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  • 1. Bylin, Frida
    et al.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Trafikstarten på Botniabanan: En studie om tjuvstartsresenärernas upplevelser2011Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Acceptability of single and combined transport policy measures: The importance of environmental and policy specific beliefs2008In: Transportation Research Part A, ISSN 0965-8564, Vol. 42, p. 1117-1128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the acceptability of different transport policy measures was examined. Three measures were assessed individually and as packages combining one push measure (a raised tax on fossil fuel) and one pull measure (in Package 1 improved public transport and in Package 2 a subsidy of renewable fuel). To analyze factors important for the acceptability, we proposed a model where the value-belief-norm theory combined with policy specific beliefs (perceived fairness and perceived effectiveness) predicted acceptability. Furthermore, we examined whether problem awareness or personal norm was more important for acceptability. In a questionnaire study conducted in Sweden, a sample of car users (N = 616) assessed the transport policy measures. Results showed that while the pull measures were perceived to be effective, fair, and acceptable, the push measure and the packages were perceived to be rather ineffective, unfair, and unacceptable. The proposed model was supported for the measures and problem awareness was found to have a direct effect on acceptability for the pull measures while personal norm was found to have a direct effect on acceptability for the push measure and the two policy packages. In addition, perceived fairness and effectiveness were found to be particularly important for acceptability.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Garvill, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Acceptability of travel demand management measures: The importance of problem awareness, personal norm, freedom, and fairness2006In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 15-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Interrupting habitual car use: The importance of car habit strength and moral motivation for personal car use reduction2008In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 10-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, habitual car use was interrupted by means of an intervention attempting to induce a deliberate consideration to reduce personal car use and forming implementation intentions for the planned changes in travel behavior. The importance of car habit strength and of moral motivation for reducing car use was analyzed. The study was conducted as a field experiment where 71 car users were recruited to either an experimental group or a control group. All participants reported car habit strength and moral motivation to reduce car use (i.e. personal norm) by means of a questionnaire, and recorded car use by means of weekly car diaries pre- and post-intervention. Results demonstrate that the intervention did make the choice of travel mode more deliberate since the association between car use and car habit strength were weakened while the relation between car use and personal norm were strengthened after compared to before the intervention. Moreover, as a result of the intervention car users with a strong car habit and a strong personal norm were found to be more likely to reduce car use as compared to those with a weak car habit and a weak personal norm. Hence, a reduction in car use may be facilitated by interrupting habitual car use, specifically if the car user has a strong car habit and a strong moral motivation to reduce personal car use.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    How is setting preference related to intention to engage in forest recreation activities?2013In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 481-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban forests provide opportunities for outdoor recreation to many people. Knowledge of the motives for visiting forests is needed for the planning and management of these forests. Since forests are used for a diverse set of recreational activities, however, the motives for different activities are multifaceted. To explore recreational motives, this scene preference study conducted in Sweden examined relations between setting evaluations (i.e., mystery, legibility, valence, and activation), setting preference, general forest perceptions, and intention to engage in forest activities. Two alternative models were examined in relation to five different activities: walking, going on outings, exercising, picking berries or mushrooms, and studying plants and animals. Results revealed that preference mediated between setting evaluations and intention to go on outings, whereas setting evaluations were direct predictors of intention to walk and exercise. However, the models did not describe antecedents of intention to pick berries or mushrooms, or to study plants and animals, satisfactorily. In addition, general forest perceptions, particularly emphasising the restorative qualities of forests, were important for intention to engage in all the examined recreation activities. Results are discussed in relation to landscape preference research and attitude-behaviour theory. In addition, practical implications for encouraging forest recreation are highlighted.

