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  • 1.
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Anna Sofia Charlotta Ahlström2018Other (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Ester Katarina Boman2018Other (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Ett år med Ester: en mikrohistorisk undersökning av det sociala nätverket och känslolivet hos en småskollärare vid sekelskiftet 19002017In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 137, no 3, p. 379-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the dawn of the twentieth century (1901–1902), the nineteen-year-old junior school teacher Ester Vikström kept a diary. Ester worked in a small coastal village in northern Sweden where she was the only teacher. Through a microhistorical approach this study aims to explore the public and private life of Ester by focusing on her social networks and emotional life. The study uses female agency, a life course approach and concepts from the history of emotions to analyze her diary. The main findings show that Ester was very active in the local community and had a broad social network, which included social ties on many different levels in the social hierarchy. Ester had her closest friends among sea captains’ wives, maidservants and a dock workers family, where she met her future husband. However, Ester was also a friend of the most prominent persons in the community, the doctor and the priest. Her everyday life in the village included involvement with numerous associations such as the home sewing association, the temperance movement and a choral society. In the diary Ester shared much of her emotional life by recounting her experiences and thoughts, which were characterized by a wide spectrum of different emotions: Esters physical and psychological status, her thoughts and empathy in the case of accidents or diseases, the interaction with her students etc. One category of emotions and thoughts is distinguished from the others, the relationship to her fiancée and future husband Emil. This can be seen in Ester’s diary because she uses cipher when she writes about her feelings for Emil. The concluding remarks of this study argue that Ester made use of her agency to integrate in the local community. The diary reveals an intriguing and eventful phase in her life course during her pathway to adulthood. Her custom to use cipher when writing about her deepest and most personal emotions can be viewed as a way to write about something that was not really accepted by the predominant “emotional regime” in the village.

  • 4.
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Lovisa Sofia (Sofi) Almquist2018Other (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    One year with Ester: The social network and emotional life of a junior school teacher through a microhistorical lens2017In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 137, no 3, p. 379-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the dawn of the twentieth century (1901-1902), the nineteen-year-old junior school teacher Ester Vikstrom kept a diary. Ester worked in a small coastal village in northern Sweden where she was the only teacher. Through a microhistorical approach this study aims to explore the public and private life of Ester by focusing on her social networks and emotional life. The study uses female agency, a life course approach and concepts from the history of emotions to analyze her diary. The main findings show that Ester was very active in the local community and had a broad social network, which included social ties on many different levels in the social hierarchy. Ester had her closest friends among sea captains' wives, maidservants and a dock workers family, where she met her future husband. However, Ester was also a friend of the most prominent persons in the community, the doctor and the priest. Her everyday life in the village included involvement with numerous associations such as the home sewing association, the temperance movement and a choral society. In the diary Ester shared much of her emotional life by recounting her experiences and thoughts, which were characterized by a wide spectrum of different emotions: Esters physical and psychological status, her thoughts and empathy in the case of accidents or diseases, the interaction with her students etc. One category of emotions and thoughts is distinguished from the others, the relationship to her fianc e and future husband Emil. This can be seen in Ester's diary because she uses cipher when she writes about her feelings for Emil. The concluding remarks of this study argue that Ester made use of her agency to integrate in the local community. The diary reveals an intriguing and eventful phase in her life course during her pathway to adulthood. Her custom to use cipher when writing about her deepest and most personal emotions can be viewed as a way to write about something that was not really accepted by the predominant "emotional regime" in the village.

  • 6. Marklund, Emil
    Who would become a Teacher?: The Socio-economic Origin of Teachers in Northern Sweden 1870-19502018In: ESSHC - European Social Science History Conference 2018, Amsterdam, 2018, p. 89-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    After compulsory schooling was introduced in Sweden (1842) the number of schools, pupils and teachers increased rapidly during the latter part of the 19th century. This paper examines the growing number of teachers in this development. Who were the recruited teachers in terms of sex and socio-economic background and do the empirical patterns change over time? How did the socio-economic origin differ within the group of teachers depending on the expected length of their teacher training? To study demographic attributes of teachers digitized parish records between 1870 and 1950 are used. The dataset consists of 123 607 individuals out of whom 2 400 individuals at some point were recognized as teachers by the ministers. All parishes included are found in the coastal region of Västerbotten county, northeast Sweden. It was a mainly rural area that experienced industrialization and an increasing urbanization during the timeunder study.  By using logistic regression it is possible to see how the recruitment pattern in relation to social class and sex developed over time, these results are then interpreted through a Bourdieusian lens.

     

    The initial results indicate that teachers with fathers belonging to the social groups ‘lower managers and professionals’ and especially ‘higher professionals’ had a significantly higher probability to become teachers. For children to ‘higher managers’ the probability become a teacher were much lower. With concepts from Pierre Bourdieu these results can be interpreted as a situation where fathers with a high cultural capital (lower and higher professionals) were more likely to be fathers of future teachers than those with a high economic capital (higher managers).  The results also suggest that the probability for a teacher to come from a certain social background remained almost constant over time, which is noteworthy since the sizes and formation of the different social groups changed considerably during the period under observation. Finally, in line with previous studies, the findings confirm a rapid and extensive feminization of the teacher occupation. This was especially true for the junior school teachers. Through this study we can learn more about the teachers that worked in the early compulsory school in rural parts of Sweden.  

