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  • 1.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    A verbal factor in the PISA 2003 mathematics items: Tentative analyses2009In: Proceedings of the 33rd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education: In Search for Theories in Mathematics Education, Thessaloniki, Greece: PME , 2009, p. 145-152Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses a statistical method to identify verbal items among mathematical items from PISA 2003. The verbal items are preliminary analysed and compared to the non-verbal items concerning number of text lines, response types, cognitive level, and competences measured. The results show that the verbal items, to a higher percentage than the non-verbal items, measures the reproduction competency, are straigh­t­forward, and of open constructed-response type. These results and proposed further analyses are discussed.

  • 2.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Mathematics and mathematics education - two sides of the same coin: creative reasoning in university exams in mathematics2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation consists of two different but connected parts. Part A is based on two articles in mathematics and Part B on two articles in mathematics education.

    Part A mainly focus on properties of positive currents in connection to polynomial convexity. Earlier research has shown that a point z0 lies in the polynomial hull of a compact set K if and only if there is a positive current with compact support such that ddcT = μ−δz0. Here μ is a probability measure on K and δz0 denotes the Dirac mass at z0. The main result of Article I is that the current T does not have to be unique. The second paper, Article II, contains two examples of different constructions of this type of currents. The paper is concluded by the proof of a proposition that might be the first step towards generalising the method used in the first example.

    Part B consider the types of reasoning that are required by students taking introductory calculus courses at Swedish universities. Two main concepts are used to describe the students’ reasoning: imitative reasoning and creative reasoning. Imitative reasoning consists basically of remembering facts or recalling algorithms. Creative reasoning includes flexible thinking founded on the relevant mathematical properties of ob jects in the task. Earlier research results show that students often choose imitative reasoning to solve mathematical tasks, even when it is not a successful method. In this context the word choose does not necessarily mean that the students make a conscious and well considered selection between methods, but just as well that they have a subconscious preference for certain types of procedures. The research also show examples of how students that work with algorithms seem to focus solely on remembering the steps, and researchers argue that this weakens the students’ understanding of the underlying mathematics. Article III examine to what extent students at Swedish universities can solve exam tasks in introductory calculus courses using only imitative reasoning. The results show that about 70 % of the tasks were solvable by imitative reasoning and that the students were required to use creative reasoning in only one of 16 exams in order to pass. In Article IV, six of the teachers that constructed the analysed exams in Article III were interviewed. The purpose was to examine their views and opinions on the reasoning required in the exams. The analysis showed that the teachers are quite content with the present situation. The teachers expressed the opinion that tasks demanding creative reasoning are usually more difficult than tasks solvable with imitative reasoning. They therefore use the required reasoning as a tool to regulate the tasks’ degree of difficulty, rather than as a task dimension of its own. The exams demand mostly imitative reasoning since the teachers believe that they otherwise would, under the current circumstances, be too difficult and lead to too low passing rates.

  • 3.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Non-uniqueness of positive currents describing polynomial convexityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Positive currents related to polynomial convexity1999Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Types of reasoning required in university exams in mathematics2007In: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 348-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical research shows that students often use reasoning founded on copying algorithms or recalling facts (imitative reasoning) when solving mathematical tasks. Research also indicate that a focus on this type of reasoning might weaken the students' understanding of the underlying mathematical concepts. It is therefore important to study the types of reasoning students have to perform in order to solve exam tasks and pass exams. The purpose of this study is to examine what types of reasoning students taking introductory calculus courses are required to perform. Tasks from 16 exams produced at four different Swedish universities were analyzed and sorted into task classes. The analysis resulted in several examples of tasks demanding different types of mathematical reasoning. The results also show that about 70% of the tasks were solvable by imitative reasoning and that 15 of the exams could be passed using only imitative reasoning.