  • 6. Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    Driving forces and constraints to sustainable household travel behaviour2010In: Environmental Polcy an Household Behaviour: Sustaiainability and Everyday Life / [ed] Patrik Söderholm, London: Earthscan , 2010, p. 211-236Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), SE-581 95 Linköping, Sweden.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Expected car use reduction in response to structural travel demand management measures2010In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 13, p. 329-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting the appropriate travel demand management (TDM) measures aiming to reduce the environmental problems associated with private transportation demands a thorough understanding of the behavioral consequences of different measures. In this scenario based study, the expected car use reduction in response to one push measure (i.e. raised tax on fossil fuel), one pull measure (i.e. improved public transport), and a combination of the two measures were analyzed. The aim was to compare the expected car use reduction in response to the different TDM measures, the car use reduction strategies used to achieve this reduction, and factors important for the expected car use reduction (i.e. background factors, internal motivational factors (general intention and personal norm), and perceived personal impact of the measure). In a two step between-subject design, a sample of car users first answered a pre-questionnaire and subsequently three groups of car users (N = 274) each evaluated one of the TDM measures. Results demonstrated that the combined measure led to larger expected car use reduction compared to the measures evaluated individually and the reduction was mainly expected to be made by means of trip chaining and changing travel mode. Moreover, internal motivational factors, such as personal norm or general intention, and the perceived impact of the measure, were found to be important for the expected car use reduction in response to the TDM measures.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Beliefs about urban fringe forests among urban residents in Sweden2012In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 321-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine predictors of beliefs about urban fringe forests among urban residents in Sweden (n = 586). Based on a cognitive hierarchical model, the study investigated how socio-demographic variables, as well as different values and beliefs, were related to the more specific beliefs urban residents have about urban fringe forests. Results demonstrated that the urban fringe forest was perceived to be essential for personal wellbeing, but preservation and accessibility to the forest were also important. Certain differences between socio-demographic groups were identified; for example, the importance of urban fringe forests for personal wellbeing was emphasized more by women, older people and those with a university degree. However, the importance of socio-demographic variables was modest compared with the influence of people's values and beliefs. More specifically, results showed that urban residents' basic values and ecological worldview, as well as forest values and beliefs (i.e., concerning forest qualities and forest requirements), were important in explaining their beliefs about urban fringe forests. Overall, the study revealed that urban residents are characterized by a heterogeneous set of beliefs concerning urban fringe forests. Recognizing these multiple beliefs in urban fringe forest development processes may help mitigate future conflicts between forest visitors, urban planners, forest owners and forest managers, thus enhancing our way toward good urban living environments.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Recreation in different forest settings: a scene preference study2012In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 923-943Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recreation  activity  preferences  in  forest  settings  were  explored  in  a  scene preference  study.  The  importance  of  type  of  human  intervention   and  the  level  of biodiversity for preference and intention to engage in recreation activities were examined in a sample of forestry and social science students in Sweden. Results showed that forestry students displayed an almost equally strong preference for natural-looking  scenes as for scenes  with traces  of recreation  (e.g., paths),  whereas  social  science  students  preferred recreational scenes the most. Least preferred were scenes with traces of forest management. Different  forest  settings  were  furthermore  preferred  for  different  recreation  activities. Recreational settings were favored for walking and going on outings, and natural-looking settings were more appreciated for picking berries or mushrooms. Respondents displayed a stronger intention to study plants and animals in high biodiversity settings and the intention to  exercise  was  stronger  in  low  biodiversity  settings.  Implications  for  future  land  use planning and forest management are discussed.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    The general public´s support for forest policy in Sweden: a value belief approach2013In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 850-867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, the legitimacy of the forest policy in Sweden was explored. Based on a value belief approach, the general public's support for forest policy was examined by means of a questionnaire (n=796). Results demonstrated that the respondents believed ecological principles, such as sustaining natural conditions for native plants and animals, were most important in forest policy, but preservation of social values and using the forest efficiently to maintain high market value were also emphasised. Although socio-demographic variables (i.e. gender and age) had some impact on support for the policy, different values and beliefs reflecting ecological, social and economic interests were more important. By considering different values and beliefs, as well as policy support explicitly, the study provides a multifaceted account of the public's viewpoint regarding forest issues.

  • 11.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM). Psychology.
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå School of Business.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Psychology.
    Effects of increased awareness on choice of travel mode2003In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488 (Print) 1572-9435 (Online), Vol. 30, no 1, p. 63-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a field experiment with the purpose of studying the effects of increased awareness on travel mode choice. One hundred fifteen subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental and a control group. In the experimental group, a more deliberate choice of travel mode was induced and expected to result in a stronger relationship between attitude and behavior, a weaker relationship between habit and behavior, and a behavioral change among individuals with a strong habit. Attitude, habit, and behavior were measured in travel diaries and questionnaires. The results indicated no significant change in the relationship between attitude and behavior and no significant change in the relationship between habit and behavior. However, a temporally extended decrease in car use was observed in the experimental group. The effect was noted for individuals with a strong habit who reduced their car use but not for subjects with a weak habit.

