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  • 1. Accinelli, Cesare
    et al.
    Saccà, Maria Ludovica
    Batisson, Isabelle
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Mencarelli, Mariangela
    Grabic, Roman
    Removal of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and other selected pharmaceuticals from wastewater using a granular bioplastic formulation entrapping propagules of Phanerochaete chrysosporium2010In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 81, no 3, 436-43 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity of the ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade a wide variety of environmentally persistent xenobiotics has been largely reported in the literature. Beside other factors, one barrier to a wider use of this bioremediation fungus is the availability of effective formulations that ensure easy preparation, handling and application. In this series of laboratory experiments, we evaluated the efficiency of a granular bioplastic formulation entrapping propagules of P. chrysosporium for removal of four selected pharmaceuticals from wastewater samples. Addition of inoculated granules to samples of the wastewater treatment plant of Bologna significantly increased the removal of the antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu), and the antibiotics, erythromycin, sulfamethoxazol, and ciprofloxacin. Similar effects were also observed in effluent water. Oseltamivir was the most persistent of the four active substances. After 30d of incubation, approximately two times more oseltamivir was removed in bioremediated wastewater than controls. The highest removal efficiency of the bioplastic formulation was observed with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Microbiological DNA-based analysis showed that the bioplastic matrix supported the growth of P. chrysosporium, thus facilitating its adaptation to unusual environment such as wastewater.

  • 2. Accinelli, Cesare
    et al.
    Saccà, Maria Ludovica
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Mencarelli, Mariangela
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Olsen, Björn
    Dissipation and removal of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) in different aquatic environments2010In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 79, no 8, 891-897 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu) has received recent attention due to the potential use as a first-line defense against H5N1 and H1N1 influenza viruses. Research has shown that oseltamivir is not removed during conventional wastewater treatments, thus having the potential to enter surface water bodies. A series of laboratory experiments investigated the fate and the removal of oseltamivir in two surface water ecosystems of Japan and in a municipal wastewater treatment plant located in Northern Italy. Persistence of oseltamivir in surface water ranged from non-detectable degradation to a half-life of 53d. After 40d, <3% of radiolabeled oseltamivir evolved as (14)CO(2). The presence of sediments (5%) led to a significant increase of oseltamivir degradation and mineralization rates. A more intense mineralization was observed in samples of the wastewater treatment plant when applying a long incubation period (40d). More precisely, 76% and 37% of the initial radioactivity applied as (14)C-oseltamivir was recovered as (14)CO(2) from samples of the biological tank and effluent water, respectively. Two bacterial strains growing on oseltamivir as sole carbon source were isolated and used for its removal from synthetic medium and environmental samples, including surface water and wastewater. Inoculation of water and wastewater samples with the two oseltamivir-degrading strains showed that mineralization of oseltamivir was significantly higher in both inoculated water and wastewater, than in uninoculated controls. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative PCR analysis showed that Tamiflu would not affect the microbial population of surface water and wastewater.

  • 3. Almroth, Bethanie M. Carney
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, Lina M.
    Cuklev, Filip
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Waterborne beclomethasone dipropionate affects the physiology of fish while its metabolite beclomethasone is not taken up2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 511, 37-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asthma is commonly treated with inhalable glucocorticosteroids, including beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP). This is a synthetic prodrug which is metabolized to the more active monopropionate (BMP) and free beclomethasone in humans. To evaluate potential effects of residual drugs on fish, we conducted a 14 day flow-through exposure experiment with BDP and beclomethasone using rainbow trout, and analyzed effects on plasma glucose, hepatic glutathione and catalase activity together with water and body concentrations of the BDP, BMP and beclomethasone. We also analyzed hepatic gene expression in BDP-exposed fish by micro-array and quantitative PCR Beclomethasone (up to 0.65 mu g/L) was not taken up in the fish while BDP (0.65 and 0.07 mu g/L) resulted in accumulation of both beclomethasone, BMP and BDP in plasma, reaching levels up to those found in humans during therapy. Accordingly, exposure to 0.65 mu g/L of BDP significantly increased blood glucose as well as oxidized glutathione levels and catalase activity in the liver. Exposure to beclomethasone or the low concentration of BDP had no effect on these endpoints. Both exposure concentrations of BDP resulted in significantly higher transcript abundance of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase involved in gluconeogenesis, and of genes involved in immune responses. As only the rapidly metabolized prodrug was potent in fish, the environmental risks associated with the use of BDP are probably small. However, the observed physiological effects in fish of BDP at plasma concentrations known to affect human physiology provides valuable input to the development of read-across approaches in the identification of pharmaceuticals of environmental concern.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Patrik L
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Rännar, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    A Multivariate Chemical Similarity Approach to Search for Drugs of Potential Environmental Concern2011In: Journal of chemical information and modeling, ISSN 1549-960X, Vol. 51, no 8, 1788-1794 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A structural similarity tool was developed and aimed to search for environmentally persistent drugs. The basis for the tool was a selection of so-called anchor molecules and a multidimensional chemical map of drugs. The map was constructed using principal component analysis covering 899 drugs described by 67 diverse calculated chemical descriptors. The anchor molecules (diclofenac, trimethoprim, and carbamazepine) were selected to represent drugs of known environmental concern. In addition 12 chemicals listed by the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants were used representing typical environmental pollutants. Chemical similarity was quantified by measuring relative Euclidean distances in the five-dimensional chemical map, and more than 100 nearest neighbors (kNNs) were found within a relative distance of less than 10% from each drug anchor. The developed chemical similarity approach not only identified persistent or semipersistent drugs but also a large number of potentially persistent drugs lacking environmental fate data.

  • 5. Antoniou, Maria G.
    et al.
    Hey, Gerly
    Rodríguez Vega, Sergio
    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    la Cour Jansen, Jes
    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus
    Required ozone doses for removing pharmaceuticals from wastewater effluents2013In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 456-457, 42-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the this study was to investigate the ozone dosage required to remove active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from biologically treated wastewater of varying quality, originated from different raw wastewater and wastewater treatment processes. Secondary effluents from six Swedish wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) were spiked with 42 APIs (nominal concentration 1μg/L) and treated with different O3 doses (0.5-12.0mg/L ozone) in bench-scale experiments. In order to compare the sensitivity of APIs in each matrix, the specific dose of ozone required to achieve reduction by one decade of each investigated API (DDO3) was determined for each effluent by fitting a first order equation to the remaining concentration of API at each applied ozone dose. Ozone dose requirements were found to vary significantly between effluents depending on their matrix characteristics. The specific ozone dose was then normalized to the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of each effluent. The DDO3/DOC ratios were comparable for each API between the effluents. 15 of the 42 investigated APIs could be classified as easily degradable (DDO3/DOC≤0.7), while 19 were moderately degradable (0.7<DDO3/DOC≤1.4), and 8 were recalcitrant towards O3-treatment (DDO3/DOC >1.4). Furthermore, we predict that a reasonable estimate of the ozone dose required to remove any of the investigated APIs may be attained by multiplying the experimental average DDO3/DOC obtained with the actual DOC of any effluent.

  • 6.
    Aurell, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Effects of sulfur on PCDD/F formation under stable and transient combustion conditions during MSW incineration2009In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 76, no 6, 767-773 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SO2 levels in the flue gas from a laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactor combusting artificial municipal solid waste (MSW) were varied (resulting in four different SO2:HCl ratios 0, 0.2, 0.7 and 2.7 (by mass)) to study the effects of sulfur on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzothiophenes (PCDTs). Sampling was performed simultaneously at three fixed points in the post-combustion zone with temperatures of 400, 300 and 200 °C, under normal combustion conditions and both during and after transient combustion conditions. The findings indicate that sulfur has a greater inhibitory effect on PCDF formation than on PCDD formation and that the PCDD/PCDF ratio in the flue gas depends on both the SO2:HCl ratio in the flue gas and memory effects arising from transient combustion conditions. The results also indicate that the relative importance of different pathways shifts in the post-combustion zone; condensation products increasing with reductions in temperature and increases in residence time. However, these changes appear to depend on the SO2:HCl ratio in the flue gas and combustion conditions. Sulfur seems to inhibit the chlorination of PCDFs. A tendency for increased SO2 levels in the flue gas to increase levels of PCDTs was also detected, but the increases were much less significant than the reductions in PCDF levels.

