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  • 1.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Paulin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, bi-weekly body conditioning classes in sedentary women2017In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 451-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate the effects of participation in low impact body conditioning classes on physical fitness in sedentary women at different ages and (2) to examine the correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, the participation. Ninety-two sedentary women (mean age 44.2 years) participated in 11-weeks of bi-weekly classes that included cardiovascular, strength, core, endurance and mobility exercises, all performed in synchrony with music. Cardiorespiratory fitness, maximal lifting strength, mobility and balance tests were performed pre- and post the exercise period and the short-form Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ-S) was completed. Zero-order Spearman correlation analyses showed that women who rated the PSDQ-S dimension Sport competence higher participated in a larger number of sessions (rs=0.24, p=0.040). At post-tests, all participants had increased their balance, the participants aged 20-34 years had increased their lifting strength, and the participants aged 35-65 years had increased their cardiorespiratory fitness and mobility. Most PSDQ-S dimensions did not affect performance change, but the perception of being physically active was related to increased cardiovascular fitness. We conclude that women with a sedentary lifestyle who wish to increase their physical capacity benefit from music exercise and that inquiries about perceived sport competence and physical activity can improve recommendations made by strength and conditioning professionals.

  • 2. Bakhiet, Salaheldin Farah Attallah
    et al.
    Dutton, Edward
    Ashaer, Khalil Yousif Ali
    Essa, Yossry Ahmed Sayed
    Blahmar, Tahani Abdulrahman Muhammad
    Hakami, Sultan Mohammed
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Understanding the Simber Effect: why is the age-dependent increase in children's cognitive ability smaller in Arab countries than in Britain?2018In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 122, p. 38-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that the typical increase in IQ during childhood is greater in European countries than in Arab countries. A systematic literature review of age-dependent IQ in Arab countries is conducted, yielding relevant studies for 12 countries that fulfil the inclusion criteria. In almost all of these studies, Arab children exhibit an age-dependent IQ decline relative to Caucasian children, from 5 to about 12 years of age in particular. We term this phenomenon the Simber Effect. We propose two non-exclusive explanations. (1) The Flynn Effect is less intense in Arab countries because of localised differences, including poorer education quality and greater religiosity. (2) Those from Arab countries follow a faster Life History Strategy than Europeans, for environmental and possibly genetic reasons. Either way, the Simber Effect may amount to a Wilson Effect, meaning that the impact of genetic IQ increases with age.

  • 3. Bååth, R
    et al.
    Madison, G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thesubjective difficulty of tapping to a slow beat2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Bååth, Rasmus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Strandberg, T
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Measuring the rhythmic properties of eye movements2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5. Dahl, Sofia
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Keeping the tempo and perceiving the beat2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6. Dahl, Sofia
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Keeping the tempo and perceiving the beat2006In: 9th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition: Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, August 22-26 2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7. Davies, Matthew
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Silva, Pedro
    Gouyon, Pabien
    The Effect of Microtiming Deviations on the Perception of Groove in Short Rhythms2013In: Music perception, ISSN 0730-7829, E-ISSN 1533-8312, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 497-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GROOVE IS A SENSATION OF MOVEMENT OR WANTing to move when we listen to certain types of music; it is central to the appreciation of many styles such as Jazz, Funk, Latin, and many more. To better understand the mechanisms that lead to the sensation of groove, we explore the relationship between groove and systematic microtiming deviations. Manifested as small, intentional deviations in timing, systematic microtiming is widely considered within the music community to be a critical component of music performances that groove. To investigate the effect of microtiming on the perception of groove we synthesized typical rhythm patterns for Jazz, Funk, and Samba with idiomatic microtiming deviation patterns for each style. The magnitude of the deviations was parametrically varied from nil to about double the natural level. In two experiments, untrained listeners and experts listened to all combinations of same and different music and microtiming style and magnitude combinations, and rated liking, groove, naturalness, and speed. Contrary to a common and frequently expressed belief in the literature, systematic microtiming led to decreased groove ratings, as well as liking and naturalness, with the exception of the simple short-long shuffle Jazz pattern. A comparison of the ratings between the two listener groups revealed this effect to be stronger for the expert listener group than for the untrained listeners, suggesting that musical expertise plays an important role in the perception and appreciation of micro timing in rhythmic patterns.