  • 12.
    Hauer, Esther
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kristina, Westerberg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Annika, Nordlund
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The content of the quality improvement work: influencing learning climate, resource adequacy and workloadManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the popularity of Quality Improvement Collaboratives, the evidence of their positive impact is limited. However, awareness of the mechanisms underlying such interventional efforts, as well as of their outcomes, is crucial for HRD professionals. Thus, the general purpose of this study was to examine the relation between process and outcome by addressing two specific aims. The first aim was to explore the content of the quality improvement work and, the second aim was to examine how the content chosen influences employees’ psychosocial work environment. A mixed-methods design was used in this study, including observations and written documentation of the quality improvement work and questionnaires, distributed on two occasions, to136 nursing assistants. Results showed that (1) the content of the quality improvement work differed both in nature and flexibility, even though the same method was used, (2) the perceived learning climate, workload, and resource adequacy were influenced differently by the different contents chosen. This study offers insights into understanding the complexity around such interventions – which might be powerful in some situations and less appropriate in others. Choosing the right method and assuring that the method is implemented is not enough to guarantee the success of the quality improvement work. It is of vital importance that employees have achievable targets in relation to the resources available. Quality improvement should not be achieved at the expense of employees’ psychosocial work environment; otherwise, the improvement process may become counterproductive.

  • 13.
    Hauer, Esther
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Developmental intervention, learning climate and use of knowledge in elderly care2012In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 19-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the learning climate in elderly care, its potential improvements after the “Steps for skills”, and its influence on knowledge from formal training. The assumptions were: the different activities of the Steps for skills should enhance the perceived learning climate; differences in working conditions in home help and residential homes should influence the perceived learning climate and its improvements; and changes in the perception of the learning climate should bring changes in the perceived usefulness of new knowledge.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study is a case study carried out in the public elderly care in Sweden, and used a repeated measurements design. A total of 270 nursing assistants answered a questionnaire at Time I, and 174 at Time II.

    Findings – Results show no improvements of the learning climate for the full sample. When contrasting the learning climate in home help services and in residential homes significant differences are found, and also a tendency for their learning climate to change in opposite directions. The perception of the learning climate seems to influence the perceived usefulness of new knowledge.

    Research limitations/implications – The sample was from one single organization.

    Practical implications – Developmental interventions should take in to consideration that context matters, and that the perceived learning climate influences the use of new knowledge.

    Originality/value – In this study, a 15-items learning climate scale (LCS) is presented. Another contribution is identifying working condition failure as a potential explanation to why interventions usually do not result in expected changes.

  • 14.
    Hauer, Esther
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Learning climate and its effects on work outcomes2010In: Abstract of the 27 International Congress of Applied psychology / [ed] Vicky Mrowinski, Michael Kyrios and Nicholas Voudouris, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:  In the present study the learning climate in elderly care in an average sized Swedish municipality, before and after the intervention, is investigated. The intervention was part of the programme “Steps for skill” and the basic idea was to build new infrastructures for learning and development in elderly care. As a result of “Steps for skill” taken into account different organizational levels but considering home help services and residential homes as one context, the specific research questions were: Are there differences between the two types of elderly care as well as between managers and employees’ in their experience of the learning climate? How do the learning climate and its variables effects work outcomes? What is the outcome of the intervention?

    Method: Prior to, and one year after the development intervention, surveys were distributed to 29 workplaces and answered by 270 care assistants and 29 managers working in working in elderly care. The sample consisted mainly of females (91%), the average age was 43 years, and 13% had a university degree.  

    Results: Preliminary results show that there is a difference between two types of elderly care. When it comes to learning climate the groups working in home help service have a lower estimation than the groups working in residential homes, and a higher level of perceived stress. Regarding the outcome of the intervention, the learning climate became significantly better only at the home help services.  

    Conclusions: To work in home help services seems to have a negative influence on the learning climate, which is not surprising considering the lack of opportunities to discuss everyday work activities and specific problems when they occur. Although the home help services have specific working conditions that are not in line with the suggested key factors in workplace learning, they improved after the intervention.

    Choosing one context over another may influence both research results an implications. In the present study the learning climate in elderly care in an   average sized Swedish municipality, before and after the intervention, is   investigated. The intervention was part of the programme “Steps for skill” and   the basic idea was to build new infrastructures for learning and development   in elderly care. 

    As a result of “Steps for skill” taken into account different   organizational levels but considering home help services and residential homes   as one context, the specific research questions were: Are there differences   between the two types of elderly care as well as between managers and   employees’ in their experience of the learning climate? How do the learning   climate and its variables   effects work outcomes? What is the outcome of the intervention?  

