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  • 1. Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Disasters, market changes and 'The Big Smoke': understanding the decline of remote tourism in Katherine, Northern Territory Australia2019In: Perspectives on rural tourism geographies: case studies from developed nations on the exotic, the fringe and the boring bits in between / [ed] Rhonda L. Koster and Doris A. Carson, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 93-114Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines the decline of tourism in Katherine, one of the Northern Territory's iconic remote destinations. While the decline coincided with severe floods damaging much of the town and its tourism infrastructure in 1998, other factors such as the overall decline of Outback tourism in Australia and changes in key markets such as backpackers and self-drive tourists contributed to the difficulty in reviving Katherine's tourism industry following the floods. Katherine tourism demonstrates characteristics consistent with the Beyond Peripherymodel of tourism development in remote or sparsely populated areas. The chapter argues that Katherine has become even more distant and disconnected from tourist markets, investors and policy makers since the floods. Key issues for future development include an increasingly uneven relationship between Katherine and the capital city of Darwin, and an inability to identify alternative markets and development paths independent of the dominant tourism structures in the Northern Territory. Katherine is an example of a remote destination which initially had substantial competitive advantages because of its location and levels of local investment in tourism, but has since lost those advantages due to a failure to respond to changing market forces. The chapter thus emphasises the fragile nature of tourism in remote locations, and its vulnerability to exogenous shocks and changing government priorities, reminding us of the broader challenges for economic development in remote resource peripheries.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-04-01 13:00
  • 2.
    Carson, Dean B
    et al.
    Flinders University Rural Clinical School, Flinders University, Burra, Australia ; The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A
    Centre for Regional Engagement, University of South Australia, Whyalla, Australia.
    Local economies of mobility in sparsely populated areas: cases from Australia's spine2014In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 36, p. 340-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing contemporary body of literature about the 'new mobilities' – increasingly mobile populations and their impacts on local economies, particularly in more sparsely populated areas of developed nations. Much of the focus has been on the 'fly in/fly out' workforce associated with mining projects, but attention has also been paid to increasing numbers of 'fly in/fly out' workers in the health sector, the changing nature of tourist populations, the use of temporary contract labour for government administration, and the movement of Indigenous people from remote communities into urban centres. This paper uses five case examples in South Australia and the Northern Territory (Australia's 'spine') to examine the diversity of experiences of the new mobilities. The paper presents a framework for investigating new mobilities at the local settlement level through developing an understanding of macro and micro factors driving mobility and the consequences in terms of aspects of social and economic distance between mobile populations and host communities. The framework provides for useful insights to be drawn from secondary data sources including the Australian Census and tourist surveys. The paper concludes that the geographic characteristics of short term mobility observed in this research essentially conform to the 'Eight Ds' model of the human and economic geography of sparsely populated areas.

  • 3.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Nordin, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Lessons from the Arctic past: The resource cycle, hydro energy development, and the human geography of Jokkmokk, Sweden2016In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 16, p. 13-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has identified a series of human geography impacts of natural resource developments in sparsely populated areas like the Arctic. These impacts can be mapped to the 'resource cycle', and arise from periods of population growth and decline, changing patterns of human migration and mobility, changing patterns of settlement, and changes in the demographic 'balance' between males and females, young and old, Indigenous and non-Indigenous. This paper examines the applicability of the resource cycle model in the case of hydro energy development in the Jokkmokk municipality of Sweden. Using quantitative demographic data, media reports, and contemporary accounts of hydro development, the paper describes the human geography of Jokkmokk since the late 19th century. The paper concludes that changes in human geography in Jokkmokk mirror what has been observed in regions dependent on non-renewable resources, although it is difficult to distinguish many impacts from those that might have occurred under alternative development scenarios. The paper identifies a 'settlement cycle' with phases of integrated and separated habitation for populations specifically associated with the development. Settlement dynamics, and the impacts of hydro on Sami geography are areas for further research.

  • 4.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Porter, Rob
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Yoshida Ahlin, Celia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Decline, Adaptation or Transformation: New Perspectives on Demographic Change in Resource Peripheries in Australia and Sweden2016In: Comparative Population Studies, ISSN 1869-8980, E-ISSN 1869-8999, Vol. 41, no 3-4, p. 1-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many sparsely populated resource peripheries in developed countries are perceived to suffer from periods of demographic decline due to loss of employment opportunities and services, youth out-migration and population ageing. While these trends tend to apply at broad regional scales and for particular time periods, diverse patterns of demographic change may be apparent if different spatial, temporal and social scales of analysis are taken into consideration. Comparing the experiences of two case study regions in northern Sweden and inland South Australia, this paper proposes an alternative conceptual framework to the ‘discourse of decline’, which could be used to examine the nuances of demographic change within resource peripheries. The framework includes spatial scale considerations that contrast broader regional demographic patterns with the experiences of sub-regions and individual settlements. It also includes temporal scale aspects, examining demographic change over different time periods to understand the pace, duration and frequency of population growth and decline. The framework finally includes social unit considerations, emphasising that demographic change affects different social groups in different ways. The results of the case studies suggest that considering demographic change as adaptation or transformation rather than decline may be more useful for identifying new – and qualitatively different – demographic pathways that emerge over time. 