  • 6.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    University mathematics teachers' views on the required reasoning in calculus exams2012In: The Montana Mathematics Enthusiast, ISSN 1551-3440, E-ISSN 1551-3440, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 371-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students often use imitative reasoning, i.e. copy algorithms or recall facts, when solving mathematical tasks. Research show that this type of imitative reasoning might weaken the students' understanding of the underlying mathematical concepts. In a previous study, the author classified tasks from 16 final exams from introductory calculus courses at Swedish universities. The results showed that it was possible to pass 15 of the exams, and solve most of the tasks, using imitative reasoning. This study examines the teachers' views on the reasoning that students are expected to perform during their own and others mathematics exams. The results indicate that the exams demand mostly imitative reasoning since the teachers think that the exams otherwise would be too difficult and lead to too low passing rates.

  • 7.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    The role of the formal written curriculum in standards-based reform2017In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 149-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 15 years after the introduction of a standards-based curriculum reform, the mathematics teachers are positive towards the reform message but have not changed their classroom practice accordingly. To improve the impact of future reforms, it is important to learn from this situation and to better understand the role of the national policy documents. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine how the standards-based reform in mathematics in Sweden was conveyed in the formal written curriculum. The research questions focus on to what extent and how clearly the national policy documents convey the message. The results show that the message is present to a large extent in the policy documents, but that it is vague and formulated with complex wording. The study gives concrete examples and shows in detail in what ways the documents are vague and complex.

  • 8.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Boesen, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Helenius, Ola
    Örebro universitet.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palmberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Matematikutbildningens mål och undervisningens ändamålsenlighet: grundskolan våren 20092009Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Boesen, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Helenius, Ola
    Örebro universitet.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palmberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Matematikutbildningens mål och undervisningens ändamålsenlighet: gymnasiet hösten 20092010Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Dyrvold, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Relating vocabulary in mathematical tasks to aspects of reading and solving2012In: Evaluation and comparison of mathematical achievement: Dimensions and perspectives. Proceedings of MADIF 8, The Eighth Mathematics Education Research Seminar, Umeå, January 24-25, 2012 / [ed] Christer Bergsten, Eva Jablonka & Manya Raman, Linköping: SMDF , 2012, p. 61-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on relationships between vocabulary in mathematical tasks and aspects of reading and solving these tasks. The paper contains a framework that highlights a number of different aspects of word difficulty as well as many issues to consider when planning and implementing empirical studies concerning vocabulary in tasks, where the aspect of common/uncommon words is one important part. The paper also presents an empirical method where corpora are used to investigate issues of vocabulary in mathematical tasks. The results from the empirical study show that there are connections between different types of vocabulary and task difficulty, but that they seem to be mainly an effect of the total number of words in a task.

  • 11.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Lind, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Är det svårare att dela med fyra än med två när man läser matte C?: En jämförelse av svårighetsgrad mellan olika versioner av matematikuppgifter i Nationella kursprov2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Våren 2004 infördes på försök två olika versioner av de nationella kursproven i matematik på kurserna B, C och D. På varje kurs skilde sig de båda versionerna åt i några av de ingående uppgifterna, medan övriga uppgifter var identiska. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka om, hur och varför dessa förändringar i matematikuppgifterna påverkar uppgifternas svårighetsgrad.

    Resultaten visar att en förändring av de i uppgifterna ingående talen endast i ett fåtal fall påverkat uppgifternas svårighetsgrad i någon större utsträckning. Dessa fåtal fall studeras vart och ett för sig. När två uppgifters sammanhang och formulering skiljer sig åt, även om det matematiska innehållet är i stort sett identiskt, visar ett exempel på att skillnaden i svårighetsgrad kan vara mycket stor.