  • 8. De Manzano, Ö
    et al.
    Madison, G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ullén, F
    Associationsbetween creative achievement in scientific and artistic domains, intelligence,personality, and sex.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9. Dutton, Edward
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Even "Bigger Gods" developed amongst the pastoralist followers of Moses and Mohammed: consistent with uncertainty and disadvantage, but not prosocality2016In: Behavioral and Brain Sciences, ISSN 0140-525X, E-ISSN 1469-1825, Vol. 39, p. 27-28, article id e11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gods of monotheistic religions, which began amongst pastoralists and defeated exiles, are closer to Big Gods than those associated with ancient city-based polities. The development of Big Gods is contingent upon a need to reduce uncertainty and negative feelings in combination with a relatively high level of prosociality, rather than a need to induce or assess prosociality.

  • 10. Dutton, Edward
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Execution, violent punishment and selection for religiousness in medieval England2018In: Evolutionary Psychological Science, E-ISSN 2198-9885, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 83-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frost and Harpending, Evolutionary Psychology, 13 (2015), have argued that the increasing use of capital punishment across the Middle Ages in Europe altered the genotype, helping to create a less violent and generally more law-abiding population. Developing this insight, we hypothesise that the same system of violent punishments would also have helped to genotypically create a more religious society by indirectly selecting for religiousness, through the execution of men who had not yet sired any offspring. We estimate the selection differential for religiousness based on genetic correlation data for conceivably related traits, and compare that to the actual increase in religiosity across the Middle Ages. We further explore other mechanisms by which religiousness was being selected for in Medieval England, and conclude that executions most likely contributed substantially to the increase in religiosity, but that other selection pressures also played a role.

  • 11. Dutton, Edward
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Life History and Race Differences in Puberty Length: A Test of Differential-K Theory.In: Mankind Quarterly, Vol. 56Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Dutton, Edward
    et al.
    Ulster Institute for Social Research, London, UK.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Why do Finnish men marry Thai women but Finnish women marry British men?: Cross-national marriages in a modern, industrialized society exhibit sex-dimorphic sexual selection according to primordial selection pressures2017In: Evolutionary Psychological Science, ISSN 2198-9885, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Male and female Finns who contracted cross-national marriages had spouses from very different countries. We tested the possibility that this might reflect sexual selection, with nationality being a proxy for certain kinds of social status. It is predicted from evolutionary theory that females tend to sexually select for status to a greater extent than do males, who rather select for youth and beauty. Across the 36 out of 161 countries of origin for which there were sufficient numbers of immigrant spouses, we found that the ratio of wives from richer countries to Finnish husbands was less than 1, which was, consistent with the hypothesis, which was also the case for the ratio of husbands from poorer countries to Finnish wives. A few exceptions to this general pattern could plausibly be explained by particular circumstances regarding these countries. A careful consideration of alternative explanations did not render any one more convincing than the proposed dimorphic pattern of inherited mate preferences.

  • 13. Dutton, Edward
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Why do middle-class couples of European descent adopt children from Africa and Asia? Some Support for the Differential K Model2018In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 130, p. 156-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patterns of adoption behaviour are starkly asymmetric across populations. To better understand this phenomenon we conducted a systematic review of transracial adoption and adoption in general. We found six quantitative studies from the USA (with representative samples comprising a total of 117,000 participants) which had examined sex, race, and SES in relation to differences in behaviours and attitudes regarding both transracial adoption and adoption in general. A secondary analysis of these data found that transracial adopting is predicted by being female, white (as opposed to black), and of higher SES. These data are consistent with group differences in Life History Strategy – the Differential K model – regarding males and females, SES differences, and white and black people, but not with the fact that both transracial adoption and adoption rates in general seem to be lower in Northeast Asian countries. The influence of cultural factors upon these patterns may be addressed by future studies.

