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  • 1.
    Algesten, Grete
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brydsten, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, Per
    Institute of Applied Environmental Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kortelainen, Pirkko
    Finnish Environment Institute, P.O. Box 140, FIN-00251, Helsinki, Finland.
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Department of Environmental Assessment, SLU, P.O. Box 7050, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rahm, Lars
    Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping, Sweden.
    Räike, Antti
    Finnish Environment Institute, P.O. Box 140, FIN-00251, Helsinki, Finland.
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Institute for Aquatic Sciences and Water Pollution Control, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH), Universitätsstr. 16, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Tranvik, Lars
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, EBC, Uppsala University, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Organic carbon budget for the Gulf of Bothnia2006In: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, E-ISSN 1879-1573, Vol. 63, no 3-4, 155-161 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We calculated input of organic carbon to the unproductive, brackish water basin of the Gulf of Bothnia from rivers, point sources and the atmosphere. We also calculated the net exchange of organic carbon between the Gulf of Bothnia and the adjacent marine system, the Baltic Proper. We compared the input with sinks for organic carbon; permanent incorporation in sediments and mineralization and subsequent evasion of CO2 to the atmosphere. The major fluxes were riverine input (1500 Gg C year− 1), exchange with the Baltic Proper (depending on which of several possible DOC concentration differences between the basins that was used in the calculation, the flux varied between an outflow of 466 and an input of 950 Gg C year 1), sediment burial (1100 Gg C year− 1) and evasion to the atmosphere (3610 Gg C year− 1). The largest single net flux was the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere, mainly caused by bacterial mineralization of organic carbon. Input and output did not match in our budget which we ascribe uncertainties in the calculation of the exchange of organic carbon between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic Proper, and the fact that CO2 emission, which in our calculation represented 1 year (2002) may have been overestimated in comparison with long-term means. We conclude that net heterotrophy of the Gulf of Bothnia was due to input of organic carbon from both the catchment and from the Baltic Proper and that the future degree of net heterotrophy will be sensible to both catchment export of organic carbon and to the ongoing eutrophication of the Baltic Proper.

  • 2.
    Algesten, Grete
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Tranvik, Lars J
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Contribution of sediment respiration to summer CO2 emission from boreal and subarctic lakes2005In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 50, no 4, 529-535 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We measured sediment production of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and methane (CH(4)) and the net flux of CO(2) across the surfaces of 15 boreal and subarctic lakes of different humic contents. Sediment respiration measurements were made in situ under ambient light conditions. The flux of CO(2) between sediment and water varied between an uptake of 53 and an efflux of 182 mg C m(-2) day(-1) from the sediments. The mean respiration rate for sediments in contact with the upper mixed layer (SedR) was positively correlated to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in the water (r(2) = 0.61). The net flux of CO(2) across the lake surface [net ecosystem exchange (NEE)] was also closely correlated to DOC concentration in the upper mixed layer (r(2) = 0.73). The respiration in the water column was generally 10-fold higher per unit lake area compared to sediment respiration. Lakes with DOC concentrations <5.6 mg L(-1) had net consumption of CO(2) in the sediments, which we ascribe to benthic primary production. Only lakes with very low DOC concentrations were net autotrophic (<2.6 mg L(-1)) due to the dominance of dissolved allochthonous organic carbon in the water as an energy source for aquatic organisms. In addition to previous findings of allochthonous organic matter as an important driver of heterotrophic metabolism in the water column of lakes, this study suggests that sediment metabolism is also highly dependent on allochthonous carbon sources.

  • 3.
    Algesten, Grete
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ågren, Anneli
    Tranvik, Lars J
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Role of lakes for organic carbon cycling in the boreal zone2004In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 10, no 1, 141-147 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We calculated the carbon loss (mineralization plus sedimentation) and net CO2 escape to the atmosphere for 79 536 lakes and total running water in 21 major Scandinavian catchments (size range 437–48 263 km2). Between 30% and 80% of the total organic carbon that entered the freshwater ecosystems was lost in lakes. Mineralization in lakes and subsequent CO2 emission to the atmosphere was by far the most important carbon loss process. The withdrawal capacity of lakes on the catchment scale was closely correlated to the mean residence time of surface water in the catchment, and to some extent to the annual mean temperature represented by latitude. This result implies that variation of the hydrology can be a more important determinant of CO2 emission from lakes than temperature fluctuations. Mineralization of terrestrially derived organic carbon in lakes is an important regulator of organic carbon export to the sea and may affect the net exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the boreal landscape.

  • 4.
    Algesten, Grete
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Sobek, Sobek
    Department of Limnology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Tranvik, Lars T.
    Department of Limnology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Seasonal variation of CO2 saturation in the Gulf of Bothnia: Indications of marine net heterotrophy2004In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 18, 4021-4028 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal variation of pCO2 and primary and bacterioplankton production were measured in the Gulf of Bothnia during an annual cycle. Surface water was supersaturated with CO2 on an annual basis, indicating net heterotrophy and a source of CO2 to the atmosphere. However, the Gulf of Bothnia oscillated between being a sink and a source of CO2 over the studied period, largely decided by temporal variation in bacterial respiration (BR) and primary production (PP) in the water column above the pycnocline. The calculated annual respiration-production balance (BR-PP) was very similar to the estimated CO2 emission from the Gulf of Bothnia, which indicates that these processes were major determinants of the exchange of CO2 between water and atmosphere. The southern basin (the Bothnian Sea) had a lower net release of CO2 to the atmosphere than the northern Bothnian Bay (7.1 and 9.7 mmol C m−2 d−1, respectively), due to higher primary production, which to a larger extent balanced respiration in this basin.

  • 5.
    Ask, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Net ecosystem production in clear-water and brown-water lakes2012In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 26, GB1017- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied 15 lakes in northern Sweden with respect to primary production and respiration in benthic and pelagic habitats. The lakes were characterized by different concentrations of colored dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of terrestrial origin, forming a gradient ranging from clear-water to brown-water lakes. Primary production decreased and respiration increased on a whole-lake scale along the gradient of increasing DOC. Thus, the lakes became more net heterotrophic, i.e., had lower net ecosystem production (NEP = gross primary production - community respiration), with increasing terrestrial DOC and this change coincided with increasing partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO(2)) in the surface waters. The single most important process for the increasing net heterotrophy along the DOC gradient was pelagic respiration of terrestrial organic carbon. In spite of high metabolic activity in the benthic habitat, benthic primary production and benthic respiration decreased simultaneously with increasing DOC, showing that the benthic habitat was in metabolic balance throughout the gradient. Therefore, the net heterotrophic states of the lakes depended on the terrestrial DOC export to lakes and the concomitant respiration of terrestrial organic carbon in the pelagic habitat.

