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  • 1. Alexandrie, A K
    et al.
    Warholm, M
    Carstensen, Ulrica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Axmon, A
    Hagmar, L
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ostman, C
    Rannug, A
    CYP1A1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms affect urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels after PAH exposure2000In: Carcinogenesis, ISSN 0143-3334, E-ISSN 1460-2180, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 669-676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Certain human biotransformation enzymes have been implicated in the formation and scavenging of the ultimate reactive metabolites, the diolepoxides, from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the present study, performed on aluminum smelter workers, we have analyzed airborne PAH, the pyrene metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in urine, and genotypes for biotransformation enzymes involved in PAH metabolism. The aim was to evaluate the correlation between external exposure and biomarkers of exposure and to investigate to what extent genetic polymorphism in metabolic enzymes can explain interindividual variation in urinary 1-OHP levels. DNA was prepared from blood samples from 98 potroom workers and 55 controls and altogether eight polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, mEH, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 genes were analyzed. The 1-OHP excretion was found to correlate significantly (P </= 0.005) to the exposure. The interindividual difference in excretion of 1-OHP was vast (>100-fold) and univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to find the variables that could determine differences in excretion. The variation could, to some degree, be explained by differences in exposure to airborne particulate-associated PAHs, the use of personal respiratory protection devices, smoking habits and genetic polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 enzymes. The part of the variance that could be explained by differences in biotransformation genotypes seemed to be of the same order of magnitude as the variance explained by differences in exposure. In the control group as well as in the occupationally exposed group, the highest 1-OHP levels were observed in individuals carrying the CYP1A1 Ile/Val genotype who were also of the GSTM1 null genotype. The results show that urinary 1-OHP is a sensitive indicator of recent human exposure to PAHs and that it may also to some extent reflect the interindividual variation in susceptibility to PAHs.

  • 2. Bohlin, Pernilla
    et al.
    Jones, Kevin C
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindahl, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Strandberg, Bo
    Field evaluation of a passive personal air sampler for screening of PAH exposure in workplaces2010In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 1437-1444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New sampling methods are needed to simplify and enable frequent monitoring of workers' exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The sampler needs to fulfil some key operational requirements for occupational exposure assessments: (i) be usable as a personal sampler; (ii) work over 8 h exposure time; (iii) sequester PAHs both in gas and particle phase, (iv) yield reliable estimates of air concentrations. Here, a new smaller design of the traditional polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air sampler (PAS) (i.e. a 'mini-PUF') was introduced and assessed against these requirements in sites with elevated PAH concentrations. The exposure times were 2 weeks and 8 hours. The obtained sampling rates (R-values) were not significantly different between gas phase (0.4-3.3 m(3) day(-1), 0.3-2.3 L min(-1)) and particle associated PAHs (0.5-1.9 m(3) day(-1), 0.4-1.3 L min(-1)). The accuracy in estimating air concentrations was within +/-25% from the active sampler for half of the PAHs for the mini-PUF under 8 h exposures. Significant correlations (p < 0.003) were found between personally deployed mini-PUFs and a co-deployed personal active sampling method. This together with the low costs and ease-of-use of the mini-PUF encourage application in exposure assessments.