  • 14. Dutton, Edward
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lynn, Richard
    Demographic, economic, and genetic factors related to national differences in ethnocentric attitudes2016In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 101, p. 137-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted a review of factors associated with individual and group level differences in positive ethnocentrism (PE) and negative ethnocentrism (NE). We inter-correlated datasets on national differences in these factors with data from the World Values Survey with regard to national differences in measures of PE and NE. The two different survey items for each construct were strongly correlated, but the constructs themselves were not significantly associated. Multiple regression analyses indicated that NE was mainly related to high levels of cousin marriage and frequency of the DRD4-repeat gene, and that PE was mainly related to a young median population age. Cousin marriage may indicate low levels of trust, DRD4 implies a fast Life History strategy, and young median age is associated with many factors predicting PE. 

  • 15. Dutton, Edward
    et al.
    Van der Linden, Dimitri
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Antfolk, Jan
    Woodley Of Menie, Michael A.
    The intelligence and personality of Finland's Swedish-speaking minority2016In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 97, p. 45-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is evidence that Finland's Swedish-speaking minority (Finland-Swedes) may have a distinct intelligence-personality profile from the Finnish-speaking Finns (Finns). We test this through an examination of the two groups' PISA (Programme of International Student Assessment) scores (which assesses representative samples of 15 year olds from OECD countries) and their personality scores, drawing upon a representative Finnish sample. We found Finland-Swedes to have slightly lower average intelligence. However, when controlling for gender and age, the Finland-Swedes score significantly higher on Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Emotional Stability. Overall, we found a Jensen Effect whereby most of the personality differences between the two groups could be attributed to the General Factor of Personality (GFP), which reflects the shared variance of lower-order personality traits. The GFP is assumed to reflect general social effectiveness.

  • 16. Elowsson, A
    et al.
    Friberg, A
    Madison, G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Paulin, J
    Modellingthe speed of music using features from harmonic/percussive separated audio2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17. Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Spelförståelse: Begreppsvalidering genom självuppskattningar av professionella innebandyspelare och deras tränare2008In: SVEBIS årsbok: aktuell beteendevetenskaplig idrottsforskning 2008 / [ed] Göran Patriksson, Lund: SVEBI , 2008, p. 39-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Forsman, Lea J
    et al.
    Neuropediatric Research Unit, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm Brain Institute, SE-171 76, Sweden.
    de Manzano, Örjan
    Neuropediatric Research Unit, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm Brain Institute, SE-171 76, Sweden.
    Karabanov, Anke
    Neuropediatric Research Unit, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm Brain Institute, SE-171 76, Sweden.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ullén, Fredrik
    Neuropediatric Research Unit, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm Brain Institute, SE-171 76, Sweden.
    Differences in regional brain volume related to the extraversion–introversion dimension: a voxel based morphometry study2012In: Neuroscience research, ISSN 0168-0102, E-ISSN 1872-8111, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extraverted individuals are sociable, behaviorally active, and happy. We report data from a voxel based morphometry study investigating, for the first time, if regional volume in gray and white matter brain regions is related to extraversion. For both gray and white matter, all correlations between extraversion and regional brain volume were negative, i.e. the regions were larger in introverts. Gray matter correlations were found in regions that included the right prefrontal cortex and the cortex around the right temporo–parietal junction – regions that are known to be involved in behavioral inhibition, introspection, and social-emotional processing, e.g. evaluation of social stimuli and reasoning about the mental states of others. White matter correlations extended from the brainstem to widespread cortical regions, and were largely due to global effects, i.e. a larger total white matter volume in introverts. We speculate that these white matter findings may reflect differences in ascending modulatory projections affecting cortical regions involved in behavioral regulation.

  • 19.
    Forsman, Lea J.
    et al.
    Dept. Woman amd Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ullén, Fredrik
    Dept. Woman amd Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Neuroticism is correlated with drift in serial time interval production2009In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 229-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low neuroticism and high intelligence are both related to lower intertrial variability in reaction time tasks. However, intelligence and neuroticism are weakly related traits, which suggests that they may be related to different sources of timing variability. The relation between intelligence and timing variability has recently been investigated using isochronous serial interval production (ISIP). This is a simple, automatic timing task where participants first synchronize movements with an isochronous sound sequence and then continue with self-paced production of a sequence of intervals with the same inter-onset interval (IOI). For all IOIs, local interval-to-interval variability correlated strongest with intelligence. The purpose of the present study was to test whether neuroticism, in contrast, is related to the non-local component of ISIP variability, i.e. drift or gradual changes in response IOI. We found a significant correlation of r = 0.42 between drift and neuroticism, thereby confirming the hypothesis. We suggest that this finding reflects that individuals high on neuroticism have more frequent slips in top–down cognitive control mechanisms. These cognitive failures may in turn interfere with the processing of previously produced intervals in short-term memory, which gives an unstable IOI in the ISIP task, i.e. drift.

  • 20.
    Hellmer, Kahl
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Quantifying microtiming patterning and variability in drum kit recordings: A method and some data2015In: Music perception, ISSN 0730-7829, E-ISSN 1533-8312, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 147-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    HUMAN PERFORMERS INTRODUCE TEMPORAL variability in their performance of music. The variability consists of both long-range tempo changes and micro-timing variability that are note-to-note level deviations from the nominal beat time. In many contexts, micro-timing is important for achieving certain preferred characteristics in a performance, such as hang, drive, or groove; but this variability is also, to some extent, stochastic. In this paper, we present a method for quantifying the microtiming variability. First, we transcribed drum performance audio files into empirical data using a very precise onset detection system. Second, we separated the microtiming variability into two components: systematic variability (SV), defined as recurrent temporal patterns, and residual variability ( RV), defined as the residual, unexplained temporal deviation. The method was evaluated using computer-performed audio drum tracks and the results show a slight overestimation of the variability magnitude, but proportionally correct ratios between SV and RV. Thereafter two data sets were analyzed: drum performances from a MIDI drum kit and real-life drum performances from professional drum recordings. The results from these data sets show that up to 65 percent of the total micro-timing variability can be explained by recurring and consistent patterns.

  • 21.
    Hesselman Borg, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Westerståhl, Maria
    Institutionen för laboratoriemedicin, Karolinska institutet.
    Lundell, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Longitudinal study exploring factors associated with neck/shoulder pain at 52 years of age2016In: Journal of Pain Research, ISSN 1178-7090, E-ISSN 1178-7090, Vol. 9, p. 303-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the ability of work-related measurements, body composition, physical activity, and fitness levels to predict neck/shoulder pain (upper body pain, UBP) at the age of 52 years. Another aim was to investigate the cross-sectional relationships between UBP, work-related factors, and individual factors at the age of 52 years.

    METHODS: We followed a randomly selected cohort of 429 adolescents that was recruited in 1974 (baseline), when they were 16 years old. The participants completed physical fitness tests, questions about sociodemographic and lifestyle factors at 16, 34, and 52 years of age, and questions about work-related factors and pain in the follow-ups. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between UBP and the other variables.

    RESULTS: Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that high body mass index and the work-related factors, low control, and low social support at the age of 34 years were related to UBP at the age of 52 years. For social support, there was an interaction between men and women where the relationship between low social support and the experience of pain was more evident for women. Among women, body mass index and social support remained significantly related in the multivariate analyses. For men, social support remained significantly related. Cross-sectional relationships at the age of 52 differed from the longitudinal in the sense that measures of joint flexibility and work posture were also significantly associated with UBP.

    CONCLUSION: The fact that the cross-sectional differed from the longitudinal relationships strengthens the importance of performing longitudinal studies when studying factors that might influence the initiation of pain. UBP preventative measures might need to include both lifestyle (such as dietary habits and physical activity to ensure that the individuals are not becoming overweight) and work-related factors such as social support.

  • 22. Holm, L
    et al.
    Madison, G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schrater, P
    Drift inrepetitive timing reveals the organization of time control.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23. Holm, Linus
    et al.
    Karampela, O
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Executive control in motor timing2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Holm, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Karampela, Olympia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ullén, Fredrik
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Executive control and working memory are involved in sub-second repetitive motor timing2017In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 235, no 3, p. 787-798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nature of the relationship between timing and cognition remains poorly understood. Cognitive control is known to be involved in discrete timing tasks involving durations above 1 s, but has not yet been demonstrated for repetitive motor timing below 1 s. We examined the latter in two continuation tapping experiments, by varying the cognitive load in a concurrent task. In Experiment 1, participants repeated a fixed three finger sequence (low executive load) or a pseudorandom sequence (high load) with either 524-, 733-, 1024- or 1431-ms inter-onset intervals (IOIs). High load increased timing variability for 524 and 733-ms IOIs but not for the longer IOIs. Experiment 2 attempted to replicate this finding for a concurrent memory task. Participants retained three letters (low working memory load) or seven letters (high load) while producing intervals (524- and 733-ms IOIs) with a drum stick. High load increased timing variability for both IOIs. Taken together, the experiments demonstrate that cognitive control processes influence sub-second repetitive motor timing.

  • 25.
    Holm, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Whenever next: Hierarchical timing of perception and action2013In: Behavioral and Brain Sciences, ISSN 0140-525X, E-ISSN 1469-1825, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 217-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The target article focuses on the predictive coding of "what" and "where" something happened and the "where" and "what" response to make. We extend that scope by addressing the "when" aspect of perception and action. Successful interaction with the environment requires predictions of everything from millisecond-accurate motor timing to far future events. The hierarchical framework seems appropriate for timing.

  • 26.
    Holm, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ullen, Fredrik
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motor and Executive Control in Repetitive Timing of Brief Intervals2013In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, ISSN 0096-1523, E-ISSN 1939-1277, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 365-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the causal role of executive control functions in the production of brief time intervals by means of a concurrent task paradigm. To isolate the influence of executive functions on timing from motor coordination effects, we dissociated executive load from the number of effectors used in the dual task situation. In 3 experiments, participants produced isochronous intervals ranging from 524 to 2,000 ms with either the left or the right hand. The concurrent task consisted of the production of either a pseudorandom (high cognitive load) or a simple repeated (low cognitive load) spatial sequence of key presses, while also maintaining a regular temporal sequence. This task was performed with either a single hand (unimanual) or with both hands simultaneously (bimanual). Interference in terms of increased timing variability caused by the concurrent task was observed only in the bimanual condition. We verified that motor coordination in bimanual tasks alone could not account for the interference. Timing interference only appeared when (a) more than 1 effector was involved and (b) there were simultaneous task demands that recruited executive functions. Task interference was not seen if only 1 of these 2 conditions was met. Thus, our results suggest that executive functions are not directly involved in motor timing, but can indirectly affect timing performance when they are required to schedule complex motor coordination.

  • 27.
    Holm, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ullén, Fredrik
    Karolinska institutet, Institutionen för kvinnor och barns hälsa, Stockholm Brain Institute.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Intelligence and temporal accuracy of behaviour: unique and shared associations with reaction time and motor timing2011In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 214, no 2, p. 175-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligence is associated with accuracy in a wide range of timing tasks. One source of such associations is likely to be individual differences in top-down control, e.g. sustained attention, that influence performance in both temporal tasks and other cognitively controlled behaviors. In addition, we have studied relations between intelligence and a simple rhythmic motor task, isochronous serial interval production (ISIP), and found a substantial component of that relation, which is independent of fluctuations in top-down control. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate whether such bottom-up mechanisms are involved also in the relation between intelligence and reaction time (RT) tasks. We thus investigated if common variance between the ISIP and RT tasks underlies their respective associations with intelligence. 112 participants performed a simple RT task, a choice RT task and the ISIP task. Intelligence was assessed with the Raven SPM Plus. The analysed timing variables included mean and variability in the RT tasks and two variance components in the ISIP task. As predicted, RT and ISIP variables were associated with intelligence. The timing variables were positively intercorrelated and a principal component analysis revealed a substantial first principal component that was strongly related to all timing variables, and positively correlated with intelligence. Furthermore, a commonality analysis demonstrated that the relations between intelligence and the timing variables involved a commonality between the timing variables as well as unique contributions from choice RT and ISIP. We discuss possible implications of these findings, and argue that they support our main hypothesis, i.e. that relations between intelligence and RT tasks have a bottom-up component.