  • 7.
    Aurell, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Effects of transient combustion conditions on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and benzenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during municipal solid waste incineration2009In: Environmental Engineering Science, ISSN 1092-8758, E-ISSN 1557-9018, Vol. 26, no 3, 509-520 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of transient combustion conditions on formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) along the postcombustion zone. Polychlorinated benzenes (PCBz) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were also studied. The study was conducted in a laboratory fluidized-bed reactor fed with an artificial municipal solid waste (MSW) under controllable but realistic combustion conditions. PCDD/Fs, PCBz, and PAHs were monitored under normal, transient, and posttransient combustion conditions and simultaneously sampled at three different sampling points/temperatures (400°C, 300°C, and 200°C). Substantially higher PCDD/F, PCBz, and PAH concentrations were found during transient combustion than during normal combustion. Elevated concentrations were found to decrease with time. PCDD/F concentrations were similar at all points during normal and transient combustion conditions, but were found in higher concentrations at 200°C than 400°C under the posttransient combustion periods. Higher concentrations of the sum PAH and PCBz were also found at 200°C than 400°C in the posttransient combustion periods. Transient combustion conditions induced changes in both PCDD/F homologue profile and PCDD/F congener patterns compared to normal combustion. PCDD/PCDF ratios indicated an increase of the de novo synthesis during transient combustion conditions. Although, the PCDD/F congeners found to be most strongly affected by the transient combustion conditions indicated different reactions pathways active for formation of PCDF and PCDD, de novo synthesis and precursors, respectively. The most strongly affected PCDD/F congeners of transient combustion were identified and are presented.

  • 8. Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    et al.
    Boulund, Fredrik
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Shotgun metagenomics reveals a wide array of antibiotic resistance genes and mobile elements in a polluted lake in India2014In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing evidence for an environmental origin of many antibiotic resistance genes. Consequently, it is important to identify environments of particular risk for selecting and maintaining such resistance factors. In this study, we described the diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in an Indian lake subjected to industrial pollution with fluoroquinolone antibiotics. We also assessed the genetic context of the identified resistance genes, to try to predict their genetic transferability. The lake harbored a wide range of resistance genes (81 identified gene types) against essentially every major class of antibiotics, as well as genes responsible for mobilization of genetic material. Resistance genes were estimated to be 7000 times more abundant than in a Swedish lake included for comparison, where only eight resistance genes were found. The sul2 and qnrD genes were the most common resistance genes in the Indian lake. Twenty-six known and 21 putative novel plasmids were recovered in the Indian lake metagenome, which, together with the genes found, indicate a large potential for horizontal gene transfer through conjugation. Interestingly, the microbial community of the lake still included a wide range of taxa, suggesting that, across most phyla, bacteria has adapted relatively well to this highly polluted environment. Based on the wide range and high abundance of known resistance factors we have detected, it is plausible that yet unrecognized resistance genes are also present in the lake. Thus, we conclude that environments polluted with waste from antibiotic manufacturing could be important reservoirs for mobile antibiotic resistance genes.

  • 9. Berg, C
    et al.
    Säfholm, M
    Jansson, E
    Olsson, A J
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Brandt, I
    Combined exposure to progestin and oestrogen mixtures: Effects on vitellogenin and hormone receptor mRNA expression2012In: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A, ISSN 1095-6433, E-ISSN 1531-4332, Vol. 163, no 1, S56-S57 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10. Berglund, Bjorn
    et al.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Urban wastewater effluent increases antibiotic resistance gene concentrations in a receiving northern european river2015In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 34, no 1, 192-196 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an emerging global problem that threatens to undermine important advances in modern medicine. The environment is likely to play an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) among both environmental and pathogenic bacteria. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) accumulate both chemical and biological waste from the surrounding urban milieu and have therefore been viewed as potential hotspots for dissemination and development of antibiotic resistance. To assess the effect of wastewater effluent on a river that flows through a Swedish city, sediment and water samples were collected from Stangan River, both upstream and downstream of an adjacent WWTP over 3 mo. Seven ARGs and the integrase gene on class 1 integrons were quantified in the collected sediment using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to assess the abundance of 10 different antibiotics in the water phase of the samples. The results showed an increase in ARGs and integrons downstream of the WWTP. The measured concentrations of antibiotics were low in the water samples from the Stangan River, suggesting that selection for ARGs did not occur in the surface water. Instead, the downstream increase in ARGs is likely to be attributable to accumulation of genes present in the treated effluent discharged from the WWTP. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:192-196. (c) 2014 SETAC

  • 11. Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Khan, Ghazanfar Ali
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Abundance and dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in lake sediment microcosms2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 9, e108151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance in bacteria causing disease is an ever growing threat to the world. Recently, environmental bacteria have become established as important both as sources of antibiotic resistance genes and in disseminating resistance genes. Low levels of antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals are regularly released into water environments via wastewater, and the concern is that such environmental contamination may serve to create hotspots for antibiotic resistance gene selection and dissemination. In this study, microcosms were created from water and sediments gathered from a lake in Sweden only lightly affected by human activities. The microcosms were exposed to a mixture of antibiotics of varying environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e., concentrations commonly encountered in wastewaters) in order to investigate the effect of low levels of antibiotics on antibiotic resistance gene abundances and dynamics in a previously uncontaminated environment. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Abundances of seven antibiotic resistance genes and the class 1 integron integrase gene, intL1, were quantified using real-time PCR. Resistance genes sulI and ermB were quantified in the microcosm sediments with mean abundances 5 and 15 gene copies/10(6) 16S rRNA gene copies, respectively. Class 1 integrons were determined in the sediments with a mean concentration of 3.86x10(4) copies/10(6) 16S rRNA gene copies. The antibiotic treatment had no observable effect on antibiotic resistance gene or integron abundances.

  • 12. Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Khan, Ghazanfar Ali
    Weisner, Stefan E. B.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Efficient removal of antibiotics in surface-flow constructed wetlands, with no observed impact on antibiotic resistance genes2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 476-477, 29-37 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about pharmaceuticals including antibiotics as environmental contaminants. Antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater have been suggested to affect bacterial population dynamics and to promote dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Conventional wastewater treatment processes do not always adequately remove pharmaceuticals causing environmental dissemination of low levels of these compounds. Using constructed wetlands as an additional treatment step after sewage treatment plants have been proposed as a cheap alternative to increase reduction of wastewater contaminants, however this means that the natural microbial community of the wetlands becomes exposed to elevated levels of antibiotics. In this study, experimental surface-flow wetlands in Sweden were continuously exposed to antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater. The aim was to assess the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands and to evaluate the impact of low levels of antibiotics on bacterial diversity, resistance development and expression in the wetland bacterial community. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the effect on the bacterial diversity was assessed with 16S rRNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Real-time PCR was used to detect and quantify antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in the wetlands, during and after the exposure period. The results indicated that the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands was comparable to conventional wastewater treatment schemes. Furthermore, short-term treatment of the constructed wetlands with environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e. 100-2000 ng x 1(-1)) of antibiotics did not significantly affect resistance gene concentrations, suggesting that surface-flow constructed wetlands are well-suited for wastewater treatment purposes. (c) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 13. Breitholtz, Magnus
    et al.
    Näslund, Maria
    Stråe, Daniel
    Borg, Hans
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    An evaluation of free water surface wetlands as tertiary sewage water treatment of micro-pollutants2012In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 78, 63-71 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased attention is currently directed towards potential negative effects of pharmaceuticals and other micro-pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment via municipal sewage water. A number of additional treatment technologies, such as ozonation, have therefore been suggested as promising tools for improving the removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in existing Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). Constructed wetlands are also capable of removing a variety of micro-pollutants, including some pharmaceuticals, and could hence be a resource efficient complement to more advanced treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to increase the knowledge base concerning the potential use of constructed wetlands as a treatment step to reduce emissions of organic micro-pollutants from municipal sewage effluents. Under cold winter conditions, incoming and outgoing waters from four Swedish free water surface wetlands, operated as final treatment steps of sewage effluent from municipal STPs, were sampled and analyzed for levels of a set of 92 pharmaceuticals and 22 inorganic components as well as assessed using subchronic ecotoxicity tests with a macro-alga and a crustacean.