  • 3.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Blomquist, Göran
    Sunesson, Anna-Lena
    Volatile metabolites from microorganisms grown on humid building materials and synthetic media2002In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 667-672Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Ekman, Jenny
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Lindahl, Roger
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Sundgren, Margit
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Ostin, Anders
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Comparison of sampling methods for 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate, (HDI) in a commercial spray box2002In: The Analyst, ISSN 0003-2654, E-ISSN 1364-5528, Vol. 127, no 1, p. 169-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study three different types of samplers for the determination of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate in air were compared. The experimental set up was a simulation of real life conditions with spray painting operations performed inside a commercial, full sized, spray box. The sampling methods were 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazine impregnated on glass fibre filter, and the same reagent in impinger, and also dibutylamine in impinger. All analyses were performed by LC-MS-MS. The determined concentrations varied between 20 and 90 microg m(-3) with relative standard deviations from 7 to 17% for each method. No significant difference was found between the three methods using ANOVA with a significance level of alpha = 0.05.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Kåre
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Wiklund, Leif
    Larsson, Cecilia
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Dermal exposure to terpenic resin acids in Swedish carpentry workshops and sawmills2004In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 267-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate dermal exposure to the resin acids abietic acid, dehydroabietic acid and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid during collecting in sawmills and during sawing in carpentry workshops, respectively. METHODS: Sampling was performed by fastening patches at 12 different areas on a sampling overall, one patch on the front of a cap, one patch on the chest inside the clothing and one patch on the inner lower right leg. Exposure of the hands was assessed by fastening patches on cotton gloves representing the dorsal sides and the palms of the left and right hands. Sampling was performed on 30 different occasions in the sawmills and in the carpentry workshops with mean sampling times of 120 and 59 min, respectively. The acids were solvent desorbed from the patches. Identification and quantification of the resin acids was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The geometric means (GMs) of the potential body exposures to abietic acid, dehydroabietic acid and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid during sawing and collecting of wood from pine and spruce were 3346 and 17 247 micro g/h, respectively. The GM of the potential exposure on the hands was 3020 micro g/h in the carpentry workshops and 4365 micro g/h in the sawmills. Resin acids were detected on the inner chest and inner lower front right leg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There is a potential dermal exposure to terpenic resin acids in carpentry workshops as well as in sawmills. The hands have the highest exposure during sawing as well as during collecting. There is a spatial distribution of contaminants, with the outer chest, arms and legs showing the highest exposures. Resin acids also contaminated the inner chest and inner lower leg. It is necessary to take action to reduce dermal exposure to these allergenic substances.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Kåre
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Östin, Anders
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Quantification of melatonin in human saliva by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using stable isotope dilution2003In: Journal of chromatography. B, ISSN 1570-0232, E-ISSN 1873-376X, Vol. 794, no 1, p. 115-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for the determination of melatonin in human saliva has been developed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS). Saliva was collected in plastic tubes. 7-D-Melatonin was added as internal standard and the samples were cleaned and concentrated by solid-phase extraction. The limit of detection was 1.05 pg x ml(-1) and the limit of quantification was 3.0 pg x ml(-1). The accuracy of the method was +/-14% at 5.60 pg x ml(-1) and +/-9% at 19.6 pg x ml(-1). The precision was +/-13% at 6.18 pg x ml(-1) and +/-11% at 31.2 pg x ml(-1), respectively. Our HPLC-MS-MS method shows a high sensitivity and specificity for melatonin and more reliable results compared with a radioimmunoassay. The chromatographic method has been used to determine the circadian rhythm of melatonin among three nurses working the night shift and a patient suffering from an inability to fall asleep at night.

  • 7.
    Glas, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Stenberg, Berndt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Sunesson, Anna-Lena
    Variability of personal chemical exposure in eight office buildings in Sweden2004In: Journal of Exposure Analysis And Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1053-4245, E-ISSN 1476-5519, Vol. 14, no Suppl 1, p. S49-S57Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lindahl, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Karlsson, Doris
    Validation of a diffusive sampler for NO21999In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 1, p. 349-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A diffusive sampler for NO2, Willems badge, was validated in laboratory experiments and field tests. The collecting reagent for NO2 in the sampler is triethanolamine, and the analysis is based on a modified colorimetric method, the

    Saltzman method. The analysis was performed by a flow injection analysis (FIA) technique. The sampling rate for the sampler was determined to be 40.0 ml min−1. There was no effect of NO2 concentration or relative humidity on sampling rate, and the influence of sampling time was found to be small. The detection limit was 4 mg m−3 for a 24 h

    sample. The capacity is high enough to allow sampling of 150 mg m−3 for 7 days, which is twice the recommended Swedish short-term (24 h) guideline value as a 98-percentile over 6 months. In field tests, the sampler performedwell, even at wind speeds higher than 2 m s−1, and at low temperatures. The overall uncertainty of the method was 24%. The sensitivity and capacity of the method also make it suitable for personal sampling for 2–8 h in working environments.