  • 5.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Taylor, Andrew
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Indigenous Long Grassers: Itinerants or Problem Tourists?2013In: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 42, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper proposes a model explaining how ‘problem tourists’ emerge at tourism destinations. Problem tourists are incompatible with the accepted dominant status of tourism and emerge from social distance between tourists and hosts, or between different groups of tourists. A case study of long grassers in Darwin, the capital of Australia’s Northern Territory, is presented to illustrate the model. Long grassers are popularly understood as Indigenous people from remote communities who camp in public places during their visits to Darwin and engage in anti-social behaviours. Surveys were conducted on travel patterns of long grassers to better understand their behaviours and interactions with the destination. This paper discusses whether conceptualising long grassers as problem tourists might help reveal new management strategies.

  • 6.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Northern Institute of Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Govan, Jeanie
    Northern Institute of Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Northern Institute of Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Indigenous Experiences of the Mining Resource Cycle in Australia’s Northern Territory: Benefits, Burdens and Bridges?2018In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 11-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a model of how Indigenous communities may engage with the mining sector to better manage local development impacts and influence governance processes. The model uses a resource lifecycle perspective to identify the various development opportunities and challenges that remote Indigenous communities and stakeholders may face at different stages of the mining project. The model is applied to two case studies located in the Northern Territory of Australia (Gove Peninsula and Ngukurr) which involved different types and scales of mining and provided different opportunities for development and governance engagement for surrounding Indigenous communities. Both cases emphasise how the benefits and burdens associated with mining, as well as the bridges between Indigenous and outsider approaches to development and governance, can change very quickly due to the volatile nature of remote mining operations. There is thus a need for more flexible agreements and more dynamic relationships between Indigenous, mining and other governance stakeholders that can be adjusted and renegotiated as the conditions for mining change. The final discussion reflects on how the model may be applied in the context mining governance and Indigenous stakeholder engagement in the Fennoscandian north.

  • 7.
    Carson, Dean B
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    The local demography of resource economies: long term implications of natural resource industries for demographic development in sparsely populated areas2016In: Settlements at the edge: remote human settlements in developed nations / [ed] Andrew Taylor, Dean B. Carson, Prescott C. Ensign, Lee Huskey, Rasmus Ole Rasmussen, Gertrude Saxinger, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, p. 357-378Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Settlements at the Edge examines the evolution, characteristics, functions and shifting economic basis of settlements in sparsely populated areas of developed nations. With a focus on demographic change, the book features theoretical and applied cases which explore the interface between demography, economy, well-being and the environment. This book offers a comprehensive and insightful knowledge base for understanding the role of population in shaping the development and histories of northern sparsely populated areas of developed nations including Alaska (USA), Australia, Canada, Greenland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, Finland and other nations with territories within the Arctic Circle.

  • 8.
    Carson, Dean
    et al.
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Schmallegger, Doris
    James Cook University, Australia.
    Harwood, Sharon
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    A City for the Temporary?: Political Economy and Urban Planning in Darwin, Australia2010In: Urban Policy and Research, ISSN 0811-1146, E-ISSN 1476-7244, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 293-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Darwin, in Australia’s Northern Territory, faces urban planning challenges consistent with those reported in ‘resource peripheries’ around the world. The city has recently experienced strong population growth associated with resources and construction projects, and an increase in public sector workers sent to address the challenges faced by remote (particularly Indigenous) populations. The Northern Territory Government is determined to foster further growth, and promotes ‘major projects’ in urban development as the key. Analysis of the public debates about two recent major projects (the Waterfront Development and the Lyons residential development) reveal a planning process consistent with the clientelism observed by Rayner and Howlett (2009) in resource peripheries in Canada. The risks of clientelism are both the marginalisation of important internal publics and the institutionalisation of ‘temporariness’ as the driver of growth. Shifting to a more consultative planning process might help stimulate internal development, but could also put at risk the relationships that the Northern Territory Government has established with external investors.

