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  • 1.
    Boström, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hörnsten, Asa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Role clarity and role conflict among Swedish diabetes specialist nurses2013In: Primary care diabetes, ISSN 1878-0210, Vol. 7, no 3, 207-212 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To explore diabetes specialist nurses (DSNs)' perceptions of their role in terms of clarity, conflict and other psychosocial work aspects.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among DSNs in a county in northern Sweden. The DSNs answered the Nordic Questionnaire of Psychological and Social Factors at Work (QPS Nordic) about psychosocial aspects of their work. Statistical analysis compared DSNs with a reference group of different health professionals. Correlations between role clarity, role conflict, and other variables were analysed.

    RESULTS: The DSNs perceived more, and higher, job demands, including quantitative, decision-making and learning demands, but also more positive challenges at work compared with the reference group. Role clarity correlated with experiences of health promotion, perception of mastery, co-worker support, and empowering leadership, while role conflict correlated with quantitative and learning demands.

    CONCLUSIONS: The DSNs perceived high demands but also positive challenges in their work. Their role expectations correlated with several psychosocial work aspects. It is important that DSNs should be presented with positive challenges as meaningful incentives for further role development and enhanced mastery of their work.

  • 2.
    Boström, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lundman, Bent
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Graneheim, Ulla H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hörnsten, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Interaction between diabetes specialist nurses and patients during group sessions about self-management in type 2 diabetes2014In: Patient Education and Counseling, ISSN 0738-3991, E-ISSN 1873-5134, Vol. 94, no 2, 187-192 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the interaction between diabetes specialist nurses (DSNs) and patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) during group sessions about self-management. Methods: Ten DSNs and 44 patients were observed during group sessions about self-management, and thereafter the observations were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The interaction was characterized by three themes: becoming empowered, approaching each other from different perspectives, and struggling for authority. The interaction was not a linear process, but rather a dynamic process with distinct episodes that characterized the content of the sessions. Conclusion: It is important to achieve an interaction that is patient-centered, where the DSN is aware of each patient's individual needs and avoids responding to patients in a normative way. A satisfying interaction may strengthen patients' self-management, and also may strengthen the DSNs in their professional performance. Practice implications: Authority struggles between patients and DSNs could be a prerequisite for patients to become autonomous and decisive in self-management. DSNs might benefit from an increased awareness about this issue, because they can better support patients if they do not perceive authority struggles as threats to their professional role. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Boström, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Egan Sjölander, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Hörnsten, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Diabetes specialist nurses' perceptions of their multifaceted role2012In: European Diabetes Nursing, ISSN 1551-7853, E-ISSN 1551-7861, Vol. 9, no 2, 39-44 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore diabetes specialist nurses' (DSNs') perceptions of their professional role in diabetes care.

    Exploratory interviews were used to elicit DSNs' perceptions of their professional role. Twenty-nine DSNs working in 23 primary health care centres in northern Sweden were interviewed in focus groups. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    The DSNs described their profession as encompassing five major roles: ‘expert’, ‘fosterer’, ‘executive’, ‘leader’, and ‘role model’. Challenges interpreted as role ambiguities included feeling uninformed, fragmented, resigned, pressed for time, and self-reproachful.

    The profession of DSN was interpreted as multifaceted, with various roles and role ambiguities. Patient-centred care and empowerment, which are recommended in diabetes care, can be difficult to achieve when DSNs experience role ambiguity.

    Lack of clarity about role demands and difficulty in reconciling different roles may have a negative impact on DSNs' attitudes in clinical encounters and could inhibit patient-centred care. The development of the DSN profession requires improved awareness of the DSN's professional role in the clinical encounter, not only to improve the care of patients with diabetes, but also to retain these professionals.

  • 4.
    Boström, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hällgren Graneheim, Ulla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hörnsten, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Interaction between diabetes specialist nurses and patients during group sessions about self-management in type 2 diabetesIn: Patient Education and Counseling, ISSN 0738-3991, E-ISSN 1873-5134Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Boström, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lehuluante, Abraraw
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hörnsten, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Patient-centred care in type 2 diabetes: an altered professional role for diabetes specialist nurses2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 28, no 4, 675-682 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little research has been done to try to understand how patient-centred care is understood and practised by healthcare professionals specialising in patients with diabetes. Experiences from patient-centred practices need to be highlighted as a way of motivating diabetes specialist nurses to take a patient-centred approach. The aim of this study was to describe diabetes specialist nurses' experiences of practising patient-centred care in the context of a type 2 diabetes intervention. The study design was descriptive and used qualitative methods. Focus group interviews complemented by individual semi-structured interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The main theme of the diabetes specialist nurses' experiences of practising patient-centred care was an altered professional role. The main theme was based on two themes: ambivalence towards practising patient-centred care and enriched relationships with the patients. The ambivalence towards practising patient-centred care was based on the three subthemes: a position of withdrawn expertise, inconvenience of changing routines and insights that patient-centred care is difficult but possible. Their experiences of enriched relationships with patients were based on the two subthemes: courage to discuss the severity of diabetes and increased engagement in patients' daily lives. The diabetes specialist nurses' experiences with practising patient-centred care included doubts about their ability to practise in such a way and about the feasibility of such care. At the same time, their enriched relationships with patients were seen as an opportunity to engage in patients' lives. Training and support for practising patient-centred care may improve diabetes specialist nurses skills in patient-centred care and self-management support in type 2 diabetes.