  • 9.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. National Institute for Working Life, Programme for Chemical Exposure Assessment, Umeå.
    Lindahl, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. National Institute for Working Life, Programme for Chemical Exposure Assessment, Umeå.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. National Institute for Working Life, Programme for Chemical Exposure Assessment, Umeå.
    Karlsson, Doris
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Validation of the Willems badge diffusive sampler for nitrogen dioxide determinations in occupational environments2002In: The Analyst, ISSN 0003-2654, E-ISSN 1364-5528, Vol. 127, no 1, p. 163-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Willems badge, a diffusive sampler for nitrogen dioxide, has previously been validated for ambient air measurements. This paper describes the laboratory and field validation of the Willems badge for personal sampling under working environment conditions. The mean sampling rate in the laboratory tests was 46 ml min(-1), with an RSD of 12%. No statistically significant effects on sampling rate of the sampling time, concentration of NO2 or relative humidity were found. A slightly decreased sampling rate was observed at low wind velocity. This was also confirmed during static sampling, which makes the sampler less appropriate for static sampling indoors. No back diffusion was observed. Storage of the samplers for two weeks before or after exposure did not affect the sampling rate. Our analysis is based on a modified colorimetric method, performed by FIA (flow injection analysis). This technique was compared to ion chromatography analysis. The use of ion chromatography lowered the detection limit from 11 to 2 microg m(-3) for an 8 h sample, and furthermore enabled the detection of other anions. In conclusion, the diffusive sampler was found to perform well for personal measurements in industrial environments.

  • 10.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Thomassen, Yngvar
    AIRMON 2008, the Sixth International Symposium on Modern Principles of Air Monitoring and Biomonitoring2008In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring: Cutting-Edge Research on Environmental Processes & Impacts, Vol. 10, p. 1415-6Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Liljelind, Ingrid E
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational Medicine.
    Rappaport, Stephen M
    School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational Medicine. National Institute for Working Life, Programme for Chemical Exposure Assessment, Umeå.
    Pettersson-Strömbäck, Anita E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational Medicine.
    Sunesson, Anna-Lena
    National Institute for Working Life, Programme for Chemical Exposure Assessment, Umeå.
    Järvholm, Bengt G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational Medicine.
    Comparison of self-assessment and expert assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 311-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Occupational assessments of chemical exposure are often inadequate because of difficulties in obtaining sufficient numbers of measurements by trained professionals (experts). The objective of this study was to determine whether workers can provide unbiased data via self-assessments of exposure facilitated by the use of simple passive monitors for personal sampling.

    METHODS: Untrained workers obtained personal measurements of their exposures to gaseous contaminants (terpenes in sawmills and styrene in reinforced plastics factories) with passive monitors and written instructions. To study the validity of the self-assessments, an occupational hygienist performed exposure measurements on the same occupational groups after the workers had obtained two or more measurements independently. The potential bias of the self-assessments was evaluated by comparing the self-assessments with the expert assessments in mixed-effects statistical models.

    RESULTS: A total of 153 terpene (97 self and 56 expert) and 216 styrene (159 self and 57 expert) measurements were obtained from four sawmills and six reinforced plastics factories, respectively. No significant differences in the geometric mean exposures were observed between the self-assessments and the expert assessments in 3 of 4 sawmills and 5 of 6 reinforced plastics factories (P > 0.10). The potential bias of the self-assessments of exposure ranged from less than 0.1% to 102% and was less than 17% in 9 of the 10 groups investigated.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that untrained, unsupervised workers are able to collect consistently unbiased exposure data by employing currently available passive monitors.

  • 12.
    Lindahl, R
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Wästerby, A
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Determination of morpholine in air by derivatisation with 1-naphthylisothiocyanate and HPLC analysis2001In: The Analyst, ISSN 0003-2654, E-ISSN 1364-5528, Vol. 126, no 2, p. 152-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for the determination of morpholine in air was developed. Samples were collected with adsorbent tubes containing XAD-2 resin coated with 1-naphthylisothiocyanate (NIT). The thiourea derivative formed was subsequently desorbed with acetonitrile and analysed by HPLC with UV detection. The recovery after gas phase spiking with morpholine (2.2-1570 micrograms) was 91% (86-100%) with a relative standard deviation of 5.5%. No effect on recovery from relative humidity or amount of morpholine was seen. The lowest level tested corresponded to 7 mg m-3 (1/10 threshold limit value) for a 15 min sampling period with a sampling rate of 20 ml min-1. Exposed NIT-coated XAD-2 tubes were stable at room temperature for at least 2 weeks.

  • 13.
    Lindahl, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Akhtar Khan, Muhammad
    Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistokatu 7, FI-80220 Joensuu, Finland.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Development of a method for the determination of naphthalene and phenanthrene in workplace air using diffusive sampling and thermal desorption GC-MS analysis2011In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 681-687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusive sampling methods have been validated for the determination of naphthalene and phenanthrene in workplace air. The diffusive sampler tested was the Perkin Elmer ATD tube, and the analysis was performed with thermal desorption, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometric detection. The sampling methods were validated in controlled test atmospheres, mainly according to the protocol proposed in the European standard EN 838. For the determination of naphthalene, the diffusive sampling rate was 0.41 ml min21 with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 19%. The mean sampling rate for phenanthrene was 0.49 ml min21 with a CV of 21%. Field tests confirmed the naphthalene results but could not be used to confirm the phenanthrene results. The method is not recommended for phenanthrene sampling unless the method has been tested in the specific environment and the results confirm the laboratory tests.