    Prior to, and   one year after the development intervention, surveys were distributed to 29 workplaces and   answered by 270 care   assistants and 29 managers working in working in elderly care. The sample   consisted mainly of females (91%), the average age was 43 years, and 13% had   a university degree.  

    Preliminary results show that there is a difference between two types   of elderly care. When it comes to learning climate the groups working in home   help service have a lower estimation than the groups working in residential   homes, and a higher level of perceived stress. Regarding the outcome of the   intervention, the learning climate became significantly better only at the   home help services.  

    To work in home help   services seems to have a negative influence on the learning climate, which is   not surprising considering the lack of opportunities to discuss everyday work   activities and specific problems when they occur. Although the home help   services have specific working conditions that are not in line with the   suggested key factors in workplace learning, they improved after the   intervention.  

    Choosing one   context over another may influence both research results an implications.

  • 15.
    Jansson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Consumer adoption of alternative fuel vehicles: a cluster analytic approach on proenvironmental technology choices and curtailment behaviors2009In: In Proceedings of the 14th Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Biennial World Marketing Congress, July 21-25, Oslo, Norway, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most pressing sustainability issues currently concerns personal car use. From an environmental consumer psychology viewpoint, a substantial knowledge base has developed concerning curtailment behaviors focusing on, for example, the reduction of personal transport. However, little has been done from a marketing perspective using that knowledge to understand proenvironmental technology choices and purchase behaviors. In this paper we use a cluster analytic approach to group consumers on replacement intentions for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and willingness to reduce negative impact of transportation (curtailment). We use data from a sample of 4,000 adopters and non-adopters of AFVs in Sweden (European market leader of AFVs), when developing profiles of uninformed, shallow green and deeper green consumers. After confirming the results using discriminant analysis, we profile the groups on attitudinal factors, proenvironmental behaviors and adoption of AFVs. Finally we draw conclusions and present theoretical and marketing implications of our results.

  • 16.
    Jansson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Elucidating green consumers: a cluster analytic approach on proenvironmental purchase and curtailment behaviors2009In: Journal of Euromarketing, ISSN 1049-6483, E-ISSN 1528-6967, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 245-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study used a cluster analytic approach with the purpose of arriving at a nuanced picture of consumers, in relation to green purchase and curtailment behaviors. Based on Swedish car owners’ values, beliefs, norms, habits, and personal capabilities, three clusters emerged that were validated using discriminant analysis: non-greens, curtailers, and ecovators. The profiling constructs showed that ecovators (ecological innovators) had the highest levels of green beliefs and were found to be innovators with respect to a high involvement eco-innovation (the alternative fuel vehicle). Marketing and policy implications together with suggestions for further research on proenvironmental consumer behavior are provided.

  • 17.
    Jansson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Encouraging consumer curtailment behaviour and eco-innovation adoption: Detailing the marketing challenge2011In: Readings and Cases in Sustainable Marketing: A Strategic Approach to Social Responsibility / [ed] Clare D'Souza, Mehdi Taghian, Michael Jay Polonsky, Tilde University Press , 2011, 1, p. 257-272Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chapter 7: Much research on consumer environmentally significant behaviours has focused on behaviours that reduce environmental harm, such as saving energy and water. Although determinants of curtailment behaviours are important to understand, for environmental reasons it is also vital to understand the factors that drive or hinder consumers to adopt innovations that are less harmful for the environment, i.e. eco-innovations. In this chapter we discuss two types of consumer behaviours as part of the solution to environmental sustainability issues and detail the marketing challenge in encouraging consumers to adopt such behaviours. We arrive at the marketing challenge matrix where determinants of adoption and non-adoption of curtailment behaviours and eco-innovations is illustrated. The matrix proposes different ways to encourage wider adoption of these behaviours. Since drivers are both similar and different for curtailment behaviours and eco-innovation adoption, but the overall goal is similar, an understanding of these factors and how to handle them in marketing efforts will contribute in the ongoing attempts at achieving environmental sustainability.

