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  • 1.
    Brodin , Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Behavioral syndrome over the boundaries of life: carryovers from larvae to adult damselfly2009In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 20, no 1, 30-37 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity is an important behavioral trait that mediates a trade-off between obtaining food for growth and avoiding predation. Active individuals usually experience a higher encounter rate with food items and suffer higher predation pressure than less active individuals. I investigated how activity of the damselfly Lestes congener is affected by larval state and predator presence and if larval behavioral type (BT) can be used to predict larval boldness, foraging success, and adult BT. Activity level of individual larvae was studied without predator at 2 different physiological states (hungry and fed) and in 2 predator treatments: familiar predator cues and unfamiliar predator cues. Larvae did not adjust their activity depending on state or when subjected to unfamiliar predator cues, but a general reduction in activity was seen in the familiar predator treatment. Hence, active individuals remained active compared with their conspecifics, independent of state or predator treatment. Active individuals were also bolder and more efficient foragers than their less active conspecifics. Furthermore, both adult activity and boldness were correlated with larval BT. The results illustrate that BT of a larvae is carried over many different situations keeping active larvae active even in maladaptive situations, demonstrating how a behavioral syndrome may constrain behavioral plasticity. Furthermore, results showed that behavioral syndromes can carry over from larvae through metamorphosis and dictate the BT of the adult.

  • 2.
    Brodin, T
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Johansson, F
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Conflicting selection pressures on the growth /predation trade-off in a damselfly larvae2004In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 85, 2927-2932 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity is an important behavioral trait that in most animals mediates a trade-off between obtaining food for growth and avoiding predation. Active individuals usually experience a higher encounter rate with food items and predators and, as a consequence, grow faster and suffer higher predation pressure than less active individuals. We investigated how predator-induced mortality and growth of the damselfly Coenagrion hastulatum depend on activity at the level of the genotype. Larvae from six different C. hastulatum families were reared in two different predator treatments: predator present or absent. Families differed in activity, and active families grew to a significantly larger size than less-active families. Within families there was a plastic response to predators. Larvae reared without predators were more active and grew larger than larvae reared with a nonlethal predator. In the presence of a lethal predator the active families experienced higher mortality than the less active families. The results illustrate that the growth/predation-risk trade-off was mediated by activity and clearly show a cost of antipredator behavior. They also suggest that variation in activity level might be genetically regulated and could explain why C. hastulatum are abundant in aquatic systems both with and without potential predators.

  • 3.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Drugs cause fishy behavior2013In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 45, IX-IX p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Drotz, Marcus K.
    Lake Vänern Museum Nat & Cultural Hist, S-53154 Linköping, Sweden.
    Individual variation in dispersal associated behavioral traits of the invasive Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis, H. Milne Edwards, 1854) during initial invasion of Lake Vänern, Sweden2014In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 60, no 3, 410-416 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding and predicting species range-expansions and biological invasions is an important challenge in modern ecology because of rapidly changing environments. Recent studies have revealed that consistent within-species variation in behavior (i.e. animal personality) can be imperative for dispersal success, a key stage in the invasion process. Here we investigate the composition and correlation of two important personality traits associated with invasion success, activity and boldness, and how they are connected to sex and individual size in a newly colonised population of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis in Lake Vanern, Sweden. We found no effect of sex or size on behavioral expressions of E. sinensis but a clear positive correlation between boldness and activity. In addition, this study generates important baseline data for monitoring behavioral development, and thereby changing ecological impact, of an invading population over time. This has implications for predicting ecological effects of invasive species as well as for managing ecological invasions.

  • 5.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Drotz, Marcus K
    Larval behavioral syndrome does not affect emergence behavior in a damselfly (Lestes congener)2011In: Journal of ethology, ISSN 0289-0771, E-ISSN 1439-5444, Vol. 29, no 1, 107-113 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity is a key behavioral trait that oftenmediates a trade-off between finding food for growth andevading predation. We investigated how activity of thedamselfly Lestes congener is affected by larval state andpredator presence and if larval behavioral type (BT) can beused to predict larval emergence behavior. Activity level ofindividual larvae was studied without predators at twodifferent physiological states (hungry, fed) and in twopredator treatments (familiar or unfamiliar predator cues).Larvae did not adjust their activity depending on state orwhen subjected to unfamiliar predator cues but a generalreduction in activity was seen in the familiar predatortreatment. Hence, active individuals remained activecompared to their conspecifics, independent of state orpredator treatment illustrating the presence of a behavioralsyndrome. However, we found no correlation betweenlarval BT and emergence behavior. Active individuals didnot differ from less active individuals in any emergencecharacteristics. The results illustrate that the larval BToccurs in many situations keeping active larvae active evenin maladaptive situations. Furthermore, we show that damselflyemergence behavior can be completely decoupled fromlarvalBT, indicating a loss of stability in individualBT duringcritical stages in ontogeny.