  • 14.
    Lindahl, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sundgren, Margit
    Fenix Environmental, SE- 907 19 Umeå, Sweden.
    Development of a miniaturized diffusive sampler for true breathing-zone sampling and thermal desorption gas chromatographic analysis2009In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 1340-1344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure measurements should be performed as close as possible to the nose and mouth for a more correct assessment of exposure. User-friendly sampling equipment, with a minimum of handling before, during and after measurement, should not affect ordinary work. In diffusive (passive) sampling, no extra equipment as sampling pumps is needed, making the measurements more acceptable to the user. The diffusive samplers are normally attached on a shoulder, on a breast-pocket or on the lapel. There are, however, difficulties if true breathing-zone sampling is to be performed, since available diffusive samplers normally cannot be arranged close to the nose/mouth. The purpose of this work was to study the performance of a miniaturized tube type diffusive sampler attached to a headset for true breathing-zone sampling. The basis for this miniaturization was the Perkin Elmer ATD tube. Both the size of the tube and the amount of adsorbent was decreased for the miniaturized sampler. A special tube holder to be used with a headset was designed for the mini tube. The mini tube is thermally desorbed inside a standard PE tube. The new sampler was evaluated for the determination of styrene, both in laboratory experiments and in field measurements. As reference method, diffusive sampling with standard Perkin Elmer tubes, thermal desorption and gas chromatographic (GC) analysis was used. The sampling rate was determined to 0.356 mL min-1 (CV 9.6%) and was not significantly affected by concentration, sampling time or relative humidity.

     

  • 15.
    Modig, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Sunesson, Anna-Lena
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sundgren, Margit
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Can NO(2) be used to indicate ambient and personal levels of benzene and 1,3-butadiene in air?2004In: J Environ Monit, ISSN 1464-0325, Vol. 6, no 12, p. 957-62Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Nordenhäll, C
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Pourazar, Jamshid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Dept of Occupational Chemistry, Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Ädelroth, Ellinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Airway inflammation following exposure to diesel exhaust: a study of time kinetics using induced sputum2000In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 1046-1051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adverse health effects of particulate matter pollution are of increasing concern. In a recent bronchoscopic study in healthy volunteers, pronounced airway inflammation was detected following exposure to diesel exhaust (DE). The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the time kinetics of the inflammatory response following exposure to DE using induced sputum from healthy volunteers. Fifteen healthy nonsmoking volunteers were exposed to DE particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 microm 300 microg x m(-3) and air for 1 h on two separate occasions. Sputum induction with hypertonic saline was performed 6 and 24 h after each exposure. Analyses of sputum differential cell counts and soluble protein concentrations were performed. Six hours after exposure to DE, a significant increase was found in the percentage of sputum neutrophils (37.7 versus 26.2% p=0.002) together with increases in the concentrations of interleukin-6 (12.0 versus 6.3 pg x mL(-1), p=0.006) and methylhistamine (0.11 versus 0.12 microg x L(-1), p=0.024). Irrespective of exposure, a significant increase was found in the percentage of sputum neutrophils at 24 as compared to 6 h, indicating that the procedure of sputum induction itself may change the composition of sputum. This study demonstrates that exposure to diesel exhaust induces inflammatory response in healthy human airways, represented by an early increase in interleukin-6 and methylhistamine concentration and the percentage of neutrophils. Induced sputum provides a safe tool for the investigation of the inflammatory effects of diesel exhaust, but care must be taken when interpreting results from repeated sputum inductions.