    Sixty-five pharmaceuticals were detected in the range from 1ngL(-1) to 7.6μgL(-1) in incoming and outgoing waters from the four investigated wetlands. Although the sampling design used in the present study lacks the robustness of volume proportional to 24h composite samples, the average estimated removal rates ranged from 42% to 52%, which correlates to previous published values. The effects observed in the ecotoxicity tests with the macro-alga (EC(50)s in the range of 7.5-46%) and the crustacean (LOECs in the range of 11.25-90%) could not be assigned to either pharmaceutical residues or metals, but in general showed that these treatment facilities release water with a relatively low toxic potential, comparable to water that has been treated with advanced tertiary treatments.

    From the present study it can be concluded that constructed wetlands may provide a complementary sewage treatment option, especially where other treatment is lacking today. To fully remove micro-pollutants from sewage effluent, however, other more advanced treatment technologies are likely needed.

  • 14.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Dilute concentrations of a psychiatric drug alter behavior of fish from natural populations2013In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 339, no 6121, 814-815 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental pollution by pharmaceuticals is increasingly recognized as a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. A variety of pharmaceuticals enter waterways by way of treated wastewater effluents and remain biochemically active in aquatic systems. Several ecotoxicological studies have been done, but generally, little is known about the ecological effects of pharmaceuticals. Here we show that a benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug (oxazepam) alters behavior and feeding rate of wild European perch (Perca fluviatilis) at concentrations encountered in effluent-influenced surface waters. Individuals exposed to water with dilute drug concentrations (1.8 micrograms liter–1) exhibited increased activity, reduced sociality, and higher feeding rate. As such, our results show that anxiolytic drugs in surface waters alter animal behaviors that are known to have ecological and evolutionary consequences.

  • 15.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Piovano, Susanna
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Heynen, Martina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ecological effects of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems-impacts through behavioural alterations2014In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 369, no 1656, 20130580- p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of animal behaviour is important for both ecology and ecotoxicology, yet research in these two fields is currently developing independently. Here, we synthesize the available knowledge on drug-induced behavioural alterations in fish, discuss potential ecological consequences and report results from an experiment in which we quantify both uptake and behavioural impact of a psychiatric drug on a predatory fish (Perca fluviatilis) and its invertebrate prey (Coenagrion hastulatum). We show that perch became more active while damselfly behaviour was unaffected, illustrating that behavioural effects of pharmaceuticals can differ between species. Furthermore, we demonstrate that prey consumption can be an important exposure route as on average 46% of the pharmaceutical in ingested prey accumulated in the predator. This suggests that investigations of exposure through bioconcentration, where trophic interactions and subsequent bioaccumulation of exposed individuals are ignored, underestimate exposure. Wildlife may therefore be exposed to higher levels of behaviourally altering pharmaceuticals than predictions based on commonly used exposure assays and pharmaceutical concentrations found in environmental monitoring programmes.

  • 16. Cuklev, Filip
    et al.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Cvijovic, Marija
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Förlin, Lars
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    Does ketoprofen or diclofenac pose the lowest risk to fish?2012In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 229-230, 100-106 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ketoprofen and diclofenac are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) often used for similar indications, and both are frequently found in surface waters. Diclofenac affects organ histology and gene expression in fish at around 1μg/L. Here, we exposed rainbow trout to ketoprofen (1, 10 and 100μg/L) to investigate if this alternative causes less risk for pharmacological responses in fish. The bioconcentration factor from water to fish blood plasma was <0.05 (4 for diclofenac based on previous studies). Ketoprofen only reached up to 0.6‰ of the human therapeutic plasma concentration, thus the probability of target-related effects was estimated to be fairly low. Accordingly, a comprehensive analysis of hepatic gene expression revealed no consistent responses. In some contrast, trout exposed to undiluted, treated sewage effluents bioconcentrated ketoprofen and other NSAIDs much more efficiently, according to a meta-analysis of recent studies. Neither of the setups is however an ideal representation of the field situation. If a controlled exposure system with a single chemical in pure water is a reasonable representation of the environment, then the use of ketoprofen is likely to pose a lower risk for wild fish than diclofenac, but if bioconcentration factors from effluent-exposed fish are applied, the risks may be more similar.

  • 17.
    Cuklev, Filip
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden och Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Asker, Noomi
    Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden och Faculty of Science, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Förlin, Lars
    Faculty of Science, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Diclofenac in fish: blood plasma levels similar to human therapeutic levels affect global hepatic gene expression2011In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 30, no 9, 2126-2134 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug frequently found in the aquatic environment. Previous studies have reported histological changes in the liver, kidney and gills of fish at concentrations similar to those measured in treated sewage effluents (approximately 1 µg/L). Analyses or predictions of blood plasma levels in fish allow a direct comparison with human therapeutic plasma levels, and may therefore be used to indicate a risk for pharmacological effects in fish. To relate internal exposure to a pharmacological interaction we investigated global hepatic gene expression together with bioconcentration in blood plasma and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to waterborne diclofenac. At the highest exposure concentration (81.5 µg/L) the fish plasma concentration reached approximately 88% of the human therapeutic levels (C(max) ) after two weeks. Using an oligonucleotide microarray followed by quantitative PCR we found extensive effects on hepatic gene expression at this concentration, and some genes were found to be regulated down to the lowest concentration tested (1.6 µg/L) corresponding to approximately 1.5% of the human C(max) . Thus, at concentrations detected in European surface waters, diclofenac can affect the expression of multiple genes in exposed fish. Functional analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed effects on biological processes such as inflammation and immune response, in agreement with the mode of action of diclofenac in mammals. In contrast to some previously reported results, the bioconcentration factor was found to be stable (4.02 ± 0.75 for blood plasma and 2.54 ± 0.36 for liver) regardless of the water concentration. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2011 SETAC.

  • 18. Davidsson, A
    et al.
    Eriksson, E
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ozonation and thermal pre-treatment of municipal sewage sludge-implications for toxicity and methane potential2013In: Journal of residuals science & technology, ISSN 1544-8053, Vol. 10, no 2, 85-91 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine effects on methane potential and overall sludge quality from two different sludge pre-treatment technologies (ozonation high/low dosage and thermal treatment 55/70 degrees C). In general both treatments produced increased methane potential. Thermal treatment resulted in higher chemical oxygen demand (COD)-solubilisation, while the highest volatile fatty acids (VFA) increase was obtained with ozonation. Sludges had inhibiting effects in a barley seed germination assay and a yeast oestrogen screen both before and after pre-treatment, but inhibition was reduced by ozone treatment and digestion. No statistical significant reduction in concentrations of included pharmaceuticals could be observed.

  • 19. Davidsson, A.
    et al.
    Kjerstadius, H.
    Haghighatafshar, S.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Olsson, M.
    Wachtmeister, H.
    Eriksson, E.
    Jansen, J. la Cour
    Effect of anaerobic digestion at 35, 55 and 60 degrees C on pharmaceuticals and organic contaminants2014In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 69, no 6, 1282-1288 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of treated sewage sludge on farmland is a suggested method for recycling nutrients and reducing demand for commercial fertilizer. However, sludge needs to be safe from possible contaminants which can cause acute and long-term health and environmental problems. Residual pharmaceuticals and organic contaminants are mentioned as emerging threats since wastewater treatment plants are not designed to degrade these substances. The aim of this study was to screen and evaluate the presence, and reduction, of pharmaceuticals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during anaerobic digestion of mixed primary and waste-activated sludge at 35, 55 and 60 degrees C and during pasteurization at 70 degrees C. The study showed the difficulty of analysing pharmaceutical compounds in low concentrations in the sludge matrix. No general reduction of these compounds was seen during treatment, but for individual substances some reduction occured. The PAHs were generally not reduced during digestion or pasteurization, but for three substances (indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyreneand dibenzo[a,h] anthracene (analysed together) and benzo [g,h,i] perylene) reduction (up to 60%) during digestion was seen. Digestion at 35 and 55 degrees C resulted in about the same order of reduction of the three individual PAHs, which was higher than for digestion at 60 degrees C.