  • 6.
    Dorell, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Östlund, Ulrika
    Centre for Research & Development, Uppsala University/ Region Gävleborg, Gävle.
    Sundin, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Family Health Conversations have positive outcomes on families: A mixed method studyArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A Family Systems Nursing intervention, “Family Health Conversations” (FamHC) was conducted in order to strengthen the health of families having relatives at residential home for older people. Having a family member living in a residential home affects the entire family and can be hard to handle. Family members require encouraging and open communication support from nurse during and after relocation to a residential home.

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to evaluate the responses to and effects of the Family Health Conversations in families with a member living at a residential home for older people and to integrate the empirical results with a theoretical assumption upon which the intervention was based.

    Methods: A mixed method research design was used. The Swedish Health-Related Quality of Life Survey and the Family Hardiness Index were administered before and 6 months after the intervention. Qualitative data was collected by semi-structured interviews with each family 6 months post-intervention. The sample included families of residents, a total of 10 families comprising 22 family members.

    Result: Main finding was that FamHCs helped family members process their feelings about having a member living at a residential home and made it easier for them to deal with their own situations. FamHCs helped to ease their consciences, improve their emotional well-being, and change their beliefs about their own insufficiency and guilt. Seeing problems from a different perspective facilitated the families’ thinking in a new way.

    Conclusion: These findings showed that FamHC can be an important type of intervention to improve family functioning and enhance the emotional well-being.

  • 7.
    Graneheim, Ulla Hällgren
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Ljung, Inga-Maj Persson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Jansson, Lilian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Balancing between contradictions: the meaning of interaction with people suffering from dementia and "behavioral disturbances".2005In: The International Journal of Aging & Human Development, ISSN 0091-4150, E-ISSN 1541-3535, Vol. 60, no 2, 145-157 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interacting with people who suffer from dementia poses a challenge for care providers, and the presence of behavioral disturbances adds a further complication. Our article is based on the assumption that behavioral disturbances are meaningful expressions of experiences. Six narrative interviews were conducted with care providers with the aim of illuminating the meaning of interaction with people suffering from dementia and behavioral disturbances. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed into text, and interpreted using a phenomenological hermeneutic methodology. The findings indicate that interacting with people with dementia and behavioral disturbances, as narrated by care providers, means balancing between contradictions concerning meeting the person in my versus her/his world, feeling powerless versus capable, and feeling rejected versus accepted. Interaction involves being at various positions along these continua at different points in time. Furthermore, it means facing ethical dilemmas concerning doing good for the individual or the collective. This is interpreted as a dialectic process and is reflected on in light of Hegel's reasoning about the struggle between the master and the slave.

  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Karlsson, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Behavioral and psychological symptoms and psychotropic drugs among people with cognitive impairment in nursing homes in 2007 and 20132016In: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 72, no 8, 987-994 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The use of psychotropic drugs to treat behavioral and psychological symptoms among people with dementia has been widely questioned because of its limited efficacy and risk of harmful side-effects. The objectives of this study was to compare the prevalence of behavioral and psychological symptoms and the use of psychotropic drug treatments among old people with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care units in 2007 and 2013.

    METHODS: Two questionnaire surveys were performed in 2007 and 2013, comprising all those living in geriatric care units in the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden. A comparison was made between 1971 people from 2007 and 1511 people from 2013. Data were collected concerning psychotropic and antidementia drug use, functioning in the activities of daily living (ADL), cognition, and behavioral and psychological symptoms, using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale (MDDAS).

    RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2013, the use of antipsychotic drugs declined from 25.4 to 18.9 %, and of anxiolytic, hypnotic, and sedative drugs from 35.5 to 29.4 %. The prevalence of people prescribed antidepressant drugs remained unchanged while antidementia drug prescription increased from 17.9 to 21.5 %. When controlled for demographic changes, 36 out of 39 behavioral and psychological symptoms showed no difference in prevalence between the years.

    CONCLUSIONS: The use of antipsychotic, anxiolytic, hypnotic, and sedative drugs declined considerably between 2007 and 2013 among old people with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care units. Despite this reduction, the prevalences of behavioral and psychological symptoms remained largely unchanged.

