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  • 1.
    Baker, Susan
    et al.
    Cardiff School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University, Wales, UK.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Political science and ecological restoration2014In: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 509-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological restoration has taken on a new significance in the face of climate change and biodiversity loss. Despite its growing policy salience, however, the social and political sciences have paid limited attention to the study of ecological restoration policy and practice. By drawing upon the political science study of multilevel governance, institutions, power elations, and place-based politics, a flavour is given of what a political science engagement might contribute to the rich tapestry of analysis that has already been produced by other disciplines on ecological restoration. As the use of restoration grows, it is increasingly likely that it will give rise to social dispute and be brought into conflict with a variety of environmental, cultural, economic, and community interests. Restoration policy and projects encounter professional and institutional norms as well as place-specific interests and values. There is urgent need to investigate how and in what ways some interests become winners and others losers in these activities, and how this in turn can influence ecological restoration outcomes. A political science lens could help build new criteria for evaluating the success of ecological restoration, ones that combine both process- and product-driven considerations.

  • 2.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Lokal samverkan i fjällens miljö- och naturresursförvaltning: var, när och hur behovet av lokal samverkan uppstår – samt om lokalt deltagande bidrar till hållbar utveckling i fjällen?2016Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Thellbro, Camilla
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Svensson, Johan
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Per
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Between protocol and reality: Swedish municipal comprehensive planning2018In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 35-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial planning using a landscape approach has been recognized as being essential for reconciling ecological, cultural and socioeconomic dimensions in sustainable development (SuD). Although embraced as a concept, there is a lack of planning tools capable of incorporating multi-level, multifunctional and multi-sectoral perspectives, especially in a rural context. The departure point in this paper is the legal requirements for municipal comprehensive planning (MCP) in Sweden and an e-mail survey about incentives, stakeholder involvement, policy integration and implementation in MCP in all 15 Swedish mountain municipalities. The purpose of this explorative study is to examine whether MCP could be a tool in planning for SuD. Results indicate a general lack of resources and a low status of MCP that affect, and even limit, stakeholder involvement, policy integration and implementation. However, legal requirements for MCP are targeted at SuD, and municipal personnel responsible for planning appreciate the potential of MCP. Therefore, there is potential to develop the MCP into an effective landscape planning tool. To accomplish this, the status of an active planning process has to be raised, the mandate of the local planning agency has to be secured, and residents and land users have to be involved throughout the planning process.

  • 4.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Thellbro, Camilla
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Svensson, Johan
    Implementing collaborative planning in the swedish mountains: The case of Vilhelmina2018In: WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment: Sustainable Development and Planning X, Southampto: WIT Press, 2018, Vol. 217, p. 781-796Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical appraisals have stressed the need for participation and social learning in spatial planning, and planning is now seen as a process of innovative collaboration by multiple actors. During such ‘collaborative planning’, various parties try to develop new inclusive strategies through dialog. Collaborative planning is a major strand of current planning theory and highlights the need for new methods that involve citizen participation. In Sweden, the realization of collaborative planning in practice remains elusive, and research on the subject is limited, so further studies are needed. Thus, in the project “Green planning: Vilhelmina as a testbed for innovative land use planning in the mountain region”, we tested and implemented methods for involving citizens and other land-use stakeholders in the process of developing Vilhelmina municipality’s comprehensive plan (MCP). This paper presents lessons learned from that process and data obtained from a set of focus groups, a workshop, surveys, and personal communication. From these activities in the Swedish mountain region, we learned that collaborative practices have both pros and cons that must be addressed for practical realization of the widely embraced ideal of collaborative planning.