  • 12.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Theens, Frithjof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Linguistic properties of PISA mathematics tasks in different languages2016In: ICT in mathematics education: the future and the realities: Proceedings of MADIF 10: the tenth research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education Karlstad, January 26–27, 2016 / [ed] Häggström, Johan; Norén, Eva; van Bommel, Jorryt; Sayers, Judy; Helenius, Ola; Liljekvist, Yvonne, Göteborg: Svensk förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning - SMDF, 2016, p. 147-147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mathematics PISA tasks are primarily supposed to measure mathematical ability and not reading ability, so it is important to avoid unnecessary demands of reading ability in the tasks. Many readability formulas are using both word length and sentence length as indicators of text difficulty. In this study, we examine differences and similarities between English, German, and Swedish mathematics PISA tasks regarding word length and sentence length. We analyze 146 mathematics PISA tasks from 2000–2013, in English, German, and Swedish. For each task we create measures of mean word and sentence length. To analyze if there are any differences between the three language versions of the tasks, we use t-tests to compare the three languages pairwise. We found that in average, the German versions have the longest words, followed by Swedish and then English. Average sentence length was highest for English, followed by German and then Swedish.

  • 13.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Theens, Frithjof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Relations between linguistic features and difficulty of PISA tasks in different languages2016In: Proceedings of the 40th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education / [ed] Csíkos, C., Rausch, A., & Szitányi, J., Szeged, Hungary: PME , 2016, Vol. 1, p. 125-125Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Theens, Frithjof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Department of Mathematics and Science Education, Mid Sweden University, SE-85170, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    The role of linguistic features when reading and solving mathematics tasks in different languages2018In: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028, Vol. 51, p. 41-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to deepen the understanding of the relation between the language used in mathematics tasks and the difficulty in reading and solving the tasks. We examine issues of language both through linguistic features of tasks (word length, sentence length, task length, and information density) and through different natural languages used to formulate the tasks (English, German, and Swedish). Analyses of 83 PISA mathematics tasks reveal that tasks in German, when compared with English and Swedish, show stronger connections between the examined linguistic features of tasks and difficulty in reading and solving the tasks. We discuss if and how this result can be explained by general differences between the three languages.

  • 15.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    A theoretical model of the connection between the process of reading and the process of solving mathematical tasks2010In: Mathematics and mathematics education: Cultural and social dimensions. Proceedings of MADIF 7 / [ed] C. Bergsten, E. Jablonka & T. Wedege, Linköping, Sweden: Svensk förening för matematikdidaktisk forskning, SMDF , 2010, p. 47-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we suggest a theoretical model of the connection between the process of reading and the process of solving mathematical tasks. The model takes into consideration different types of previous research about the relationship between reading and solving mathematical tasks, including research about traits of mathematical tasks (a linguistic perspective), about the reading process (a psychological perspective), and about behavior and reasoning when solving tasks (a mathematics education perspective). In contrast to other models, our model is not linear but cyclic, and considers behavior such as re-reading the task.

  • 16.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Monash University, Australia.
    Communicating mathematics or mathematical communication?: An analysis of competence frameworks2012In: Proceedings of the 36th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education: Vol. 2: opportunities to learn in mathematics education / [ed] Tai-Yih Tso, 2012, p. 67-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyse the communication competence included in two different frameworks of mathematical knowledge. The main purpose is to find out if mathematical communication is primarily described as communication of or about mathematics or if it is (also) described as a special type of communication. The results show that aspects of mathematics are mostly included as the content of communication in the frameworks but the use of different forms of representation is highlighted both in the frameworks and also in prior research as a potential cause for characterising mathematical communication differently than "ordinary" communication.

  • 17.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Språkbrukets roll i matematikundervisningen2014In: Nämnaren : tidskrift för matematikundervisning, ISSN 0348-2723, Vol. 2014, no 1, p. 27-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det språk vi använder oss av i matematikklassrummet kan fokuseras på många olika sätt. Språket är också nödvändigt att förhålla sig till vid utvecklingen av sitt matematiska tänkande. Författarna diskuterar här relationer mellan språk och lärande.