  • 20.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    A search for 120 pharmaceuticals in wild fish from five European countries2012In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 211, S30- p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Chemical reactions in ventilation systems: Ozonolysis of monoterpenes2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemicals in indoor air, either emitted from a source or from a reaction, have been suggested to cause ill health in buildings. However, no clear correlations between exposure and health effects have been made.

    In this thesis we studied the reaction between monoterpenes, a group of biogenic unsaturated C10 hydrocarbons, and ozone. Ozonolysis of monoterpenes was used as model reactions for unsaturated compounds in ambient air. Also the products formed from these reactions have been suggested as important participants in the occurrence of discomfort and ill health in buildings.

    To enable a reliable and sensitive measurement of ppb-ppt levels of monoterpenes and the formed products in the presence of ozone an evaluation of available scrubber materials was made. Potassium iodide was shown to remove ambient levels of ozone and have a recovery of >95% for all monoterpenes and formed products included in the investigation.

    Experimental conditions showed to have a large impact on the initial steps of the ozonolysis, and also on the composition of the formed products. We showed that water plays an important and complex role both in the initial stage of ozonolysis of ∆3-carene and in the formation and composition of products from the ozonolysis of ∆-pinene. The use of experimental design facilitated the evaluation of the investigated reactions. We showed that the formation of OH radicals could be studied using multiple linear regression models and that the presence or absence of OH radicals had a profound impact on the formation of many of the formed products. We also made an observation of the lack of formed OH radicals in the ozonolysis of limonene and discussed probable causes of this observation.

    Despite the short reaction times and the ambient levels of ozone and monoterpenes used in our experiments we showed that a number of oxidation products were formed, and that the reaction rate is significantly increased in a ventilation system. This formation is underestimated by theoretical calculations and leads to high amounts of known irritants in the indoor air. We showed that theoretical calculations underestimate the formation of these oxidation products 3-13 times, depending on ventilation system and monoterpene.

  • 22.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Andersson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Johansson, M
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Selection of antibiotics: A chemometric approach2004In: 4th International Conference on Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Water, Minneapolis, USA, 2004, 143-50 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Larsson, Joakim D G
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bioconcentration of Pharmaceuticals2010In: Towards Sustainable Pharmaceuticals in a Healthy Society: MistraPharma Research / [ed] Christina Rudén, Karin Liljelund, Helene Hagerman, Stockholm: Elander Sverige AB , 2010, 1, 36-45 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Residues of human pharmaceuticals have been widely detected in various parts of the environment and trace concentrations are often found in sewage effl uent and surface waters, typically ranging from low ng L-1 to low μg L-1 levels (Lindberg et al., 2005; Nikolaou et al., 2007; Loos et al., 2009). These concentrations, however, are orders of magnitude below the therapeutic concentrations reached in human blood plasma. Thus, the potential for a physiological impact of pharmaceuticals on water-living organisms (such as fi sh) have been questioned. On the other hand, the levels measured in surface waters do not simply mirror the levels encountered by the receptors or enzymes present inside the fi sh living in these waters. Indeed, levels of pharmaceutical in for example fi sh blood plasma is sometimes much higher than the levels in the surrounding water. This can be explained by the concepts of bioconcentration and bioaccumulation.

  • 24.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Parkkonen, Jari
    Arvidsson, Björn
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    Therapeutic levels of levonorgestrel detected in blood plasma of fish: results from screening rainbow trout exposed to treated sewage effluents2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 7, 2661-2666 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals are found in surface waters worldwide, raising concerns about effects on aquatic organisms. Analyses of pharmaceuticals in blood plasma of fish could provide means to assess risk for pharmacological effects, as these concentrations could be compared with available human therapeutic plasma levels. In this study we investigated if fish exposed to sewage effluents have plasma concentrations of pharmaceuticals that are approaching human therapeutic levels. We also evaluated how well the bioconcentration of pharmaceuticals into fish blood plasma can be predicted based on lipophilicity. Rainbow trout were exposed to undiluted, treated sewage effluents at three sites in Sweden for 14 days. Levels of 25 pharmaceuticals in blood plasma and effluents were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. The progestin pharmaceutical levonorgestrel was detected in fish blood plasma at concentrations (8.5-12 ng mL(-1)), exceeding the human therapeutic plasma level. In total 16 pharmaceuticals were detected in fish plasma at concentrations higher than 1/1000 of the human therapeutic plasma concentration. Twenty-one pharmaceuticals were detected in either plasma or effluent, and 14 were detected in both compartments, allowing plasma bioconcentration factors to be determined. For 11 of these, theoretically calculated and experimentally measured values were in reasonably good agreement. However a few drugs, including levonorgestrel, did not bioconcentrate according to the screening model used. This study shows that rainbow trout exposed to sewage effluents have blood plasma levels of pharmaceuticals similar to human therapeutic concentrations, suggesting a risk for pharmacological effects in the fish. There is a particular concern about effects of progestin pharmaceuticals. For levonorgestrel, the measured effluent level (1 ng/L) was higher than water levels shown to reduce the fertility of fish.

  • 25.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    Predicted critical environmental concentrations for 500 pharmaceuticals2010In: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 58, no 3, 516-23 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing number of pharmaceuticals are found in surface waters worldwide, raising concerns about their effects on aquatic organisms and it is a major challenge to develop a rational strategy for prioritizing drugs on which to focus the most extensive environmental research efforts. However, in contrast to most other chemicals, very good understanding of the human potency of pharmaceuticals has been obtained through efficacy and safety testing. Assuming that a drug acts primarily through the same target(s) also in a non-target species, it would be possible to predict the likelihood for pharmacological interactions in wildlife. Among aquatic organisms, fish most often share drug targets with humans. In this study, we have calculated the predicted critical environmental concentration (CECs), i.e. the surface water concentration expected to cause a pharmacological effect in fish, for 500 pharmaceuticals, assuming equivalent pharmacological activity. The CECs are based on literature data on human potencies together with a predicted bioconcentration factor in fish for each drug based on lipophilicity. We propose that CECs could be used as preliminary indicators of specific drugs' potential to cause adverse pharmacological effects at specific water concentrations, used when selecting pharmaceuticals to include in screening campaigns and for assessing relevant detection limits.

  • 26.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Haemig, Paul D
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Olsen, Björn
    Antiviral oseltamivir is not removed or degraded in normal sewage water treatment: implications for development of resistance by influenza A virus2007In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 2, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oseltamivir is the main antiviral for treatment and prevention of pandemic influenza. The increase in oseltamivir resistance reported recently has therefore sparked a debate on how to use oseltamivir in non pandemic influenza and the risks associated with wide spread use during a pandemic. Several questions have been asked about the fate of oseltamivir in the sewage treatment plants and in the environment. We have assessed the fate of oseltamivir and discuss the implications of environmental residues of oseltamivir regarding the occurrence of resistance. A series of batch experiments that simulated normal sewage treatment with oseltamivir present was conducted and the UV-spectra of oseltamivir were recorded. Findings: Our experiments show that the active moiety of oseltamivir is not removed in normal sewage water treatments and is not degraded substantially by UV light radiation, and that the active substance is released in waste water leaving the plant. Our conclusion is that a ubiquitous use of oseltamivir may result in selection pressures in the environment that favor development of drug-resistance.

  • 27.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Nilsson, Calle
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Formation of oxidation products in a ventilation system2004In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, Vol. 38, no 35, 5895-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the formation of oxidation products from the ozonolysis of a monoterpene (α-pinene) in an authentic ventilation system. We observed ten products, norpinic acid, pinic acid, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, norpinonic acid, pinonic acid, a C4 dicarbonyl (C4H6O2), a C5 dicarbonyl (C5H8O2), norpinon aldehyde, and pinon aldehyde. Experiments were conducted at a low (2.0 g m−3) and moderate (8 g m−3) humidity levels. All products but C4 dicarbonyl and norpinon aldehyde were detected at the low humidity level, but only glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, C4 dicarbonyl, norpinon aldehyde and pinon aldehyde were detected at a moderate humidity. Experiments were conducted at low ppb levels (75 ppb ozone and 4 and 10 ppb α-pinene) and with a short reaction time (75 s). Experiments showed that 5–6% of the α-pinene reacted, which was approximately 4–5 times more than predicted by theoretical calculations. This discrepancy suggests a significant contribution from heterogeneous reactions. These oxidation products were formed despite low reactant concentrations and a short reaction time, indicating that the formation of oxidation products likely occurs at ambient levels and in real settings.