  • 5.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Lokal samverkan i fjällen: strategier för att minska konflikter inom miljö- och naturresursförvaltning2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Svensson, Johan
    Thellbro, Camilla
    Grön översiktsplanering i fjäll- och fjällnära landskap: Deltagande planering för en innovativ och hållbar översiktsplan för Vilhelmina kommun2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Översiktsplaneringen i fjällkommunerna skulle kunna vara det självklara verktyget i arbetet med att uppnå miljökvalitetsmålet "Storslagen fjällmiljö". Kommunen har som lokal myndighet en central roll i hållbar utveckling och översiktsplaneringen ska, per definition, hantera markanvändningsfrågor i ett landskapsperspektiv. Detta sker dock inte i någon större utsträckning idag och därför finns ett stort behov av att utveckla bättre metoder och processer för att göra det kommunala planeringsverktyget mer nytänkande, kunskapsbaserat och förutseende.

    I Vilhelmina kommun har forskarna tillsammans med myndigheter, lokala aktörer och kommunmedborgare utvecklat metoder för att ta fram en grön översiktsplan. Översiktsplanen baseras på uthållig markanvändning och omfattar faktiska natur- och kulturvärden, såväl som nuvarande och framtida förutsättningar för strategisk planering för hur olika intressen kan samsas i fjällandskapet. I projektet analyseras möjligheter och hinder en process av detta slag möter, metoder för att uppnå ett ökat engagemang och en större lokal medverkan i planprocessen.

    Arbetet med den gröna översiktsplanen har resulterat i ett samrådsdokument som antagits av politikerna i Vilhelmina kommun. Rapporten redovisar en stegvis modell av planeringsprocessen som ska kunna ligga till grund för liknande processer även i andra fjällkommuner och/eller landsbygdskommuner med stora landskaps- och naturtillgångar. Exempel på lärdomar är att tidigt och kontinuerligt förankra det deltagande planeringsarbetet gentemot den lokala politiken och att deltagandeprocesser måste få ta tid.

  • 7.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Funding ecological restoration policy in practice: patterns of short-termism and regional biases2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 52, p. 439-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With continuous degradation of ecosystems combined with the recognition of human dependence on functioning ecosystems, global interest in ecological restoration (ER) has intensified. From being merely a nature conservation measure, it is today advanced as a way to improve ecosystem functions, mitigate biodiversity loss and climate change, as well as renew human–nature relationships. However, ER is a contested and diversified term used in research, policy and practice. Substantive public funding is allocated towards this end worldwide, but little is known about its concrete purpose and coverage, as well as what decides its allocation. With inspiration from environmental funding literature we analyze the case of Sweden to provide the first national overview of public ER funding. The understudied political context of ER is thus addressed but also regional variation in funding allocation. A database of all national government funding programs between 1995 and 2011 that included projects and sub-programs aiming at practical ER measures was created. Results show that ER activities counted for 11% (130 million USD) of the total government nature conservation funding. Water environments were highly prioritized, which can be explained by economic and recreational motives behind ER. The ER funding was unevenly distributed geographically, not related to either environmental need or population size, but rather to regional administrative capacity. It was also found to be small scale and short term, and hence part of a general trend of "project proliferation" of public administration which runs contrary to ecosystem based management. As ER is not yet a long-term investment in Sweden, commonly seen as an environmental lead state, we expect even less and more short-term ER funding in other countries.

  • 8.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Incentives for collaborative governance: top-down and bottom-up initiatives in the Swedish mountain region2015In: Mountain Research and Development Journal, ISSN 0276-4741, E-ISSN 1994-7151, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 289-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governance collaborations between public and private partners are increasingly used to promote sustainable mountain development, yet information is limited on their nature and precise extent. This article analyzes collaboration on environment and natural resource management in Swedish mountain communities to critically assess the kinds of issues these efforts address, how they evolve, who leads them, and what functional patterns they exhibit based on Margerum's (2008) typology of action, organizational, and policy collaboration. Based on official documents, interviews, and the records of 245 collaborative projects, we explore the role of the state, how perceptions of policy failure may inspire collaboration, and the opportunities that European Union funds have created. Bottom-up collaborations, most of which are relatively recent, usually have an action and sometimes an organizational function. Top-down collaborations, however, are usually organizational or policy oriented. Our findings suggest that top-down and bottom-up collaborations are complementary in situations with considerable conflict over time and where public policies have partly failed, such as for nature protection and reindeer grazing. In less contested areas, such as rural development, improving tracks and access, recreation, and fishing, there is more bottom-up, action-oriented collaboration. State support, especially in the form of funding, is central to explaining the emergence of bottom-up action collaboration. Our findings show that the state both initiates and coordinates policy networks and retains a great deal of power over the nature and functioning of collaborative governance. A practical consequence is that there is great overlap—aggravated by sectorized approaches—that creates a heavy workload for some regional partners.