  • 18.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Variation of explicit argumentation in mathematics textbooks2017In: Proceedings of the 41st Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education / [ed] Kaur, B., Ho, W.K., Toh, T.L., & Choy, B.H., 2017, Vol. 1, p. 170-170Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Österholm, MagnusUmeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).Granberg, CarinaUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).Sumpter, LovisaStockholms universitet.
    Proceedings of the 42nd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Mathematical competences in Swedish steering documents2009In: In search for theories in mathematics education: proceedings of the 33rd conference of the International group for the psychology of mathematics education / [ed] Marianna Tzekaki, Maria Kaldrimidou, Haralambos Sakonidis, Thessaloniki, Greece: PME , 2009, p. 1:336-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is an ongoing project where we only have very preliminary results, and the main aim of this paper is not to present results, but to discuss the methodological issues when using content analysis on the course syllabus for the Swedish compulsory school. Content analysis (Krippendorff, 2004) is in most cases in the literature used on large materials, for example all news articles from a specific year that concern a certain political issue. We will discuss what happens when we try to use the method on a comparatively small document of a very different kind.

  • 21.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    What is “strong presence” of a message in a steering document?2012In: Proceedings of Norma 11, The Sixth Nordic Conference on Mathematics Education in Reykjavík, May 11-14, 2011 / [ed] G. H. Gunnarsdóttir, F. Hreinsdóttir, G. Pálsdóttir, M. Hannula, M. Hannula-Sormunen, E. Jablonka, U. T. Jankvist, A. Ryve, P. Valero & K. Wæge, Reykjavík, Iceland: University of Iceland Press, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to discuss what a “strong presence” of a message in a syllabuscould be. The discussion takes a starting point in what we call the reformmessage; that what mathematics is can not only be described in terms of content andprocedures, but must also be defined in terms of competencies, e.g. problem solving,reasoning and communication. The analyzed document is the Swedish syllabus forthe first course at upper secondary school. Different ways, both quantitative andqualitative, of determining what a strong presence of a message could be are presentedand discussed.

  • 22.
    Boesen, Jesper
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Helenius, Ola
    Göteborgs universitet och Örebro universitet.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Palmberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Developing mathematical competence: from the intended to the enacted curriculum2014In: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028, Vol. 33, p. 72-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the impact of a national reform in Sweden introducing mathematical competency goals. Data were gathered through interviews, classroom observations, and online surveys with nearly 200 teachers. Contrasting to most studies of this size, qualitative analyses were conducted. The results show that teachers are positive to the message, but the combination of using national curriculum documents and national tests to convey the reform message has not been sufficient for teachers to identify the meaning of the message. Thus, the teachers have not acquired the functional knowledge of the competence message required to modify their teaching in alignment with the reform. The results indicate that for complex reform messages, such as the competency message, to have intended impact on classroom practice, special attention needs to be put on the clarity of the message. To have high-stakes tests, for example, does not alone seem to be sufficient. 

  • 23.
    Dyrvold, Anneli
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Uncommon vocabulary in mathematical tasks in relation to demand of reading ability and solution frequency2015In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 5-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on the relation between commonness of the vocabulary used in mathematics tasks and aspects of students’ reading and solving of the tasks. The vocabulary in PISA tasks is analyzed according to how common the words are in a mathematical and an everyday context. The study examines correlations between different aspects of task difficulty and the presence of different types of uncommon vocabulary. The results show that the amount of words that are uncommon in both contexts are most important in relation to the reading and solving of the tasks. These words are not connected to the solution frequency of the task but to the demand of reading ability when solving the task.

  • 24.
    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Comparing mathematics tasks in different languages2016In: Proceedings of the 40th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education / [ed] Csíkos, C., Rausch, A., & Szitányi, J., Szeged, Hungary: PME , 2016, Vol. 1, p. 151-151Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University.
    Framework of linguistic properties to compare mathematics tasks in different languages2016In: ICT in mathematics education: the future and the realities: Proceedings of MADIF 10 The tenth research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education Karlstad, January 26–27, 2016 / [ed] Johan Häggström, Eva Norén, Jorryt van Bommel, Judy Sayers, Ola Helenius, Yvonne Liljekvist, Göteborgs universitet , 2016, p. 146-146Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to construct a framework of linguistic properties of mathematical tasks that can be used to compare versions of mathematics test tasks in different natural languages. The framework will be useful when trying to explain statistical differences between different language versions of mathematical tasks, for example, differences in item functioning (DIF) that are due to inherent properties of different languages. Earlier research suggests that different languages might have different inherent properties when it comes to expressing mathematics. We have begun with a list of linguistic properties for which there are indications that they might affect the difficulty of a task. We are conducting a structured literature review looking for evidence of connections between linguistic properties and difficulty. The framework should include information about each property including methods used to measure the property, empirical and/or theoretical connections to aspects of difficulty, and relevance for mathematical tasks.