  • 9.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. School of Tourism & Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    de la Barre, Suzanne
    Vancouver Island University.
    Editorial: Communities and New Development Paths in the Sparsely Populated North2017In: Journal of Rural and Community Development, ISSN 1712-8277, E-ISSN 1712-8277, Vol. 12, no 2-3, p. i-xiArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.
    Carson, Dean B.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.
    International lifestyle immigrants and their contributions to rural tourism innovation: Experiences from Sweden's far north2018In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 64, p. 230-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the contributions of international lifestyle immigrants to new tourism development and innovation in the sparsely populated north of Sweden. Based on a qualitative case study, the paper examines how lifestyle immigrants contributed as tourism entrepreneurs to the formation of local capital in tourism, and stimulated local learning and innovation spillover through networks of interaction and collaboration. The theoretical framework integrates concepts from rural lifestyle migration, local community development, and local tourism innovation systems. The results document how immigrants emerged as important drivers of new tourism products, processes and markets, and introduced a range of new ideas, skills and external networks to the region. Yet, an in-depth social network analysis reveals that immigrants made more limited contributions to networks, collaborations and knowledge exchange with local tourism stakeholders, thus limiting learning outcomes and innovation spillover at a broader local system level. Reasons for this lack of systemic interaction included socio-cultural distance between immigrants and locals, limited levels of trust and reciprocity, diverging development and lifestyle priorities, and issues around exclusive immigrant networking. Finally, the relevance of the theoretical framework is discussed in relation to its applicability to other immigrant mobilities in sparsely populated rural areas.

  • 11.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Carson, Dean B.
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Path Dependence in Remote Area Tourism Development: Why institutional legacies matter2017In: Tourism Destination Evolution / [ed] Patrick Brouder, Salvador Anton Clavé, Allison Gill, Dimitri Ioannides, Milton Park: Routledge, 2017, p. 103-122Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Carson, Dean B.
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Why tourism may not be everybody’s business: the challenge of tradition in resource peripheries2011In: The Rangeland journal, ISSN 1036-9872, E-ISSN 1834-7541, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 373-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism is commonly promoted as a tool for economic diversification in peripheral regions that have traditionally relied on exporting natural resources (the 'staples'). However, developing tourism in these regions has often proven immensely difficult. Part of the reason for this is that tourism seems to require different institutional arrangements to those common in traditional staples economies. This paper analyses the case of the Flinders Ranges in South Australia to examine how the conflicting institutional requirements of tourism and staples industries impacted on the capacity of theregional economic system to innovate and diversify its staples-based economy to include tourism. The paper further documents how conflicts in the diversification process have been mitigated. The research concludes that harnessing tourism for successful economic diversification in peripheral regions requires fundamental changes to previous ways of operating,including new approaches to business creation, capacity building, education and knowledge exchange, networking and public–private interactions.

  • 13.
    Carson, Doris A
    et al.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Carson, Dean B
    Flinders University, Australia.
    Hodge, Heidi
    Flinders University, Australia.
    Understanding Local Innovation Systems in Peripheral Tourism Destinations2014In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 457-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism destinations in peripheral areas are often large regions established by centralised government agencies to encourage collaboration between dispersed communities and foster innovation. Relatively little research attention has been paid to the impact that centrally defined destination boundaries have on whether and how small communities contribute to innovation at a regional level. This paper examines the case of Burra, a small town in rural South Australia. It analyses the networking, collaboration and knowledge exchange behaviour of tourism stakeholders in the context of the state-government-defined 'Clare Valley' tourism region. Data were drawn from a web-based social network analysis, in-depth interviews, historic document analysis and field observations. The study found that the local tourism system had limited aspirations and capabilities to collaborate with other towns in the region. Lack of regional engagement was only partially due to intra-regional competition and resistance to regional boundaries. More significant barriers included a local culture of operating in isolation, an embedded reliance on public sector leadership to manage systemic interactions, an aging system with limited ambition to change and an inability to harness in-migrants and externally based stakeholders to stimulate knowledge transfer. Changing the imposed destination boundaries would have limited impact on the operation of the local system. The paper concludes that effective regional destination development in peripheral areas needs to be better informed by more detailed understandings of local tourism systems and their capacities to engage.

  • 14.
    Carson, Doris A
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Carson, Dean BUmeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.Lundmark, LindaUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Tourism, mobilities, and development in sparsely populated areas2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism 'mobilities' are not restricted to the movement of tourists between places of origin and destinations. Particularly in more peripheral, remote, or sparsely populated destinations, workers and residents are also likely to be frequently moving between locations. Such destinations attract seasonal or temporary residents, sometimes with only loose ties to the tourism industry. These flows of mobile populations are accompanied by flows of other resources – money, knowledge, ideas and innovations – which can be used to help the economic and social development of the destination. This book examines key aspects of the human mobilities associated with tourism in sparsely populated areas, and investigates how new mobility patterns inspired by technological, economic, political, and social change provide both opportunities and risks for those areas. Examples are drawn from the northern peripheries of Europe and the north of Australia, and the book provides a framework for continuing research into the role that tourism and 'new mobilities' can play in regional development in these locations.