  • 9.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Schneede, Jörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Sjölander, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Reduction in the use of potentially inappropriate drugs among old people living in geriatric care units between 2007 and 20132015In: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 71, no 4, 507-515 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to investigate trends in the prevalence of potentially inappropriate drug use among old people living in geriatric care units in the county of Västerbotten between 2007 and 2013 using six national quality indicators and to assess the impact of medication reviews on those quality indicators.

    METHODS: Data were collected concerning potentially inappropriate drug use, function in the activities of daily living (ADL) and cognitive function, using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale (MDDAS). A comparison was made between the years 2007 and 2013, comprising 2772 and 1902 people, respectively, living in geriatric care in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden. We conducted a parallel investigation of a separate corresponding population in Västerbotten County from 2012, where potentially inappropriate drug use was measured before and after 895 medication reviews which involved a clinical pharmacist.

    RESULTS: After controlling for age, sex, ADL and cognitive impairment, there was a significant improvement in five out of six quality indicators between 2007 and 2013. While 44 % of the people were exposed to one or more potentially inappropriate medications in 2007, this number had declined to 26 % by 2013. In the separate population from 2012, the frequency of potentially inappropriate drug use was significantly reduced amongst the people who had a medication review performed.

    CONCLUSION: The extent of potentially inappropriate drug use declined between 2007 and 2013 according to the quality indicators used. Medication reviews involving clinical pharmacists might be an important factor in reducing potentially inappropriate drug use and improving drug treatment among old people.

  • 10.
    Hajdarevic, Senada
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hörnsten, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sundbom, Elisabet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Schmitt-Egenolf, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology.
    Health care delay in malignant melanoma: various pathways to diagnosis and treatment2014In: Dermatology Research and Practice, ISSN 1687-6105, E-ISSN 1687-6113, 294287- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We aimed to describe and compare patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma (MM), depending on their initial contact with care andwith regard to age, sex, andMMtype and thickness, and to explore pathways and time intervals (lead times) between clinics from the initial contact to diagnosis and treatment.The sample from northern Sweden was identified via the Swedish melanoma register. Data regarding pathways in health care were retrieved from patient records. In our unselected population of 71 people diagnosedwith skinmelanoma of SSMandNMtypes, 75%of patients were primarily treated by primary health-care centres (PHCs). The time interval (delay) from primary excision until registration of the histopathological assessment in the medical records was significantly longer in PHCs than in hospital-based and dermatological clinics (Derm). Thicker tumors were more common in the PHC group. Older patients waited longer times for wide excision. Most MM are excised rapidly at PHCs, but some patients may not be diagnosed and treated in time. Delay of registration of results from histopathological assessments within PHCs seems to be an important issue for future improvement. Exploring shortcomings inMMpatients’ clinical pathways is important to improve the quality of care and patient safety.

  • 11.
    Hajdarevic, Senada
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Schmitt-Egenolf, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology.
    Sundbom, Elisabet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hörnsten, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Coping styles in decision making among men and women diagnosed with malignant melanoma2013In: Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-1053, E-ISSN 1461-7277, Vol. 18, no 11, 1445-1455 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early care seeking is important for prognosis of malignant melanoma. Coping styles in decision-making to seek care can relate to prognosis since avoidant strategies could delay care seeking. The aim of this study was to compare self-reported coping styles in decision-making between men and women diagnosed with malignant melanoma. We used the Swedish version of the Melbourne Decision-Making Questionnaire to assess coping styles. Men generally scored higher in buck-passing while women and those living without a partner scored higher in hypervigilance. This knowledge could be used in the development of preventive programmes with intention to reach those who delay care seeking.

  • 12.
    Hällgren Graneheim, Ulla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hörnsten, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Female caregivers' perceptions of reasons for violent behaviour among nursing home residents2012In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1351-0126, E-ISSN 1365-2850, Vol. 19, no 2, 154-161 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accessible summary

    • Threats and violence against professional caregivers present a growing health and safety problem in elderly care.
    • Caregivers attribute violent behaviour in the elderly to patient characteristics, caregiver approach and disorder in the environment.
    • Caregivers involved in a violent situation should strive to see the person behind the behaviour and the frustration that may have prompted it, to understand what the behaviour is meant to communicate, and to tailor interventions to the individual.