  • 9.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Mårald, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Samverkan i Bottenvikens vattendistrikt: analys av vattenrådsarbetet2012Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Fauchald, Ole Kristian
    et al.
    Fridtjof Nansen Institute.
    Gulbrandsen, Lars H.
    Fridtjof Nansen Institute.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Internationalization of protected areas in Norway and Sweden: examining pathways of influence in similar countries2014In: International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, ISSN 2151-3732, E-ISSN 2151-3740, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 240-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines differences in how international regimes for the establishment and management of protected areas have been implemented in Norway and Sweden. We focus on regulatory and normative pathways of international influence, which mirror the distinction between legal and non-legal regimes in international environmental law. Sweden and Norway have essentially responded similarly to the regulatory regimes that apply to both countries. The more normative regimes have influenced them in different ways – primarily by strengthening traditional nature conservation norms in Sweden, and norms about sustainable use by local communities in Norway. The findings indicate that the normative pathway is important mainly as a support for domestic policies that correspond to existing national norms and discourses, and they support the proposition that a high degree of regulatory hardness contributes to increase the level and consistency of implementation.

  • 11.
    Holmgren, Lina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Protected area governance in Sweden: new modes of governance or business as usual?2017In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 22-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores whether ambitions to open up the traditional Swedish model of top-down conservation methods to local influences are indicative of an actual transition in governance of Swedish national park policy (NPP), and examines whether such a shift entails an increase in local influence over local interests and needs. Methodologically, we analyse a combination of governance types and incorporate theoretical definitions of power and accountability. The establishment of new governance arrangements – where power is shared, interactions promoted and accountability is directed downwards – indicates that Sweden's NPP is undergoing a change in its mode of governance. This change also seems to include ceding some influence to local interests, and the possibility of combining conservation with the utilisation of certain natural resources. The results of our research also provide valuable insights into when the establishment of shared-governance arrangements are likely to succeed; in short, this seems more likely when there are established sectors sited in a robust legal framework and where strong international commitments potentially play a role. In conclusion, we contend that when seeking diversified governance arrangements it is not enough simply to take local practices and customs into consideration – they have to be strengthened.

  • 12.
    Hongslo, Eirin
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Hovik, Sissel
    Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Aasen Lundberg, Aase Kristine
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Decentralization of Conservation Management in Norway and Sweden—Different Translations of an International Trend2016In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 998-1014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International policy trends are always transformed and translated to fit the political and administrative systems in which they are introduced. An international trend of decentralization has resulted in conservation management systems in Sweden and Norway that differ, both in the choice of institutional solution and in the scope of change. This is surprising, as conservation management in the two countries was originally very similar. Nature conservation was managed through hierarchical systems dominated by bureaucratic experts. While Sweden has introduced co-management in a few protected areas only, Norway has devolved powers in all large conservation areas to intermunicipal management boards. Through document studies, we investigate how decentralization interacts with the broader systems of political actors and institutions of which nature conservation is a part.

  • 13.
    Hovik, Sissel
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, Oslo, Norway .
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Management of protected areas in Norway and Sweden: challenges in combining central governance and local participation2010In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 159-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neither Norway nor Sweden has fulfilled international commitments to the principles of direct public involvement in nature conservation, which involve (we believe) the state adopting an 'enabling' role, mobilizing governance resources to support decentralized decision-making while retaining powers to intervene when necessary to defend important minority interests or support international objectives. We analyse four attempts to establish nature conservation areas with substantial levels of direct public involvement in the two countries and argue that in each case, flaws in the setting of the areas' boundaries, the framework for participation and conflict resolution mechanisms have undermined public involvement. Hence, there is a need to design more effective, enabling rules to encourage local actor involvement in nature conservation and resolve any political issues that arise as a consequence of such involvement, before the international commitments can be fulfilled.