  • 6.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Dilute concentrations of a psychiatric drug alter behavior of fish from natural populations2013In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 339, no 6121, 814-815 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental pollution by pharmaceuticals is increasingly recognized as a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. A variety of pharmaceuticals enter waterways by way of treated wastewater effluents and remain biochemically active in aquatic systems. Several ecotoxicological studies have been done, but generally, little is known about the ecological effects of pharmaceuticals. Here we show that a benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug (oxazepam) alters behavior and feeding rate of wild European perch (Perca fluviatilis) at concentrations encountered in effluent-influenced surface waters. Individuals exposed to water with dilute drug concentrations (1.8 micrograms liter–1) exhibited increased activity, reduced sociality, and higher feeding rate. As such, our results show that anxiolytic drugs in surface waters alter animal behaviors that are known to have ecological and evolutionary consequences.

  • 7.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Johansson, Frank
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Conflicting selection pressures on the growth/predation risk trade-off in a damselfly2004In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 85, no 11, 2927-2932 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity is an important behavioral trait that in most animals mediates a trade-off between obtaining food for growth and avoiding predation. Active individuals usually experience a higher encounter rate with food items and predators and, as a consequence, grow faster and suffer higher predation pressure than less active individuals. We investigated how predator-induced mortality and growth of the damselfly Coenagrion hastulatum depend on activity at the level of the genotype. Larvae from six different C. hastulatum families were reared in two different predator treatments: predator present or absent. Families differed in activity, and active families grew to a significantly larger size than less-active families. Within families there was a plastic response to predators. Larvae reared without predators were more active and grew larger than larvae reared with a nonlethal predator. In the presence of a lethal predator the active families experienced higher mortality than the less active families. The results illustrate that the growth/predation-risk trade-off was mediated by activity and clearly show a cost of antipredator behavior. They also suggest that variation in activity level might be genetically regulated and could explain why C. hastulatum are abundant in aquatic systems both with and without potential predators.

  • 8.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Johansson, Frank
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Predator related oviposition site selection of aquatic beetles (Hydroporus spp.) and effects on offspring life-history2006In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 51, no 7, 1277-1285 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Theory predicts that natural selection should favour females that are able to correctly assess the risk of predation and then use that information to avoid high-risk oviposition sites to reduce the risk of offspring predation. Despite the potential significance of such behaviour on individual fitness, population dynamics and community structure, relatively few studies of oviposition behaviour connected to the risk of predation have been carried out.

    2. However, some recent studies suggest that oviposition site selection in response to risk of predation may be a common phenomenon, at least among amphibians and mosquitoes. A vast majority of previous studies have, however, neglected to investigate how the offspring are affected, in terms of fitness related parameters, by the maternal oviposition site choice.

    3. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment we tested the oviposition site selection of female aquatic beetles (Hydroporus spp.) in relation to the presence or absence of a predatory fish (Perca fluviatilis). In addition, we monitored how the oviposition site selection affected the behaviour, growth and food resource of the progeny.

    4. We show that free-flying females of the aquatic beetles Hydroporus incognitus and H. nigrita prefer to oviposit in waters without fish compared with waters with fish. Larval activity of Hydroporus spp. was unaffected by fish presence. Our results indicate that beetle larvae from females that do lay eggs in waters with fish show increased growth compared with larvae in waters without fish. We explain this difference in growth by a higher per-capita food supply in the presence of a fish predator. This finding may have important implications for our understanding of how the variance of oviposition site selection in a population is sustained.

  • 9.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lind, Martin I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Wiberg, Miria Kaltiala
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Johansson, Frank
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Personality trait differences between mainland and island populations in the common frog (Rana temporaria)2013In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 67, no 1, 135-143 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding and predicting species range expansions is an important challenge in modern ecology because of rapidly changing environments. Recent studies have revealed that consistent within-species variation in behavior (i.e., animal personality) can be imperative for dispersal success, a key process in range expansion. Here we investigate how habitat isolation can mediate differentiation of personality traits between recently founded island populations and the main population. We performed laboratory studies of boldness and exploration across life stages (tadpoles and froglets) using four isolated island populations and four mainland populations of the common frog (Rana temporaria). Both tadpoles and froglets from isolated populations were bolder and more exploratory than conspecifics from the mainland. Although the pattern can be influenced by possible differences in predation pressure, we suggest that this behavioral differentiation might be the result of a disperser-dependent founder effect brought on by an isolation-driven environmental filtering of animal personalities. These findings can have important implications for both species persistence in the face of climate change (i.e., range expansions) and ecological invasions as well as for explaining rapid speciation in isolated patches.

  • 10.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Mikolajewski, D.
    Johansson, Frank
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Behavioural and life history effects of predator diet cues during ontogeny in a damselfly larvae2006In: Oecologia, Vol. 148, 162-169 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Piovano, Susanna
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Heynen, Martina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ecological effects of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems-impacts through behavioural alterations2014In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 369, no 1656, 20130580- p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of animal behaviour is important for both ecology and ecotoxicology, yet research in these two fields is currently developing independently. Here, we synthesize the available knowledge on drug-induced behavioural alterations in fish, discuss potential ecological consequences and report results from an experiment in which we quantify both uptake and behavioural impact of a psychiatric drug on a predatory fish (Perca fluviatilis) and its invertebrate prey (Coenagrion hastulatum). We show that perch became more active while damselfly behaviour was unaffected, illustrating that behavioural effects of pharmaceuticals can differ between species. Furthermore, we demonstrate that prey consumption can be an important exposure route as on average 46% of the pharmaceutical in ingested prey accumulated in the predator. This suggests that investigations of exposure through bioconcentration, where trophic interactions and subsequent bioaccumulation of exposed individuals are ignored, underestimate exposure. Wildlife may therefore be exposed to higher levels of behaviourally altering pharmaceuticals than predictions based on commonly used exposure assays and pharmaceutical concentrations found in environmental monitoring programmes.