  • 26.
    Lithner, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Boesen, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Palmberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Mathematical competencies: A research framework2010In: Mathematics and mathematics education: Cultural and social dimensions / [ed] Bergsten, Jablonka & Wedege, Linköping, Sweden: Svensk förening för matematikdidaktisk forskning, SMDF , 2010, p. 157-167Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Palm, Torulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Eriksson, Ingela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Hellström, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Häggström, Carl-Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    En tolkning av målen med den svenska gymnasiematematiken och tolkningens konsekvenser för uppgiftskonstruktion2004Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Sullivan Hellgren, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Argumentation in university textbooks: comparing biology, chemistry and mathematics2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Theens, Frithjof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Linguistic features as possible sources for inequivalence of mathematics PISA tasks2018In: Perspectives on professional development of mathematics teachers: Proceedings of MADIF 11, The eleventh research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education, Karlstad, January 23–24, 2018 / [ed] Johan Häggström, Yvonne Liljekvist, Jonas Bergman Ärlebäck, Maria Fahlgren, Oduor Olande, Göteborg: Svensk förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning - SMDF , 2018, Vol. 13, no 13, p. 226-226Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When mathematics tasks are translated to different languages, there is a risk that the different language versions are not equivalent and display differential item functioning (DIF). In this study, we aimed to identify possible sources of DIF. We investigated whether differences in some linguistic features are related to DIF between the English (USA), German, and Swedish versions of mathematics tasks of the PISA 2012 assessment. The linguistic features chosen in this study are grammatical person, voice (active/passive), and sentence structure. We analyzed the three different language versions of 83 mathematics PISA tasks in three steps. First, we calculated the amount of differences in the three linguistic features between the language versions. Then, we calculated DIF, using the Mantel-Haenszel procedure pairwise for two language versions at a time. Finally, we searched for correlations between the amount of linguistic differences and DIF between the versions. The analysis showed that differences in linguistic features occurred between the language versions – differences in voice were most common – and that several items displayed intermediate or large level of DIF. Still, there were no statistical significant correlations between differences in linguistic features and DIF between the language versions, that is, there must be other sources of DIF.

  • 30.
    Theens, Frithjof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Linguistic features in mathematics PISA tasks in different languages2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When the results of international comparative studies such as PISA or TIMSS get published, they are discussed broadly in media and are used to influence politics and public opinion. To solve mathematics PISA tasks, students have to read and understand the task text. Still, since the mathematics tasks are primarily supposed to measure mathematical ability and not reading ability, it is important to avoid unnecessary demands of reading ability in the tasks. In addition, the different language versions of a task used in PISA might vary in reading difficulty. Such differences can result in differential item functioning (DIF), that is, that students with the same mathematical ability but from different countries have a different probability of answering the item correctly. One reason for DIF between language versions is that linguistic features can differ between language versions. In this study we focus on four different linguistic features that in earlier studies have shown connections to the difficulty of solving mathematics tasks (e.g., Abedi, Lord, & Plummer, 1997).

    • Grammatical person, that is, if the text is written in first, second, or third person.
    • Voice, that is, if active or passive voice is used in the text.
    • Sentence structure, that is, how the sentences are built of main and subordinate clauses.
    • Word order, that is, the order of subject, finite verb, and object in the sentence.