  • 14. Lindahl, Karin Beland
    et al.
    Baker, Susan
    Rist, Lucy
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Theorising pathways to sustainability2016In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, ISSN 1350-4509, E-ISSN 1745-2627, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 399-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a Pathways approach, controversies over environmental and natural resource management are viewed as expressions of alternative, or competing, pathways to sustainability. This supports deeper understanding of the underlying causes of natural resource management controversies. The framework is composed of two elements: the STEPS (Social, Technological, and Environmental Pathways to Sustainability) Pathways approach and frame analysis. Many sustainable development dilemmas are played out in specific places and consequently, the Pathways approach is integrated with a place-based frame analysis. The resulting framework guides empirical investigation in place-based contexts. This theorising about sustainability science can be used to cast light on contested natural resource management issues, in this case mining in northern Sweden. By exposing the range of alternative Pathways to critical norms of sustainable development, we ascertain whether action alternatives are compatible with sustainable futures. The framework provides a way in which sustainability science can better understand the origins of natural resource management conflicts, characterise the positions of the actors involved, identify the potential for cooperation between stakeholders leading to policy resolution and judge what Pathways help or hinder the pursuit of sustainable development. In addition, it can enhance sustainability science by guiding integrative sustainability research at the project scale.

  • 15. Lindahl, Karin Beland
    et al.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Viklund, Roine
    Competing pathways to sustainability?: Exploring conflicts over mine establishments in the Swedish mountain region2018In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 218, p. 402-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural resource (NR) exploitation often gives rise to conflict. While most actors intend to manage collectively used places and their NRs sustainably, they may disagree about what this entails. This article accordingly explores the origin of NR conflicts by analysing them in terms of competing pathways to sustainability. By comparing conflicts over mine establishments in three places in northern Sweden, we specifically explore the role of place-based perceptions and experiences.

    The results indicate that the investigated conflicts go far beyond the question of metals and mines. The differences between pathways supporting mine establishment and those opposing it refer to fundamental ideas about human nature relationships and sustainable development (SD). The study suggests that place-related parameters affect local interpretations of SD and mobilisation in ways that explain why resistance and conflict exist in some places but not others. A broader understanding of a particular conflict and its specific place-based trajectory may help uncover complex underlying reasons. However, our comparative analysis also demonstrates that mining conflicts in different places share certain characteristics. Consequently, a site-specific focus ought to be combined with attempts to compare, or map, conflicts at a larger scale to improve our understanding of when and how conflicts evolve. By addressing the underlying causes and origins of contestation, this study generates knowledge needed to address NR management conflicts effectively and legitimately. 

  • 16.
    Persson, Jens
    et al.
    Inst. för skoglig zooekologi, SLU Umeå.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Inst. för skoglig zooekologi, SLU Umeå.
    Lokal förvaltning av stora rovdjur: en kunskapssammanställning2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur våra gemensamma resurser bäst kan och ska förvaltas är både en komplicerad och ofta konfliktfylld fråga. Det framgår inte minst av debatten kring hur och på vilken nivå våra storarovdjur ska förvaltas. Eftersom rovdjuren vanligtvis lever i glesa populationer, spridda över mycket stora områden, men också är förknippade med såväl ekonomiska som sociala konflikter harden centrala nivån ansetts bäst lämpad att förvalta rovdjuren.Det har bland annat medfört att de som lever nära rovdjuren och riskerar att drabbas av rovdjuren upplever att de har småmöjligheter att påverka politikens och förvaltningens utformning.Det har i sin tur skapat konflikter kring hur och på vilketsätt rovdjuren bäst förvaltas (SOU 1999:146).