  • 12. Conrad, J L
    et al.
    Weinersmith, K L
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Saltz, J B
    Sih, A
    Behavioural syndromes in fishes: a review with implications for ecology and fisheries management2011In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 78, no 2, 395-435 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review examines the contribution of research on fishes to the growing field of behavioural syndromes. Current knowledge of behavioural syndromes in fishes is reviewed with respect to five main axes of animal personality: (1) shyness-boldness, (2) exploration-avoidance, (3) activity, (4) aggressiveness and (5) sociability. Compared with other taxa, research on fishes has played a leading role in describing the shy-bold personality axis and has made innovative contributions to the study of the sociability dimension by incorporating social network theory. Fishes are virtually the only major taxon in which behavioural correlations have been compared between populations. This research has guided the field in examining how variation in selection regime may shape personality. Recent research on fishes has also made important strides in understanding genetic and neuroendocrine bases for behavioural syndromes using approaches involving artificial selection, genetic mapping, candidate gene and functional genomics. This work has illustrated consistent individual variation in highly complex neuroendocrine and gene expression pathways. In contrast, relatively little work on fishes has examined the ontogenetic stability of behavioural syndromes or their fitness consequences. Finally, adopting a behavioural syndrome framework in fisheries management issues including artificial propagation, habitat restoration and invasive species, may promote restoration success. Few studies, however, have examined the ecological relevance of behavioural syndromes in the field. Knowledge of how behavioural syndromes play out in the wild will be crucial to incorporating such a framework into management practices.

  • 13. Cote, J
    et al.
    Clobert, J
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fogarty, S
    Sih, A
    Personality-dependent dispersal:  characterization, ontogeny and consequences for spatially structured populations2010In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 365, 4065-4076 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersal is one of the most fundamental components of ecology, and affects processes as diverse as population growth, metapopulation dynamics, gene flow and adaptation. Although the act of moving from one habitat to another entails major costs to the disperser, empirical and theoretical studies suggest that these costs can be reduced by having morphological, physiological or behavioural specializations for dispersal. A few recent studies on different systems showed that individuals exhibit personality-dependent dispersal, meaning that dispersal tendency is associated with boldness, sociability or aggressiveness. Indeed, in several species, dispersers not only develop behavioural differences at the onset of dispersal, but display these behavioural characteristics through their life cycle. While personality-dependent dispersal has been demonstrated in only a few species, we believe that it is a widespread phenomenon with important ecological consequences. Here, we review the evidence for behavioural differences between dispersers and residents, to what extent they constitute personalities. We also examine how a link between personality traits and dispersal behaviours can be produced and how personality-dependent dispersal affects the dynamics of metapopulations and biological invasions. Finally, we suggest future research directions for population biologists, behavioural ecologists and conservation biologists such as how the direction and the strength of the relationship between personality traits and dispersal vary with ecological contexts.

  • 14.
    Cote, Julien
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California, Davis, CA, USA .
    Fogarty, Sean
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Weinersmith, Kelly
    Sih, Andrew
    Personality-dependent dispersal in the invasive mosquitofish: group composition matters2011In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 278, no 1712, 1670-1678 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding/predicting ecological invasions is an important challenge in modern ecology because of their immense economical and ecological costs. Recent studies have revealed that within-species variation in behaviour (i.e. animal personality) can shed light on the invasion process. The general hypothesis is that individuals' personality type may affect their colonization success, suggesting that some individuals might be better invaders than others. We have recently shown that, in the invasive mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), social personality trait was an important indicator of dispersal distance, with more asocial individuals dispersing further. Here, we tested how mean personality within a population, in addition to individual personality type, affect dispersal and settlement decisions in the mosquitofish. We found that individual dispersal tendencies were influenced by the population's mean boldness and sociability score. For example, individuals from populations with more asocial individuals or with more bold individuals are more likely to disperse regardless of their own personality type. We suggest that identifying behavioural traits facilitating invasions, even at the group level, can thus have direct applications in pest management.

  • 15. Cote, Julien
    et al.
    Fogarty, Sean
    Tymen, Blaise
    Sih, Andrew
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Personality-dependent dispersal cancelled under predation risk2013In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 280, no 1773, 20132349- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersal is a fundamental life-history trait for many ecological processes. Recent studies suggest that dispersers, in comparison to residents, display various phenotypic specializations increasing their dispersal inclination or success. Among them, dispersers are believed to be consistently more bold, exploratory, asocial or aggressive than residents. These links between behavioural types and dispersal should vary with the cause of dispersal. However, with the exception of one study, personality-dependent dispersal has not been studied in contrasting environments. Here, we used mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) to test whether personality-dependent dispersal varies with predation risk, a factor that should induce boldness or sociability-dependent dispersal. Corroborating previous studies, we found that dispersing mosquitofish are less social than non-dispersing fish when there was no predation risk. However, personality-dependent dispersal is negated under predation risk, dispersers having similar personality types to residents. Our results suggest that adaptive dispersal decisions could commonly depend on interactions between phenotypes and ecological contexts.