  • 6.
    Ask, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Terrestrial organic matter and light penetration: Effects on bacterial and primary production in lakes2009In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 54, no 6, 2034-2040 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated productivity at the basal trophic level in 15 unproductive lakes in a gradient ranging from clear-water to brown-water (humic) lakes in northern Sweden. Primary production and bacterial production in benthic and pelagic habitats were measured to estimate the variation in energy mobilization from external energy sources (primary production plus bacterial production on allochthonous organic carbon) along the gradient. Clear-water lakes were dominated by autotrophic energy mobilization in the benthic habitat, whereas humic lakes were dominated by heterotrophic energy mobilization in the pelagic habitat. Whole-lake (benthic + pelagic) energy mobilization was negatively correlated to the light-extinction coefficient, which was determined by colored terrestrial organic matter in the lake water. Thus, variation in the concentration of terrestrial organic matter and its light-absorbing characteristics exerts strong control on the magnitude, as well as on the processes and pathways, of energy mobilization in unproductive lakes. We suggest that unproductive lakes in general are sensitive to input of terrestrial organic matter because of its effects on basal energy mobilization in both benthic and pelagic habitats.

  • 7.
    Ask, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Whole-lake estimates of carbon flux through algae and bacteria in benthic and pelagic habitats of clear-water lakes2009In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 90, no 7, 1923-1932 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study quantified new biomass production of algae and bacteria in both benthic and pelagic habitats of clear-water lakes to contrast how carbon from the atmosphere and terrestrial sources regulates whole-lake metabolism. We studied four small unproductive lakes in subarctic northern Sweden during one summer season. The production of new biomass in both benthic and pelagic habitats was calculated as the sum of autotrophic production by algae and heterotrophic production by bacteria using allochthonous organic carbon (OC). Whole-lake production of new biomass was dominated by the benthic habitat (86% +/- 4% [mean +/- SD]) and by primary production (77% +/- 9%). Still, heterotrophic bacteria fueled by allochthonous OC constituted a significant portion of the new biomass production in both benthic (19% +/- 11%) and pelagic habitats (51% +/- 24%). In addition, overall net production (primary production minus respiration) was close to zero in the benthic habitats but highly negative (-163 +/- 81 mg C.m(-2).d(-1)) in pelagic regions of all lakes. We conclude (1) that allochthonous OC supported a significant part of total production of new biomass in both pelagic and benthic habitats, (2) that benthic habitats dominated the whole-lake production of new biomass, and (3) that respiration and net CO2 production dominated the carbon flux of the pelagic habitats and biomass production dominated the benthic carbon flux. Taken together, these findings suggest that previous investigations have greatly underestimated the productivity of clear-water lakes when benthic autotrophic production and metabolism of allochthonous OC have not been measured.

  • 8.
    Ask, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Competition mediated coexistence of invading intermediate consumer, ninespine stickleback, and a resident omnivorous top predator, Arctic charManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change results in changes in the geographical distribution of species. Species invasion success into a new area is dependent both on the dispersal ability of species as well as the strength and identity of biotic interactions between resident and invading species. Coexistence in intraguild predation (IGP) systems depends on the relative strength of predation and competition interactions which in turn are temperature dependent. We investigated the effects of introducing an intermediate consumer, ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius), into allopatric populations of the omnivorous top predator Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Introductions were performed in lakes with different climate regimes, two tundra lakes and two forest lakes that differed in average summer temperatures with 1.4 ± 0.5 ºC (average ± 1SD). We found that sticklebacks were able to invade and increase in density in both tundra and forest lakes. Sticklebacks had strong negative effects on resource densities which also was reflected in a decreased growth of small char. Increasing stickleback density had a positive effect on growth of large adults and on the maximum size of char. We conclude that stickleback presence is not limited by biological interactions in these systems but rather by dispersion ability. We suggest that the size dependency in the response of char to the invasion of sticklebacks is fundamental for the successful invasion of sticklebacks, and that size dependent interactions including cannibalism play important roles for coexistence in natural IGP-systems.

  • 9.
    Ask, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Temperature mediated effects on top consumer populations in subarctic lakesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of temperature on top consumer populations in subarctic lake communities were studied by contrasting two lake pairs in different climate regimes: one pair on the low alpine tundra and one pair in the subalpine birch forest. We measured zooplankton and macroinvertebrate biomasses over the season and estimated population density and size structure of the top consumer Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Furthermore, we modelled char growth using literature data on temperature dependent search rate, handling time and metabolic demands. The forest lakes were warmer than the tundra lakes. Char in the forest lakes were larger and had a higher individual growth compared to char in the tundra lakes, while population density and biomasses of char were not different between the forest and the tundra lakes. There were no differences in macroinvertebrate and zooplankton resource levels available for char between lake pairs. Our modeling of char growth revealed that higher temperature increased growth of char at the observed resource densities, suggesting that the higher temperature in the forest lakes was primarily the cause of the higher growth of char in these lakes. We suggest that cannibalism in char may regulate char recruitment and thereby population density and biomass of char leading to effects of increasing temperature on consumer biomass and consumer individual growth different from what is expected in pure consumer-resource systems. Our results emphasize the importance of feedbacks within ecosystems when addressing effects of climate change and increasing temperature on lake communities.

  • 10.
    Bartels, Pia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Cucherousset, Julien
    Gudasz, Cristian
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Premke, Katrin
    Rubach, Anja
    Steger, Kristin
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Eklov, Peter
    Terrestrial subsidies to lake food webs: an experimental approach2012In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 168, no 3, 807-818 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-ecosystem movements of material and energy are ubiquitous. Aquatic ecosystems typically receive material that also includes organic matter from the surrounding catchment. Terrestrial-derived (allochthonous) organic matter can enter aquatic ecosystems in dissolved or particulate form. Several studies have highlighted the importance of dissolved organic carbon to aquatic consumers, but less is known about allochthonous particulate organic carbon (POC). Similarly, most studies showing the effects of allochthonous organic carbon (OC) on aquatic consumers have investigated pelagic habitats; the effects of allochthonous OC on benthic communities are less well studied. Allochthonous inputs might further decrease primary production through light reduction, thereby potentially affecting autotrophic resource availability to consumers. Here, an enclosure experiment was carried out to test the importance of POC input and light availability on the resource use in a benthic food web of a clear-water lake. Corn starch (a C-4 plant) was used as a POC source due to its insoluble nature and its distinct carbon stable isotope value (delta C-13). The starch carbon was closely dispersed over the bottom of the enclosures to study the fate of a POC source exclusively available to sediment biota. The addition of starch carbon resulted in a clear shift in the isotopic signature of surface-dwelling herbivorous and predatory invertebrates. Although the starch carbon was added solely to the sediment surface, the carbon originating from the starch reached zooplankton. We suggest that allochthonous POC can subsidize benthic food webs directly and can be further transferred to pelagic systems, thereby highlighting the importance of benthic pathways for pelagic habitats.

  • 11.
    Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Hjalmar, Laudon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Aging of allochthonous organic carbon regulates bacterial production in unproductive boreal lakes2009In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 54, no 4, 1333-1342 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We calculated average aquatic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) age (the time span from soil discharge to observation) in water from the inlets and outlets of two unproductive Swedish lakes at different times during an annual cycle. Bacterial production (BP) and bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) determined during 7-d bioassays decreased with increasing average aquatic DOC age. Parallel to the declines in BP and BGE there was a rise in specific ultraviolet absorbance at the wavelength of 254 nm (SUVA254), which indicates that decreasing BP and BGE were connected to a shift to a more aromatic and recalcitrant DOC pool. The relationships between bacterial metabolism and DOC age were stronger after a Q10 correction of the DOC age, showing that temperature affected rates of DOC quality changes over time and should be taken into account when relating lake bacterial growth to substrate aging in natural environments. We propose that hydrological variability in combination with lake size (water renewal time) have a large influence on pelagic BP in lakes with high input of terrigenous DOC.