    I en strävan att öka förtroendet för den svenska rovdjurspolitikenoch överbrygga den klyfta mellan centralmakt och lokalnivå eller mellan stad och land som uppstått har riksdagenbeslutat att lokala aktörer på olika sätt ska involveras i förvaltningen.Inom ramen för en sammanhållen rovdjurspolitik harbland annat regionala rovdjursgrupper, sammansatta av olikaberörda intressen, bildats. Den svenska decentraliseringen avrovdjurspolitiken, följer den av FN fastslagna andra Malawi-principensom slår fast att förvaltning av ekosystem ska decentraliserastill lägsta ändamålsenliga nivå (UNEP/CBD/COP/4/inf.9).

    Att decentralisera förvaltningen av gemensamma resurser,i det här fallet stora rovdjur, är förknippat med en rad specifikaproblem. Förutom att det krävs biologisk kunskap om rovdjuren,är det nödvändigt att reda ut vilka sociala, ekonomiska och kulturellaaspekter som bör beaktas vid förvaltningen. Det är ocksånödvändigt att finna en acceptabel balans mellan decentraliseringoch centralisering av beslutsprocessen. Lokal förvaltningav rovdjur är relativt nytt även internationellt sett. Det är fortfarandetill stora delar okänt vad som egentligen krävs för attlokal förvaltning av rovdjur ska fungera. Det är emellertid möjligtatt vi kan lära något av de försök som redan genomförts. Syfte med den här rapporten är därför dels att sammanställakunskap om lokal eller decentraliserad förvaltning av stora rovdjur, främst utifrån biologiska, socioekonomiska och förvaltningspolitiskaförutsättningar, dels att skapa ett underlag för fortsattforskning inom ramen för forskningsprogrammet FjällMistra.

  • 17.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    The Mountain Mistra Programme: the Political Science Approach2005In: Fourth Annual Parks and Protected Areas Research Forum. Winnipeg, Canada, 30 september, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    5.4 Vad skiljer och förenar i fjällänens vilt och fiskförvaltning?2004Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Co-Management of Natural Resources: Paradigm Shifts, Key Concepts and Cases2004Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Commons protected for or from the people?: Co-management in the Swedish mountain region?2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Protected areas have so far been the primary means to conserve biodiversity, an increasingly important environmental issue, but proposals to establish protected areas are often met by local resistance due to fears that user rights will be severely restrained. Nature conservation traditionally aims to preserve an ideal state of nature, in which interference by people is minimized through a number of regulations, and where central authorities are in charge. Increasingly, however, conservation policy emphasizes participation. Protected area designations are about institutional change where customary and legal rights to use and manage certain resources are renegotiated. Protected areas can be considered as multi-use and multi-level commons that may benefit from co-management where the state cooperates with user groups, municipalities, research institutions and others.

    This thesis analyzes the establishment phase of the co-management of multi-level, multi-use commons in order to characterize design principles common to the emergence of co-management processes which improve institutional robustness.

    The thesis is based on a quantitative survey study and a small-n comparative case study. Paper I compares national, regional and local public opinions about protected areas through a multi-level survey. Papers II to IV each presents a case study of a designation process within the Swedish mountain region. The qualitative case studies are based on the structured, focused comparison method and employ within-case analysis and process-tracing. The material examined consisted of written documenta­tion and 41 semi-structured interviews.

    The two studies contribute to commons theory; the focus on the establishment phase provides opportunities to acquire abundant information about how contextual and process factors influence the functioning of a co-management arrangement. Paper I suggests that national public opinion is an important contextual variable for natural resources of national interest, and shows that 65% of the Swedish population support local or co-management of protected areas. Papers II to IV reveal that the rigidity of the existing institutional framework is another important contextual variable that influences the degree of learning taking place. Further, the comparative analysis proposes that certain characteristics of a process (the co-management process principles) are essential for the realization of co-management arrangements of multi-level and multi-use commons. The principles are representation, reason(ableness), powers, accountability and learning.