  • 17.
    Nordenhäll, C
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Pourazar, Jamshid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Ledin, M-C
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Institute for Working Life, Dept of Occupational Chemistry, Umeå.
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Ädelroth, Ellinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Diesel exhaust enhances airway responsiveness in asthmatic subjects2001In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 909-915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution has been associated with negative health effects, including exacerbations of asthma following exposure to PM peaks. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of short-term exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) in asthmatics, by specifically addressing the effects on airway hyperresponsiveness, lung function and airway inflammation. Fourteen nonsmoking, atopic asthmatics with stable disease, on continuous treatment with inhaled corticosteroids, were included. All were hyperresponsive to methacholine. Each subject was exposed to DE (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 microm (PM10) 300 microg x m(-3)) and air during 1 h on two separate occasions. Lung function was measured before and immediately after the exposures. Sputum induction was performed 6 h, and methacholine inhalation test 24 h, after each exposure. Exposure to DE was associated with a significant increase in the degree of hyperresponsiveness, as compared to after air, of 0.97 doubling concentrations at 24 h after exposure (p < 0.001). DE also induced a significant increase in airway resistance (p=0.004) and in sputum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 (p=0.048). No changes were detected in sputum levels of methyl-histamine, eosinophil cationic protein, myeloperoxidase and IL-8. This study indicated that short-term exposure to diesel exhaust, equal to high ambient levels of particulate matter, is associated with adverse effects in asthmatic airways, even in the presence of inhaled corticosteroid therapy. The increase in airway responsiveness may provide an important link to epidemiological findings of exacerbations of asthma following exposure to particulate matter.

  • 18. Paal, D Molander
    et al.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    National Institute for Working Life, Sweden.
    Östin, Anders
    Rosenberg, Christina
    Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len
    Brødsgaard, Søren
    Thorud, Siri Hetland Syvert
    Fladseth, Geir
    Thomassen, Yngvar
    Harmonized Nordic strategies for isocyanate monitoring in workroom atmospheres2002In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 685-687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Network on Isocyanates (NORDNI) is financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers and is under the administration of Prof. Yngvar Thomassen and co-workers. National Institute of Occupational Health, Norway. The aim of NORDNI is to establish a broad network between the Nordic National Institutes of Occupational Health working within the field of isocyanate exposure and strategies for sampling and determination of isocyanates in workroom atmospheres. This viewpoint article summarizes the resolutions that were established at the 1st NORDNI consensus meeting arranged in Frøya, Norway, 31st August-2nd September, 2001. The consensus platform from the 1st NORDNI meeting was presented at the 4th International Symposium on Modern Principles of Air Monitoring, Lillehammer, Norway, 3-7 February, 2002.

  • 19.
    Sandström, K J Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational Medicine. Programme for Chemical Exposure Assessment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå and Cranfield Biotechnology Centre, Cranfield University, Silsoe, UK.
    Carlson, Rolf
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Sunesson, Anna-Lena
    Programme for Chemical Exposure Assessment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Programme for Chemical Exposure Assessment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Turner, Anthony P F
    Cranfield Biotechnology Centre, Cranfield University, Silsoe, UK.
    Multivariate evaluation of factors influencing the performance of a formic acid biosensor for use in air monitoring2001In: The Analyst, ISSN 0003-2654, E-ISSN 1364-5528, Vol. 126, no 11, p. 2008-2014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A formic acid biosensor for air monitoring has been evaluated using chemometric methods. Using experimental design eleven factors that could influence the performance of the biosensor were examined. The response matrices consisted of six parameters (steady state currents at three different formic acid concentrations and response rates during changes in formic acid concentrations) describing the performance of the biosensor. The data were evaluated using a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR). To confirm the conclusions from the PCA-MLR partial least squares (PLS) was also used. The most important factor for the biosensor performance was found to be the enzyme concentration. Using the information from the chemometric analyses the optimum operation conditions for the biosensor were determined. The steady state currents were increased by 18–30% and the initial two response rates increased by 47–89% compared with a biosensor that had not been optimised.

  • 20. Schulte-Ladbeck, Rasmus
    et al.
    Lindahl, Roger
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Karst, Uwe
    Characterization of chemical interferences in the determination of unsaturated aldehydes using aromatic hydrazine reagents and liquid chromatography2001In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 306-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic investigation on interferences in the determination of unsaturated aldehydes and ketones using the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) method is described. Acrolein, crotonaldehyde, methacrolein and 1-buten-3-one are derivatized with DNPH in the presence of an acidic catalyst to form the respective hydrazones. The unstable hydrazones react with excess reagent to form adducts. These are identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mass spectrometry and spectroscopic techniques after cryogenic fraction collection of the adducts. The quantification of the unsaturated carbonyls with the DNPH method remains difficult. N-Methyl-4-hydrazino-7-nitrobenzofurazan (MNBDH) was used as an alternative reagent for this purpose. As with DNPH, the formation of a side product is observed. In contrast to DNPH, the alteration of the pH immediately after sampling leads to only one reaction product, which is stable and storable in solution at 4 degrees C for 2 days.