  • 18.
    Jansson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring early adopters of an eco-innovation: The case of the alternative fuel vehicle2011In: Journal of Consumer Behaviour, ISSN 1472-0817, E-ISSN 1479-1838, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 51-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental problems are increasingly becoming everyday issues of international organizations, national governments, and individual consumers. In consumer behavior research considerable effort has been focused on understanding environmentally significant behaviors. One such research stream uses the value-belief-norm theory (VBN) to explain and predict a number of relatively low involvement proenvironmental consumer behaviors such as household energy use. However, many consumer behaviors with significant impact on the environment are categorized as high involvement behaviors where VBN theory has not yet been employed. The aim of this paper is to arrive at a better understanding of consumer adoption of a high involvement eco-innovation using VBN theory. As an example of a high involvement eco-innovation the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) which runs on fossil oil-alternative fuels such as electricity and biofuels is used. A representative sample of adopters and non-adopters of these vehicles in Sweden were surveyed. Differences between adopters and non-adopters on sociodemographic and VBN factors were analyzed and the explanatory ability of the different factors on adoption was analyzed using logistic regression. The results showed that early adopters had a higher level of education and were much more likely to live in multi-person households compared to non-adopters. In terms of attitudinal factors, adopters exhibited higher levels of proenvironmental values, beliefs, and personal norms (PNs). Furthermore the results established that VBN factors were successful in explaining the early adoption of a high involvement eco-innovation such as the AFV. The implications for consumer research, public policymakers, and for marketers of eco-innovations are discussed.

  • 19.
    Jansson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Green consumer behavior: Determinants of curtailment and eco-innovation adoption2010In: Journal of Consumer Marketing, ISSN 0736-3761, E-ISSN 2052-1200, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 358-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Knowledge of green consumer behavior is important for environmental and business reasons. The purpose of this study is to examine thedeterminants of green curtailment behaviors and consumer adoption of innovations marketed as green (eco-innovations), and to analyze factorsexplaining these two types of green behaviors.

    Design/methodology/approach – The results from a survey on adopters and non-adopters (N = 1,832) of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) arereported. Regression analysis on willingness to curtail car use and willingness to adopt a so-called environmentally friendly car are used to identifysignificant determinants across the behavioral categories.

    Findings – The results show that values, beliefs, norms, and habit strength determine willingness to curtail and willingness for eco-innovationadoption. Personal norms have a strong positive influence on willingness for the behaviors and habit strength has a negative influence. The otherdeterminants have varying influence depending on type of behavior.

    Research limitations/implications – A limitation of this study concerns the focus on only one eco-innovation. However, since the adoption of AFVs isa high involvement behavior, the results carry implications for other high involvement products as well.Practical implications – Attitudinal factors and habits in combination prove to be effective determinants for curtailment behaviors and willingness toadopt eco-innovations. In addition, previous adoption is found to be a strong determinant of future willingness to adopt.

    Originality/value – The contribution of the paper is the two-sided approach on green consumer behavior and the result that values, beliefs and normsnot only predict low involvement post-purchase behaviors but also adoption of high involvement eco-innovations.

  • 20.
    Jansson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motives for continuous adoption of a proenvironmental innovation: the case of alternative fuel vehicles and fuels2009In: In Proceedings of the 38th European Marketing Academy Conference (EMAC), May 26-29, Nantes, France, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although much consumer adoption research focuses on the innovation-decision process, little research examines the motives for continuous use of the innovation after adoption. For proenvironmental innovations, the continued use of the innovation in an environmental way is imperative in order to reach intended environmental benefits. The aim of this paper is to examine factors influencing continuous usage of an adopted innovation. We report an empirical study carried out in Sweden on adopters of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). The results show that contextual and attitudinal factors, personal capabilities, and how-to knowledge significantly influence continuous adoption. Implications for further research on proenvironmental innovations and continuous adoption are presented.

  • 21.
    Jansson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The fossil fuel free future: comparing attitudes and behaviors among owners of alternative fuel vehicles and conventional vehicles2007In: In Proceedings of the 13th Annual International Sustainable Development Research Conference (AISDRC), June 9-12, Västerås, Sweden, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase of passenger cars and the use of them has been identified as one cause of the increase in emissions of fossil carbon dioxide (CO2) and thus global warming. One way to slow this acceleration of emissions is to replace the current fleet of conventional vehicles (CV) running on fossil based fuels for one that is fuelled by alternative fuels (AF) such as bioethanol and/or biogas. A key stakeholder in this process is the consumer. Without consumers purchasing alternative fuel vehicles (AFV:s) and filling them up with AF:s, a decrease in the emissions fossil CO2 will be hard to achieve. The purpose of this paper is to increase the understanding of consumer attitudes and behaviors in relation to cars and fuels in a time of a possible market breakthrough of a more environmentally friendly technology. A mail-in survey was conducted on private car owners in Sweden during the winter of 2006. The sample consisted of approximately 4000 car owners, of which 1000 were owners of AFV:s, and the final response rate was close to 50%. Together with measuring attitudes and behavior towards cars and fuels, other environmentally friendly behaviors were also included, such as recycling, conserving energy and buying of organically grown food. By comparing owners of AFV:s and owners of CV:s, differences between the groups are identified and discussed. By presenting these differences, policy makers, vehicle and fuel producers, and consumers, can gain initial insights into a progressing market breakthrough for AFV:s and AF:s.