  • 12.
    Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Skogens ekologi och skötsel, SLU, Umeå.
    Haei, Mahsa
    Skogens ekologi och skötsel, SLU, Umeå.
    Ström, Lena
    Naturgeografi och Ekosystemanalys, Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Efficient aquatic bacterial metabolism of dissolved low-molecular-weight compounds from terrestrial sources2010In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, Vol. 4, no 3, 408-416 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carboxylic acids (CAs), amino acids (AAs) and carbohydrates (CHs) in dissolved free forms can be readily assimilated by aquatic bacteria and metabolized at high growth efficiencies. Previous studies have shown that these low-molecular-weight (LMW) substrates are released by phytoplankton but also that unidentified LMW compounds of terrestrial origin is a subsidy for bacterial metabolism in unproductive freshwater systems. We tested the hypothesis that different terrestrially derived CA, AA and CH compounds can offer substantial support for aquatic bacterial metabolism in fresh waters that are dominated by allochthonous dissolved organic matter (DOM). Drainage water from three catchments of different characters in the Krycklan experimental area in Northern Sweden were studied at the rising and falling limb of the spring flood, using a 2-week bioassay approach. A variety of CA, AA and CH compounds were significantly assimilated by bacteria, meeting 15–100% of the bacterial carbon demand and explaining most of the observed variation in bacterial growth efficiency (BGE; R2=0.66). Of the 29 chemical species that was detected, acetate was the most important, representing 45% of the total bacterial consumption of all LMW compounds. We suggest that LMW organic compounds in boreal spring flood drainage could potentially support all in situ bacterial production in receiving lake waters during periods of weeks to months after the spring flood.

  • 13.
    Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bacterial utilization of imported organic material in three small nested humic lakes2010In: INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF THEORETICAL AND APPLIED LIMNOLOGY, VOL 30, PT 9 / [ed] Jones J, Faaborg J, Stuttgart: E SCHWEIZERBART'SCHE VERLAGSBUCHHANDLUNG , 2010, Vol. 30, no 9, 1393-1396 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Hydrological control of organic carbon support for bacterial growth in boreal headwater streams2009In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 57, no 1, 170-178 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Terrestrial organic carbon is exported to freshwater systems where it serves as substrate for bacterial growth. Temporal variations in the terrigenous organic carbon support for aquatic bacteria are not well understood. In this paper, we demonstrate how the combined influence of landscape characteristics and hydrology can shape such variations. Using a 13-day bioassay approach, the production and respiration of bacteria were measured in water samples from six small Swedish streams (64° N, 19° E), draining coniferous forests, peat mires, and mixed catchments with typical boreal proportions between forest and mire coverage. Forest drainage supported higher bacterial production and higher bacterial growth efficiency than drainage from mires. The areal export of organic carbon was several times higher from mire than from forest at low runoff, while there was no difference at high flow. As a consequence, mixed streams (catchments including both mire and forest) were dominated by mire organic carbon with low support of bacterial production at low discharge situations but dominated by forest carbon supporting higher bacterial production at high flow. The stimulation of bacterial growth during high-flow episodes was a result of higher relative export of organic carbon via forest drainage rather than increased drainage of specific “high-quality” carbon pools in mire or forest soils.

  • 15.
    Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Landscape regulation of bacterial growth efficiency in boreal freshwaters2007In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allochthonous organic carbon in aquatic systems is metabolized by heterotrophic bacteria, with significant consequences for the biostructure and energy pathways of freshwater ecosystems. The degree to which allochthonous substrates support growth of bacteria is largely dependent on bacterial growth efficiency (BGE), i.e., bacterial production (BP) per unit of assimilated carbon. Here we show how the spatial variability of BGE in the boreal region can be mediated by the distribution of the two dominating landscape elements forest and mires. Using an 11 days bioassay approach, the production and respiration of bacteria were measured in water samples from nine small Swedish streams (64°N 19°E), representing a gradient ranging from organic carbon supplied mainly from peat mires to carbon supplied mainly from coniferous forests. BP was positively correlated to forest coverage (%) of the catchment, while bacterial respiration was similar in all streams. Consequently, BGE showed a strong positive correlation with forest coverage. Partial least square regression showed that BGE was chiefly regulated by qualitative properties of the organic material, indicated by the absorbance ratio a254/a365 plus C/N and C/P ratios. The data suggest that a share of the organic carbon pool, drained mainly from forest soils, had a potential of being incorporated into bacterial biomass with great efficiency. Its potential for supporting growth was probably nutrient regulated as indicated by inorganic nutrient enrichment experiments.

  • 16.
    Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, Umeå.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nutrient constraints on metabolism affect the temperature regulation of aquatic bacterial growth efficiency2010In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 60, no 4, 894-902 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inorganic nutrient availability and temperature are recognized as major regulators of organic carbon processing by aquatic bacteria, but little is known about how these two factors interact to control bacterial metabolic processes. We manipulated the temperature of boreal humic stream water samples within 0–25°C and measured bacterial production (BP) and respiration (BR) with and without inorganic nitrogen + phosphorus addition. Both BP and BR increased exponentially with temperature in all experiments, with Q 10 values varying between 1.2 and 2.4. The bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) showed strong negative relationships with temperature in nutrient-enriched samples and in natural stream water where community-level BP and BR were not limited by nutrients. However, there were no relationships between BGE and temperature in samples where BP and BR were significantly constrained by the inorganic nutrient availability. The results suggest that metabolic responses of aquatic bacterial communities to temperature variations can be strongly dependent on whether the bacterial metabolism is limited by inorganic nutrients or not. Such responses can have consequences for both the carbon flux through aquatic food webs and for the flux of CO2 from aquatic systems to the atmosphere.

  • 17.
    Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ström, L
    Laudon, H
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lake secondary production fueled by rapid transfer of low molecular weight organic carbon from terrestrial sources to aquatic consumers2010In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 13, no 7, 870-880 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecology Letters (2010) Abstract Carbon of terrestrial origin often makes up a significant share of consumer biomass in unproductive lake ecosystems. However, the mechanisms for terrestrial support of lake secondary production are largely unclear. By using a modelling approach, we show that terrestrial export of dissolved labile low molecular weight carbon (LMWC) compounds supported 80% (34-95%), 54% (19-90%) and 23% (7-45%) of the secondary production by bacteria, protozoa and metazoa, respectively, in a 7-km(2) boreal lake (conservative to liberal estimates in brackets). Bacterial growth on LMWC was of similar magnitude as that of primary production (PP), and grazing on bacteria effectively channelled the LMWC carbon to higher trophic levels. We suggest that rapid turnover of forest LMWC pools enables continuous export of fresh photosynthates and other labile metabolites to aquatic systems, and that substantial transfer of LMWC from terrestrial sources to lake consumers can occur within a few days. Sequestration of LMWC of terrestrial origin, thus, helps explain high shares of terrestrial carbon in lake organisms and implies that lake food webs can be closely dependent on recent terrestrial PP.