  • 28.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Pommer, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Nilsson, Calle
    Unit for Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    A study of the gas-phase ozonolysis of terpenes: the impact of radicals formed during the reaction2002In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 36, no 20, 3299-3308 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gas-phase ozonolysis of α-pinene, Δ3-carene and limonene was investigated at ppb levels and the impact of the ozone, relative air humidity (RH), and time was studied using experimental design. The amounts of terpene reacted varied in the different settings and were as high as 8.1% for α-pinene, 10.9% forΔ3-carene and 23.4% for limonene. The designs were able to describe almost all the variation in the experimental data and were also successful in predicting omitted values. The results described the effects of time and ozone and also showed that RH did not have a statistically significant effect on the ozonolysis. The results also showed that all three terpenes were affected by an additional oxidation of OH radicals and/or other reactive species. The results from the designs states that this additional oxidation was responsible for 40% of the total amount of α-pinene reacted, 33% of the total amount of Δ3-carene reacted and 41% of the total amount of limonene reacted at the settings 20 ppb terpene, 75 ppb ozone, 20% RH and a reaction time of 213 s. Additional experiments with 2-butanol as OH radical scavenger showed that the reaction with OH radicals was responsible for 37% of the total α-pinene reacted and 39% of the total Δ3-carene reacted at the same settings. The scavenger experiments also showed that there were no significant amounts of OH radicals formed during the ozonolysis of limonene. The results from the designs were also compared to a mathematical model in order to evaluate further the data.

  • 29.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Pommer, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Nilsson, Calle
    Ozone Removal in the Sampling of Parts per Billion Levels of Terpenoid Compounds: An Evaluation of Different Scrubber Materials2001In: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 35, no 7, 1458-62 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are prone to degradation during sampling in an ozone-rich environment. A wide variety of different chemicals have been used to remove the ozone prior to sampling, but the possibility of interference by such chemicals with the sampled VOCs has not been thoroughly examined. In the present investigation, the retention/degradation of four terpenes (-pinene, -pinene, 3-carene, and limonene) and isoprene together with some of their oxidation products (-pinene oxide, nopinone, 4-acetyl-1-methylcyclohexene (AMCH), methylglyoxal, and methacrolein) has been studied, using various ozone-removing chemicals in an attempt to evaluate their potential as ozone scrubbers in the sampling of ambient air. The chemicals included in this first screening and their ozone-removing capacity are as follows: KI, MnO2, and Na2SO3 removed ozone for more than 24 h when exposed to 73-78 ppb (150-160 g/m3) at a sampling flow rate of 500 mL/min. Silanized poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide) (PFS) removed ozone for 5 h, unsilanized PFS removed ozone for 1 h and 50 min, and Na2S2O3 removed ozone for 20 min. The recovery of the selected compounds with the different scrubbers was >95% for all compounds for KI; >95% for the terpenes oxidation products; >90% for the terpenes and isoprene for PFS; >90% for the terpenes and isoprene for MnO2 on copper nets, Na2SO3, and Na2S2O3; and <90% for the terpenes and isoprene for carulite (a commercial mixture between MnO2, CuO, and Al2O3), CuO, and indigo carmine.

  • 30.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Pommer, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Nilsson, Calle
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Effect of OH radicals, relative humidity, and time on the composition of the products formed in the ozonolysis of α-pinene2003In: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 37, no 29, 4087-96 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gas-phase ozonolysis of α-pinene at ppb levels were studied and the effects of OH radicals formed in the reaction, the relative humidity (RH), and time on the products formed were investigated. Identified products were pinic acid, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, norpinonic acid and a norpinonic acid isomer, pinonic acid, a C4 dicarbonyl, a C5 dicarbonyl, norpinon aldehyde, and pinon aldehyde. The different parameters effect on the formation of these products were evaluated using experimental design and multivariate modeling. Pinonic acid, norpinonic acid and its isomer, were not detected in the absence of OH radicals. The amounts of pinic acid, norpinon aldehyde, and pinon aldehyde all decreased in the absence of OH radicals. Glyoxal and methyl glyoxal were not affected.

    The formation of pinonic acid decreased when the RH was increased. The formation of pinic acid, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, and pinon aldehyde increased with increasing RH, while norpinon aldehyde was not affected. The implications of these observations and additional interaction effects are discussed, and a novel route of the formation of pinic acid is presented.

  • 31.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Pommer, Linda
    Åstrand, Anders
    Östin, Ronny
    Nilsson, Calle
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Ozonolysis of monoterpenes in mechanical ventilation systems2005In: ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, Vol. 39, no 34, 6315-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this investigation the ozonolysis of of three monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, Delta(3)-carene and limonene) was studied was studied in authentic mechanical ventilation systems, that included either a cross flow or a rotary heat exchanger. The effects of varying three experimental parameters were investigated: the level of ozone (25 and 75 ppb), the reaction time (25 and 75s), and the surface area in the ventilation duct (14.8 and 29.5 m(2)). The initial concentration of each of the monoterpenes was 20 ppb in every experiment, and 1-16% of the alpha-pinene, < 0.5-13% of the Delta(3)-carene, and < 0.5-16% of the limonene reacted. The effects of humidity (g m(-3)) and temperature of the outdoor and supply air, and water losses in the ventilation duct, were also evaluated. Experiments were based on a chemometric statistical design. Comparison of the results to theoretically calculated values showed that theoretical calculations underestimated the amounts that reacted in the ventilation systems by factors of 2-13, depending on the monoterpene and experimental settings.

  • 32.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Pommer, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Åstrand, Anders
    Östin, Ronny
    Nilsson, Calle
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    The effect of mechanical ventilation systems on the chemistry in the supply airArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Söderström, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Phan, Chau
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    Contamination of surface, ground, and drinking water from pharmaceutical production2009In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 28, no 12, 2522-2527 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low levels of pharmaceuticals are detected in surface, ground, and drinking water worldwide. Usage and incorrect disposal have been considered the major environmental sources of these micro-contaminants. Recent publications, however, suggest that wastewater from drug production can potentially be a source of much higher concentrations in certain locations. We investigated the environmental fate of active pharmaceutical ingredients in a major production area for the global bulk-drug market. Water samples were taken from a common effluent treatment plant near Hyderabad, India, which receives process water from about 90 bulk drug manufacturers. Surface water was analyzed from the recipient stream and from two lakes that are not contaminated by the treatment plant. Water samples were also taken from wells in six nearby villages. The samples were analyzed for the presence of twelve pharmaceuticals with LC-MS/MS. All wells were determined to be contaminated with drugs. Ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, cetirizine, terbinafine and citalopram were detected at >1microg l-1 in several wells. Very high concentrations of ciprofloxacin (up to 14 mg L-1) and other pharmaceuticals (up to 2 mg L-1) were found in the effluent of the treatment plant and in the two lakes (up to 6.5 mg L-1). Thus, insufficient wastewater treatment in one of the world's largest centers for bulk drug production leads to unprecedented drug contamination of surface, ground, and drinking water. This raises serious concerns regarding the development of antibiotic resistance, and it creates a major challenge for producers and regulatory agencies to improve the situation.

  • 34.
    Grabic, Roman
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fedeorova, Ganna
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Multi-residue method for trace level determination of pharmaceuticals in environmental samples using liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry2012In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 100, 183-195 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-residue method for the simultaneous determination of more than 90 pharmaceuticals in water samples was developed and validated. The developed method utilizes a single liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) run after sample enrichment using solid-phase extraction (SPE). The pharmaceuticals included in this method were chosen based on their potency (effect/concentration ratio) and potential to bioaccumulate in fish. Because the selection was based on ecotoxicological criteria and not on ease of detection, the pharmaceuticals have a wide range of physico-chemical properties and represent twenty-seven distinct classes. No method for surface, waste water or similar matrices was previously described for 52 of the 100 target analytes. Four chromatographic columns were tested to optimize the separation prior to detection by mass spectrometry (MS). The resulting method utilizes a Hypersil Gold aQ column. Three different water matrices were tested during method validation: Milli-Q water, surface water (river water from the Umea River) and effluent from the Umea waste water treatment plant (WWTP). Four of the selected pharmaceuticals exhibited poor method efficiency in all matrices. Amiodarone, Dihydroergotamine, Perphenazine and Terbutalin were omitted from the final analytical method (). In addition, five compounds were excluded from the method for surface water (Atorvastatin, Chloropromazin, Dipyridamol, Furosemid and Ranitidin) and three other pharmaceuticals (Glibenclamid, Glimepirid and Meclozine) from waste water method respectively. Absolute recoveries were above 70% for Milli-Q water, surface water, and sewage effluent for most pharmaceuticals. The limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.05 to 50 ng L−1 (median 5 ng L−1). The use of matrix-matched standards led to the elimination of ionization enhancement or suppression. The recoveries of the method for real matrices were in the range of 23% to 134% for surface water (only three compounds were outside of the range of 40–130%) and in the range of 47% to 162% for waste water (five compounds were outside of the range of 40–130% at lower validated concentration).