  • 15.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Cleary, Jen
    University of Adelaide, Australia.
    de la Barre, Suzanne
    Vancouver Island University, Canada.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Marjavaara, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    New Mobilities - New Economies?: Temporary populations and local innovation capacity in sparsely populated areas2016In: Settlements at the Edge: Remote human settlements in developed nations / [ed] Andrew Taylor, Dean B. Carson, Prescott C. Ensign, Lee Huskey, Rasmus O. Rasmussen, Gertrude Saxinger, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, p. 178-206Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporary population mobilities – including short-term labour, residential and recreational mobilities – have long been a prominent feature of human geography in sparsely populated areas. Such mobilities are often considered from a problem-centric perspective, with both academic and public discourses focusing extensively on the negative impacts that temporary populations have on local communities. Yet, temporary mobilities may also have a range of positive impacts, as they bring new people, ideas, skills, knowledge and network connections to remote communities, and thus potentially contribute to processes of local innovation. This chapter examines how different types of temporary populations contribute to local innovation capacity and new socio-economic development in remote communities. We propose a framework for analysing how different mobile populations with their particular temporal, spatial, motivational and interactional mobility characteristics impact on various forms of community capital, and subsequent innovation outcomes through the mobilisation of such capital. We then apply the framework to review five common examples of temporary mobilities in northern Scandinavia and Outback Australia, ranging from voluntary international lifestyle migrants to displaced refugee migrants, from seasonal second home-owners to short-term transit tourists, and from service to leisure-oriented Indigenous travellers. The review suggests that temporary populations offer substantial potential to boost innovation and new socio-economic development in remote communities, but that communities and institutional structures often fail to recognise and capitalise on such potential.

  • 16.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Koster, Rhonda L.
    Lakehead University, Canada.
    Theoretical perspectives on rural tourism development2015In: Demystifying theories in tourism research / [ed] Kelly S. Bricker; Holly Donohoe, Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2015, p. 46-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Prideaux, Bruce
    Central Queensland University.
    Porter, Rob
    Charles Darwin University.
    Vuin, Ana
    Charles Darwin University.
    Transitioning from a local railway hub to a regional tourism system: the story of Peterborough, South Australia2019In: Perspectives on rural tourism geographies: case studies from developed nations on the exotic, the fringe and the boring bits in between / [ed] Rhonda L. Koster and Doris A. Carson, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 173-196Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines the tourism development path of Peterborough, a former single-industry railway town in rural South Australia. Drawing on theoretical perspectives from evolutionary, institutional and relational economic geography, the aim of the chapter is to identify how issues around path dependence influence the abilities of peripheral single-industry towns to operate as part of interactive and collaborative regional tourism innovation systems. The case study documents the difficult transition of Peterborough from a relatively independent major railway hub to a minor tourist transit stopover requiring stronger partnerships within a broader regional tourism destination. The findings identify a range of challenges for local tourism that point to issues around single-industry path dependence and 'lock-in', including: an entrenched dependence on government leadership and investment; a lack of home-grown entrepreneurship willing to address gaps in the homogeneous product portfolio; limited local acceptance and understanding of tourism; resistance to outsiders as new knowledge brokers; and truncated network capabilities within the local system. The chapter also shows how the unique spatial and socio-economic contexts of peripheral 'low-amenity' areas may reinforce path dependence by limiting opportunities to diversify incoming (tourist and migrant) mobilities. Some of the weaknesses within the local tourism system may be bridged by proactive local government and public sector leadership, yet we question the long-term sustainability of such approaches.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-04-01 13:25
  • 18.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. University of South Australia, Australia.
    Carson, Dean Bradley
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Charles Darwin University, Australia; Flinders University, Australia.
    Mobilities and path dependence: challenges for tourism and "attractive" industry development in a remote company town2016In: Tourism, mobilities and development in sparsely populated areas / [ed] Doris Carson, Dean B. Carson, Linda Lundmark, Routledge, 2016, p. 108-127Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Centre for Regional Engagement, University of South Australia, Australia.
    Carson, Dean Bradley
    The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Australia ; Flinders University Rural Clinical School, Flinders University, Australia.
    Mobilities and path dependence: challenges for tourism and "attractive" industry development in a remote company town2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 460-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the impacts of resource-based path dependence on alternative development scenarios in remote company towns, with a particular focus on understanding the prospects for new path creation in tourism and other "attractive" industries, such as retirement and lifestyle migration. The paper applies a mobilities perspective to the idea of path dependence in remote resource frontiers to analyse how the flows of people, skills and capital can become locked in by a range of factors, such as investments in infrastructure and transport technologies, established network connections for labour and knowledge provision, traditional economic development policies, and entrenched mobility cultures. The research examines the case of Nhulunbuy, a remote mining town in northern Australia, which currently faces severe socio-economic decline due to the closure of its alumina refinery. Using a range of secondary data sources, including population statistics and public documents, the case study traces Nhulunbuy's development path since the 1970s and identifies a number of exogenous and endogenous causes for the potential lock-in of its mobilities trajectory. The implications for alternative pathways in tourism and other "attractive" industries are discussed, focusing on identifying the institutional and infrastructural changes required to unlock mobility flows.