  • 22.
    Jansson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Examining drivers of electric vehicle adoption: The influence of opinion leadership and ecological attitudes2015In: In Proceedings of the 44th EMAC Annual Conference 2015 24-27 May 2015, Leuven, Belgium, 2015, p. 75-83Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing research on environmental, ethical and social consumer behavior has focused on proenvironmentaland pro-social attitudes but less on marketing factors such as opinion leadership and opinion seeking. In contrast, the main aim here is to analyze how non-adopters, potential adopters and early adopters of electric vehicles (EVs) differ concerning traditional environmental psychology attitudinal factors and opinion leadership/seeking. Data from a questionnaire survey is used (N = 1,192). Results show significant differences between the groups and that early adopters exhibit opinion leadership traits as well as more pro-environmental personal norms. Implications of these and other findings are discussed.

  • 23.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Att skapa grunden för beslut i kärnavfallsfrågan2009In: Samhällsforskning 2009: Betydelsen för människorna, hembygden och regionen av ett slutförvar för använt kärnbränsle, Stockholm: SKB , 2009, p. 96-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Environmental Impact Assessment as a Social Process: The Case of Nuclear Waste Storage in Sweden2015In: CyberGeo: European Journal of Geography, ISSN 1278-3366, E-ISSN 1278-3366, article id 715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process underlying the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for large developments is often designed to allow opportunities for members of the public and NGOs to voice their opinions. This study describes the EIA process leading to a decision in the question of radioactive waste storage in Sweden. While it should be possible for a deciding authority to reject an EIA on the basis of non-involvement of the public or NGOs, this study illustrates the way in which the EIA process may be formed by different social norms that relate to the specific case. Authorities can be considered to represent a plan paradigm (by which the project itself as well as political decisions made about it are in focus), whereas many environmental organizations traditionally represent an environment paradigm, focusing on the risk of potentially ecologically harmful processes. These differences can also be seen as symptomatic of the inclusion of parts of an environment paradigm in legislation such as the Swedish Environmental Code.

  • 25.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Grunden för beslut i kärnavfallsfrågan: Upplevelser av lagstiftningsgrund och MKB-process2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Lindkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Mineur, Eva
    The Swedish Research Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Olsson, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Sandström, C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Attitudes on intensive forestry: an investigation into perceptions of increased production requirements in Swedish forestry2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 438-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008, the Swedish government launched an inquiry into the possibilities, benefits and requirements for conducting intensive forestry in part of the Swedish countryside, including fertilization, genetically improved plant material and fastgrowing species beyond what is currently allowed in Swedish legislation. Drawing upon part of that governmental investigation, this paper analyzes attitudes toward intensive forestry over time. The study draws upon studies of points of conflict written in the 1970s and 1980s, attitudes among different stakeholder groups, and interviews with forest owners and stakeholder groups potentially affected by intensive forestry. The study concludes that the diverging opinions as to what constitutes acceptable forest use have remained largely the same over the years. Radical landscape change is generally not seen as desirable, but views diverge over the use of novel tree species and the use of fertilization.