    Abstract

    Threats and violence against professional caregivers present a growing health and safety problem in elderly care. We aimed to explore female caregivers' perceptions of reasons for violent behaviour among nursing home residents. Forty-one caregivers at three nursing homes were interviewed and their responses were subjected to qualitative content analysis, which revealed three content areas of perceived reasons for patient violence: patient characteristics, caregiver approach and environmental aspects. The caregivers' perceptions were formulated in three core statements: ‘they (the residents) are not who they used to be’, ‘we (the caregivers) have acted inappropriately’ and ‘we (residents and caregivers) are all surrounded by disorder’. Our findings indicate that the reasons for violence are complex and multifactorial, so interventions should be individually tailored. Caregivers involved in a violent situation need to see the person behind the behaviour, try to interpret what the behaviour is meant to communicate and adjust the intervention according to individual need.

  • 13.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing.
    Våld mot vårdare i sjukhemsvård2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aimed to explore factors related to the prevalence of violence towards caregivers working in a nursing home context. The aim was also to describe caregivers’ perceptions and experiences of violence in a nursing home context. The thesis comprises four studies. Study I includes data regarding environmental and organizational factors, residents’ and caregivers’ characteristics, and violence. Data concerning job satisfaction and working climate were also obtained. In study II, questionnaires were used to collect data concerning caregivers’ exposure to violence and their personal characteristics. Data concerning personality traits, coping resources, and burnout were collected by means of instruments. In order to illuminate caregivers’ perceptions of violence (III) and experiences of being exposed to violence (IV) interviews were performed. Quantitative data were analyzed by means of comparative and descriptive statistics. The interviews were transcribed and interpreted using a qualitative content analysis method.

    The results showed that 15 percent of the residents exhibited violent behaviour during the week of in-vestigation. A significant higher proportion of male residents were assessed by the caregivers to present violent behaviour compared to female residents. A discriminate analysis showed that the prevalence of behavioural symptoms and psychiatric symptoms, residents needing assistance with dressing, the caregivers’ psychological workload, and job satisfaction were the strongest discriminators between nursing home wards with a high versus low proportion of residents with violent behaviour (I).

    The results from study II showed that among the 196 caregivers participating in the study, 68 % re-ported exposure to violence during the previous year. Twenty-two percent reported exposure several times per week, and 51 % reported exposure at least once during the previous month. A higher proportion of caregivers 50 years or younger were exposed to violence compared to older caregivers. A higher proportion of caregivers with a work experience of three years or more reported exposure to violence compared to less experienced caregivers. A higher proportion caregivers who reported exposure to violence assessed symptoms on burnout and motherly rejection. No significant differences between the two groups were found concerning coping resources, defence mechanisms, temperament, and character.

    Study III showed that caregivers’ perceptions of violence are subjective and in the eye of the beholder. The caregivers perceive violence as challenging and expressed that caring situations had to be solved even though their own safety is perceived to be in danger. The caregivers perceive violence as intentional when the residents are judged to have a good cognitive capacity and are perceived to be conscious. However, the care-givers perceive violence as excusable when the residents are described as old and sick. The caregivers perceive violence as ordinary and as a part of the work situation. The caregivers also perceive violence as contextual since similar violence is accepted at the work place but not outside it.

    The result from study IV showed that the caregivers’ experiences of exposure to violence range be-tween being overwhelmed by contradictory emotions and being resigned. The caregivers have preconceived ideas towards the violent behaviour and describe being on guard in order to avoid being exposed to violence. The caregivers experience that they lose the control over a violent situation and strive to regain the control. They are overwhelmed by emotions such as surprise, anger, and repulsiveness and describe a resignation hav-ing to care for violent residents. Caring for violent residents is described as a constant struggle and the care-givers express a disappointment over insufficient support. The caregivers strive to regain the control by means of seeking excuses for the violent behaviour or by support from colleagues.

    The conclusions from this thesis are that the prevalence of violence is related to factors among the residents as well as the caregivers, that caregivers’ perceptions of violence are subjective and caregivers’ experi-ences varies between being overwhelmed by contradictory emotions and resignation. There is a risk that vio-lence in nursing homes becomes a norm, is accepted, and in this way is maintained. The boundary between what is acceptable and what is not acceptable becomes erased, the caregiver resigns, and the violence is not looked upon as a divergence but becomes a part of the working situation. It is therefore important that the problems with violence at nursing homes are attended to and that the caregivers are supported in their work.

  • 14.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing.
    Aström, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing.
    Graneheim, Ulla Hällgren
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing.
    Violence in nursing homes: perceptions of female caregivers.2008In: Journal of clinical nursing, ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 17, no 12, 1660-6 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This study illuminates how female caregivers in nursing home perceive violence. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have focused on prevalence and types of violence and injuries in various settings and among various professionals. There are, however, few studies that examine how caregivers perceive violence. METHODS: Forty-one female caregivers at nursing homes were asked to reflect on a vignette containing a situation where a female caregiver is exposed to violence from a male resident. The reflections were analysed by qualitative content analysis. FINDINGS: The main finding indicates that perceiving an action as violent is in the eye of the beholder. Caregivers perceive violence to be challenging, intentional, excusable, ordinary and contextual relative to their own experience and attitudes. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: As the perception of violence is subjective, there is a risk that violent incidents will be under-reported as well as over-reported. To avoid this, it is important to construct a well-defined operationalised definition of violence for research purposes. Our findings also indicate the need for individually structured and adjusted support for caregivers. To explore the complexity of violence, further research should focus on how caregivers and residents experience violence in a nursing home.