  • 16. Cote, Julien
    et al.
    Fogarty, Sean
    Weinersmith, Kelly
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sih, Andrew
    Personality traits and dispersal tendency in the invasive mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)2010In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 277, no 1687, 1571-1579 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological invasions, where non-native species spread to new areas, grow to high densities and have large, negative impacts on ecological communities, are a major worldwide problem. Recent studies suggest that one of the key mechanisms influencing invasion dynamics is personality-dependent dispersal: the tendency for dispersers to have a different personality type than the average from a source population. We examined this possibility in the invasive mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). We measured individual tendencies to disperse in experimental streams and several personality traits: sociability, boldness, activity and exploration tendency before and three weeks after dispersal. We found that mosquitofish display consistent behavioural tendencies over time, and significant positive correlations between all personality traits. Most notably, sociability was an important indicator of dispersal distance, with more asocial individuals dispersing further, suggesting personality-biased dispersal on an invasion front. These results could have important ecological implications, as invasion by a biased subset of individuals is likely to have different ecological impacts than invasion by a random group of colonists.

  • 17.
    Drotz, Marcus K.
    et al.
    Lake Vänern Museum Nat & Cultural Hist, S-53154 Lidköping Vid Vänern, Sweden.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Berggren, Matz
    University of Gothenburg, Inst Marine Ecology Kristineberg, SE-45034 Fiskebackskil, Sweden.
    Distribution patterns of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne Edwards, 1853) in Lake Vanern, Sweden2012In: AQUAT INVASIONS, ISSN 1798-6540, Vol. 7, no 2, 243-249 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The catadromous Chinese mitten crab (CMC), Eriocheir sinensis is well known for its extensive invasion routes across the world. However, little is known about both adult and juvenile behaviour after they arrive to a new region. Particularly if the CMC has utilised freight ship ballast tanks as its invasion vector to new freshwater areas like coastal connected larger lakes. The Swedish Lake Vanern, Europe's third largest freshwater lake, offers a suitable study area since only a handful of CMC had been reported between its first record in 1954 and 2004. Hence, the increased catch of of CMC in the mid 2000s was unexpected and provided a rare opportunity to study the initial phase of a biological invasion. Fortunately local fishermen have traditionally, since the mid 1970s, utilised large stationary fish trap nets, evenly distributed from the inlet to the harbour of Lidkoping outward into the main part of the lake. During the peak occurrence in 2005 the traps captured CMC frequently for 90 days starting on August 10. Daily catch increased from September 19th to October 17th. Thereafter the number decreased until November 7th when the last crab was captured. Only one crab out of the 21 caught in the two traps furthest away from the harbour inlet was caught before September 19th. The number of caught CMC differed significantly between the trap nets. Almost half (48.4 %) of all CMC were caught in the two traps closest to the harbour inlet and 41.9% in the second trap-line, consisting of two traps 6 km from the harbour inlet. The remaining crabs were caught in the traps furthest away. Catch pattern from this unique invasion event is discussed in relation to CMC dispersal/migration, invading sample size, behavioural traits and catch efficiency of traps.

  • 18. Drotz, Marcus K
    et al.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Anders N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Changing Names with Changed Address: Integrated Taxonomy and Species Delimitation in the Holarctic Colymbetes paykulli Group (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 11, e0143577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Species delimitation of geographically isolated forms is a long-standing problem in less studied insect groups. Often taxonomic decisions are based directly on morphologic variation, and lack a discussion regarding sample size and the efficiency of migration barriers or dispersal/migration capacity of the studied species. These problems are here exemplified in a water beetle complex from the Bering Sea region that separates North America from Eurasia. Only a few sampled specimens occur from this particular area and they are mostly found in museum and private collections. Here we utilize the theory of integrated taxonomy to discuss the speciation of the Holarctic Colymbetes paykulli water beetle complex, which historically has included up to five species of which today only two are recognized. Three delimitation methods are used; landmark based morphometry of body shape, variation in reticulation patterns of the pronotum exo-skeleton and sequence variation of the partial mitochondrial gene Cyt b. Our conclusion is that the Palearctic and Nearctic populations of C. paykulli are given the status of separate species, based on the fact that all methods showed significant separation between populations. As a consequence the name of the Palearctic species is C. paykulli Erichson and the Nearctic species should be known as C. longulus LeConte. There is no clear support for delineation between Palearctic and Nearctic populations of C. dahuricus based on mtDNA. However, significant difference in size and reticulation patterns from the two regions is shown. The combined conclusion is that the C. dahuricus complex needs a more thorough investigation to fully disentangle its taxonomic status. Therefore it is here still regarded as a Holarctic species. This study highlights the importance to study several diagnosable characters that has the potential to discriminate evolutionary lineage during speciation.

