphetamine and cannabis using in-house optimized and validated analytical methods. The load of each substance used in each city was back-calculated from the measured concentrations. The data show distinct temporal and spatial patterns in drug use across Europe. Cocaine use was higher in Western and Central Europe and lower in Northern and Eastern Europe. The extrapolated total daily use of cocaine in Europe during the study period was equivalent to 356kg/day. High per capita ecstasy loads were observed in Dutch cities, as well as in Antwerp and London. In general, cocaine and ecstasy loads were significantly elevated during the weekend compared to weekdays. Per-capita loads of methamphetamine were highest in Helsinki and Turku, Oslo and Budweis, while the per capita loads of cannabis were similar throughout Europe. This study shows that a standardized analysis for illicit drug urinary biomarkers in sewage can be applied to estimate and compare the use of these substances at local and international scales. This approach has the potential to deliver important information on drug markets (supply indicator).

  • 35.
    Åberg, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Nilsson, Thor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    MacLeod, Matt
    Hanberg, Annika
    Andersson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bergek, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Rickard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Exposure assessment at a PCDD/F contaminated site in Sweden: field measurements of exposure media and serum analysis2010In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 17, no 1, 26-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: The main pathway for human exposure to the highly toxic polychlorinated-p-dioxins and polychlorinated furans [polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs)] is via dietary intake. Other exposure pathways may, however, be important in close proximity to point sources, such as wood preservation sites, where PCDD/F contaminated chlorophenols (CP) were previously used. In this study, a heavily PCDD/F contaminated CP saw mill site in Sweden was investigated. Human exposure through a broad spectrum of exposure pathways was assessed. Such studies are in demand since the question whether contaminated sites represent a current or future risk can only be answered by detailed site-specific risk assessments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sampling of exposure media (soil, air, groundwater, raspberries, carrots, potatoes, grass, milk, eggs, and chicken fodder) was made. Exposure media concentrations and congener distribution patterns were used to investigate the mobilization of PCDD/Fs from soil to the environment and to calculate exposure levels for adults. Blood serum levels from site-exposed and control individuals were also analyzed. RESULTS: Congener distribution patterns at the site were generally dominated by a specific marker congener (1234678-HpCDF), which is highly abundant in the polluted soil. The dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQ) concentrations were notably elevated as compared to national reference samples for most exposure media, and the marker congener was a major contributor to increased TEQ levels. There were also indications of soil-to-air volatilization of tetra- and penta-CDD/Fs. People who participated in the restoration of a contaminated building showed higher levels of 1234678-HpCDF compared to controls, and calculated exposure levels suggest that several site-specific exposure routes may be of importance for the daily intake of PCDD/F. CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND PERSPECTIVES: Despite low mobility of higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs, these contaminants were transferred from the polluted soil to the surroundings and into human tissue. The extent of increased exposure from contaminated sites depends on the PCDD/F source strength of the soil, composition of the pollution, human activities, and dietary patterns of the residents. Impact from the contaminated soil on other exposure media was seen also for areas with low to moderate soil contamination. In the future, not only the levels of PCDD/F soil pollution but also the composition must be considered in risk assessments of contaminated sites.

  • 36.
    Östman, Marcus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Näsström, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    A snapshot of illicit drug use in Sweden acquired through sewage water analysis2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 472, 862-871 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analytical measurements of sewage water have been used many times to estimate the consumption of specific drugs in an area. This study measured a large number of illicit drugs and metabolites (>30) at a large number of sewage treatment plants (STPs) distributed across Sweden. Twenty-four illicit and prescription drugs, classified as narcotic substances in Sweden, and seven selected metabolites were included in the study. A 24 hour composite sample of incoming sewage water was collected from 33 different municipalities at various geographic locations across Sweden. Species were analyzed using an on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method. The method proved to be rapid with minimum need for sample work up and was able to detect 13 compounds above their respective limits of quantification. The results for all compounds were presented as per capita loads. Multivariate data analysis was used to relate drug consumption to geographical location and/or population of cities. The results showed that geographical differences in drug consumption were apparent across the country. For the narcotic pharmaceuticals, the geographical differences suggested by the multivariate model were supported by prescription statistics. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1 - 36 of 36
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf