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  • 1. Anderson, Ian
    et al.
    Robson, Bridget
    Connolly, Michele
    Al-Yaman, Fadwa
    Bjertness, Espen
    King, Alexandra
    Tynan, Michael
    Madden, Richard
    Bang, Abhay
    Coimbra, Carlos E. A., Jr.
    Pesantes, Maria Amalia
    Amigo, Hugo
    Andronov, Sergei
    Armien, Blas
    Obando, Daniel Ayala
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Bhatti, Zaid Shakoor
    Bhutta, Zulfi Qar Ahmed
    Bjerregaard, Peter
    Bjertness, Marius B.
    Briceno-Leon, Roberto
    Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild
    Bustos, Patricia
    Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi
    Chu, Jiayou
    Deji, .
    Gouda, Jitendra
    Harikumar, Rachakulla
    Htay, Thein Thein
    Htet, Aung Soe
    Izugbara, Chimaraoke
    Kamaka, Martina
    King, Malcolm
    Kodavanti, Mallikharjuna Rao
    Lara, Macarena
    Laxmaiah, Avula
    Lema, Claudia
    Taborda, Ana Maria Leon
    Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan
    Lobanov, Andrey
    Melhus, Marita
    Meshram, Indrapal
    Miranda, J. Jaime
    Mu, Thet Thet
    Nagalla, Balkrishna
    Nimmathota, Arlappa
    Popov, Andrey Ivanovich
    Poveda, Ana Maria Penuela
    Ram, Faujdar
    Reich, Hannah
    Santos, Ricardo V.
    Sein, Aye Aye
    Shekhar, Chander
    Sherpa, Lhamo Y.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Tano, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Tanywe, Asahngwa
    Ugwu, Chidi
    Ugwu, Fabian
    Vapattanawong, Patama
    Wan, Xia
    Welch, James R.
    Yang, Gonghuan
    Yang, Zhaoqing
    Yap, Leslie
    Indigenous and tribal peoples' health (The Lancet-Lowitja Institute Global Collaboration): a population study2016In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 388, no 10040, 131-157 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: International studies of the health of Indigenous and tribal peoples provide important public health insights. Reliable data are required for the development of policy and health services. Previous studies document poorer outcomes for Indigenous peoples compared with benchmark populations, but have been restricted in their coverage of countries or the range of health indicators. Our objective is to describe the health and social status of Indigenous and tribal peoples relative to benchmark populations from a sample of countries.

    Methods: Collaborators with expertise in Indigenous health data systems were identified for each country. Data were obtained for population, life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, low and high birthweight, maternal mortality, nutritional status, educational attainment, and economic status. Data sources consisted of governmental data, data from non-governmental organisations such as UNICEF, and other research. Absolute and relative differences were calculated.

    Findings: Our data (23 countries, 28 populations) provide evidence of poorer health and social outcomes for Indigenous peoples than for non-Indigenous populations. However, this is not uniformly the case, and the size of the rate difference varies. We document poorer outcomes for Indigenous populations for: life expectancy at birth for 16 of 18 populations with a difference greater than 1 year in 15 populations; infant mortality rate for 18 of 19 populations with a rate difference greater than one per 1000 livebirths in 16 populations; maternal mortality in ten populations; low birthweight with the rate difference greater than 2% in three populations; high birthweight with the rate difference greater than 2% in one population; child malnutrition for ten of 16 populations with a difference greater than 10% in five populations; child obesity for eight of 12 populations with a difference greater than 5% in four populations; adult obesity for seven of 13 populations with a difference greater than 10% in four populations; educational attainment for 26 of 27 populations with a difference greater than 1% in 24 populations; and economic status for 15 of 18 populations with a difference greater than 1% in 14 populations.

    Interpretation: We systematically collated data across a broader sample of countries and indicators than done in previous studies. Taking into account the UN Sustainable Development Goals, we recommend that national governments develop targeted policy responses to Indigenous health, improving access to health services, and Indigenous data within national surveillance systems.