  • 7.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    A prelude to the dual provider family: the changing role of female labor force participation and occupational field on fertility outcomes during the baby boom in Sweden 1900–602019In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 149-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By investigating changes in the association between women’s socioeconomic status, labor market activity and fertility outcomes during the Swedish baby boom 1900–60 this study reaches three main conclusions. First, the results show that a convergence of fertility behavior occurred across female socioeconomic strata during the peak baby boom period in the 1940s and 1950s in terms of a strong two child norm. Second, the negative socio-economic gradient of fertility found in Sweden before the baby boom declined sharply among women who came of age during the 1940s and 1950s, as white-collar women increased their fertility more than all the other strata. Third, this was especially the case for women engaged in the so called ‘caring professions’ that exhibit the largest changes in behavior. The pattern found in contemporary Western contexts where women in healthcare and education have a substantially higher fertility was thus formed in Sweden already during the 1940s and 1950s. The empirical finding fit with the interpretation that middle-class women employed in the public sector experienced stronger reductions in constraints to family formation compared to women employed in the private sector. We propose that the pronatalist polices implemented in the 1930s and 1940s, especially the extensive improvements in employment protection implemented for women who got married or became pregnant in the late 1930s in Sweden, is one important factor to consider when we try to understand why especially women employed in the public sector in education and healthcare increased their fertility more than other groups.

  • 8.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Fertility differentials in Sweden during the first half of the twentieth century: the changing effect of female labor force participation and occupational field2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrary to the expected negative link between rising female education and fertility it has been shown that in Sweden (Sandström, 2014a) and many other Western countries (Van Bavel, 2014a; Van Bavel et al., 2015) fertility differentials across educational strata decreased sharply during the baby boom. Studies on contemporary data find that the field of education/occupation has a larger net effect than the level of education (Hoem, Neyer, & Andersson, 2006a; e.g. Michelmore & Musick, 2014a; Van Bavel, 2010). Little is however know about the fertility patterns among economically active women prior to the 1960s and how they changed over time. Using individual level data this paper investigates the fertility of women in different sectors of the economy in Sweden during the early expansion of female labor force participation and higher education during the first half of the 20th century. The analysis reaches three main findings. Firstly, there is a marked shift in the effect of female economic activity on fertility in the 1940s and 1950s in Sweden. During this period a strong convergence of fertility behavior across female economic strata occurs and a two child norm is established that has persisted in Sweden since then. Secondly, the negative impact of female economic activity especially for upper strata women is strongly reduced among women that came of age during the 1940s and 1950s. Thirdly, this was especially the case for upper strata women engaged in the so called ‘caring professions’ that exhibit by far the largest changes in behavior. The pattern found in contemporary Western contexts where women in healthcare and education have substantially higher fertility formed already during the 1940s and 1950s in Sweden. The finding of the study illustrates how the mid-twentieth century baby boom works as a ”hinge” between contemporary fertility patterns and those that prevailed during the historical decline up until the 1930s.

  • 9.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Fertility differentials in Sweden during the first half of the twentieth century: the effect of female labor force participation and occupational field2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrary to the expected negative link between rising female education and fertility it has been shown that in Sweden (Sandström, 2014a) and many other Western countries (Van Bavel, 2014a; Van Bavel et al., 2015) fertility differentials across educational strata decreased sharply during the baby boom. Studies on contemporary data find that the field of education/occupation has a larger net effect than the level of education (Hoem, Neyer, & Andersson, 2006a; e.g. Michelmore & Musick, 2014a; Van Bavel, 2010). Little is however know about the fertility patterns among economically active women prior to the 1960s and how they changed over time. Using individual level data this paper investigates the fertility of women in different sectors of the economy in Sweden during the early expansion of female labor force participation and higher education from the 1920s up until the end of the baby boom.

  • 10.
    Vikström, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Demographic outcomes during colonisation: Migration and mortality among indigenous and non-indigenous populations in nineteenth-century Sweden2016In: Journal of Migration History, ISSN 2351-9916, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 148-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to insufficient historical population data, there is limited knowledge about the demographic outcomes of colonisation. This study provides demographic evidence of the difficulties faced by the Sami – an indigenous population in Sweden – during nineteenth-century colonisation, as indicated by (1) high risks of migration and (2) low survival rates compared to non-Sami. The digitised parish registers of the Demographic Data Base (Umeå University) provide longitudinal, individual-level data on migration, mortality, and ethnic origin. Event history analysis reveals that the Sami were vulnerable, with a higher mortality rate than non-Sami, and that they were more prone to migrate from areas overcrowded due to an increased competition for land. However, regardless of ethnic origin, it was primarily the settlers who migrated, and who ran the lowest mortality risks. This result suggests a ‘healthy settler effect’, and diverse consequences of colonisation that did not always follow ethnic lines.

  • 11.
    Vikström, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Demographic responses to colonization among indigenous populations: Migration and mortality in 19th century northernmost Sweden2013In: XXVII IUSSP International Population Conference: Book of abstracts, 2013, p. 221-221Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although history shows how colonization has exposed indigenous populations to vulnerability, there is a narrow quantitative knowledge of how they demographically responded to colonization. Swedish parish registers are unique in providing longitudinal demographic data on the indigenous populations in northernmost Sweden: the Sami. The Demographic Data Base, Umeå University, has digitized these registers, which allows this study to conduct event history analyses of the Sami’s colonial experiences during the 19th century. If colonization added to the Sami’s difficulties to maintain their traditional use of land and lifestyle, it would be indicated by (1) untimely death among them; (2) a desire to leave their space as it was increasingly colonized. However, the propensity to depart was significantly higher among the Non-Sami people, primarily settlers, probably because it was a tough task to establish a farm in these remote cold areas. Additionally, ‘lock-in’ mechanisms might have reduced the Sami’s inclination to relocate, if this meant giving up a lifestyle and occupation difficult to perform in other settings. Their survival chances were higher than those of the Non-Sami, especially among women. In all, the findings propose that the Non-Sami individuals suffered from an ‘unhealthy migrant effect’.

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