  • 28. Iemi, Luca
    et al.
    Ullén, Fredrik
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relation between rhythmic accuracy and intelligence is not due to differences in top-down control -further evidence using manipulations of motivation during tapping.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29. Karampela, O
    et al.
    Madison, G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ullén, F
    Differentsources of timing variability and how they are related to intelligence.2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Karampela, Olympia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Shared timing variability in eye and finger movements increases with interval duration: support for a distributed timing system below and above one second2015In: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, ISSN 1747-0218, E-ISSN 1747-0226, Vol. 68, no 10, p. 1965-1980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The origins of the ability to produce action at will at the hundreds of millisecond to second range remain poorly understood. A central issue is whether such timing is governed by one mechanism or by several different mechanisms, possibly invoked by different effectors used to perform the timing task. If two effectors invoke similar timing mechanisms, then they should both produce similar variability increase with interval duration (interonset interval) and thus adhere to Weber's law (increasing linearly with the duration of the interval to be timed). Additionally, if both effectors invoke the same timing mechanism, the variability of the effectors should be highly correlated across participants. To test these possibilities, we assessed the behavioural characteristics across fingers and eyes as effectors and compared the timing variability between and within them as a function of the interval to be produced (interresponse interval). Sixty participants produced isochronous intervals from 524 to 1431 ms with their fingers and their eyes. High correlations within each effector indicated consistent performance within participants. Consistent with a single mechanism, temporal variability in both fingers and eyes followed Weber's law, and significant correlations between eye and finger variability were found for several intervals. These results can support neither the single clock nor the multiple clock hypotheses but instead suggest a partially overlapping distributed timing system.

  • 31.
    Karampela, Olympia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motor timing training improves sustained attention performanceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 32. Konopacki, Mateusz
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    EEG Responses to Shamanic Drumming: Does the Suggestion of Trance State Moderate the Strength of Frequency Components?2018In: Journal of Sleep and Sleep Disorder Research, ISSN 2574-4518, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 16-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the techniques used to induce trance state in shamanic ceremonies is monotonous drumming. According to previous EEG research, certain patterns of drumming cause an increase in power of alpha and theta frequencies of the listener. Present study aimed to determine, if suggestion to experience trance state could increase the relative alpha and theta amplitude and the intensity of experienced state. A group of twenty-four subjects participated in the study. Suggestion to experience trance state decreased alpha frequency power during the drumming condition. No other significant effects of suggestion or drumming were found.

  • 33.
    Krantz, Guy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Merker, B
    Melodic intervals as reflected in body movement2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34. Krantz, Göran
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Merker, Björn
    Melodic intervalls as reflected in body movement2006In: 9th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition: Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna August 22-26 2006, 2006, p. 265-268Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35. Krantz, Göran
    et al.
    Merker, Björn
    Madison, Guy
    Institutionen för psykologi, Uppsala universitet.
    Melodic intervals and body movement2003In: Dance and Education. Proceedings of the 17th International Congress on Dance Research, Athens, Greece: IOAFA , 2003, p. 141-148Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Madison, G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Deterministic multi-levelrhythmical patterns (MLP), and some examples of their uses in rhythm research.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Madison, G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Parts ofthe journey to understand groove in music - capturing what people feel andthink2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Madison, G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rhythm, movement and thegroove connection – what is it good for?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Madison, G
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mosing, M
    Verweij, K
    Ullén, F
    Common genetic influences onintelligence and simple reaction time.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Madison, G
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Paulin, J
    Percievedmusical ability’s effect on mate attraction. Implications for sexual selectiontheory.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Madison, G
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sioros, G
    Davies, M
    Miron, M
    Cocharro, D
    Gouyon, F
    Adding syncopation to simplemelodies increases the perception of groove.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Madison, G
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ullén, F
    Intelligence and temporalvariability – further examinations of the top-down versus bottom-up accounts ofthe underlying common component.2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Madison, G
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Woodley, M.A
    Ullén, F
    Investigating relationshipsbetween cognition and life history in a sample of 6364 individuals.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    An auditory illusion of infinite tempo change and some of its applications2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    An auditory illusion of infinite tempo change based on multiple temporal levels2009In: PloS ONE, Vol. 4, no 12, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans and a few select insect and reptile species synchronise inter-individual behaviour without any time lag by predicting the time of future events rather than reacting to them. This is evident in music performance, dance, and drill. Although repetition of equal time intervals (i.e. isochrony) is the central principle for such prediction, this simple information is used in a flexible and complex way that accommodates both multiples, subdivisions, and gradual changes of intervals. The scope of this flexibility remains largely uncharted, and the underlying mechanisms are a matter for speculation. Here I report an auditory illusion that highlights some aspects of this behaviour and that provides a powerful tool for its future study. A sound pattern is described that affords multiple alternative and concurrent rates of recurrence (temporal levels). An algorithm that systematically controls time intervals and the relative loudness among these levels creates an illusion that the perceived rate speeds up or slows down infinitely. Human participants synchronised hand movements with their perceived rate of events, and exhibited a change in their movement rate that was several times larger than the physical change in the sound pattern. The illusion demonstrates the duality between the external signal and the internal predictive process, such that people's tendency to follow their own subjective pulse overrides the overall properties of the stimulus pattern. Furthermore, accurate synchronisation with sounds separated by more than 8 s demonstrate that multiple temporal levels are employed for facilitating temporal organisation and integration by the human brain. A number of applications of the illusion and the stimulus pattern are suggested.