  • 2.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, PeterUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Ett land, ett folk: Sápmi i historia och nutid2005Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, PeterUmeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Indigenous peoples and demography: the complex relation between identity and statistics2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Indigenous populations and vulnerability.: Characterizing vulnerability in a Sami context2006In: Annales de Demographie Historique, Vol. 111, no 1, 115-132 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Among the most vulnerable populations of today are the indigenous peoples. They share the experience of colonization with severe implications. Historically thousands of indigenous cultures have ceased to exist. The current article outlines and discusses the conditions from the past to the present that make an indigenous people like the Swedish Sami vulnerable. Until the early twentieth century the Sami were in some respects a demographically vulnerable population. Infants and child mortality were dramatically high, yet the fear of extinction that prevailed among Swedish scientists until the 1940s were never realistic. The Swedish Sami population of today is not living on the brink of extinction but there are still circumstances that are the result of historical events contributing to them being more vulnerable than the majority population of Sweden. The Sami has been reduced due to demographic, socio-economic, cultural and political interference. We argue that the Sami vulnerability of the past, present and future involves changes in statistics, language, traditional economy, religion, relocation/reservation, cultural diversity, educational system, and denial of the right to cultural and political self-determination. These factors all play important roles for the contextualization of indigenous vulnerability and should be considered when studying vulnerability among all indigenous populations.

  • 5.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Inledning2005In: Ett land, ett folk: Sápmi i historia och nutid, Umeå: Centrum för samisk forskning, Umeå universitet , 2005, 7-12 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Introduction2011In: Indigenous Peoples and Demography: The Complex Relation of Identity and Statistics / [ed] Per Axelsson and Peter Sköld, Oxford and New York: Berghahn Books , 2011, 1, 1-14 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Samisk forskning – eftersatt och efterfrågad2006In: Tvärsnitt: Humanistisk och samhällsvetenskaplig forskning, ISSN 0348-7997, Vol. 1, 18-22 p.Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Anderson, David, G.
    University of Tromsö.
    Ziker, John
    Boise State University.
    Epilogue: From Indigenous Demographics to an Indigenous Demography2011In: Indigenous Peoples and Demography: The Complex Relation between Identity and Statistics / [ed] Per Axelsson and Peter Sköld, Oxford: Berghahn books , 2011, 1, 295-308 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Lena, Karlsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Len, Smith
    Australian National University, Canberra.
    Indigenous infant mortality in Sweden: the key to the health transition2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sami of northern Scandinavia have experienced a positive health development that has brought them from a high-mortality situation two hundred years ago to their present-day low-mortality profile. Their experience is not shared by other indigenous peoples around the world. This study is concerned with infant mortality, a key issue in the health transition process. Long-term infant mortality trends are analyzed in order to compare Sami and non-Sami groups in the area. Data is obtained from the world-unique Northern Population Data Base at Umeå university, and consist of digitized 18th and 19th-century parish records. These complete life biographies include ethnic markers and enable longitudinal studies of causes of death, differences in sex, age-distribution, stillbirths and legitimacy status. The results are discussed from the perspective of the source quality, methodological considerations, the health transition generally in Sweden, and the overall Sami health transition

  • 10.
    Brändström, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Edvinsson, SörenUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.Ericsson, TomUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.Sköld, PeterUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Befolkningshistoriska perspektiv: Festskrift till Lars-Göran Tedebrand2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 11. Callaghan, Terry V.
    et al.
    Johansson, Margareta
    Brown, Ross D.
    Groisman, Pavel Ya
    Labba, Niklas
    Radionov, Vladimir
    Bradley, Raymond S.
    Blangy, Sylvie
    Bulygina, Olga N.
    Christensen, Torben R.
    Colman, Jonathan E.
    Essery, Richard L. H.
    Forbes, Bruce C.
    Forchhammer, Mads C.
    Golubev, Vladimir N.
    Honrath, Richard E.
    Juday, Glenn P.
    Meshcherskaya, Anna V.
    Phoenix, Gareth K.
    Pomeroy, John
    Rautio, Arja
    Robinson, David A.
    Schmidt, Niels M.
    Serreze, Mark C.
    Shevchenko, Vladimir P.
    Shiklomanov, Alexander I.
    Shmakin, Andrey B.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sturm, Matthew
    Woo, Ming-ko
    Wood, Eric F.
    Multiple effects of changes in arctic snow cover2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, 32-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Snow cover plays a major role in the climate, hydrological and ecological systems of the Arctic and other regions through its influence on the surface energy balance (e.g. reflectivity), water balance (e.g. water storage and release), thermal regimes (e.g. insulation), vegetation and trace gas fluxes. Feedbacks to the climate system have global consequences. The livelihoods and well-being of Arctic residents and many services for the wider population depend on snow conditions so changes have important consequences. Already, changing snow conditions, particularly reduced summer soil moisture, winter thaw events and rain-on-snow conditions have negatively affected commercial forestry, reindeer herding, some wild animal populations and vegetation. Reductions in snow cover are also adversely impacting indigenous peoples' access to traditional foods with negative impacts on human health and well-being. However, there are likely to be some benefits from a changing Arctic snow regime such as more even run-off from melting snow that favours hydropower operations.