  • 21.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Conflict resolution mechanisms in co-management: the Laponia world heritage siteManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To accommodate changes in the environment and society, a diverse range of institutional tools is needed. One such tool is co-management, which is particularly relevant for management of the commons, but little is known about the socio-political processes (ideal and actual) involved in the emergence of co-management arrangements. Conflicts have been proposed as catalysts for the development of co-management and conflict resolution mechanisms have recognized importance, but they have not been intensively examined in the literature regarding commons. The aim of this paper is to analyze the processes that occur in the shift from policymaking to implementation during the emergence of co-management arrangements, in order to further understand institutional and policy change. The study was prompted partly by a perceived need to clarify concepts related to conflict resolution mechanisms. Hence, concepts in alternative dispute resolution theory and in the literature on com­mons and policy change are compared. A theoretical framework is then developed in which process models of collaboration are discussed in relation to learning orders. Finally, the process involved in the establishment of the Laponia World Heritage Site is examined, as both an illustration and an initial test of the relevance of the theoretical framework.

  • 22.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Deliberative democracy and co-management of natural resources: snowmobile regulation in western Sweden2010In: International Journal of the Commons, ISSN 1875-0281, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 273-292Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Deliberation is an understudied aspect of co-management institutions and common pool theory that can be improved by a closer connection to deliberative democratic theory. Analyses of co-management arrangements provide needed empirical insights to deliberative democratic theory, although such arrangements are group-based and not readily accepted as examples of deliberative democracy. A framework is developed to analyze to what degree co-management arrangements incorporate deliberative elements and how they contribute to improved decision-making. To test its usefulness, a case study of a co-management process in Sweden is analyzed. In Funäsdalsfjällen, a mountainous area of western Sweden, a conflict-ridden situation caused by expanded use of snowmobiles eventually led to the establishment of a municipal regulation area. Central and regional authorities initially failed to resolve the conflict, but when they started working directly with the municipality and relevant interest groups, agreement was reached. Deliberative elements are shown to have been central to the success of the co-management process, and it is concluded that co-management and deliberative democratic approaches cross-fertilize one another.

  • 23.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Fulufjällets nationalpark: på folkets villkor?2008In: Omstridd natur: Trender och utmaningar i nordisk naturförvaltning, Boréa, Umeå , 2008, p. 105-125Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Kräver gemensamma resurser samförvaltning?2004Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Länsstyrelsernas förvaltning av jakt och fiske i fjällen: Likheter och skillnader2004Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The designation of Fulufjället National Park: efficient co-management through downward accountability?2009In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 259-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International obligations in nature conservation policy demand for decentralisation and co-management. Co-management arrangements are increasingly seen as forms of governance, which opens up for the critique that accountability becomes blurred when public–private relations are characterised by informality and negotiations. The purpose of this article is to examine the issue of accountability by comparing comanagement theory and the decentralisation framework of Agrawal and Ribot, and by empirically analysing the designation of Fulufja¨llet National Park. This case constitutes a blueprint for Swedish efforts to adhere to the international obligations for decentralisation and is thus an example of their implementation.

  • 27.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Who should manage protected areas in the Swedish mountain region?: A survey approach to co-management2008In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 154-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates attitudes towards co-management of protected areas in Sweden, at the national, county and local level. In Sweden, protected areas are still primarily designated and managed hierarchically—a practice increasingly contested by people living close to them, including indigenous Sámi reindeer herders whose economic activities are located within protected areas. The general view could, on the contrary, be anticipated to be pro-state since protected areas are considered to be of national interest. For democratic reasons, however, the opinions of the whole population should be considered. In order to measure both local and general views, this study is based on a two-sample survey of 8868 respondents. The objectives are to map and explain attitudes regarding who should manage protected areas in Sweden, and to test the usefulness of a multi-level quantitative method. Such an approach is unusual in co-management literature that is empirically mainly based on local case studies. The explanatory ambition sets out to test three hypotheses drawn from common-pool resource theory; resource dependency, common understanding, and trust. Perhaps surprisingly, the results show that a considerable majority of the respondents (at all levels) wish to see self- or co-management. All three hypotheses are important to understand attitudes toward the management of protected areas, but not always in the way that the theory anticipates.