  • 20.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.
    Carson, Dean Bradley
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    International winter tourism entrepreneurs in northern Sweden: understanding migration, lifestyle, and business motivations2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 183-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the migration, lifestyle and business motivations of international winter tourism entrepreneurs who have moved to a “low-amenity” rural area in northern Sweden. Low-amenity areas are characterised by economic decline, outmigration and limited tourism development. Based on qualitative interviews, the research applied a multi-dimensional framework to the study of migrant tourism entrepreneurship, considering personal migration drivers, the value of location-specific amenities, desired consumptive experiences, previous familiarity with the destination, business-related goals, as well as temporal and technological dimensions of mobility and self-employment. The findings suggest that the northern winter and the undeveloped low-amenity character of the place were key factors in migration choices. Consumptive lifestyle interests around counter-urban living and winter outdoor hobbies were prominent, yet there was diversity in terms of business aspirations and considerable seasonal lifestyle-business balancing. Despite noticeable contributions to winter tourism development in the low-amenity north, the study also identified a sense of temporariness and expected onward migration among migrants, raising questions about the longevity of this development.

  • 21.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    et al.
    Centre for Regional Engagement, University of South Australia, Whyalla, Australia.
    Carson, Dean Bradley
    Flinders University Rural Clinical School, Burra, Australia.
    Hodge, Heidi
    Understanding local innovation systems in peripheral tourism destinations2015In: Managing and adapting to global change in tourism places / [ed] Alan A. Lew, New York: Routledge, 2015, p. 115-131Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. University of South Australia, Australia.
    Carson, Dean Bradley
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia; Flinders University, Burra, Australia.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Tourism and mobilities in sparsely populated areas: towards a framework and research agenda2016In: Tourism, mobilities and development in sparsely populated areas / [ed] Doris Carson, Dean B. Carson, Linda Lundmark, Routledge, 2016, p. 1-12Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Centre for Regional Engagement, University of South Australia, Whyalla, Australia.
    Carson, Dean Bradley
    The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia ; Flinders University Rural Clinical School, Flinders University, Burra, Australia.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Tourism and mobilities in sparsely populated areas: towards a framework and research agenda2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 353-366Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    European lifestyle migrant entrepreneurs and their business networks in Swedish sparsely populated areas2018In: Processes of immigration in rural Europe: the status quo, implications and development strategies / [ed] Stefan Kordel, Tobias Weidinger and Igor Jelen, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2018, p. 243-269Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From the perspective of declining rural areas, active lifestyle migrants are expected to contribute to demographic rejuvenation and new economic development via their networks and access to novel knowledge, markets and capital. [...] this chapter studies local and transnational social networks as critical resources mainly for enabling or constraining migrant entrepreneurs' developing business practices.

  • 25.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Tillberg Mattsson, Karin
    Centre for Research and Development,Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle,Sweden.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    International tourism entrepreneurs in Swedish peripheries: compliance and collision with public tourism strategies2019In: Regional Science Policy & Practice, E-ISSN 1757-7802, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 479-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the entrepreneurial strategies and development aspirations of immigrant tourism entrepreneurs in rural Sweden, and how they support or conflict with local and regional public sector tourism strategies. Our conceptual framework contrasts the immigrant entrepreneurs' business and lifestyle priorities with public sector responsibilities and development interests. Findings from three case studies suggest that immigrants both collaborate and compete with public sector stakeholders in different tourism destination systems. We identify mismatches in terms of economic, lifestyle and public interest goals, as well as institutional and cultural differences between immigrant entrepreneurs and public sector stakeholders that hinder effective public‐private collaboration.