  • 27.
    Lindkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Olsson, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mineur, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Konflikt och konsensus i skogen: intensivodling av skog ur ett humanistiskt och samhällsvetenskapligt perspektiv. Faktaunderlag till utredning om Möjligheter till intensivodling av skog2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den första delstudien, ”Skogslandskapet som arena”, syftar till att ge en bakgrund till dagens skogsbruk i Sverige och att sätta in skogspolitiken i ett idé- och miljöhistoriskt sammanhang. Sammantaget handlar undersökningen om hur skogen har brukats och hur detta brukande har motiverats, institutionaliserats, reglerats och ifrågasatts under de senaste århundradena. Den består av två delar. Den första delen inleds med en historik som tar upp maktförhållandena i skogen och hur skogen har nyttjats genom tiderna. Därefter följer en redogörelse över skogsbrukets och skogsvårdslagens förändring över tid fram till att miljörörelsen, rennäringen, kulturminnesvården och andra ”allmänna intressen” som värnar om skogen tar plats i skogsvårdslagen. I den andra delen diskuteras ett urval konflikter som uppkommit i anslutning till skogen och skogsbruket, främst med tyngdpunkt på 1970- och 1980-talen: debatten om plantering av skog i öppna landskap, kalhyggesdebatten, reaktionerna vid inplantering av främmande trädslag, debatten om bruket av bekämpningsmedel samt visionen om att utveckla och nyttja genmodifierade träd. Flera av dessa konflikter kan rimligen åter aktualiseras vid ett intensifierat skogsbruk av det slag som utredningen behandlar.Den andra delstudien, ”Attityder och värderingar”, undersöker privatpersoners och skogsägares inställningar till den svenska skogen i allmänhet och till intensivodling av skog i synnerhet. Privatpersoner betraktar vanligen skogen som en rekreationsresurs, medan skogsägare håller skogens traditionella, ekonomiska värden närmare hjärtat. När attityder mot skogen väl förändras beror det ofta på generationsväxlingar, ökat miljömedvetande och urbaniseringstrender. Sveriges stora demografiska och kulturella skillnader har även bidragit till att skogen idag uppfattas olika i olika delar av landet. Samtidigt som vi bor längre bort från skogen än tidigare ökar vår efterfrågan på dess sociala värden, vilket innebär att ungefär hälften av våra skogsbesök numera sker i tätortsnära skog, som främst är förknippad med rekreation och vila. Skogens ekonomiska värden är emellertid fortfarande viktiga, inte minst när det gäller skogens roll som framtida energikälla. Intervjuade skogsägare har visat sig vara förhållandevis positiva till intensivodling av skog, samtidigt som det av miljömässiga och ekonomiska skäl finns ett starkt motstånd mot att öka användningen av gödsel. Privatpersoner som intervjuats anser i regel att intensivodlade områden begränsar naturupplevelsen, skadar miljön och missgynnar mångfalden. Fördelar som ökad möjlighet att utvinna alternativa energibränslen och ökade exportmöjligheter för svensk industri har emellertid också nämnts.Den tredje delstudien, ”Potentiella synergier och målkonflikter”, relaterar intensivodling av skog dels till de av riksdagen fastställda miljömålen dels till eventuella intressemotsättningar som kan uppstå till följd av ett förändrat nyttjande av jordbruksmark. De målkonflikter som identifieras, främst mellan miljömålen ’Begränsad klimatpåverkan’ och ’Ett rikt växt- och djurliv’, kan inte enbart lösas på teknisk väg utan kräver någon form av politisk avvägning. För att ansvariga myndigheter ska kunna göra en sådan avvägning krävs dock att det utarbetas någon form av politisk prioriteringsordning som kan vägleda myndigheterna i det arbetet. När det gäller eventuella intressemotsättningar som kan uppstå till följd av intensivodling framgår det av intervjuer med olika intresseorganisationer att många konflikter sannolikt kan undvikas om synpunkter från olika intressen beaktas i samband med planering av förändrat marknyttjande.

  • 28.
    Nordlund, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, Louise
    Garvill, Jörgen
    Barriers and facilitators for pro-environmental behaviour2010In: Houshold behaviour: Sustainability and Everyday Life / [ed] Patrik söderholm, London: Earthscan , 2010, p. 99-125Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Nordlund, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Garvill, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of values, problem awareness, and personal norm on willingness to reduce personal car use2003In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 339-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of values, problem awareness, and personal norm on willingness to cooperate were studied. The choice situation was seen as a social dilemma and willingness to reduce personal car use as an intention to cooperate since it requires sacrificing immediate personal gains in order to reduce long-term collective environmental costs. Data were collected through a survey to 2500 car owners in Sweden. The survey assessed, value orientation, problem awareness, personal norm, and willingness to reduce personal car use. A hierarchical model, of the effects of values, awareness, and norms on the willingness to cooperate, was tested with path analysis. Data supported the hypothesized model. Values and problem awareness influenced personal norm, which in turn influenced willingness to reduce personal car use. The results clearly showed the importance of personal norm for willingness to cooperate in a social dilemma.