  • 28.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin
    Political opportunity and mobilization: The evolution of a Swedish miningsceptical movement2019In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 64, article id 101477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As demand for minerals is expected to increase due to the energy transition needed to meet climate targets, mineral exploration will continue intensifying. Surveys find that public acceptance of the mining industry is low, particularly in the EU, suggesting that mining conflicts may increase in both number and intensity. Conflict usually occurs in places where a significant number of local actors mobilize resistance against a mining company. Their success is dependent on the emergence of a broader social movement that jumps to the relevant scale of regulation, often the national level. Despite this, very little attention is being paid to the emergence of such a movement, as well as to the state and its institutions, in studies on mining conflicts. Most research into mining conflicts examines developing countries, while mining resistance is an emerging issue also in developed nations, not least in the Arctic. Understanding mining resistance is important in avoiding or addressing conflicts that can be costly for companies, communities, and the state. This paper explores the relationship between state politics and mining resistance at the national level, drawing on social movement research and the concept of political opportunity structures. The results show that confrontational mining resistance will grow at the national level when the state offers little access nor influence to mining-sceptical actors in either policy formulation or implementation, and where there is a sufficient number of simultaneously ongoing contested licensing processes. In cases where indigenous people are involved, weak or contested indigenous rights may also spur resistance.

  • 29.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    EIP-Agri – lärdomar från första åren: Halvtidsrapport från den löpande lärande utvärderingen av EIP-Agri med fokus på dess införande och uppstart2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    EIP-Agri is an innovation support mechanism within the EU Rural Development Programme targeting agriculture, horticulture and reindeer husbandry. This on-going evaluation examines routines, rules and roles at the Swedish Board of Agriculture in connection with introducing EIP-Agri in Sweden. Two types of support can be granted: for forming an innovation group and for an innovation project (with full funding). Implementation problems and potential solutions are analysed and discussed.

    Group formation and innovation projects

    The possibility of applying for group formation support is a great strength. This possibility could well be strengthened in the next programme period. Some of the requirements could be more flexible. Clarified decision criteria should be made publicly available. Resource-weak actors should be specifically targeted in order to increase the share going further from group to implementation project. Social and organizational innovations are few and should be encouraged. The connection to research can be further strengthened.

    Processing of applications

    The e-application process for innovation project support is perceived as demanding, requiring considerable additional documentation. Late payments is also viewed as an obstacle for many. Further efforts are needed to make the internal processing at the Board of Agriculture and the innovation support advice more effective.

    Roles and coordination

    The role division between the administration at the Board of Agriculture, the Advisory Selection Committee and the innovation support has been internally discussed and clarified over time. In particular, coordination and exchange of experiences has improved. The interpretation of the innovation concept and decision criteria is still somewhat varying, but the coherence of what is communicated to applicants has gradually improved. Still, however, continued calibration and interaction is necessary.

    Link to other innovation initiatives

    Limited information about EIP-Agri has reached the Swedish university-based innovation offices. EIP-Agri should be better communicated via complementary channels than those of the Board of Agriculture. Experiences from other similar innovation programs should be incorporated into EIP-Agri to develop synergies and ensure that innovations reach the market. The potentials of EIP-Agri support should be communicated more strategically.

    Planned evaluation of effects

    During 2019–2021, the on-ongoing evaluation is expected to examine whether the program has contributed to relevant innovations in relation to its goals. However, current data reporting routines limit the opportunities to evaluate such effects, including its currently broad and vague goals and criteria. Development of evaluation criteria and data reporting from the Board of Agriculture is required.