  • 18.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Algesten, G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sobek, S
    Tranvik, L J
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Emission of CO2 from hydroelectric reservoirs in northern Sweden2004In: Archiv fur Hydrobiologie, Vol. 159, 25-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Blomqvist, P
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on nutrient limitation and phytoplankton biomass in unproductive Swedish lakes2005In: Limnology & Oceanography, Vol. 50, 987-994 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition has caused nitrogen enrichment and eutrophication of lakes in the northern hemisphere2006In: Global Change Biology, Vol. 12, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bacterioplankton production in humic Lake Örträsket in relation to input of bacterial cells and input of allochthonous organic carbon2000In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 39, no 2, 101-115 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to compare riverine bacteria input with lake water bacterial production and grazing loss with output loss, a bacterial cell budget was constructed for humic Lake Ortrasket in northern Sweden. The riverine input of bacterial cells in 1997 represented 29% of the number of bacterial cells produced within the layer of the lake affected by inlet water. A large share of the in situ lake bacterial production was consumed by grazers, mainly flagellates, which stresses the importance of bacteria as energy mobilizers for the pelagic food web in the lake. The bacterial production in Lake Ortrasket, which is almost entirely dependent on humic material as an energy source, was clearly stimulated by high flow episodes which brought high amounts of little degraded material into the lake. During base flow condition the bacterial production in the inlet rivers was high, which led to an input of more degraded material to the lake. This material did not stimulate the lake bacterial production. Internal factors that determined the utilization of the allochthonous DOC in the lake were the retention time and the exposure to light and high temperatures. Thus, the potential for in situ production of bacteria in Lake Ortrasket was to a large extent a function of how precipitation and runoff conditions affected terrestrial losses and river transport of humic material.

  • 22.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Blomqvist, P
    Drakare, S
    The influence of water colour and effective light climate on mixotrophic phytoflagellates in three small Swedish dystrophic lakes2000In: Verhandlungen / Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie, ISSN 0368-0770, Vol. 27, no 4, 1861-1965 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Drakare, Stina
    Blomqvist, Peter
    Occurrence of mixotrophic flagellates in relation to bacterioplankton production, light regime and availability of inorganic nutrients in unproductive lakes with differing humic contents2003In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 48, no 5, 868-877 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Field data from five unproductive Swedish lakes were used to investigate the occurrence of mixotrophic flagellates in relation to bacterioplankton, autotrophic phytoplankton, heterotrophic flagellates and abiotic environmental factors. Three different sources of data were used: (i) a 3-year study (1995-97) of the humic Lake Örträsket, (ii) seasonal measurements from five lakes with widely varying dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, and (iii) whole lake enrichment experiments with inorganic nutrients and organic carbon. 2. Mixotrophic flagellates usually dominated over autotrophic phytoplankton in Lake Örträsket in early summer, when both bacterial production and light levels were high. Comparative data from the five lakes demonstrated that the ratio between the biomasses of mixotrophic flagellates and autotrophic phytoplankton (the M/A-ratio) was positively correlated to bacterioplankton production, but not to the light regime. Whole lake carbon addition (white sugar) increased bacterial biomass, and production, reduced the biomass of autotrophs by a factor of 16, and increased the M/A-ratio from 0.03 to 3.4. Collectively, the results indicate that the dominance of mixotrophs among phytoplankton was positively related to bacterioplankton production. 3. Whole lake fertilisation with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) demonstrated that the obligate autotrophic phytoplankton was limited by N. N-addition increased the biomass of the autotrophic phytoplankton but had no effect on mixotrophic flagellates or bacteria, and the M/A-ratio decreased from 1.2 to 0.6 after N-enrichment. Therefore, we suggest that bacteria under natural conditions, by utilising allochthonous DOC as an energy and carbon source, are able to outcompete autotrophs for available inorganic nutrients. Consequently, mixotrophic flagellates can become the dominant phytoplankters when phagotrophy permits them to use nutrients stored in bacterial biomass. 4. In Lake Ortrasket, the biomass of mixotrophs was usually higher than the biomass of heterotrophs during the summer. This dominance could not be explained by higher grazing rates among the mixotrophs. Instead, ratios between mixotrophic and heterotrophic biomass (the M/H-ratio) were positively related to light availability. Therefore, we suggest that photosynthesis can enable mixotrophic flagellates to outcompete heterotrophic flagellates.

  • 24.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Phytoplankton responses to nitrogen and phosphorus enrichment in unproductive Swedish lakes along a gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition2008In: Aquatic Biology, Vol. 4, 55-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lake sampling and in situ nutrient enrichment enclosure experiments with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) were conducted in unproductive Swedish lakes along a gradient of increasing atmospheric N-deposition. The regional and seasonal patterns of nutrient limitation of phytoplankton were clearly related to the amounts of N-deposition and N-inputs the lakes received. In areas of low N-deposition in northern Sweden, N-limitation of phytoplankton was evident throughout the summer season due to high catchment N-retention and very low dissolved inorganic N (DIN) inputs during the early summer. High N-deposition in the south was accompanied by high lake DIN-concentrations during the early summer and subsequent P-limitation of phytoplankton. However, P-limitation did not persist over the summer and, as a consequence of a declining DIN-pool, the lakes switched to dual- and co-limitation by N and P, and then to N-limitation. Generally, the lakes were N-limited rather than P-limited during the summer. We conclude that N-limitation is probably a natural state of the unproductive lakes studied, but P-limitation of variable intensity and duration has been induced by elevated atmospheric N-deposition.

  • 25. Blomqvist, Peter
    et al.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Drakare, Stina
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brydsten, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Effects of additions of DOC on pelagic biota in a clearwater system: results from a whole lake experiment in northern Sweden2001In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 42, no 3, 383-394 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An oligotrophic clearwater lake, initially characterized by a pronounced dominance of autotrophic phytoplankton and mostly by one species, the green alga Botryococcus, was subject to additions of dissolved organic carbon in the form of white sugar (sucrose) during two consecutive years. The hypothesis tested was that it is organic carbon per se, and not other possible effects of humic substances, that determines the differences in structure of the planktonic ecosystem between humic and clearwater lakes. The additions of DOC resulted in a significant increase in bacterial biomass and a decrease in the biomass of autotrophic phytoplankton. The biomass of mixotrophic and heterotrophic flagellates instead increased significantly, whereas no effects were found to propagate to higher trophic levels. As a result of the changes among biota, total planktonic biomass also decreased to a level typical of nearby humic lakes. We suggest that it is the carbon component of humic material and its utilization by bacterioplankton that determines the structure and function of the pelagic food web in humic lakes.