    This study is part of a larger project examining the relation between the language used in mathematics tasks and both the tasks’ difficulty and demand of reading ability. The research questions in this study are: Which differences in the four linguistic features investigated occur between PISA tasks in English, German, and Swedish? Which of these differences are related to DIF between the task versions? The English (USA), German, and Swedish language versions of 83 mathematics tasks of the PISA 2012 assessment are analyzed. The first step of the analysis was to search for differences in the four linguistic features between the different language versions of the tasks. The next steps will be quantitative analyses of the differences, a statistical analysis to detect DIF between the versions, and then statistical analyses to investigate possible relations between the differences and DIF. The first step showed that some differences occur sporadically, for example, the use of third person (he/she/it) in one language version and second person (you) in another language version. Other differences occur much more frequently. For example, differences in word order are quite common, in particular since the finite verb always is at the last position in subordinate clauses in German but not in English and Swedish. The next steps of the analysis are at present (January 2017) ongoing.

  • 31.
    Theens, Frithjof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    The relation between linguistic features and DIF in multilanguage mathematics assessmentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Österholm, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Methodological issues when studying the relationship between reading and solving mathematical tasks2012In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 5-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine four statistical methods used for characterizing mathematical test items regarding their demands of reading ability. These methods rely on data of students' performance on test items regarding mathematics and reading and include the use of regression analysis, factor analysis and different uses of correlation coefficients. Our investigation of these methods focuses on aspects of validity and reliability, using data from PISA 2003 and 2006. The results show that the method using factor analysis has the best properties when taking into account aspects of both validity and reliability.

  • 33.
    Österholm, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    What is so special about mathematical texts?: Analyses of common claims in research literature and of properties of textbooks2013In: ZDM - the International Journal on Mathematics Education, ISSN 1863-9690, E-ISSN 1863-9704, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 751-763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study surveys claims in research articles regarding linguistic properties of mathematical texts, focusing on claims supported by empirical or logical arguments. It also performs a linguistic analysis to determine whether some of these claims are valid for school textbooks in mathematics and history. The result of the survey shows many and varying claims that mainly describe mathematical texts as highly compact, precise, complex, and containing technical vocabulary. However, very few studies present empirical support for their claims, and the few empirical studies that do exist contradict the most common, and unsupported, claims, since no empirical study has shown mathematical texts to be more complex than texts from other subjects, and any significant differences rather indicate the opposite. The linguistic analysis in this study is in line with previous empirical studies and stands in contrast to the more common opinion in the unsupported claims. For example, the mathematics textbooks have significantly shorter sentences than the history textbooks.

  • 34.
    Österholm, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    What mathematical task properties can cause an unnecessary demand of reading ability?2012In: Proceedings of Norma 11, The Sixth Nordic Conference on Mathematics Education in Reykjavík, May 11-14, 2011 / [ed] G. H. Gunnarsdóttir, F. Hreinsdóttir, G. Pálsdóttir, M. Hannula, M. Hannula-Sormunen, E. Jablonka, U. T. Jankvist, A. Ryve, P. Valero & K. Wæge, Reykjavík, Iceland: University of Iceland Press, 2012, p. 661-670Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we utilize results from Swedish students in PISA 2003 and 2006 to examine what types of task properties predict the demand of reading ability of a task. In particular, readability properties (sentence length, word length, common words, and information density) and task type properties (content, competence, and format) are examined. The results show that it is primarily readability properties of a task that predict the task’s demand of reading ability, in particular word length and to some extent information density (measured through the noun-verb quotient).

  • 35.
    Österholm, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Dyrvold, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    The study of difficult vocabulary in mathematics tasks: a framework and a literature reviewManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the methodology of research on difficult vocabulary in mathematics tasks. The contribution consists of a framework for the study of difficult vocabulary in mathematics tasks and a literature review of empirical research in the area. The framework includes five main aspects of word difficulty that have been examined in empirical studies and discuss these in the light of theories on reading comprehension. In addition, methodological issues are presented in relation to each main aspect. The literature review examines both methodological aspects of 36 reviewed articles, and synthesizes results on difficult vocabulary. The literature review shows that a commonly used method—to study several word aspects together—is very unfortunate from the perspective of building accumulative knowledge about difficult vocabulary in mathematics tasks. The only well-supported conclusion possible to draw from the synthesis of results from the empirical studies, is that some word aspects are not related to task difficulty.

1 - 35 of 35
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