  • 26.
    Harwood, Sharon
    et al.
    James Cook University, Australia.
    Prideaux, Bruce
    James Cook University, Australia.
    Schmallegger, Doris
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Social Equity in Regional Development Planning: Who plans for remote communities?2011In: Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, ISSN 1323-6903, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 13-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the extent to which the concept of social equity was considered in the creation of Regional Development Australia’s Far North Queensland and Torres Strait (RDA FNQTS) Regional Roadmap. The research applies Rawls’ (1973) concept of social equity to determine the extent to which the disparities experienced by the least advantaged populations in the planning area were considered in the regional planning process. The results indicate that decision making was concentrated in the urban core and that the concept of social equity was not embodied in the plan outcomes. The paper concludes that ignoring social equity issues in regional planning has enduring ramifications for remotely located spatial territories where a significant proportion of the population is both Indigenous and disadvantaged.

  • 27.
    Hedlund, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Repopulating and revitalising rural Sweden? Re-examining immigration as a solution to rural decline2017In: Geographical Journal, ISSN 0016-7398, E-ISSN 1475-4959, Vol. 183, no 4, p. 400-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing international immigration is often portrayed as a potential solution to persistent economic and population decline in rural areas. Based on longitudinal register data, this study examines the extent to which international migration has contributed to demographic and labour market changes in rural Sweden between 1990 and 2010. Results show that the urbanisation rate of international migrants is very high while their employment rate in rural areas remains comparatively low. Small positive changes are noticeable in the rate of higher education, self-employment and employment in new service-related industries among particular groups of immigrants. Immigrants to rural areas are a highly heterogeneous group in terms of their demographic and labour market characteristics, which should be considered when estimating the contributions of immigration to socio-economic development in rural areas. This study shows that, while international migration may dampen population decline in rural areas to some extent, particularly in the working-age groups, its potential to stimulate socio-economic revitalisation in rural areas needs to be questioned and examined from a more nuanced and longitudinal perspective.

  • 28. Hodge, Heidi
    et al.
    Carson, Doris
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Australia; The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Dean
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Mid North Knowledge Partnership, Flinders Rural Health South Australia, Flinders University, Australia; The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Newman, Lareen
    Garrett, Jaimee
    Using Internet technologies in rural communities to access services: the views of older people and service providers2017In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 54, p. 469-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older people in rural communities increasingly rely on the Internet to access essential health, finance, education, and other social services. However, their abilities to participate in the online service system are often undermined by a continuing 'digital divide'. This divide may be exacerbated by the strategies of service providers who fail to recognise and respond to the needs of older rural clients. This paper is based on a case study in Clare, a small rural town in South Australia, and examines the experiences of older residents and local service providers in trying to engage online for digital service delivery. Drawing on two sets of in-depth interviews, the study uses a mix of thematic content analysis and social network analysis to identify the nature and extent of digital interactions between older people and service providers, and the enablers and challenges for online service engagement. Older participants demonstrated considerable interest in learning how to use the Internet for accessing particular services, with social support networks and third party facilitators being crucial enablers. Service providers' ambitions to engage with older people online appeared more limited as a result of entrenched stereotypes of older non-users, a lack of internal digital skills, as well as organisational and funding constraints. The case study findings emphasise the importance of balancing the views of older people and service providers in the design of online engagement strategies. These insights are critical for improving online service delivery in rural communities affected by an increasing withdrawal of physical services.

  • 29. Hogan, Anthony
    et al.
    Carson, Dean
    Flinders University School of Medicine; Charles Darwin University.
    Cleary, Jen
    Carson, Doris
    University of South Australia.
    Mercer, Rob
    Donnelly, David
    Houghton, Kim
    Tanton, Robert
    Phillips, Rebecca
    The Community Adaptability Tool (CAT): a guide to using the Community Adaptability Tool to secure the wealth and wellbeing of rural communities2014Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Holyoak, Nicholas
    et al.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Carson, Dean B.
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Schmallegger, Doris
    James Cook University, Australia.
    VRUM™: A tool for modelling travel patterns of self-drive tourists2009In: Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2009: Proceedings of the International Conference in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2009 / [ed] Wolfram Höpken, Ulrike Gretzel, Rob Law, Vienna: Springer, 2009, p. 238-247Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes’ a geographic information system (GIS) developed to visualise the road routes selected by self-drive visitors to outback Australia. These visitors are typically on multiple destination trips. While existing data sets describe locations of overnight stops, they do not show the locations visitors come into contact with between overnight stops. The Visualising Relatively Unpredictable Movement (VRUMTM) system imputes complete travel paths for selfdrive visitors, allowing destinations and businesses to assess where they fit in trip itineraries VRUMTM has proven valuable as a tool for visualising changes in travel patterns over time. The system may be readily adapted to other destinations.