  • 26. Buffam, I
    et al.
    Kohler, S
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bishop, K
    Photochemical and microbial processing of dissolved organic matter in streams and soilwater1996In: The Biological Bulletin, ISSN 0006-3185, E-ISSN 1939-8697, Vol. 191, no 2, 330-331 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. Drakare, Stina
    et al.
    Blomqvist, Peter
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Primary production and phytoplankton composition in relation to DOC input and bacterioplankton production in humic Lake Örträsket2002In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 47, no 1, 41-52 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The biomass and production of picophytoplankton, large phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterioplankton were measured in humic Lake Örträsket, northern Sweden during four consecutive summers. 2. High flow episodes, carrying fresh dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into the lake, always stimulated heterotrophic bacterial production at the expense of primary production. Primary production never exceeded bacterial production for approximately 20 days after such an episode had replenished epilimnial DOC. We suggest that allochthonous DOC is an energy source that stimulates bacterioplankton that, because of their efficient uptake of inorganic nutrients, are then able to outcompete phytoplankton. After the exhaustion of readily available DOC, phytoplankton were able to dominate epilimnion production in Lake Örträsket. 3. Biomass production was higher when dominated by phytoplankton than by bacterioplankton, despite a similar utilization of nutrients in the epilimnion throughout the summer. We propose that different C : N : P ratios of bacterioplankton and phytoplankton permit the latter to produce more carbon (C) biomass per unit of available inorganic nutrients than bacterioplankton.

  • 28. Drakare, Stina
    et al.
    Blomqvist, Peter
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Relationships between picophytoplankton and environmental variables in lakes along a gradient of water colour and nutrient content2003In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 48, no 4, 729-740 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Biomass and production of picophytoplankton, phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterioplankton were measured in seven lakes, exhibiting a broad range in water colour because of humic substances. The aim of the study was to identify environmental variables explaining the absolute and relative importance of picophytoplankton. In addition, two dystrophic lakes were fertilised with inorganic phosphorus and nitrogen, to test eventual nutrient limitation of picophytoplankton in these systems. 2. Picophytoplankton biomass and production were highest in lakes with low concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and DOC proved the factor explaining most variation in picophytoplankton biomass and production. The relationship between picophytoplankton and lake trophy was negative, most likely because much P was bound in humic complexes. Picophytoplankton biomass decreased after the additions of P and N. 3. Compared with heterotrophic bacterioplankton, picophytoplankton were most successful at the clearwater end of the lake water colour gradient. Phytoplankton dominated over heterotrophic bacteria in the clearwater systems possibly because heterotrophic bacteria in such lakes are dependent on organic carbon produced by phytoplankton. 4. Compared with other phytoplankton, picophytoplankton did best at intermediate DOC concentrations; flagellates dominated in the humic lakes and large autotrophic phytoplankton in the clearwater lakes. 5. Picophytoplankton were not better competitors than large phytoplankton in situations when heterotrophic bacteria had access to a non-algal carbon source. Neither did their small size lead to picophytoplankton dominance over large phytoplankton in the clearwater lakes. Possible reasons include the ability of larger phytoplankton to float or swim to reduce sedimentation losses and to acquire nutrients by phagotrophy.

  • 29. Elser, JJ
    et al.
    Andersen, T
    Baron, J
    Bergström, A-K
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Jansson, M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Kyle, M
    Nydick, KR
    Steger, L
    Hessen, DO
    Shifts in lake N:P stoichiometry and nutrient limitation driven by atmospheric nitrogen deposition2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 326, 835-837 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human activities have more than doubled the amount of nitrogen (N) circulating in the biosphere. One major pathway of this anthropogenic N input into ecosystems has been increased regional deposition from the atmosphere. Here we show that atmospheric N deposition increased the stoichiometric ratio of N and phosphorus (P) in lakes in Norway, Sweden, and Colorado, United States, and, as a result, patterns of ecological nutrient limitation were shifted. Under low N deposition, phytoplankton growth is generally N-limited; however, in high–N deposition lakes, phytoplankton growth is consistently P-limited. Continued anthropogenic amplification of the global N cycle will further alter ecological processes, such as biogeochemical cycling, trophic dynamics, and biological diversity, in the world’s lakes, even in lakes far from direct human disturbance.

  • 30. Isaksson, Anneli
    et al.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Peter
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bacterial grazing by phagotrophic phytoflagellates in a deep humic lake in northern Sweden1999In: Journal of Plankton Research, ISSN 0142-7873, E-ISSN 1464-3774, Vol. 21, no 2, 247-268 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial grazing was measured from June to August 1995 in Lake Örträsket, a deep brown-water lake in northern Sweden. Mixotrophic chrysophytes were the dominating bacterivores at all times, grazing 3-14% of bacterial standing stock daily. The effects of altered nutrient supply and light availability on grazing activity and growth were studied in two mesocosm experiments. Incubation in the dark did not stimulate phagotrophy, which would otherwise be expected if bacteria were mainly being used as an energy source. Furthermore, clearance rates were not reduced after alleviation of nutrient limitation conditions. Rather, phagotrophy may work as a relatively fixed attribute of the mixotrophic community in this lake. When availability of dissolved nutrients is restricted, phagotrophy permits the mixotrophs to outcompete other phytoplankton, but they become less competitive at high nutrient concentrations. The relative share of mixotrophs in relation to total phytoplankton decreased considerably after enrichment with nitrogen + phosphorus.

  • 31.
    Jansson, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Berggren, Martin
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bioavailable phosphorus in humic headwater streams in boreal Sweden2012In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 57, no 4, 1161-1170 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioavailable phosphorus (BAP) concentrations were determined nine times between April and October 2010 in two humic boreal headwater streams draining forest-and mire-dominated catchments. BAP was analyzed in a bioassay in which natural P-limited bacterioplankton grew with natural P as the sole P source. In both streams, approximately 90% of the BAP occurred as dissolved species (passing a 0.2-mu m filter), consisting partly of low-molecular-weight forms (passing a filter with nominal cutoff at 1 kDa) and partly of high-molecular-weight forms (passing a 0.2-mu m filter but not a 1-kDa filter). Concentrations of total dissolved BAP varied between 1 mu g L-1 and 14 mu g L-1, with the highest values in the middle of the summer. Compared to the forest stream, BAP concentrations were generally higher in the mire stream, where it occasionally amounted to nearly 50% of total P. Molybdate reactive phosphorus overestimated BAP considerably. Most of the BAP was in forms other than free orthophosphate. Temporal BAP variations showed no relationships with dissolved organic carbon (C) or iron but were positively related to air temperature and negatively related to the absorbance ratio (a254 : a365) of organic compounds in the water, indicating connections between terrestrial export of BAP and temperature-dependent terrestrial C metabolism. Concentrations of BAP can relieve stream bacteria from P limitation, and a significant share of BAP exported to streams can reach and be used in downstream lakes.

  • 32.
    Jansson, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Peter
    Drakare, Stina
    Allochthonous organic carbon and phytoplankton/bacterioplankton production relationships in lakes2000In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 81, no 11, 3250-3255 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humic lakes with high inputs of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon have a pelagic food chain that, to a large extent, is based on bacterioplankton energy mobilization from allochthonous organic carbon compounds. This is in contrast to clear lakes in which total pelagic production is based mainly on phytoplankton photosynthesis. The energy economy in humic lakes may be less efficient than in clear lakes, because it is Likely that one more link is included in the food chain. Lake data from Scandinavia and North America demonstrate that shifts between food chains based on heterotrophic production and food chains based on primary production can take place at moderate increases or decreases in the concentration of dissolved organic carbon from allochthonous sources. Large variations in the loading of allochthonous organic carbon (e.g., due to climatic variations) may have considerable effects on the biostructure and productivity of lakes.