  • 15.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Aström, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Karlsson, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Factors associated with the prevalence of violent behaviour among residents living in nursing homes2009In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 18, no 7, 972-980 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between environmental and organisational factors as well as resident and caregiver characteristics in nursing home wards with a high respectively low prevalence of residents with violent behaviour. BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have indicated that different factors are related to violent behaviour among residents living in nursing homes, such as environmental and organisational variations, and resident and caregiver characteristics. However, few studies have simultaneously examined the relationship between these factors. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive survey design. METHODS: The study was performed in 10 nursing homes consisting of 33 wards. Data were collected using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale and the Geriatric Rating Scale. Variables concerning organisation and environment were gathered by means of a questionnaire. Differences between wards with high (HPW) or low prevalence of violence (LPW) were analysed. RESULTS: In HPWs, the prevalence of behaviour and psychiatric symptoms, residents needing assistance with dressing and psychological workload were found to be higher, while job satisfaction was lower compared to LPWs. This study has also shown that caregivers in HPWs had less experience of working with older people and they experienced their working climate as less positive. Furthermore, HPWs had more residents, lower caregiver-to-resident ratio and longer corridors, and caregivers in these wards experienced more difficulties to supervise the residents. CONCLUSION: This study has shown that the prevalence of residents with violent behaviour is significantly associated with other behavioural and psychiatric symptoms and ADL (activities of daily life)-functions, as well as caregivers' experiences of job satisfaction and psychological workload. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This study underlines the importance of a multifactorial approach to understand the prevalence of violent behaviour, including the physical environment, organisational factors, as well as characteristics of the resident and the caregiver.

  • 16.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing.
    Graneheim, Ulla Hällgren
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing.
    Richter, Jörg
    Eisemann, Martin
    Aström, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing.
    Exposure to violence in relation to personality traits, coping abilities, and burnout among caregivers in nursing homes: a case-control study.2008In: Scandinavian journal of caring sciences, ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 22, no 4, 551-559 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although violence toward caregivers occurs often and caregivers' ability to interact and deal with difficult situations is relevant in preventing such violence, few studies have been conducted that focus on caregivers' characteristics. AIM: This study explores the relationship between perceived exposure to violence and demographical factors, parental rearing, personality traits including coping abilities, defence styles, and burnout among caregivers working in nursing homes. METHOD: A total of 196 caregivers working in nursing homes were included. They were asked to complete questionnaires concerning demographical factors and exposure to violence. One group of female caregivers reporting no exposure to violence (n = 20) was matched with one group of exposed to violence (n = 20). Both groups were asked to complete questionnaires concerning parental rearing, personality traits, coping abilities, and burnout. RESULT: Around 68.4% of the caregivers had been exposed to violence during the previous year and 22.4% several times a week. Caregivers 50 years of age or younger and employed in geriatric care for more than 3 years were more frequently exposed to violence. Inter-group differences were found regarding 'maternal rejection' and 'burnout'. No statistical differences could be found concerning defence styles, coping ability, temperament, or character aspects. CONCLUSION: Violence toward caregivers occurs frequently and appears to be influenced by several factors. 'Maternal rejection' and 'burnout' among caregivers exposed to violence might influence the communication between caregivers and residents, rendering more violence. However, personality traits among caregivers do not seem to be associated with exposure to violence.

  • 17.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Graneheim, Ulla Hällgren
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Åström, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Female caregivers' experiences of exposure to violence in nursing homes2009In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1351-0126, E-ISSN 1365-2850, Vol. 16, no 1, 46-53 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although earlier studies have examined caregivers' experiences of exposure to violence, few have investigated female caregivers working in nursing homes with a specific focus on experiences throughout the entire scenario of a violent situation. This study illuminates female caregivers' experiences of being exposed to violence in nursing homes. Twenty caregivers working in three nursing homes located in northern Sweden were asked to narrate about a situation in which they had been exposed to violence. Their narratives were analysed by using qualitative content analysis. We found that the caregivers had preconceived ideas about violent behaviour, that they experienced a loss of control over the situation, and that they then strove to regain control. Experiences such as these may influence caregivers' interactions with residents who display violent behaviour. As a result of violent interactions, caregivers may distance themselves from the residents, an attitude that may decrease the quality of care. There is a risk that violence in nursing homes is accepted and normalized as a part of the job and hence persists.