  • 31.
    Kainz, Thekla
    et al.
    IMC Krems University, Austria.
    Carson, Doris A.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Carson, Dean B.
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Temporary Indigenous Mobility in Remote South Australia: Understanding the challenges for urban based health and social service delivery2012In: Journal of Rural and Community Development, ISSN 1712-8277, E-ISSN 1712-8277, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 16-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote dwelling Indigenous people in Australia frequently move between remote communities and urban centres for reasons such as access to health and social services, cultural and family obligations, or leisure and recreation. Short-term mobility challenges health and social service providers not only to deliver services to remote communities but to make sure that adequate services are available in places Indigenous people visit. This paper documents how service providers in two urban centres in remote South Australia respond to the challenges presented by temporary Indigenous visitors. The paper identifies a number of reasons why the existing health and social service sector is poorly set up to deal with the needs of temporary Indigenous visitors. Many service providers are aware that different groups of (temporary) Indigenous clients may require different services. However, they are limited in their capacity to change existing service strategies due to rigid funding structures and a lack of inter-agency collaboration and service coordination.

  • 32.
    Koster, Rhonda L.
    et al.
    Lakehead University.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Considerations for differentiating among rural tourism geographies2019In: Perspectives on rural tourism geographies: case studies from developed nations on the exotic, the fringe and the boring bits in between / [ed] Rhonda L. Koster and Doris A. Carson, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 253-271Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rural tourism literature has predominantly focused on understanding and theorising rural tourism either as a homogeneous whole, or at either end of the rurality spectrum. The premise of this volume is that a lack of consideration for the particularities of rural does little to aid in our understanding and development of tourism across all rural spaces. Through the use of a consistent framework that examined the spatial, socio-economic, institutional and tourism contexts of each case study, we have identified commonalities and importantly, differences among the examples from three different countries. The analysis illustrated the specific attributes of each type of rural geography (exotic remote, fringe and boring bits in between), and how these result in unique opportunities and challenges. These differentiated rural tourism geographies must be acknowledged and addressed to both advance our knowledge of the complexities of tourism in these locales, and to develop appropriate policies, programs and structures that will support tourism in contributing to a robust and diversified rural economy.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-04-01 13:29
  • 33.
    Koster, Rhonda L.
    et al.
    Lakehead University.
    Carson, Doris A.Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Perspectives on rural tourism geographies: case studies from developed nations on the exotic, the fringe and the boring bits in between2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Nyman, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Carson, Doris
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.
    Tourism destination choice sets for families with wheelchair-bound children2018In: Tourism Recreation Resarch, ISSN 0250-8281, E-ISSN 2320-0308, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 26-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Families with disabled children encounter a range of mobility constraints when travelling for tourism purposes, yet how such constraints affect their ultimate destination choices is currently not well understood. This paper applies a destination choice set model to explain how families with wheelchair-bound children with cerebral palsy choose their holiday destinations. Interviews with 13 parents revealed that these families find many destinations unavailable due to various mobility and travel constraints, such as inaccessible modes of transport and accommodations. The destination choices are trade-offs between constraints and desires of the disabled child and other family members. The findings suggest that the destination choice set model for this particular target group should also consider an ‘accessible set’ of destinations with universal design when exploring travel-related decisions of these families. Finally, the paper argues for a more differentiated approach towards identifying and responding to travel constraints of families with disabled children.

  • 35. Peters, Paul
    et al.
    Carson, Dean
    Porter, Robert
    Vuin, Ana
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Ensign, Prescott
    My Village Is Dying?: Integrating Methods from the Inside Out2018In: The Canadian Review of Sociology / Revue canadienne de sociologie, ISSN 1755-6171, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 451-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to confront the notion of decline at the village level by illustrating a more immersive approach to sociological and demographic research within rural and remote communities. The research uses case studies of three villages in Australia, Canada, and Sweden, all of which have been labeled as declining villages, typified by population loss, an aging population, high rates of youth outmigration, and loss of businesses and services. This paper argues that focusing solely on quantitative indicators of demographic change provides a narrow view of rural village trajectories and ignores subtle processes of local adaptation that are hidden from quantitative data sets. Our research integrates quantitative data from the outside with qualitative data from the inside, including visual ethnography, to develop a more balanced perspective on how villages have been changing and what change could mean locally. These objectives are accomplished by revisiting a Dirt Research methodology applicable to a broad range of research into rural and remote villages.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-07-05 00:00
  • 36.
    Robinson, Guy M.
    et al.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Applying Landscape Science to Natural Resource Management2013In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Robinson, Guy M
    et al.
    University of South Australia.
    Carson, Doris AUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. University of South Australia.
    Handbook on the globalisation of agriculture2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Handbook provides insights to the ways in which globalisation is affecting the whole agri-food system from farms to the consumer. It covers themes including the physical basis of agriculture, the influence of trade policies, the nature of globalised agriculture, and resistance to globalisation in the form of attempts to foster greater sustainability and multifunctional agricultural systems. Drawing upon studies from around the world, the Handbook will appeal to a broad and varied readership, across academics, students, and policy-makers interested in economics, trade, geography, sociology and political science.