  • 12.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Nordin, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Lessons from the Arctic past: The resource cycle, hydro energy development, and the human geography of Jokkmokk, Sweden2016In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 16, 13-24 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has identified a series of human geography impacts of natural resource developments in sparsely populated areas like the Arctic. These impacts can be mapped to the 'resource cycle', and arise from periods of population growth and decline, changing patterns of human migration and mobility, changing patterns of settlement, and changes in the demographic 'balance' between males and females, young and old, Indigenous and non-Indigenous. This paper examines the applicability of the resource cycle model in the case of hydro energy development in the Jokkmokk municipality of Sweden. Using quantitative demographic data, media reports, and contemporary accounts of hydro development, the paper describes the human geography of Jokkmokk since the late 19th century. The paper concludes that changes in human geography in Jokkmokk mirror what has been observed in regions dependent on non-renewable resources, although it is difficult to distinguish many impacts from those that might have occurred under alternative development scenarios. The paper identifies a 'settlement cycle' with phases of integrated and separated habitation for populations specifically associated with the development. Settlement dynamics, and the impacts of hydro on Sami geography are areas for further research.

  • 13.
    Frånberg, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Sköld, PeterUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.Axelsson, PerUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Från Lars Thomassons Penna: Bibliografiska anteckningar 1956-20062007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Lantto, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Sköld, PeterUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Befolkning och bosättning i norr: etnicitet, identitet och gränser i historiens sken2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Lantto, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Inledning2004In: Befolkning och bosättning i norr: etnicitet, identitet och gränser i historiens sken / [ed] Patrik Lantto och Peter Sköld, Umeå: Centrum för samisk forskning, Umeå universitet , 2004, Vol. 1, 9-12 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Lindmark, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Beach, Hugh
    Bäckman, Louise
    Danell, Öje
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Den samiska kulturen kommer att utrotas2005In: Dagens Nyheter, no 2005-10-22Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Nordin, Gabriella
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    The complex fertility of indigenous Sami and non-reindeer-herding settlers in Jokkmokk 1815–18952014In: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 37, no 2, 157-176 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though contemporary fertility shows a steady decrease among indigenous populations in the circumpolar area during the twentieth century, they display a far higher fertility compared to the rest of the population's respective countries. In the absence of Swedish modern data on ethnicity, this study concentrates on fertility in historical times to improve our knowledge on Sami fecundity. Using digitized parish records we aim to study nineteenth century fertility among the Sami and non-Sami in an ethnically mixed parish in the Northern Sweden. The sources also enable an intra-ethnic perspective; thus, the study includes comparisons between forest and mountain Sami. The data revealed a Sami fertility deviating not only from their non-Sami neighbors, but also to a Swedish average. Both Sami and non-Sami women had very low birth rates among young women; nevertheless, Sami women gave birth to fewer children than the non-Sami. Toward the end of the nineteenth century non-Sami women showed crude birth rates well above both Sami and a Swedish average. The fertility pattern among the forest and the mountain Sami revealed both social and economic differences within the Sami group.

  • 18.
    Nordin, Gabriella
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    True or false?: Nineteenth-century Sapmi fertility in qualitative vs. demographic sources2012In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 17, no 2, 157-177 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is limited knowledge about childbirth and childcare among Arctic indigenous peoples in historical times, and the Swedish Sami are no exception. The main aim of the present study is to investigate whether the Sami experienced fertility trends parallel to those of the rest of the population in the area and in Sweden as a whole. Digitized parish records offer a unique possibility to include comparisons from ethnic, cultural, geographical and long-term perspectives. The present study compares the statements about fertility and childcare provided by qualitative sources with data from quantitative demographic investigations. This comparison reveals a contrasting picture, from which it is evident that contemporary observers' impressions of the Sami and their childbirths were somewhat inaccurate. Opposite to what the qualitative sources claimed Sami fertility was higher than the national average rates. Moreover, crude birth rates were high and the average number of children in families exceeded what was generally claimed. We can conclude that the statements made by clergy, physicians and travelers concerning childbirth among the Sami did not correspond particularly well with the demographic reality.