  • 19. Drotz, Marcus K.
    et al.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Anders N.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Multiple origins of elytral reticulation modifications in the west palearctic Agabus bipustulatus complex (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae)2010In: PLoS ONE, ISSN eISSN-1932-6203, Vol. 5, no 2, e9034- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Agabus bipustulatus complex includes one of Europe's most widely distributed and common diving beetles. This complex, which is known for its large morphological variation, has a complex demographic and altitudinal variation in elytral reticulation. The various depth of the reticulation imprint, both in smaller and larger meshes, results in both mat and shiny individuals, as well as intermediate forms. The West Palearctic lowland is inhabited by a sexually dimorphic form, with shiny males and mat females. In mountain regions, shiny individuals of both sexes are found intermixed with mat individuals or in pure populations in central and southern areas, whereas pure populations of mat individuals are exclusively found in the northern region at high altitude. Sexual selection is proposed as a driving force in shaping this variation. However, the occurrence of different types of reticulation in both sexes and disjunct geographical distribution patterns suggest an additional function of the reticulation. Here we investigate the phylogeographical history, genetic structure and reticulation variation of several named forms within the Agabus bipustulatus complex including A. nevadensis. The molecular analyses recognised several well-supported clades within the complex. Several of the named forms had two or more independent origins. Few south European populations were uniform in reticulation patterns, and the males were found to display large variation. Reticulation diversity and population genetic variability were clearly correlated to altitude, but no genetic differences were detected among populations with mixed or homogenous forms. Observed reduction in secondary reticulation in female and increased variance in male at high altitude in South Europe may be explained by the occurrence of an additional selective force, beside sexual selection. The combined effect of these selective processes is here demonstrated in an extreme case to generate isolation barriers between populations at high altitudes. Here we discuss this selective force in relation to thermal selection.

  • 20. Drotz, Marcus K.
    et al.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Saura, Anssi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Giles, Barbara E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ecotype Differentiation in the Face of Gene Flow within the Diving Beetle Agabus bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767) in Northern Scandinavia2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 2, e31381- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The repeated occurrence of habitat-specific polyphyletic evolved ecotypes throughout the ranges of widely distributed species implies that multiple, independent and parallel selection events have taken place. Ecological transitions across altitudinal gradients over short geographical distances are often associated with variation in habitat-related fitness, these patterns suggest the action of strong selective forces. Genetic markers will therefore contribute differently to differences between ecotypes in local hybrid zones. Here we have studied the adaptive divergence between ecotypes of the water beetle Agabus bipustulatus along several parallel altitudinal gradients in northern Scandinavia. This water beetle is well known for its remarkable morphological variation associated with mountain regions throughout the western Palaearctic. Two morphological ecotypes are recognised: a montane type with reduced flight muscles and a lowland type with fully developed muscles. Using a multilocus survey of allozyme variation and a morphological analysis with landmark-based morphometrics, across thirty-three populations and seven altitudinal gradients, we studied the local adaptive process of gene flow and selection in detail. Populations were sampled at three different elevations: below, at and above the tree line. The results indicate that the levels of divergence observed between ecotypes in morphology and allele frequencies at alpha-Glycerophosphate dehydrogenase relative to those shown by neutral molecular markers reflects local diversifying selection in situ. Four main lines of evidence are shown here: (1) A repeated morphological pattern of differentiation is observed across all altitudinal transects, with high reclassification probabilities. (2) Allele and genotype frequencies at the alpha-Gpdh locus are strongly correlated with altitude, in sharp contrast to the presumable neutral markers. (3) Genetic differentiation is two to three times higher among populations across the tree line than among populations at or below. (4) Genetic differentiation between ecotypes within independent mountain areas is reflected by different sets of allozymes.

  • 21. Edenius, L
    et al.
    Brodin, T
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    White, N
    Occurrence of Siberian jay Perisoreus infaustus in relation to amount of old forest at landscape and home range scales2004In: Ecol Bull, Vol. 51, 241-247 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22. Eggermont, Hilde
    et al.
    Balian, Estelle
    Azevedo, Jose Manuel N.
    Beumer, Victor
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Claudet, Joachim
    Fady, Bruno
    Grube, Martin
    Keune, Hans
    Lamarque, Penelope
    Reuter, Katrin
    Smith, Matt
    van Ham, Chantal
    Weisser, Wolfgang W.
    Le Roux, Xavier
    Nature-based Solutions: New Influence for Environmental Management and Research in Europe2015In: GAIA, ISSN 0940-5550, Vol. 24, no 4, 243-248 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Greening roofs or walls to cool down city areas during summer, to capture storm water, to abate pollution, and to increase human well-being while enhancing biodiversity: nature-based solutions (NBS) refer to the sustainable management and use of nature for tackling societal challenges. Building on and complementing traditional biodiversity conservation and management strategies, NBS integrate science, policy, and practice and create biodiversity benefits in terms of diverse, well-managed ecosystems.