  • 33.
    Jansson, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Peter
    Isaksson, A
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Impact of allochthonous organic carbon on microbial food web carbon dynamics and structure in Lake Örträsket1999In: Archiv für Hydrobiologie, ISSN 0003-9136, Vol. 144, no 4, 409-428 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial utilization of allochthonous organic carbon and the subsequent fate of the bacterial production in the pelagic food web were estimated in Lake Örträsket, a large humic lake in northern Sweden. Bacterial production relied mainly on allochthonous DOC and exceeded primary production in the epilimnion. Bacterial productivity was clearly stimulated during high flow episodes, increasing the input of bacteria degradable organic material to the lake. Bacterioplankton were exploited mainly by mixotrophic flagellates which probably used bacteria as a source of carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen. The possibly extremely low availability of inorganic P during periods with high bacterial production may have allowed the mixotrophs to outcompete obligate autotrophs and help them become dominant phytoplankters during large parts of the summer. The results from Lake Örträsket indicated that the total production depended on bacterial energy mobilization from allochthonous organic carbon compounds and that heterotrophic mobilized energy was linked via mixotrophs to higher levels in the food chain.

  • 34.
    Jansson, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Drakare, Stina
    Blomqvist, Peter
    Nutrient limitation of bacterioplankton and phytoplankton in humic lakes in northern Sweden2001In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 46, no 5, 653-666 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Two small humic lakes in northern Sweden with concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) between 15 and 20 mg L-1 were fertilized with inorganic phosphorus (P) and inorganic nitrogen (N), respectively. A third lake was unfertilized and served as a control. In addition to this lake fertilization experiment, data from different regional surveys were used to assess the role of different limiting factors. 2. The P fertilization had no effects on bacterioplankton or phytoplankton, while phytoplankton were significantly stimulated by N fertilization. Inorganic nutrient limitation of bacterioplankton was a function of DOC concentration in water of the investigated region and nutrient-limited bacteria were found only in lakes with DOC concentrations less than around 15 mg L-1 3. The fertilization experiments demonstrated that the DOC-rich experimental lakes contained a bioavailable pool of P that was not utilized to its full potential under natural conditions. The overall mobilization of energy (bacterioplankton plus phytoplankton) in the experimental lakes was restricted by lack of inorganic N.

  • 35.
    Jansson, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lymer, David
    Vrede, Katarina
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bacterioplankton growth and nutrient use efficiencies under variable organic carbon and inorganic phosphorus ratios2006In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 52, no 2, 258-264 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We carried out enclosure experiments in an unproductive lake in northern Sweden and studied the effects of enrichment with different dissolved organic carbon (glucose)/inorganic phosphorous (DOC/Pi) ratios on bacterioplankton production (BP), growth efficiency (BGE), nutrient use efficiency (BNUE), growth rate, and specific respiration. We found considerable variation in BP, BGE, and BNUE along the tested DOC/Pi gradient. BGE varied between 0.87 and 0.24, with the highest values at low DOC/Pi ratios. BNUE varied between 40 and 9 g C g P−1, with high values at high DOC/Pi ratios. More DOC was thus allocated to growth when bacteria tended to be C-limited, and to respiration when bacteria were P-limited. Specific respiration was positively correlated with bacterial growth rate throughout the gradient. It is therefore possible that respiration was used to support growth in P-limited bacteria. The results indicated that BP can be limited by Pi when BNUE is at its maximum, by organic C when BGE is at its maximum, and by dual organic C and Pi limitation when BNUE and BGE have suboptimal values.

  • 36.
    Jansson, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Peter
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nutrient limitation of bacterioplankton, autotrophic and mixotrophic phytoplankton, and heterotrophic nanoflagellates in Lake Örträsket1996In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 41, no 7, 1552-1559 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enrichment experiments with P and N were conducted in humic Lake Örträsket in northern Sweden. The composition of the microplankton community showed a dominance by bacterioplankton, followed by mixotrophic sind potentially mixotrophic phytoplankton, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, and autotrophic phytoplankton. Bacterioplankton was P limited for most of the ice-free period, and phytoplankton biomass and primary production mostly increased after enrichment with N, but not with P. The dominant group of phytoplankton, the mixotrophic flagellates, was stimulated by N bur not by P, while obligate autotrophic species were stimulated only by P+N. It is suggested that N limitation in mixotrophic species is induced by grazing of P-rich bacteria. The results suggest that primary productivity in humic lakes can be limited by N and indicate the importance of phagocytosis as a means of nutrition in phytoplankton. A link is suggested to exist in humic lakes whereby heterotrophic bacterioplankton, which use humic compounds as their principal energy source, can transfer energy and nutrients to potentially autotrophic organisms, with subsequent utilization by other components of the food web.

  • 37.
    Jansson, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Hickler, T.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Links between terrestrial primary production and bacterial production and respiration in lakes in a climate gradient in subarctic Sweden2008In: Ecosystems, Vol. 11, 367-376 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compared terrestrial net primary production (NPP) and terrestrial export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with lake water heterotrophic bacterial activity in 12 headwater lake catchments along an altitude gradient in subarctic Sweden. Modelled NPP declined strongly with altitude and annual air temperature decreases along the altitude gradient (6ºC between the warmest and the coldest catchment). Estimated terrestrial DOC export to the lakes was closely correlated to NPP. Heterotrophic bacterial production (BP) and respiration (BR) were mainly based on terrestrial organic carbon and strongly correlated with the terrestrial DOC export. Excess respiration over PP of the pelagic system was similar to net emission of CO2 in the lakes. BR and CO2 emission made up considerably higher shares of the terrestrial DOC input in warm lakes than in cold lakes, implying that respiration and the degree of net heterotrophy in the lakes were dependant not only on terrestrial export of DOC, but also on characteristics in the lakes which changed along the gradient and affected the bacterial metabolization of allochthonous DOC. The study showed close links between terrestrial primary production, terrestrial DOC export and bacterial activity in lakes and how these relationships were dependant on air temperature. Increases in air temperature in high latitude unproductive systems might have considerable consequences for lake water productivity and release of CO2 to the atmosphere, which are ultimately determined by terrestrial primary production.

  • 38.
    Jansson, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Biomass and structure of planktonic communities along an air temperature gradient in subarctic Sweden2010In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 55, no 3, 691-700 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Air temperature will probably have pronounced effects on the composition of plankton communities in northern lake ecosystems, either via indirect effects on the export of essential elements from catchments or through direct effects of water temperature and the ice-free period on the behaviour of planktonic organisms.

    2. We assessed the role of temperature by comparing planktonic communities in 15 lakes along a 6 °C air temperature gradient in subarctic Sweden.

    3. We found that the biomass of phytoplankton, bacterioplankton and the total planktonic biomass were positively related to air temperature, probably as a result of climatic controls on the export of nitrogen from the catchment (which affects phytoplankton biomass) and dissolved organic carbon (affecting bacterioplankton biomass).