  • 30.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    EIP-Agri – lärdomar från första åren: Halvtidsrapport från den löpande lärande utvärderingen av EIP-Agri med fokus på dess införande och uppstart. Bilagor2019Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    When Public Officers Take the Lead in Collaborative Governance: To Confirm, Consult, Facilitate or Negotiate?2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2001-7405, E-ISSN 2001-7413, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 21-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governments are investing considerable time and resources in the field of collaborative governance as it proliferates throughout many sectors, and how public officers choose to respond to these developments therefore becomes an important question. The increased public involvement that collaborative governance brings is often more costly than traditional forms of governance, while the outcomes are highly uncertain. For these reasons, it is important that collaborative governance is only used when really warranted, and the various forms that it can take should be carefully designed. In this study, we apply a typology of collaboration strategies to examine firstly, the circumstances under which leading officers at four county administrative boards in the Swedish mountain region decide to lead collaboration, and secondly what collaboration strategies they then apply. This study is based on 20 interviews with key officers, and 39 interviews with project leaders of public-private collaborations in the area of natural resource management in the region. We find that officers should take trust levels into account when designing collaboration strategies, not least the lack of official trust. Strategies are found to be not mutually exclusive but complementary, and officers employ several at the same time. Interestingly, the results of this study show that – somewhat counter-intuitively – distrust is a driver for officers to initiate collaboration, a conclusion which questions the common view that more trust unequivocally translates into more participation.

  • 32.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Defining ecological restoration policy in Sweden2014In: Studying public policy: an international approach / [ed] Michael Hill, Bristol/Chicago: Policy Press, 2014, p. 149-166Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the next contribution Anna Zachrisson and Katarina Eckerberg explore aspects of complexity in the formulation process in an examination of ecological restoration policy (ER), using Sweden as an empirical illustration. In Sweden there is of yet no particular Act directing ER, but elements of ER are found in several Acts and Bills which are included in this analysis. Nevertheless, ER activities are already taking place, often as projects within the context of a public funding programme aiming at ecological sustainability or nature conservation (in agriculture, water environments, forests and so on).

    The analysis thus looks into the top-down element in policy formulation through taking departure in textual analyses of key policy documents, from the government and from the relevant central authorities. Evidence is also drawn from a data base that comprises Swedish central government-funded ER projects over the last ten year period. Specifically, it is analysed how the concept of ER is articulated and documented in government policy from the late 1980s until recently, and how the policy has been translated into implementation. This analysis comprises the policy objectives across levels, sectors and actors, as well as which policy instruments are emphasized and how they play out on the ground.

    A non-dogmatic perspective is adopted here that sees the policy stages as interlinked rather than necessarily following a chronological order. With the programmatic result of the policy as contrast to the articulated policy goals, we are thereby able to discuss the relationship between the formulation and the implementation of ER policy in Sweden, and draw conclusions that go beyond the formulated policy as such.

  • 33.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    Conflict resolution through collaboration: preconditions and limitations in forest and nature conservation controversies2013In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 33, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing competition over the world's forest resources will likely aggravate conflict, though conflict should not be seen as bad per se. As the challenge is to develop institutions and practices capable of handling conflict constructively, various collaborative approaches involving disputing actors are evolving worldwide. In Sweden, most such approaches pertain to protected areas and few involve commercial forestry. The reasons for the rise of different approaches to collaboration in protected areas and commercially managed forest lands are explored through a comparison of two conflicts embedded in different management regimes. The study suggests that actor interdependence is critical to how collaboration evolves. Interdependence is in turn affected by the institutions, discourses, and economic context in which the process is embedded. When contextual factors are unfavourable, power relations too unequal, and interdependencies between dominant and subordinated actors weak, the prospects for collaboration are slim. In an enabling context, in contrast, mobilization may alter power relations and interdependencies, making collaboration possible. This study suggests that the low occurrence of collaborative land use planning in many parts of Sweden may be related to the presence of strong economic land use interests, un-successful mobilization of weaker parties, and absence of enabling institutional and discursive factors.

    (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 34.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Sandell, K
    Fredman, P
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Tourism and protected areas: motives, actors and processes2006In: International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management, no 2, p. 350-358Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Med sikte på en bättre fjällförvaltning2004Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Samarbete ger mer flexibilitet2004Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Veli-Pekka, Tynkkynen
    Governance, resources and co-management2004In: The Resilient North - Human Responses to Global Change. Proceedings of the third Northern Research Forum, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
1 - 37 of 37
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