  • 23. Hammond, John I.
    et al.
    Luttbeg, Barney
    Brodin, Tomas
    Sih, Andrew
    Spatial scale influences the outcome of the predator-prey space race between tadpoles and predatory dragonflies2012In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 26, no 2, 522-531 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. How predators and prey distribute themselves across space can have large population and community-level consequences by affecting the frequency and potential strength of interactions between and within trophic levels. The general pattern that emerges from numerous studies is that predators seek areas with higher prey densities and prey avoid areas with higher predation risk. However, little is known about the behavioural mechanisms underlying the emergent spatial patterns between freely interacting predators and prey. 2. We examined the behaviour and space use of groups of Pseudacris regilla (Pacific treefrog) tadpole prey and larval Rhionaeschna multicolor (blue-eyed darner) odonate predators in arenas consisting of four patches of the prey's resources divided into two spatial scales over two observation periods a day apart. Distributions were assayed both alone and together. We predicted scale should inherently affect the resulting spatial patterns because factors such as selection, competition, interference, movement ability and prey responses to predators all have potentially similar effects as scale become larger or smaller. These factors predict that prey should be more able to dictate the spatial pattern at smaller scales and predators at larger scales. 3. Results generally match these predictions with measures of joint space being consistent with the predators dictating the joint space use more than expected at the larger scale. Moreover, at the smaller scale, either the predator and prey responses offset or reverse to favour the prey. We used a model selection approach to look at the underlying behavioural rules shaping these spatial patterns. Prey were more likely to leave patches with lower resources across both scales. However, their response to predators and competitors differed between the scales, with prey appearing to become trapped with predators only at the larger scale and only avoiding other prey at the small scale. 4. These results highlight the importance of investigating freely interacting predators and prey and the factors that are likely to affect the predator's or prey's ability to dictate spatial patterns. An ability to predict predator-prey spatial outcomes should be a great benefit with habitat fragmentation and shifting population densities, distributions and community compositions.

  • 24.
    Hellström, Gustav
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Upscaling behavioural studies to the field using acoustic telemetry2016In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 170, 384-389 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory-based behavioural assays are often used in ecotoxicological studies to assess the environmental risk of aquatic contaminants. While results from such laboratory-based risk assessments may be difficult to extrapolate to natural environments, technological advancements over the past decade now make it possible to perform risk assessments through detailed studies of exposed individuals in natural settings. Acoustic telemetry is a technology to monitor movement and behaviour of aquatic organism in oceans, lakes, and rivers. The technology allows for tracking of multiple individuals simultaneously with very high temporal and spatial resolution, with the option to incorporate sensors to measure various physiological and environmental parameters. Although frequently used in fisheries research, aquatic ecotoxicology has been slow to adopt acoustic telemetry as a tool in field-based studies. This mini-review intends to introduce acoustic telemetry to aquatic ecotoxicologists, focusing on the potential of the technology to bridge the gap between laboratory assays and natural behaviours when making toxicological risk assessments.

  • 25.
    Heynen, Martina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effect of bioconcentration and trophic transfer on realized exposure to oxazepam in 2 predators, the dragonfly larvae (Aeshna grandis) and the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis)2016In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 35, no 4, 930-937 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychoactive substances are used worldwide and constitute one of the most common groups of pharmaceutical contaminants in surface waters. Although these pharmaceuticals are designed to be efficiently eliminated from the human body, very little is known about their trophic-transfer potential in aquatic wildlife. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to quantify and compare uptake of an anxiolytic (oxazepam) from water (bioconcentration) and via the consumption of contaminated diet (trophic transfer) in 2 common freshwater predators: Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and the dragonfly larvae Aeshna grandis. Bioconcentration and trophic transfer of oxazepam were found in both predator species. However, higher bioconcentrations were observed for perch (bioconcentration factor [BCF], 3.7) than for dragonfly larvae (BCF, 0.5). Perch also retained more oxazepam from consumed prey (41%) than dragonfly larvae (10%), whereas the relative contribution via prey consumption was 14% and 42% for perch and dragonflies, respectively. In addition, bioconcentration was negatively correlated with perch weight, indicating that exposure levels in natural contaminated environments differ between individuals of different size or between different developmental stages. Hence, trophic transfer of pharmaceuticals may indeed occur, and estimates of environmental exposures that do not consider intake via food or size-dependent bioconcentration may therefore lead to wrongful estimations of realized exposure levels in natural contaminated ecosystems. (C) 2016 SETAC

  • 26.
    Johansson, F
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Crowley, P H
    Brodin, T
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Sexual size dimorphism and sex ratios in dragonflies (Odonata)2005In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, Vol. 86, 507-513 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Johansson, Frank
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Gardfjell, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Species abundance models and patterns in dragonfly communities: effects of fish predation2006In: Oikos, Vol. 114, 27-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Johansson, Frank
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sniegula, S
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Emergence patterns and latitudinal adaptations in development time of odonata in north Sweden and Poland2010In: Odonatologica, ISSN 0375-0183, Vol. 39, no 2, 97-106 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using exuviae, data are presented on emergence dates of dragonflies from northernSweden and northwestern Poland. The 17 spp. sampled in Sweden showed considerableoverlap in emergence periods. In Sweden, Leucorrhinia rubicunda was thefirst sp. to emerge (May 31) and Sympetrum danae the last (July 19). A comparison offirst dates of emergence of spp. in Sweden and Poland showed a difference between 9and 30 days, with all Polish spp. emerging first. Compared to spring species, summerspecies and obligate univoltine summer species showed less difference in first date ofemergence between Swedish and Polish populations. In a laboratory experiment Leucorrhiniadubia was reared from both regions from the egg to final instar larva undernorthern Swedish and northwestern Polish photoperiods. Swedish larvae developedfaster under a northern Swedish photoperiod compared to a northwestern Polish photoperiod.However, no such difference in development was found for northwesternPolish larvae. This suggests that there are genetic differences between both populationsin response to photoperiod. The results are discussed in the context of compensationof larval development of northern populations in relation to photoperiod.