    4. The structure of the zooplankton community, and top down effects on phytoplankton, were apparently not related to temperature but mainly to trophic interactions ultimately dependent on the presence of fish in the lakes.

    5. Our results suggest that air temperature regimes and long-term warming can have strong effects on the planktonic biomass in high latitude lakes. Effects of temperature on the structure of the planktonic community might be less evident unless warming permits the invasion of fish into previous fishless lakes.

  • 39.
    Jansson, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Blomqvist, P
    Allochthonous organic carbon decreases pelagic energy mobilization in lakes2003In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 48, no 4, 1711-1716 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade, it has been Shown that unproductive lakes worldwide are net heterotrophic because bacterial respiration of allochthonous. organic carbon (AOC) makes community respiration exceed primary production. Net heterotrophy means that aquatic systems are net sources of CO2 to the atmosphere but also that bacterial utilization of AOC increases bacterioplankton production (BP) and bacterial uptake of limiting inorganic nutrients at the expense of phytoplankton production (PP). We studied 15 unproductive lakes in northern Sweden with dissolved organic carbon concentrations between 3 and 22 mg L-1. We found a highly significant negative relationship between the degree of heterotrophy and total pelagic energy mobilization (PP + BP based on AOC) per unit of limiting nutrient. We suggest that this is because the high cell phosphorous (P) requirement of bacteria makes energy mobilization per P unit considerably lower in bacterioplankton than in phytoplankton. We also suggest that the productivity of the entire pelagic ecosystem is determined by the availability of inorganic nutrients and AOC and by whether nutrients are allocated to BP or PP.

  • 40.
    Jansson, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Carbon dioxide supersaturation promotes primary production in lakes2012In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 15, no 6, 527-532 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecology Letters (2012) Abstract A majority of the worlds lakes are supersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide (CO2). By experimental manipulation of the CO2 concentration in supersaturated boreal lakes, we demonstrate that phytoplankton primary production was up to 10 times higher in supersaturated lake water in comparison with water with CO2 at equilibrium concentrations and that CO2, together with nutrients, explained most of the variation in pelagic primary production and phytoplankton biomass over a wide variety of unproductive lakes. These results suggest that phytoplankton can be co-limited by CO2 and nutrients in unproductive lakes. As import of terrestrial organic carbon and its subsequent microbial mineralisation in lakes is a driving force of CO2-supersaturation our results suggest that lake productivity and carbon cycling may respond to variations in terrestrial organic carbon export, (e.g. caused by land use or climate change) in ways not described before.

  • 41.
    Jansson, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    de Roos, André M
    Jones, Roger I
    Tranvik, Lars J
    Terrestrial carbon and intraspecific size-variation shape lake ecosystems2007In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 22, no 6, 316-322 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conceptual models of lake ecosystem structure and function have generally assumed that energy in pelagic systems is derived from in situ photosynthesis and that its use by higher trophic levels depends on the average properties of individuals in consumer populations. These views are challenged by evidence that allochthonous subsidies of organic carbon greatly influence energy mobilization and transfer and the trophic structure of pelagic food webs, and that size variation within consumer species has major ramifications for lake community dynamics and structure. These discoveries represent conceptual shifts that have yet to be integrated into current views on lake ecosystems. Here, we assess key aspects of energy mobilization and size-structured community dynamics, and show how these processes are intertwined in pelagic food webs.

  • 42.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Algesten, Grete
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Integrating aquatic carbon fluxes in a boreal catchment carbon budget2007In: Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 334, no 1-2, 141-150 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we assess the extent to which the export of terrestrially fixed carbon to aquatic systems and the aquatic metabolism of this carbon affect the overall accumulation of organic carbon in a boreal catchment. We estimated the contribution of stocks and processes in aquatic environments to the carbon balance of a boreal catchment in northern Sweden. We used published data concerning the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 in terrestrial environments, and calculations of loss of terrestrial carbon to surface water and the turnover of terrestrial carbon in aquatic systems. The NEE of terrestrial environments was estimated to be 139 g C/m2 of catchment area per year. The export of terrestrially fixed carbon to aquatic systems was 8.6 g C/m2/yr, resulting in a net accumulation of organic carbon in terrestrial systems of 131 g C/m2/yr. Almost 45% of the terrestrial export was mineralized in streams and lakes and evaded as CO2, while most of the remaining (approximately 55%) terrestrial export was transported to the sea as organic carbon or as dissolved inorganic carbon emanating from soil respiration. The sedimentation of organic carbon and input of organic carbon via aquatic primary production were insignificant when compared to the mineralization and river transport of terrestrial organic carbon. Aquatic fluxes were small compared to the terrestrial NEE, which we consider to be largely a consequence of the studied catchment being subject to intensive forestry resulting in a large annual accumulation of carbon in growing tree biomass.

  • 43.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sedimentation and mineralisation of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous in a large humic lake, northern Sweden1997In: Archiv für Hydrobiologie, ISSN 0003-9136, Vol. 141, 45-65 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lake Örträsket is a large (7.3 km2) and deep (64 m) humic (DOC 10 mg-L-1) lake in northern Sweden. Sediment trap data (gross sedimentation) and sediment core data (net sedimentation) has been used to calculate sedimentation and mineralisation of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, aluminium and total particulate matter (TPM). Yearly gross sedimentation of nitrogen and organic carbon was higher than yearly net sedimentation caused by an annual sediment mineralisation of 54 % and 32 % of gross sedimentation, respectively. Annual gross sedimentation of phosphorus, iron, aluminium and TPM equalled annual net sedimentation and no significant sediment mineralisation of these elements was calculated. The annual retention (input-output) of organic carbon and nitrogen approximately equalled net sedimentation. Sediment mineralisation of nitrogen resulted in an accumulation of nitrate in the water column of the lake during periods of lake stratification. Approximately 2/3 of the nitrogen mineralised in and lost from the sediment was transported out of the lake (as nitrate) via the outlet during turnover in spring and autumn. Remaining 1/3 was assumed to be lost through sediment denitrification, equalling a denitrification rate of about 1 mgN-m-2-y-1.

  • 44.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sources of carbon dioxide supersaturation in clearwater and humic lakes in northern Sweden2003In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 6, no 3, 224-235 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Partial pressure (pCO(2)) and flux to the atmosphere of carbon dioxide (CO2) were studied in northern alpine and forest lakes along a gradient of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content (0.4-9.9 mg L-1). Sixteen lakes were each sampled three times over the course of the ice-free season, and an additional 35 lakes were sampled once at midsummer. pCO(2) data were acquired in the field by a headspace equilibration technique. Most lakes were supersaturated with CO2 along the entire DOC gradient, with relatively small seasonal differences. pCO(2) was positively correlated to DOC content, reflecting a close dependence between allochthonous DOC in-put and heterotrophic respiration in the lakes. Fluxes of CO2 to the atmosphere were estimated from the pCO(2) measurements. Benthic respiration was indicated to be important for CO2 emission in lakes with high DOC concentrations. In lakes with low DOC concentrations, pelagic mineralization alone was sufficient to account for a large part of the estimated fluxes.