  • 46.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Capturing what people feel and think about music2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cause and affect: a functional perspective on music and emotion2011In: Art and the senses / [ed] Francesca Bacci and David Melcher, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 329-350Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Madison, Guy
    Institutionen för psykologi, Uppsala universitet.
    Detection of linear temporal drift in sound sequences: principles and empirical evaluation2004In: Acta Psychologica, ISSN 0001-6918, E-ISSN 1873-6297, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 95-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The just noticeable difference (JND) for linearly increasing or decreasing successive time intervals (drift) was measured by means of an adaptive psychophysical procedure. Effects of number of intervals (Nint), direction (increasing or decreasing intervals), and inter onset interval (IOI) in a sequence were examined across 3 experiments. JND decreased as a function of  Nint in a negatively exponential fashion, and was not affected by direction. JND increased as function of IOI, with discontinuities close to 1 s and 1.4 s IOI. The results are compatible with a principle for detection in which an internal periodic process, based on the mean IOI of a few initial intervals in the stimulus sequence, is compared with the last few intervals. Principles based on comparing successive intervals, the first and last interval, or on comparing the last interval with an internal periodic process with the same IOI as the first interval were not supported.

  • 49.
    Madison, Guy
    Institutionen för psykologi, Uppsala universitet.
    Different kinds of groove in jazz and dance music as indicated by listeners' ratings2001In: Proceedings of the VII International Symposium on Systematic and Comparative Musicology and III International Conference on Cognitive Musicology / [ed] Henna Lapalainen, Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä , 2001, p. 108-112Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groove – or swing – is a primordial aspect of music, more so for ingenous and functional kinds of music, such as dance- and folk music, than for art music. People appear to judge the amount of groove fast and effortlessly, although an objective or consistent definition is wanting. One possible definition of groove could be "suggestion to move to the pulse". It is not clear if the attribution of groove is inter-individually consistent across a large number of real music examples. If not, one could ask if different kinds of groove can be identified. In a first experiment to explore these issues, nonmusicians were asked to rate groove and a number of other adjectives commonly used for characterising music on a 10-point scale for 64 short excerpts from commercially available recordings of dance-, folk-, jazz-, and fusion music. The ratings were subjected to correlation- and factor analyses. The former may indicate to what extent groove is related to other typical dimensions, such as tension-calm, complexity–stability, and sadness-happiness. The latter may indicate if these examples contain features that contribute independently to groove. The results may help to understand the nature of groove, and its psychological significance, and to aid the design of research purporting to map the relationships between groove and objective properties of sound patterns.

  • 50.
    Madison, Guy
    Institutionen för psykologi, Uppsala universitet.
    Duration specificity in the long-range correlation of human serial interval production2006In: Physica D: Non-linear phenomena, ISSN 0167-2789, E-ISSN 1872-8022, Vol. 216, no 2, p. 301-306Article in journal (Refereed)
123 1 - 50 of 146
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