  • 19. Schweitzer, Peter
    et al.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Ulturgasheva, Olga
    Cultures and identities2014In: Arctic human development report: regional processes and global linkages / [ed] Joan Nymand Larsen and Gail Fondahl, Köpenhamn: Nordic Council of Ministers , 2014, 105-150 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    75 år av kvalitet och omtanke: Danderyds sjukhus 1922-19971997Book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    A picture of the future in the rear-view: the ageing population, Sami health, and the return of smallpox2012In: Rivers to cross: Sami land use and the human dimension / [ed] Peter Sköld & Krister Stoor, Umeå: Vaartoe, Centrum för samisk forskning, Umeå universitet , 2012, 179-198 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Det komplexa Sápmi – samisk historia under 400 år2011In: Jag är same / [ed] Britta Lindgren Hyvönen, Christian Richette och Ingrid Sjökvist, Umeå: Västerbottens läns hembygdsförbund , 2011, 114-128 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Development, adjustement and conflict: the Sami and reindeer husbandry in Sweden in the light of political, social and economic changes2011In: Agriculture and Forestry in Sweden since 1900: Geographical and Historical Studies / [ed] Hans Antonsson and Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbruksakademien , 2011, 475-491 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Förord2012In: Vid foten av fjället: forskning om samernas historia och samhälle / [ed] Peter Sköld, Umeå: Centrum för samisk forskning , 2012, 7-9 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Förord2007In: Samisk kulturpolitik i ett nordiskt perspektiv / [ed] Karin Mannela Gaup, Umeå: Centrum för Samisk forskning , 2007, 4-6 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Förord2007In: Människor i norr: Samisk forskning på nya vägar / [ed] Peter Sköld, Umeå: Centrum för Samisk forskning , 2007, 9-17 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Förord: Forskningens förutsättningar och den traditionella kunskapens betydelse2012In: Långa perspektiv: samisk forskning och traditionell forskning / [ed] Peter Sköld och Krister Stoor, Umeå: Centrum för samisk forskning , 2012, 7-12 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Human health2010In: What does the future hold for snow and permafrost in the Arctic and why do we care?: SWIPA snow and permafrost chapters, Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Fairbanks , 2010, 90-93 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Kampen mot kopporna: preventivmedicinens genombrott2005In: Svenska folkets hälsa i historiskt perspektiv / [ed] Jan Sundin, Christer Hogstedt, Jakob Lindberg, Henrik Moberg, Stockholm: Statens folkhälsoinstitut , 2005, 132-175 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Kunskap och kontroll: den svenska befolkningsstatistikens historia2001Book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Kunskapsbrist och modernisering som hot: Samerna i Sverige dolda i statistiken2008In: Fjärde världen, ISSN 0282-258X, Vol. 24, no 3, 22-25 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Liv och död i Lappmarken: aspekter på den demografiska utvecklingen i Arjeplog under 1700- och 1800-talen2004In: Befolkning och bosättning i norr: etnicitet, identitet och gränser i historiens sken / [ed] Patrik Lantto och Peter Sköld, Umeå: Centrum för samisk forskning, Umeå universitet , 2004, Vol. 1, 85-105 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Mannen som kom ner för ett fjäll – samerna i Karesduando och Roland Bonaperte2008In: Looking North: Representations of Sámi in Visual Arts and Literature / [ed] Heidi Hansson och Jan-Erik Lundström, Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundet , 2008, 175-183 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Människor i norr: Samisk forskning på nya vägar2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    New sources for historical demographic research – comments and perspectives2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Northern Studies Research at Umeå University2009In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, no 2, 127-129 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Perpetual adaption?: challanges for the Sami and reindeer husbandry in Sweden2015In: The new Arctic / [ed] Birgitta Evengård, Joan Nymand Larsen, Øyvind Paasche, Cham: Springer, 2015, 39-55 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reindeer husbandry is of vital importance for the Sami living in Sweden, Norway, Finland and Russia. With a focus on Sweden we can conclude that through a colonial history the reindeer herding Sami have achieved legal rights that to some extent guarantee their existence. This is largely due to a successful political mobilization. On the other hand conflicts over land use with non-Sami settlers and the Swedish state have been a frequent element in the industry. The Sami must also combat a stereotypical understanding of reindeer herding that often has difficulties in understanding the constant modernization and technical development. Today the reindeer herders compete with industries such as mines, hydropower, windmill parks, forestry and tourism. An additional threat is the predators and state policies around them. Reindeer herding is of vital importance to all Sami, but the legal system prohibits the large majority to be involved, something that has had recent political complications in the Sami society.