  • 35. Grabicova, Katerina
    et al.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Östman, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Grabic, Roman
    Randak, Tomas
    Larsson, DG Joakim
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tissue-specific bioconcentration of antidepressants in fish exposed to effluent from a municipal sewage treatment plant2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 488, 46-50 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tissue-specific bioconcentration of selected antidepressants was studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to undiluted effluent from a Swedish municipal sewage treatment plant for 13 days. Citalopram, sertraline and venlafaxine were found in the brains and livers of most fish, but not in blood plasma or muscle. Venlafaxine was the only drug found in plasma (3/20 fish). Fluoxetine was not detected in any fish tissue, in accordance with a low concentration in the effluent and a comparably high limit of quantification in tissues. Concentrations of citalopram, sertraline and venlafaxine in fish brain were up to 1/12, 1/8 and 1/26, respectively, of the lowest concentrations found in the brains of mammals treated with therapeutic doses. Thus, given coexposure to several antidepressants and an assumed similar potency in fish, the margin of safety for targetrelated effects in fish residing in effluent-dominated streams is relatively low. Furthermore, the non-detectable levels of these drugs in blood plasma suggest that analyses of concentrations in target tissues (brain) would be more informative in field studies and other studies with environmentally realistic exposure concentrations.

    (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 36.
    Gunnarsson, Lina
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, the Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Göteborg, Box 434, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, the Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Göteborg, Box 434, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Rutgersson, Carolin
    Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, the Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Göteborg, Box 434, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sturve, Joachim
    Department of Zoology, University of Göteborg, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Förlin, Lars
    Department of Zoology, University of Göteborg, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, the Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Göteborg, Box 434, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Pharmaceutical industry effluent diluted 1:500 affects global gene expression, cytochrome P4501A activity and plasma phosphate in fish2009In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 28, no 12, 2639-2647 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patancheru, near Hyderabad, India, is a major production site for the global bulk drug market. Approximately 90 manufacturers send their wastewater to a common treatment plant in Patancheru. Extraordinary high levels of a wide range of pharmaceuticals have recently been demonstrated in the treated effluent. As little as 0.2% of this effluent can strongly reduce the growth rate of tadpoles, but the underlying mechanisms of toxicity are not known. To begin addressing how the effluent affects aquatic vertebrates, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 0.2% effluent for five days. Several physiological endpoints, together with effects on global hepatic gene expression patterns, were analyzed. The exposed fish showed both an induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) gene expression, as well as enzyme activity. Clinical blood chemistry analyses revealed an increase in plasma phosphate levels, which in humans indicates impaired kidney function. Several oxidative stress-related genes were induced in the livers; however, no significant changes in antioxidant enzyme activities or in the hepatic glutathione levels were found. Furthermore, estrogen-regulated genes were slightly up-regulated following exposure, and moderate levels of estriol were detected in the effluent. The present study identifies changes in gene expression triggered by exposure to a high dilution of the effluent, supporting the hypothesis that these fish are responding to chemical exposure. The pattern of regulated genes may contribute to the identification of mechanisms of sub-lethal toxicity, as well as illuminate possible causative agents.

  • 37. Gyllenhammar, Irina
    et al.
    Eriksson, Hanna
    Söderqvist, Anneli
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Berg, Cecilia
    Clotrimazole exposure modulates aromatase activity in gonads, brain during gonadal differentiation in Xenopus tropicalis frogs2009In: Aquatic Toxicology, Vol. 91, no 2, 102-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clotrimazole is a pharmaceutical used for treatment of fungal infections. It has been found in surface waters outside municipal waste water treatment plants but data are scarce regarding its effects on aquatic organisms. It is known that clotrimazole and other imidazole fungicides are inhibitors of the enzyme aromatase (CYP 19). Aromatase converts androgens into estrogens and is suggested to be involved in the sex differentiation in amphibians. The aim of the present study was to evaluate effects of larval exposure to clotrimazole on aromatase activity in brain and gonads, and on gonadal differentiation in Xenopus tropicalis frogs. Another purpose was to determine if larval exposure to ethynylestradiol (EE2), at a concentration known to cause male-to-female sex reversal, affects aromatase activity in brain and gonads during gonadal differentiation. Tadpoles were exposed from shortly after hatching (Nieuwkoop and Faber developmental stage 47-48) until complete metamorphosis (NF stage 66) to 6, 41, and 375 nM clotrimazole or 100 nM (nominal) EE2. Aromatase activity was measured in the brain and gonad/kidney complex of tadpoles during gonadal differentiation (NF stage 56) and, in the clotrimazole experiment, also at metamorphosis. In clotrimazoleexposed tadpoles gonadal aromatase activity increased over exposure time in the 41- and 375 nM groups but did not differ significantly from the control group. Gonadal aromatase activity was increased in both sexes exposed to 41 and 375 nM clotrimazole at metamorphosis. Brain aromatase activity was decreased in tadpoles (NF stage 56) exposed to 375 nM clotrimazole, but at metamorphosis no differences were seen between groups or between sexes. No effects of clotrimazole on sex ratio or gonadal histology were noted at completed metamorphosis. EE2-exposed tadpoles had a slightly decreased gonadal aromatase activity, though not significantly different from control group, and there was no effect of EE2 on brain aromatase activity. All EE2-exposed tadpoles developed ovaries. These findings indicate that estrogen-induced ovarian differentiation is not paralleled by increased gonadal aromatase activity in X. tropicalis. Further studies are needed, especially on developmental reproductive toxicity, to assess the risk for endocrine disruption in wild amphibians posed by clotrimazole and other imidazole fungicides.

  • 38.
    Hellström, Gustav
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Upscaling behavioural studies to the field using acoustic telemetry2016In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 170, 384-389 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory-based behavioural assays are often used in ecotoxicological studies to assess the environmental risk of aquatic contaminants. While results from such laboratory-based risk assessments may be difficult to extrapolate to natural environments, technological advancements over the past decade now make it possible to perform risk assessments through detailed studies of exposed individuals in natural settings. Acoustic telemetry is a technology to monitor movement and behaviour of aquatic organism in oceans, lakes, and rivers. The technology allows for tracking of multiple individuals simultaneously with very high temporal and spatial resolution, with the option to incorporate sensors to measure various physiological and environmental parameters. Although frequently used in fisheries research, aquatic ecotoxicology has been slow to adopt acoustic telemetry as a tool in field-based studies. This mini-review intends to introduce acoustic telemetry to aquatic ecotoxicologists, focusing on the potential of the technology to bridge the gap between laboratory assays and natural behaviours when making toxicological risk assessments.