  • 18.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hajdarevic, Senada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Abramsson, MaiGreth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Stenvall, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hornsten, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Diabetes empowerment and needs for self-management support among people with type 2 diabetes in a rural inland community in northern Sweden2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 29, no 3, 521-527 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Self-management among people with T2D includes being responsible for attaining a blood sugar level within the normal range, eating healthy food, exercising and following prescriptions for medication, something that may need support. In rural areas, access to health care may be limited, and support from family members becomes important.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe perceptions and associations of diabetes empowerment, self-management ability and needs of self-management support among people with T2D in a northern rural community of Sweden.

    Method: People with T2D (n = 159) living a rural municipality in northern Sweden answered the SWE-DES-23 questionnaire and additional questions concerning self-management and needs for self-management support.

    Results: A higher diabetes empowerment was associated with longer diabetes duration and support from healthcare professionals and relatives. Women rated a need for self-management support significantly higher than men did. Nonretired persons rated a significantly higher need for self-management support and a lower perception of support from healthcare professionals compared to retired persons. Cohabitant persons had a significantly higher perception of support from relatives and also estimated a higher need for relatives’ involvement in clinical visits compared to persons living alone. Both the newly diagnosed and also those people with a diabetes duration of 10–15 years rated a higher need for group support. Higher self-awareness and readiness to change were apparent among people with short and long diabetes duration. Furthermore, self-management ability, support from healthcare professionals and from relatives and lastly diabetes duration was associated with diabetes empowerment.

    Conclusion: Not only people newly diagnosed with T2D should be offered patient-centred group support, strengthening patient empowerment. For future, family-focused care and education and training in person-centred care among diabetes specialist nurses is recommended.

  • 19.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hajdarevic, Senada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Jutterström, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hörnsten, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Validity and reliability testing of the Swedish version of Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 28, no 2, 405-412 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Melbourne Decision-Making Questionnaire (MDMQ) is an attempt to capture and measure coping strategies that people use. The instrument had not previously been translated into Swedish. The aim of this study was to evaluate validity and reliability of the Swedish version of the MDMQ.

    METHOD: A Swedish translation was performed and back-translated. A group of five pilot readers evaluated content validity. The translated questionnaire was tested among 735 patients, healthcare workers, healthcare students and teachers. A parallel analysis (PA), exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed.

    RESULT: An initial EFA with a four-factor solution showed a low concordance with the original 22-item four-factor model with a very low Cronbach's alpha in one of the dimensions. However, a second EFA with a three-factor solution showed a good model fit for the Swedish translation of the Melbourne Decision-Making Questionnaire (MDMQ-S) with a satisfactory Cronbach's alpha. A CFA showed a goodness of fit after deleting six items.

    CONCLUSION: After testing the MDMQ-S, we found support for validity and reliability of the instrument. We found the 16-item version of MDMQ-S to be satisfactory concerning the subscales vigilance, procrastination and buck-passing. However, we found no support that the hypervigilance dimension could be measured by the MDMQ-S.

  • 20.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hällgren Graneheim, Ulla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Åström, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Karlsson, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Physically violent behaviour in dementia care: characteristics of residents and management of violent situations2011In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 15, no 5, 573-579 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Physically violent behaviour (PVB) is common among residents with dementia and often complicates nursing care. This study aims to explore types of caring situations, resident characteristics related to PVB and professional caregivers' management of PVB.

    Methods: The study included 40 group homes for 309 residents with dementia. Data was gathered by means of structured interviews, the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale and the Geriatric Rating Scale.

    Results: Ninety-eight of the residents (31.7%) were assessed as showing PVB during the preceding week. Three factors were independently associated with PVB: male gender, antipsychotic treatment and decline in orientation. Violent residents were more likely to have impaired speech, difficulties understanding verbal communication and prescribed analgesics and antipsychotics than were non-violent residents. PVB occurred mainly in intimate helping situations and was managed by symptom-oriented approaches, such as distraction, medication and isolation. The working team also held frequent discussions about the residents with PVB.

    Conclusion: This study shows that PVB is frequently displayed among residents in group homes for persons with dementia and the caregivers mainly manage PVB in a symptom-oriented way. To enhance the quality of care for patients with dementia, there is a need for interventions that aim to understand and manage the residents' physical violent behaviour.

  • 21.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lämås, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Från undersköterska till doktor: En resa i Edmund Hillary och Tenzing Norgays fotspår2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Santamäki-Fischer, Regina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Nygren, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Åström, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Supporting the oldest old when completing a questionnaire: risking bias or gaining reliable results?2007In: Research on aging, Vol. 29, no 6, 576-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Åström, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hällgren Graneheim, Ulla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Being flexible and tuning in: professional caregivers' reflections on management of violent behaviour in nursing homes2013In: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 8, no 4, 290-298 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives: This qualitative, descriptive study aimed to illuminate professional caregivers' reflections on managing residents' violent behaviour in nursing homes.