  • 21.
    Stenfors, Nikolai
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Nordenhäll, Charlotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Salvi, S S
    Mudway, I
    Söderberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Helleday, Ragnberth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Holgate, S T
    Kelly, F J
    Frew, A J
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Different airway inflammatory responses in asthmatic and healthy humans exposed to diesel.2004In: Eur Respir J, ISSN 0903-1936, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 82-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Strandberg, Bo
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Sunesson, Anna-Lena
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Sundgren, Margit
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Sällsten, Gerd
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Barregard, Lars
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Field evaluation of two diffusive samplers and two adsorbent media to determine 1,3-butadiene and benzene levels in air2006In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 40, no 40, p. 7686-7695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two types of diffusive samplers, both of which are compatible with thermal desorption, but differ in their geometry-SKC-Ultra (badge-type) and Radiello (radial symmetry-type)-were evaluated indoors and outdoors under varying temperature, humidity and wind speed conditions, using the graphitized adsorbents Carbopack X or Carbograph 5 to measure 1,3-butadiene and benzene in ambient air. The results obtained by diffusive sampling were compared with results obtained using a conventional active sampling method over both long (1 week) and shorter periods (6-24 h). Analysis and detection were performed using an automatic thermal desorber (ATD) connected to a gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Results from each sampler and adsorbent combination were examined using ordinary or multiple linear regression analysis. The overall uncertainty (OU) was also determined. In general, the results obtained with both samplers showed good agreement with those obtained by active sampling. Carbopack X appeared to be a more efficient adsorbent than Carbograph 5 for 1,3-butadiene, but the two adsorbents were equivalent for benzene. No effects of either humidity or air velocity were observed. Minor temperature effects were observed for both samplers for 1,3-butadiene. In summary, the results confirmed the accuracy of sampling rates previously determined for the two samplers and adsorbents. We consider the two samplers to be suitable for stationary and personal monitoring for the general population of 1,3-butadiene and benzene in various environments, indoors and outdoors. They are almost independent of meteorological conditions and may be suitable for monitoring industrial atmospheres.

  • 23.
    Sunesson, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Liljelind, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational Medicine.
    Sundgren, Margit
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Pettersson-Strömbäck, Anita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Passive sampling in combination with thermal desorption and gas chromatography as a tool for self-assessment of chemical exposure2002In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 706-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusive samplers for monitoring of air quality are user-friendly devices that can normally be operated by the user himself. Hence these samplers are suitable for self-assessment. Practical and work organisational aspects of self-assessment of chemical exposure were studied in different occupational settings. It was found that the diffusive sampler used in these studies, the Perkin-Elmer tube in combination with thermal desorption, worked well for the purpose and could be correctly handled by the individuals using it. The results from self-assessments agreed well with expert measurements carried out by an occupational hygienist. However, in order to obtain a sustainable system of self-assessment strong organizational support is needed.

  • 24.
    von Zweigbergk, Peter
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Lindahl, Roger
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Östin, Anders
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Ekman, Jenny
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Development of a diffusive sampling method for determination of methyl isocyanate in air2002In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 663-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A diffusive sampling method for determination of methyl isocyanate in air has been developed. A glass fibre filter impregnated with 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine in a commercially available diffusive sampling device was used to collect methyl isocyanate and the derivative formed was analysed with LC-MS/MS. The sampling rate was determined to be 15.6 ml min(-1), with a relative standard deviation of 7.3%. The sampler was validated for sampling periods from 15 min to 8 h, for relative humidities from 20% to 80% and for concentrations from I to 46 microg m(-3). A field validation was also made and the diffusive sampling results showed no difference compared to a pumped reference method. The impregnated filters have to be stored apart from the diffusive sampler housing and loaded into the sampler prior to each sampling.

  • 25.
    Ädelroth, Ellinor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine. Lungmedicin.
    Hedlund, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine. Lungmedicin.
    Helleday, Ragnberth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine. Lungmedicin.
    Ledin, M-C
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Levin, Jan-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Pourazar, Jamshid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine. Lungmedicin.
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine. Lungmedicin.
    Järvholm, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Airway inflammation in iron ore miners exposed to dust and diesel exhaust.2006In: Eur Respir J, ISSN 0903-1936, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 714-719Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 25 of 25
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