  • 45.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Meili, Markus
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Whole-lake mineralization of allochthonous and autochthonous organic carbon in a large humic lake (Örträsket, N. Sweden)2001In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 46, no 7, 1691-1700 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic carbon mineralization was studied. in a large humic lake (Lake Örträsket) in northern Sweden during a well-defined summer stratification period following high water flow during snowmelt. Several independent methods including plankton counts, measurements of bacterioplankton and phytoplankton production, stable isotope monitoring, sediment trapping, and mass balance calculations were used. Total organic carbon mineralization showed a summer mean of 0.3 g C m(-2) d(-1) and was partitioned about equally between water and sediment. In the water column, organic matter was mineralized by bacteria (60%) and protozoan and metazoan zooplankton (30%), as well as by photooxidation (10%). Most of the mineralized organic carbon was of allochthonous origin. Primary production in the lake contributed at most 5% of the total organic carbon input and about 20% of the total organic carbon mineralization. Total carbon mineralization in. the epilimnion and metalimnion agreed well with an estimate of CO2 evasion from the stratified lake, while CO2 accumulation in the hypolimnion matched the O-2 consumption and resulted in a very negative delta C-13 of DIC before autumn overturn (-23 parts per thousand). Isotopic compositions of DIC and POC confirmed the dominant influence of terrestrial organic input on the cycling of both organic and inorganic carbon in the lake.

  • 46.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Åberg, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Variations in pCO2 during summer in the surface water of an unproductive lake in northern Sweden2007In: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 59, no 5, 797-803 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unproductive lakes are generally supersaturated with carbon dioxide (CO2) and emit CO2 to the atmosphere continuously during ice-free periods. However, temporal variation of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and thus of CO2 evasion to atmosphere is poorly documented. We therefore carried out temporally high-resolution (every 6 h) measurements of the pCO2 using an automated logger system in the surface water of a subarctic, unproductive, lake in the birch forest belt. The study period was June–September 2004. We found that the pCO2 showed large seasonal variation, but low daily variation. The seasonal variation was likely mainly caused by variations in input and mineralization of allochthonous organic matter. Stratification depth probably also influenced pCO2 of the surface water by controlling the volume in which mineralization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) occurred. In lakes, with large variations in pCO2, as in our study lake a high (weekly) sampling intensity is recommended for obtaining accurate estimates of the evasion of CO2.

  • 47.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Åberg, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Lindroth, Anders
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Gas transfer rate and CO2 flux between an unproductive lake and the atmosphere in northern Sweden2008In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, Vol. 113, Art.no. G04006- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of the gas transfer rate of CO2 between lake water and the atmosphere present a critical problem for the understanding of lake ecosystem carbon balances and landscape carbon budgets. We present calculations of the gas transfer rate of CO2 from direct measurements of the CO2 flux using an eddy covariance system and concurrent measurements of the concentration of CO2 in the surface water in a lake in boreal zone of northern Sweden. The measured gas transfer rate was different, and in general larger than, rates obtained with the most commonly used models for prediction of the gas transfer rate in lakes. The normalized gas transfer rate (k600EC) was well predicted from the wind speed at 10 m height if data were bin classed into wind classes of 1 m/s for winds above 1 m/s. Unbinned data were also correlated to wind speed but also to water temperature, water temperature/air temperature ratio and to incoming photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). These relationships could reflect effects of both physico-chemical reactions and biological activity.

  • 48.
    Jäger, Christoph G.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Aquatic Ecosystems Analysis and Management, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Magdeburg, Germany.
    Vrede, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Interactions between metazoans, autotrophs, mixotrophs and bacterioplankton in nutrient-depleted high DOC environments: a long-term experiment2014In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 59, no 8, 1596-1607 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Humic lakes with a high external supply of DOC and low input of nutrients can often support a high biomass of metazoan zooplankton. In such lakes, autotrophic algae compete with bacteria for inorganic nutrients, but bacteria support mixotrophic growth. Consequently, planktonic communities are often dominated by mixotrophic flagellates, while obligate autotrophic phytoplankton occurs in low numbers for extended periods.

    2. To test the importance of autotrophic phytoplankton and mixotrophic flagellates as food resources for metazoan grazers and, in turn, the feedback effects of grazers on basal food-web interactions, we conducted a long-term experiment where we simulated abiotic resource relationships of humic lakes (high DOC [glucose] and low P input). We examined the population dynamics of Daphnia galeata when inoculated in systems with autotrophic algae only, mixotrophic algae only and a mixture of autotrophic and mixotrophic algae, and how the systems changed after the inoculation of Daphnia. All combinations were run at high-and low-light conditions to analyse the effects of light on food quantity and quality.

    3. Daphnia grew to high densities only when mixotrophs were present at high-light conditions and showed no or only weak growth at low-light conditions or with autotrophs as the only food source.

    4. Autotrophic algae and bacteria showed a strong competition for nutrients. Autotrophic algae were released from competition for nutrients after Daphnia grazed on bacteria, which led to a probable change of the bacteria community to less edible but less competitive taxa. As a consequence, there was a mutualistic interaction between autotrophs and mixotrophs before Daphnia were introduced which turned into competition after Daphnia inoculation.

    5. We suggest that mixotrophic flagellates can be a critical resource for cladocerans and thereby also have a cascading effect on higher trophic levels, and cladocerans, in turn, have important indirect effects on basal planktonic food webs; hence, both might affect whole lake ecosystems.

  • 49.
    Karlsson, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Winter respiration of allochthonous and autochthonous organic carbon in a subarctic clear-water lake2008In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 53, no 3, 948-954 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied a small subarctic lake to assess the magnitude of winter respiration and the organic carbon (OC) source for this respiration. The concentration and stable isotopic composition (d13C) of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) accumulating in the lake water under ice was analyzed over one winter (7 months). The DIC concentration increased and the d13C of DIC decreased over time, with the greatest changes at the lake bottom. Winter respiration was 26% of annual respiration in the lake. Keeling plot analysis demonstrated that the d13C of respired DIC varied spatially, high d13C values occurring at shallow (2.5 m, 21.7‰) compared with intermediate (4 m, 25.1‰) and deep (6 m, 27.8‰) locations in the lake. The variation in the d13C of respired DIC was related to the variation in the d13C of the sediments between locations, suggesting that sediment OC supported much of the winter respiration and that the dominant OC source for respiration was OC from benthic algae at shallow locations and settled OC, of predominately terrestrial origin, at deep locations. The respiration of OC from benthic algae constituted 55% of the winter respiration, equaling 54% of the primary production by benthic algae the previous summer. The study indicates the importance of temporal and spatial variation in respiration for the metabolism and net DIC production in unproductive high-latitude lakes; both allochthonous and autochthonous carbon can contribute to winter DIC accumulation and, consequently, to spring CO2 emissions from lakes.

  • 50.
    Karlsson, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Berggren, M.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Laudon, H.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Response to Comment: Terrestrial support of pelagic consumers in unproductive lakes- Uncertainty and potential in assessments using stable isotopes2014In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 59, no 5, 1800-1803 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
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