  • 29.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ershammar, Ellen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of an antihistamine on carbon and nutrient recycling in streams2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 538, 240-245 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In stream ecosystems, microbes and macroinvertebrates consume leaf litter deposited from the riparian vegetation, and thereby recycle resources tied up in the litter. Several environmental variables influence rates of this recycling, but it is not well known if common pharmaceuticals, such as antihistamines, originating from waste-water effluent, have additional impacts. Exposure to dilute concentrations of antihistamines may adversely influence aquatic detritivorous invertebrates, because invertebrates use histamines for neurotransmission, resulting in hampered recycling of resource tied up in leaf detritus. In this study, we therefore investigated if the antihistamine fexofenadine, at a concentration of 2000 ng l(-1), alters rates of leaf litter decomposition in stream microcosms. Stonefly larvae (n = 10, per microcosm), together with natural microbial communities, served as main decomposer organisms on alder leaf litter. First, we used 30 microcosms containing fexofenadine, while the other 30 served as non-contaminated controls, and of each 30 microcosms, 14 contained stonefly larvae and microbes, while the remaining 16 contained only microbes. We found, in contrast to our hypothesis, that fexofenadine had no effect on leaf litter decomposition via impacts on the stonefly larvae. However, independent on if stoneflies were present or not, concentrations of organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen (N) were strongly affected, with 20-26 and 24-31% lower concentrations of TOC and N, respectively, in the presence of fexofenadine. Second, in a scaled down follow-up experiment we found that microbial activity increased by 85%, resulting in a 10% decrease in pH, in the presence of fexofenadine. While the antihistamine concentration we used is higher than those thus far found in the field (1-10 ng l(-1)), it is still 100 times lower than the predicted no-effect concentration for fexofenadine. As such, our results indicate that low mu g l(-1) levels of antihistamines can have an effect on carbon and nutrient recycling in aquatic system. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 30.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Antihistamines and aquatic insects: Bioconcentration and impacts on behavior in damselfly larvae (Zygoptera)2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 472, 108-111 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because aquatic insects use histamines as neurotransmitters, adverse impacts on aquatic insects living in aquatic environments that receive antihistamines with wastewater effluent are plausible. In this study, we exposed damselfly larvae to low concentrations of two commonly used antihistamines (Hydroxyzine and Fexofenadine, 360 +/- 42 and 2200 +/- 43 ng 1(-1), respectively), and recorded damselfly larvae behavior before and after exposure. Further, after the second set of behavioral assays was performed, we quantified bioconcentration of the antihistamines in the damselfly bodies. Our results showed significant changes in damselfly behavior following antihistamine exposure. After Hydroxyzine exposure, the damselfly larvae became less active, and they showed reduced fleeing response (i.e. increased boldness) after being exposed to Fexofenadine, the latter also being significantly different from the non-exposed (control) individuals. Further, we found high levels of bioconcentration in the damselflies; Hydroxyzine showed an average bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 2000. As such, our results indicate that low concentrations of antihistamines can have sub-lethal effects on aquatic insects manifested as behavioral changes, and that bioconcentration of these substances can be high. Therefore, the need to investigate the impact of emergent aquatic contaminants also on aquatic insects, and on behaviors that are of ecological importance, is further highlighted. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 31.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Johansson, Frank
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Intermediate predator impact on consumers weakens with increasing predator diversity in the presence of a top-predator2007In: Acta Oecologica, Vol. 31, no 1, 79-85 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adding or removing a top-predator is known to affect lower trophic levels with potentially large, indirect effects on primary production. However, little is known about how predator diversity may affect lower trophic levels, or how adding or removing a top-predator influences the effects of predator diversity. Using aquatic mesocosms containing three and four trophic levels, we tested whether intermediate predator diversity affected predation on consumers and if top-predator presence influenced such effects. We found that the presence of intermediate predators suppressed the consumer population and that this suppression tended to increase with increased intermediate predator diversity when the top-predator was absent. However, with the top-predator present, increased intermediate predator diversity showed the opposite effect on the consumers compared to without a top-predator, i.e. decreased suppression of consumers with increased diversity. Hence, in our study, the loss of intermediate predator species weakened or strengthened predator–prey interactions depending on if the top-predator was present or not, while loss of the top-predator only strengthened the predator–prey interactions. Therefore, the loss of a predator species may render different, but perhaps predictable effects on the functioning of a system depending on from which trophic level it is lost and on the initial number of species in that trophic level.

  • 32.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sundelin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Anderson, N. J.
    Fahlman, J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Long-Term Persistence of an Anxiolytic Drug (Oxazepam) in a Large Freshwater Lake2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 17, 10406-10412 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production and human consumption of pharmaceuticals result in contamination of surface waters worldwide. Little is known about the long-term (i.e., over decades) fate of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems. Here, we show that the most prescribed anxiolytic in Sweden (oxazepam) persists in its therapeutic form for several decades after being deposited in a large freshwater lake. By comparing sediment cores collected in 1995 and 2013, we demonstrate that oxazepam inputs from the early 1970s remained in the sediments until sampling in 2013, despite in situ degradation processes and sediment diagenesis. In laboratory and pond experiments, we further reveal that therapeutic forms of oxazepam can persist over several months in cold (5 degrees C) lake water free from UV light. We conclude that oxazepam can persist in lakes over a time scale much longer than previously realized and that levels can build up in lakes due to both a legacy of past inputs and a growing urban population.