  • 38.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Problems of indigenous peoples of the North: health care, rights and identity2014In: Topical Problems of Sustainable Development and Security Mainteinance in the Arctic / [ed] Marina Kalinina and Elena Kudrushova, Moskow: Arctic Council Office , 2014, 104-105 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Review of Urban Örneholm (ed. and transl.), Four Eighteenth-century medical dissertations under the presidency of Nils Rosén2005In: Medical History, ISSN 0025-7273, Vol. 49, no 2, 226-227 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Röster om Lars Thomasson2007In: Från Lars Thomassons penna: bibliografiska anteckningar 1956-2006 / [ed] Per Frånberg, Peter Sköld och Per Axelsson, Umeå: Kungliga Skytteanska samfundet , 2007, 19-20 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Samerna – ett sårbart folk?: Kulturell samexistens i svenska Sápmi2009In: Tvärsnitt, ISSN 0348 7997, no 4, 16-19 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Samerna och deras historia: metodövningar i samisk 1600- och 1700-talshistoria1993Book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sami identity in the cross-fire between politics and culture2010In: Inclusion through education and culture: Fourth Annual Conference of the University Network of the European Capitals of Culture jointly organized with the Compostela Group of Universities / [ed] Wim Coudenys & Lászlo I Komlósi, Pécs: UNeECC , 2010, 201-209 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Samisk bosättning i Gällivare 1550-17501992Book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Samisk forskning i framtiden2005In: Igår, idag, imorgon: samerna, politiken och vetenskapen / [ed] Peter Sköld och Per Axelsson, Umeå: Centrum för samisk forskning, Umeå universitet , 2005, 15-61 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Samisk forskning vid Umeå universitet2009In: Thule: Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundets Årsbok 2009 / [ed] Roger Jacobsson, Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundet , 2009, 187-2001 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Skönheten och odjuret: smittkoppor och giftermålsmönster i Sverige2004In: Befolkningshistoriska perspektiv: festskrift till Lars-Göran Tedebrand / [ed] Redaktionskommitté Anders Brändström, Sören Edvinsson, Tom Ericsson och Peter Sköld, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2004, 119-140 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    The Man Who Came Down a Mountain: The Sámi in Karesuando and Roland Bonaparte2008In: Looking North. : Representations of Sámi in Visual Arts and Literature / [ed] Heidi Hansson and Jan-Erik Lundström, Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundet , 2008, 165-173 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    The two faces of culture: Sami participation during the European Capital of Culture 2014 project2015In: Under the same sun: parallel issues and mutual challenges for San and Sami peoples and research / [ed] Peter Sköld, Moa Sandström and Maiseo Bolaane, Umeå: Vaartoe/Centre for Sami Research (CeSam), Umeå University , 2015, 51-60 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    The two faces of smallpox: a disease and its prevention in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Sweden1996Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the history of smallpox in Sweden between 1750 and 1900 and the two preventive measures that were used against it: inoculation during the eighteenth and vaccination during the nineteenth Century. Between 1750 and 1800 300,000 children died from smallpox in Sweden. During the nineteenth Century smallpox death rates decreased considerably and by the end of the Century the disease was very rare. The purpose of this study has been to examine the occurrence of smallpox at local, regional and national levels and to explain the changes in the light of general models of the epidemiologic transition. Smallpox mortality has been analyzed by demographic variables such as age, sex, and social class. The adaptation and practise of inoculation and vaccination has been examined by using a model of preventive health care behaviour.

    When smallpox mortality decreased sharply at the beginning of the nineteenth century, a greater proportion of adults were represented. More men than women died. Due to diminished immunity most of those who were vaccinated became susceptible about ten years later. There is only a slight tendency that smallpox impaired a persons fertility. Sterility, however, often resulted from an infection. Disfiguring facial pockmarks were also a serious complication of smallpox infection. Those who had been infected from smallpox married later in life than those who were susceptible or vaccinated.

    Inoculation was never widely accepted in eighteenth-century Sweden since a fatalistic attitude did not encourage preventive measures. The physicians monopoly and a general lack of organization were other important impediments. Vaccination was successfully implemented in 1802 and became the single most important factor for the decrease in smallpox mortality. By employing the clergy and allowing everyone to practise vaccination a great majority of the new-born were immunized. Vaccination rates were raised further when the method was made compulsory in 1816. Since there were no risks involved and after experiencing the advantages of vaccination during smallpox epidemics the inhabitants of Sweden were easily to persuaded of its benefits. By then smallpox had changed from a fatal killer to a rare disease.

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