  • 39. Hey, G.
    et al.
    Vega, S. R.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ledin, A.
    Jansen, J. La Cour
    Andersen, H. R.
    Removal of pharmaceuticals in WWTP effluents by ozone and hydrogen peroxide2014In: Water S.A., ISSN 0378-4738, E-ISSN 1816-7950, Vol. 40, no 1, 165-173 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ozonation to achieve removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater effluents, with pH values in the upper and lower regions of the typical range for Swedish wastewater, was investigated. The main aim was to study the effects of varying pH values (6.0 and 8.0), and if small additions of H2O2 prior to ozone treatment could improve the removal and lower the reaction time. The effluents studied differed in their chemical characteristics, particularly in terms of alkalinity (65.3-427 mg center dot l(-1) HCO3-), COD (18.2-41.8 mg center dot l(-1)), DOC (6.9-12.5 mg center dot l(-1)), ammonium content (0.02-3.6 mg center dot l(-1)) and specific UV absorbance (1.78-2.76 l center dot mg(-1)center dot m(-1)). As expected, lower ozone decomposition rates were observed in the effluents at pH 6.0 compared to pH 8.0. When pH 8.0 effluents were ozonated, a higher degree of pharmaceutical removal occurred in the effluent with low specific UV absorbance. For pH 6.0 effluents, the removal of pharmaceuticals was most efficient in the effluent with the lowest organic content. The addition of H2O2 had no significant effect on the quantitative removal of pharmaceuticals but enhanced the ozone decomposition rate. Thus, H2O2 addition increased the reaction rate. In practice, this will mean that the reactor volume needed for the ozonation of wastewater effluents can be reduced.

  • 40.
    Heynen, Martina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effect of bioconcentration and trophic transfer on realized exposure to oxazepam in 2 predators, the dragonfly larvae (Aeshna grandis) and the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis)2016In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 35, no 4, 930-937 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychoactive substances are used worldwide and constitute one of the most common groups of pharmaceutical contaminants in surface waters. Although these pharmaceuticals are designed to be efficiently eliminated from the human body, very little is known about their trophic-transfer potential in aquatic wildlife. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to quantify and compare uptake of an anxiolytic (oxazepam) from water (bioconcentration) and via the consumption of contaminated diet (trophic transfer) in 2 common freshwater predators: Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and the dragonfly larvae Aeshna grandis. Bioconcentration and trophic transfer of oxazepam were found in both predator species. However, higher bioconcentrations were observed for perch (bioconcentration factor [BCF], 3.7) than for dragonfly larvae (BCF, 0.5). Perch also retained more oxazepam from consumed prey (41%) than dragonfly larvae (10%), whereas the relative contribution via prey consumption was 14% and 42% for perch and dragonflies, respectively. In addition, bioconcentration was negatively correlated with perch weight, indicating that exposure levels in natural contaminated environments differ between individuals of different size or between different developmental stages. Hence, trophic transfer of pharmaceuticals may indeed occur, and estimates of environmental exposures that do not consider intake via food or size-dependent bioconcentration may therefore lead to wrongful estimations of realized exposure levels in natural contaminated ecosystems. (C) 2016 SETAC

  • 41. Holmberg, Anna
    et al.
    Fogel, Jenny
    Albertsson, Eva
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Brown, Jeffrey N
    Paxéus, Nicklas
    Förlin, Lars
    Johnsson, Jörgen I
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    Does waterborne citalopram affect the aggressive and sexual behaviour of rainbow trout and guppy?2011In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 187, no 1-3, 596-599 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Citalopram is one of several selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) commonly found in treated sewage effluents. Accordingly, there are concerns about possible adverse effects of SSRIs on aquatic organisms, particularly behavioural effects similar to those associated with SSRI use in humans. Rainbow trout fry and adult male guppies were therefore exposed to waterborne citalopram, ranging from environmentally relevant to high concentrations (1, 10, 100μg/L) for 3-7 days. Under these experimental conditions citalopram does not appear to cause significant effects on aggression in rainbow trout fry or on sexual behaviour in male guppies. This may be explained by a relatively low uptake of citalopram from water to fish.

  • 42.
    Hörsing, Maritha
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jansen, Jes la Cour
    Water and Environmental Engineering at Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersen, Henrik R
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark .
    Determination of sorption of seventy five pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge2011In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 45, no 15, 4470-4482 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sorption of 75 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to three different types of sludge (primary sludge, secondary sludge with short and long sludge age respectively) were investigated. To obtain the sorption isotherms batch studies with the APIs mixture were performed in four nominal concentrations to water containing 1 g of sludge. The range of APIs concentrations was between ng L-1 to μg L-1 which are found in the wastewater effluents. Isotherms were obtained for approximately 45 of the APIs, providing distribution coefficients for linear (Kd), Freundlich (Kf) and Langmuir (KL) isotherms. Kd, Kf and KL ranging between 7.1×104-3.8×107, 1.1×10-2- 6.1×104 and 9.2×10-3- 1.1L kg-1, respectively. The obtained coefficients were applied to estimate the fraction of APIs in the water phase (see Abstract Graphic). For 37 of the 75 APIs the predicted presence in the liquid phase was estimated to > 80%. 24 APIs were estimated to be present in the liquid phase between 20 - 80 %, and 14 APIs were found to have < 20% presence in the liquid phase, i.e. high affinity towards sludge. Furthermore, the effect of pH at values 6, 7 and 8 was evaluated using one way ANOVA-test. A significant difference in Kds due to pH changes were found for 6 of the APIs (variation 10-20%).

    Graphical abstractHiglights

    ► Sorption isotherms were experimentally obtained for roughly 45 of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). ► By sorption to sludge the removal of 31 APIs were estimated to be < 20%.in the WWTP. ► By sorption to sludge the removal of 15 APIs were estimated to be >80% in the WWTP. ► For 13of the API the sorption to sludge was stronger than 1.2 ×106 L kg-1. ► For 10 of the API the sorption to sludge was less than 100 L kg-1

  • 43.
    Jansson, Stina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Formation and chlorination of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the post-combustion zone during MSW combustion2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 72, no 8, 1138-44 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non- to octa-chlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were analyzed in flue gas samples collected simultaneously at three different temperatures (450 °C, 300 °C and 200 °C, respectively) in the post-combustion zone during waste combustion experiments using a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor. PCN homologue profiles in all samples were dominated by the lower chlorinated homologues (mono- to triCN), with successive reductions in abundance with each additional degree of chlorination. The isomer distribution patterns reflected ortho-directionality behavior of the first chlorine substituent, and the β-positions, i.e. the 2,3,6,7-substitution sites, seemed to be favored for chlorination. Injection of naphthalene into the post-combustion zone resulted in increased PCN levels at 200 °C, demonstrating the occurrence of chlorination reactions in the post-combustion zone. However, the increases were restricted to the least-chlorinated homologue (monoCN), probably because there was insufficient residence time for further chlorination. In addition, an episode of poor combustion (manifested by high CO levels) was accompanied by extensive formation of 1,8-diCN, 1,2,3- and 1,2,8-triCN; congeners with substitution patterns that are not thermodynamically favorable. These are believed to be products of PAH breakdown reactions and/or chlorophenol condensation. Overall, PCN formation is likely to occur via more than one pathway, including chlorination of naphthalene that is already present, de novo synthesis from PAHs and, possibly, chlorophenol condensation.

  • 44.
    Jansson, Stina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Effect of injection of di- and tricyclic aromatic compounds on post-combustion formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 18, 3386-3393 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of mono- to octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PC(1-8)DD) and dibenzofurans (PC(1-8)DF) was studied using a model waste in a laboratory-scale combustion reactor with simultaneous collection of flue gas at three different temperatures (450°C, 300°C, and 200°C) in the post-combustion zone. To investigate the influence of chlorination reactions and the effects of carbon backbone-containing compounds present in the flue gases, five aromatic compounds were injected into the flue gas, namely dibenzofuran (DF), biphenyl (BP), naphthalene, phenanthrene and fluorene. The injection of DF induced a reduction in the concentration of PC(3-5)DD, but did not significantly influence the concentration of PCDF. A reduction in the concentration of PC(3-5)DD was also observed during the injection of fluorene, which is structurally very similar to DF. The injection of biphenyl, naphthalene and phenanthrene had less pronounced effects on the formation of PCDD and PCDF. A possible explanation of the observed changes during injection of DF and fluorene, based on homologue profiles and affected congeners, involves formation of radical species from fluorene and/or dibenzofuran. The fluorene radical is stabilized by the delocalization of electrons across the aromatic ring structure and has the propensity to react with highly abundant hydrogen chloride, whereas the molecular species would require reaction with Cl(2) or chlorine radicals.