  • 33.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sundelin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    The conceptual imperfection of aquatic risk assessment tests: highlighting the need for tests designed to detect therapeutic effects of pharmaceutical contaminants2014In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 9, no 8, 084003- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standardized ecotoxicological tests still constitute the fundamental tools when doing risk-assessment of aquatic contaminants. These protocols are managed towards minimal mortality in the controls, which is not representative for natural systems where mortality is often high. This methodological bias, generated from assays where mortality in the control group is systematically disregarded, makes it difficult to measure therapeutic effects of pharmaceutical contaminants leading to lower mortality. This is of concern considering that such effects on exposed organisms still may have substantial ecological consequences. In this paper, we illustrate this conceptual problem by presenting empirical data for how the therapeutic effect of Oxazepam-a common contaminant of surface waters-lower mortality rates among exposed Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) from wild populations, at two different life stages. We found that fry hatched from roe that had been exposed to dilute concentrations (1.1 +/- 0.3 mu g l(-1)) of Oxazepam for 24 h 3-6 days prior to hatching showed lower mortality rates and increased activity 30 days after hatching. Similar effects, i.e. increased activity and lower mortality rates were also observed for 2-year old perch exposed to dilute Oxazepam concentrations (1.2 +/- 0.4 mu g l(-1)). We conclude that therapeutic effects from pharmaceutical contaminants need to be considered in risk assessment assays to avoid that important ecological effects from aquatic contaminants are systematically missed.

  • 34. McCauley, Shannon
    et al.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hammond, John
    Foraging rates of larval dragonfly colonists are positively related to habitat isolation: results from a landscape-level experiment2010In: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 175, E66-E73 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing evidence of intraspecific variation in dispersal behavior. Individual differences in dispersal behavior may be correlated with other traits that determine the impact individuals have on patches they colonize. We established habitat patches—artificial pools—across a landscape, and these pools were naturally colonized by dragonfly larvae. Larvae were collected from pools at different levels of isolation and held under common lab conditions for 5 months. We then compared larval foraging rates. Foraging rate was positively related to habitat isolation, and colonists from the most isolated artificial pools had significantly higher foraging rates than individuals from the least isolated pools. Our results indicate that spatial patterns in colonist behavior can develop across a landscape independent of species‐level dispersal limitation. This finding suggests that studies of community structure across space should include an assessment of the distribution of phenotypes as well as species‐level dispersal limitation patterns.

  • 35. McElreath, Richard
    et al.
    Luttbeg, barney
    Fogarty, Sean P
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sih, Andrew
    Evolution of animal personalities2007In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 450, E5- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Mikolajewski, D J
    et al.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Johansson, Frank
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Joop, G
    Phenotypic plasticity in gender specific life-history: effects of food availability and predation2005In: Oikos, Vol. 110, 91-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If environmental conditions vary, plasticity in life-history traits is predicted. A recent model indicates that males and females should differ in life-history traits, because sexes differ in optimal attributes depending on species ecology. In this study we test the impact of two biotic factors in combination (presence/absence of predators and low/high food level) on gender specific life-history traits in the damselfly Coenagrion puella (Odonata). Results show that predator presence and low food density decreased activity in both sexes. Additionally, individuals with less food grew more slowly, emerged later, remained smaller and had a higher mortality. At low food densities, however, and in contrast to former investigations, individuals from treatments with predator presence were the same size or larger than individuals without predators. Gender had a strong impact on larval activity and life-history traits and sexes differed in development. Females were less active and took longer to complete development, but emerged at a larger size, weight and fat content. This study highlights the importance of gender specific approaches in life-history research.

  • 37. Mikolajewski, D J
    et al.
    Johansson, F
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Brodin, T
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Condition dependent behaviour amongst damselfly populations2004In: Canadian Journal of Zoology, Vol. 82, 653-659 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Thorlacius, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hellström, Gustav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Behavioral dependent dispersal in the invasive round goby Neogobius melanostomus depends on population age2015In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 61, no 3, 529-542 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological invasions cause major ecological and economic costs in invaded habitats. The round goby Neogobius melanostomus is a successful invasive species and a major threat to the biodiversity and ecological function of the Baltic Sea. It is native to the Ponto-Caspian region and has, via ballast water transport of ships, invaded the Gulf of Gdansk in Poland. Since 1990, it has spread as far north as Raahe in Northern Finland (64 degrees 41'04"N, 24 degrees 28'44"E). Over the past decade, consistent individual differences of behavioral expressions have been shown to explain various ecological processes such as dispersal, survival or reproduction. We have previously shown that new and old populations differ in personality trait expression. Individuals in new populations are bolder, less sociable and more active than in old populations. Here we investigate if the behavioral differentiation can be explained by phenotype-dependent dispersal. This was investigated by measuring activity, boldness and sociability of individually marked gobies, and subsequently allowing them to disperse in a system composed of five consecutive tanks connected by tubes. Individual dispersal tendency and distance was measured. Our results revealed that in newly established populations, more active individuals disperse sooner and that latency of a group to disperse depends on the mean sociability of the group. This indicates the presence of personality dependent dispersal in this species and that it is maintained at the invasion front but lost as the populations get older.

1 - 38 of 38
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