    Background: Violence towards caregivers in the care of older people is a challenge attracting increasing attention in nursing research. However, studies that focus on the approaches caregivers in nursing homes resort to and how they manage everyday care situations involving threats and violent situations are relatively few.

    Methods: The study was based on 41 interviews in which the caregivers reflected on their own courses of action in violent situations. The interviews were subjected to qualitative content analysis.

    Results: This study showed that caregivers were flexible and in tune with the resident by averting and defusing threatening and violent situations. The caregivers tried to give care in line with the residents' condition, control their own spontaneous reactions and interpret the residents' reactions as communicative signs indicating how they should interact with the resident in the situation. As a last resort, when previous approaches had been unsuccessful, the caregivers took a firm stand, confronted the resident and the violent behaviour more directly, but with respect and with the residents' best interests in mind.

    Conclusions: These findings illuminate how caregivers successfully can manage threatening and violent behavior in nursing homes by being flexible and tuning in with the resident but also by taking a firm stand with the residents' best interests in mind. To be flexible and in tune with residents, it is important to know the residents' personal histories. This may mean involving stakeholders, such as family members and friends, in the care of residents with violent behaviour.

    Implications for practice: We believe that it is important to involve stakeholders in the care of threatening and violent residents in nursing homes as it is important to get information on the residents' personal history. However, there are risks when interpreting residents' behaviour in light of their personal histories as relatives experiences may be subjective and the information may give the caregivers preconceived ideas about the resident.

  • 24.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Åström, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hällgren Graneheim, Ulla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    In the eye of the beholder: How female caregivers in nursing homes perceive violence2007In: 5th European congress on violence in clinical psychiatry., 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Jutterström, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hällgren Graneheim, Ulla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hörnsten, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Ideal versus real conditions for type 2 diabetes care: diabetes specialty nurses’ perspectives2012In: The Internet Journal of Advanced Nursing Practice, ISSN 1523-6064, Vol. 11, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since diabetes specialty nurses are the professionals who spend the most time with patients living with diabetes, they probably have the greatest influence on the quality of diabetes care. Therefore, their personal perceptions about what constitutes “good care” in type 2 diabetes care are important to explore.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe conditions for “good care” in type 2-diabetes as perceived by diabetes specialty nurses.

    Method: Twenty-one experienced diabetes specialty nurses participated in three focus group interviews. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Findings: The findings are presented in four themes describing diabetes specialty nurses’ perspectives on ideal versus real conditions for type 2 diabetes care: 1) Diabetes counseling built on empowerment versus governance; 2) Diabetes management built on comprehensive versus biomedical views; 3) Diabetes organization built on nurse-led versus physician-led care; and 4) Diabetes policies built on quality versus equality.

    Conclusion: The ideal diabetes care is perceived as complex to achieve. Conflicting paradigms, power relations, and departmentalization of work are influencing the potential to deliver ideal diabetes care and to increase satisfaction among diabetes specialty nurses and patients. The diabetes specialty nurses described themselves as the “hub” of diabetes care, and they perceived conflicts between ideal versus real conditions in type 2 diabetes care. Patient centredness is not a real condition in diabetes care.

  • 26.
    Jutterström, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sandström, Herbert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hörnsten, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Turning points in self-management of type 2 diabetes2012In: European Diabetes Nursing, ISSN 1551-7853, E-ISSN 1551-7861, Vol. 9, no 2, 46-50 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A turning point is described in the literature as a powerful emotional experience or insight leading to a fundamental change in a person’s life, and requires a new way of managing the illness. However, turning points are not sufficiently described in the literature, particularly not with respect to diabetes.

    The aim of this study was to throw light on turning points in self-management asdescribed by people with type 2 diabetes.

    Eighteen participants diagnosed with type 2 diabetes within the previous two years, and who received treatment in primary health care, were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    The findings demonstrated that the turning point in self-management among individuals living with type 2 diabetes included four themes: being in a life and death struggle, being at a crossroads with no return, being the one who decides, and being the one who can change the outcome.

    Turning point transitions include existential and emotional aspects that can increase inner motivation and power for changed behaviour. Turning points are possible to identify, and self-management could be facilitated if more attention is paid to the emotional and existential aspects of having an illness.