  • 30.
    Nordlund, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Value structures behind pro-environmental behavior2002In: Environment and Behavior, ISSN 0013-9165, E-ISSN 1552-390X, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 740-756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to test a hierarchical model of the effects of general values, environmental values, problem awareness, and personal norms on general proenvironmental behavior. The model starts with the effects of the relatively stable structures of general values and moves toward effects of more specific environmental values, environmental problem awareness, and personal norms. A personal norm was expected to mediate the effects of values and problem awareness on proenvironmental behavior. Survey data from a Swedish sample of 1,400 individuals were used in a path analysis to test the model, which was supported, and the results showed that the personal norm could be seen as derived from self-transcendent and ecocentric values and activated by problem awareness. The personal norm mediated the effects from general values, environmental values, and problem awareness on proenvironmental behavior.

  • 31.
    Nordlund, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Power to the people? Om ansvar och makt över skog genrellt och tätortsnära skog i synnerhet2011In: PLAN, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 63-68Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Nordlund, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Forest values and forest management attitudes among private forest owners in Sweden.2011In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 30-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study focused on how forests will be managed in the future in light of the increased emphasis being put by the public on the ecological and recreational values of forests, the trend towards an increased share of non-resident forest owners, and the increased female forest ownership. The value and belief basis of forest management attitudes was explored using a questionnaire sent to a sample of private forest owners ‘residing on’ (n = 995, return rate = 51.3%) and ‘not residing on’ the forest property (n = 997, return rate = 50%). The results showed that a share of private forest owners strongly value both the view that the forest should predominately be used for timber production and the view that preservation is most important. The proposed hierarchical structure of influence, in which the forest management attitude was influenced by values and beliefs, was supported in the study. The ecological, recreational, and production forest values primarily influenced the most closely related forest management attitude, even if some cross-sectional effects and some effects of socio-demographics were found, showing that the view a private forest owner has on different forms of management styles is shaped by the perceived multiple values of the forest.

  • 33.
    Nordlund, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    How should forests be managed? The influence of forest owner's values and beliefs2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Nordlund, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Influence of values, beliefs, and age on intention to travel by a new railway line under construction in northern Sweden2013In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 48, p. 86-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim is to investigate determinants of intentions to use a new railway line under construction in the northern Sweden. To this end a test was made of a two-part hierarchical model of train-use intentions positing influences from general values and beliefs as well as specific beliefs about the new railway line. A questionnaire was sent to a randomly selected sample of 1238 citizens residing in seven municipalities along the new railway line. In order to also investigate potential generation differences participants were sampled in four age groups, young adults, young middle-aged, middle-aged, and pensioners. The results supported the proposed hierarchical model showing that general values and beliefs influence intentions primarily through the specific beliefs about the railway line. In addition, the results showed that the youngest age group is more open to change and has stronger intentions to use the new railway.

  • 35.
    Nordlund, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    New Infrastructure - Increased Accessibility?2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the work towards developing a sustainable transportation system one has to look at both design and technical aspects of transportation and travel modes, and people's travel behavior and travel intentions. The train as travel mode has been readily established in Europe and in the southern part of Sweden. The possibility to travel by train in the northern part of Sweden has however been more restricted and the train services have historically not been placed in proximity to where the larger mass of people is situation, that is, along the east coast. Through a major infrastructure investment,  new tracks were built over a distance of about 200 kilometers along the east coast of the northern part of Sweden. In the present case train services are being introduced to a region in which the train has not been an alternative before to any large extent, possibly making the socialization towards car use even more pronounced. If so, greater barriers towards switching from car to train present could potentially exist. The aim of the present study is thus: (1) to discuss people's expectations on a new transport mode, (2) based on expectations to discuss potential for increased accessibility and interaction in a labor market region, and (3) to test a proposed structural equation model of the hierarchical relationship between basic values and general environmental beliefs, travel mode attitudes, beliefs about the specific infrastructure investment and the intention to choose to travel by train.

  • 36.
    Nordlund, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Predicting future intention to choose the train: Attitudinal influence and socio-demographic differences.2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Nordlund, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Preserve forests for leisure, say Swedes2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Steg, Linda
    et al.
    University of Groningen.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Models to explain environmental behaviour2012In: Environmental psychology: an introduction / [ed] Linda Steg, Agnes E. van den Berg & Judith I. M. de Groot, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell , 2012, p. 186-195Chapter in book (Refereed)
1 - 38 of 38
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