  • 45.
    Jansson, Stina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Post-combustion formation of PCDD, PCDF, PCBz, and PCPh in a laboratory-scale reactor: Influence of dibenzo-p-dioxin injection2009In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 76, no 6, 818-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF), benzenes (PCBz), and phenols (PCPh) was studied during combustion of an artificial municipal solid waste (MSW) in a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor with simultaneous collection of flue gas samples at three different temperatures in the post-combustion zone (450 degrees C, 300 degrees C, and 200 degrees C). PCDF, PCBz, and PCPh were predominantly formed at or above the first sampling point (450 degrees C) with a dominance of the lower chlorinated homologues. PCDDs, on the other hand, were dominated by the intermediately chlorinated homologues with concentrations peaking at 300 degrees C. The dominating PCPh congeners clearly displayed the ortho-para directionality, which is indicative of electrophilic aromatic substitution, as did the PCBz isomer distribution patterns to some extent. Comparison of the observed PCBz isomer distribution patterns to prior work may indicate coupling of aliphatic species in chlorobenzene formation. The PCDDs seemed to be largely influenced by chlorophenol condensation reactions and to some extent chlorination reactions, while the PCDFs displayed a chlorination-oriented pattern for the mono- to tri-chlorinated homologues and a PCPh condensation pattern for the higher chlorinated homologues. Injection of non-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin at 650 degrees C resulted in increased formation of Tri-HxCDD and a decrease in the dibenzofuran levels. The affected PCDD and PCDF congeners were not products expected to form from chlorine substitution, but instead are well known chlorophenol condensation products.

  • 46. Johnning, Anna
    et al.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Weijdegard, Birgitta
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Resistance Mutations in gyrA and parC are Common in Escherichia Communities of both Fluoroquinolone-Polluted and Uncontaminated Aquatic Environments2015In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 6, 1355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alterations in the target proteins of fluoroquinolones, especially in GyrA and ParC, are known to cause resistance. Here, we investigated environmental Escherichia communities to explore the possible link between the abundance of mutations, and the exposure to fluoroquinolones. Sediment samples were collected from a relatively pristine lake, up and downstream from a sewage treatment plant, and from several industrially polluted sites. The quinolone resistance-determining regions of gyrA and parC were analyzed using amplicon sequencing of metagenomic DNA. Five non-synonymous substitutions were present in all samples, and all of these mutations have been previously linked to fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli. In GyrA, substitutions S83L and D87N were on average detected at frequencies of 86 and 32%, respectively, and 31% of all amplicons encoded both substitutions. In ParC, substitutions S80I, E84G, and E84V were detected in 42, 0.9, and 6.0% of the amplicons, respectively, and 6.5% encoded double substitutions. There was no significant correlation between the level of fluoroquinolone pollution and the relative abundance of resistance mutations, with the exception of the most polluted site, which showed the highest abundance of said substitutions in both genes. Our results demonstrate that resistance mutations can be common in environmental Escherichia, even in the absence of a fluoroquinolone selective pressure.

  • 47.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ershammar, Ellen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of an antihistamine on carbon and nutrient recycling in streams2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 538, 240-245 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In stream ecosystems, microbes and macroinvertebrates consume leaf litter deposited from the riparian vegetation, and thereby recycle resources tied up in the litter. Several environmental variables influence rates of this recycling, but it is not well known if common pharmaceuticals, such as antihistamines, originating from waste-water effluent, have additional impacts. Exposure to dilute concentrations of antihistamines may adversely influence aquatic detritivorous invertebrates, because invertebrates use histamines for neurotransmission, resulting in hampered recycling of resource tied up in leaf detritus. In this study, we therefore investigated if the antihistamine fexofenadine, at a concentration of 2000 ng l(-1), alters rates of leaf litter decomposition in stream microcosms. Stonefly larvae (n = 10, per microcosm), together with natural microbial communities, served as main decomposer organisms on alder leaf litter. First, we used 30 microcosms containing fexofenadine, while the other 30 served as non-contaminated controls, and of each 30 microcosms, 14 contained stonefly larvae and microbes, while the remaining 16 contained only microbes. We found, in contrast to our hypothesis, that fexofenadine had no effect on leaf litter decomposition via impacts on the stonefly larvae. However, independent on if stoneflies were present or not, concentrations of organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen (N) were strongly affected, with 20-26 and 24-31% lower concentrations of TOC and N, respectively, in the presence of fexofenadine. Second, in a scaled down follow-up experiment we found that microbial activity increased by 85%, resulting in a 10% decrease in pH, in the presence of fexofenadine. While the antihistamine concentration we used is higher than those thus far found in the field (1-10 ng l(-1)), it is still 100 times lower than the predicted no-effect concentration for fexofenadine. As such, our results indicate that low mu g l(-1) levels of antihistamines can have an effect on carbon and nutrient recycling in aquatic system. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 48.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Antihistamines and aquatic insects: Bioconcentration and impacts on behavior in damselfly larvae (Zygoptera)2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 472, 108-111 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because aquatic insects use histamines as neurotransmitters, adverse impacts on aquatic insects living in aquatic environments that receive antihistamines with wastewater effluent are plausible. In this study, we exposed damselfly larvae to low concentrations of two commonly used antihistamines (Hydroxyzine and Fexofenadine, 360 +/- 42 and 2200 +/- 43 ng 1(-1), respectively), and recorded damselfly larvae behavior before and after exposure. Further, after the second set of behavioral assays was performed, we quantified bioconcentration of the antihistamines in the damselfly bodies. Our results showed significant changes in damselfly behavior following antihistamine exposure. After Hydroxyzine exposure, the damselfly larvae became less active, and they showed reduced fleeing response (i.e. increased boldness) after being exposed to Fexofenadine, the latter also being significantly different from the non-exposed (control) individuals. Further, we found high levels of bioconcentration in the damselflies; Hydroxyzine showed an average bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 2000. As such, our results indicate that low concentrations of antihistamines can have sub-lethal effects on aquatic insects manifested as behavioral changes, and that bioconcentration of these substances can be high. Therefore, the need to investigate the impact of emergent aquatic contaminants also on aquatic insects, and on behaviors that are of ecological importance, is further highlighted. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 49. Järhult, Josef D
    et al.
    Muradrasoli, Shaman
    Wahlgren, John
    Söderström, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Orozovic, Goran
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Brojer, Caroline
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lennerstrand, Johan
    Waldenstrom, Jonas
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Olsen, Björn
    Environmental levels of the antiviral oseltamivir induce development of resistance mutation H274Y in influenza A/H1N1 virus in mallards2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 9, e24742- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oseltamivir (Tamiflu (R)) is the most widely used drug against influenza infections and is extensively stockpiled worldwide as part of pandemic preparedness plans. However, resistance is a growing problem and in 2008-2009, seasonal human influenza A/H1N1 virus strains in most parts of the world carried the mutation H274Y in the neuraminidase gene which causes resistance to the drug. The active metabolite of oseltamivir, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), is poorly degraded in sewage treatment plants and surface water and has been detected in aquatic environments where the natural influenza reservoir, dabbling ducks, can be exposed to the substance. To assess if resistance can develop under these circumstances, we infected mallards with influenza A/H1N1 virus and exposed the birds to 80 ng/L, 1 mu g/L and 80 mu g/L of OC through their sole water source. By sequencing the neuraminidase gene from fecal samples, we found that H274Y occurred at 1 mu g/L of OC and rapidly dominated the viral population at 80 mu g/L. IC(50) for OC was increased from 2-4 nM in wild-type viruses to 400-700 nM in H274Y mutants as measured by a neuraminidase inhibition assay. This is consistent with the decrease in sensitivity to OC that has been noted among human clinical isolates carrying H274Y. Environmental OC levels have been measured to 58-293 ng/L during seasonal outbreaks and are expected to reach mu g/L-levels during pandemics. Thus, resistance could be induced in influenza viruses circulating among wild ducks. As influenza viruses can cross species barriers, oseltamivir resistance could spread to human-adapted strains with pandemic potential disabling oseltamivir, a cornerstone in pandemic preparedness planning. We propose surveillance in wild birds as a measure to understand the resistance situation in nature and to monitor it over time. Strategies to lower environmental levels of OC include improved sewage treatment and, more importantly, a prudent use of antivirals.

  • 50. Kallenborn, R
    et al.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Moe, M
    Nielsen, K M
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Vasskog, T
    Pharmaceutical residues in Northern European Environments: Consequences and Perspectives2008In: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: Sources, Fate, Effects and Risks, 2008, 61-74 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 84
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