  • 27.
    Jutterström, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sandström, Herbert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hörnsten, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Diabetes control by patient-centred self-management support: a randomised controlled trialArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Lundström, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Handbok för hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal. Hot och våld inom vården: hantering och bemötande.2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Richter, Jörg
    et al.
    Regional Centre of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Åström, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Personality characteristics of staff in elderly care-a cross-cultural comparison2012In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 33, no 2, 96-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication and interaction between carers and residents in elderly and dementia care can be challenging and demanding. The carer's personality, one factor shaping this interaction, seems to have been neglected in the literature. This article looks at cross-cultural comparisons of staff in elderly and dementia care with individuals from the general population matched by age and gender. Compared to individuals in the general population, elderly and dementia care staff are usually slower tempered, more stoic and reflective, tolerant to monotony, and more systematic. They also have more optimistic attitudes in situations that might worry most people, and more confidence in social situations and in the face of danger and uncertainty.

  • 30.
    Wennberg, Anna Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sandström, Herbert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Lundqvist, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Hörnell, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Swedish women's food habits during pregnancy up to six months post-partum: a longitudinal studyIn: Perspectives on sexual and reproductive health, ISSN 1538-6341, E-ISSN 1931-2393Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Wennberg, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sandström, Herbert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lundqvist, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Swedish women’s food habits during pregnancy up to six months post-partum:: A longitudinal study2016In: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 8, 31-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Diet influences the health of the foetus and the woman during pregnancy and later in life. Itis therefore important to investigate pregnant women’s food habits. The aim of this study was to describewomen’s food habits during pregnancy and up to six months post-partum.Study design: A Food Frequency Questionnaire (VIP-FFQ) was distributed to 163 pregnant women on fiveoccasions during and after pregnancy. Data were analysed using Friedman’s ANOVA and a Bonferronipost-hoc test.Main outcome measures: Food habits in relation to the National Food Agency’s (NFA) food index.Results: The pregnant women’s diets were inadequate according to the NFA food index. A tendency towardsan even poorer diet after delivery was identified, something which was related to an increased intakeof discretionary food, e.g. sweets, cakes, cookies, crisps, ice cream, and decreased intake of fruit and vegetable.The alcohol consumption was low throughout.Conclusions: The food habits during pregnancy were inadequate compared to recommendations and thesehabits became unhealthier after delivery. These suggest that dietary counselling needs to be more effectiveand continued into the lactating period. An increased focus should be given to healthy eating fromthe life course perspective, not just focus on effects on the foetus and pregnancy outcomes.

  • 32.
    Öster, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Tavelin, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Edberg Thyme, Karin
    Magnusson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lindh, Jack
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Åström, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Art therapy during radiotherapy – A five-year follow-up study with women diagnosed with breast cancer2014In: The arts in psychotherapy, ISSN 0197-4556, E-ISSN 1873-5878, Vol. 41, no 1, 36-40 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Follow-up studies on art therapy are lacking. In a randomised art therapy intervention study from 2001 to 2004 with women with breast cancer, results showed that patients benefitted from participating in art therapy for up to four months after the intervention. The aim of this study was to describe the coping resources and quality of life amongst women treated for breast cancer five to seven years after participating in individual art therapy during radiotherapy as compared to a control group. In 2009, thirty-seven women, 18 from the intervention group and 19 from the control group, answered questionnaires about their coping resources and quality of life. The results showed no significant difference between the groups regarding their coping resources or quality of life, except for an unexpected significantly lower score in the domain 'Social relations' in the study group as compared to baseline, at the time of the follow up. However, our study from 2001 to 2004 supports various positive effects of art therapy within six months of participation as compared to a control group. Consequently, attending art therapy during the treatment period for breast cancer can be of great importance to support health, coping and quality of life in a short-term perspective.

  • 33.
    Öster, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Tavelin, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Egberg Thyme, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Magnusson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lindh, Jack
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Åström, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Art therapy during radiotherapy: a five-year follow-up study with women diagnosed with breast cancer2014In: The arts in psychotherapy, ISSN 0197-4556, E-ISSN 1873-5878, Vol. 41, no 1, 36-40 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Follow-up studies on art therapy are lacking. In a randomised art therapy intervention study from 2001-2004 with women with breast cancer, results showed that patients benefitted from participating in art therapy for up to at least four months after the intervention. The aim of this study was to describe the coping resources and quality of life amongst women treated for breast cancer five - seven years after participating in individual art therapy during radiotherapy as compared to a control group. In 2009, thirty-seven women, 18 from the intervention group and 19 from the control group, answered questionnaires about their coping resources and quality of life. The results showed no significant difference between the groups regarding their coping resources or quality of life, except for an unexpected significantly lower score in the domain ‘Social relations’ in the study group as compared to baseline, at the time of the follow up. However, our study from 2001–2004 supports various positive effects of art therapy within six months of participation as compared to a control group. Consequently, attending art therapy during the treatment period for breast cancer can be of great importance to support health, coping and quality of life in a short-term perspective.

1 - 33 of 33
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