  • 38.
    Robinson, Guy M.
    et al.
    University of South Australia.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography. University of South Australia.
    Resilient communities: transitions, pathways and resourcefulness2016In: Geographical Journal, ISSN 0016-7398, E-ISSN 1475-4959, Vol. 182, no 2, p. 114-122Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a Review Essay. It uses as a starting point ideas from the recent book by Geoff A Wilson, Community resilience and environmental transitions, to develop arguments about the nature of work by geographers on the resilience of human communities. It considers the legacy of ideas about resilience derived from ecology and engineering, whilst noting a third interpretation relating to adaptive resilience and the contribution of work from psychology on resilience in individuals. The Review addresses the notion of ‘community capital’, considering how ideas from Pierre Bourdieu have been extended in the past two decades, including attempts to measure various capitals. Scale effects of resilience are examined as is the development of theory linking multi-functionality and resilience. Related work on adaptability and transition pathways are also addressed as are contributions on the resilience of cities and regions. The Review concludes by presenting critiques of some of the work on resilience, whilst referring to potential alternatives and potentially fruitful future lines of inquiry.

  • 39.
    Robinson, Guy M
    et al.
    University of South Australia.
    Carson, Doris A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography. University of South Australia.
    The globalisation of agriculture: introducing the Handbook2015In: Handbook on the globalisation of agriculture / [ed] Guy M Robinson & Doris A Carson, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 1-28Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last four decades there has been a radical restructuring of the scope and character of the production and distribution of many goods, including food. This process has been termed 'globalisation', shaping people's lives in profound cultural, ideological and economic ways. The term has become part of the standard vocabulary of the social sciences, as it has been widely recognised that the world is experiencing a new and qualitatively different phase of capitalist development (Galbraith, 2002; Stiglitz, 2003; Steger, 2009). The characteristics of globalisation include the worldwide spread of modern technologies of production, particularly including in communications but also into farming, the agricultural supply sector and food processing. This involves money, production and trade as part of what has been termed ‘the borderless world’, and the networking of virtually all the world's economies, fostering ever-closer functional integration (Yeung, 1998; Ohmae, 2005; Snyder, 2009). It also refers to the linking and interrelationships between cultural forms and practices that develop when societies become integrated into and dependent on world markets as part of the congruence and homogenisation of capitalist economic forms, markets and relations across markets (Cowen, 2004). So globalisation is the process whereby the world is becoming ever more interconnected through new forms of trade and cultural exchange. This is increasing the production of goods and services, often involving transnational corporations (TNCs) that have established subsidiaries in many countries.

  • 40.
    Saxinger, Gertrude
    et al.
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Petrov, Andrey
    University of Northern Iowa.
    Krasnoshtanova, Natalia
    Sochava Institute of Geography, RAS, Russia.
    Kuklina, Vera
    George Washington University, US.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Boom back or blow back?: Growth strategies in mono-industrial resource towns – “east” and “west”2016In: Settlements at the Edge: Remote human settlements in developed nations / [ed] Andrew Taylor, Dean B. Carson, Prescott C. Ensign, Lee Huskey, Rasmus O. Rasmussen, Gertrude Saxinger, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, p. 49-74Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Schmallegger, Doris
    James Cook University, Australia.
    Managing the transition from coach to car based markets: the search for commercial value in Australia's Flinders Ranges2011In: Drive tourism: trends and emerging markets / [ed] Bruce Prideaux and Dean Carson, Abingdon: Routledge, 2011, p. 14-35Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Schmallegger, Doris
    et al.
    James Cook University, Australia.
    Carson, Dean
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Is Tourism Just Another Staple?: A New Perspective on Tourism in Remote Regions2010In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 201-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Staples thesis describes the development paths of remote economies that have been reliant on the export of relatively unprocessed natural resources – the staples. These economies tend to be overdependent on external markets, are susceptible to boom and bust cycles, and can ultimately become ‘trapped’ in their development paths because they fail to convert initial staples export-driven economic growth into more sustainable and diversified local industries. Tourism has often been described as a potential way to escape such a ‘staples trap’ but, so far, has never been examined from a staples thesis perspective. This paper analyses the case of Central Australia and shows that tourism in remote areas can exhibit similar characteristics as traditional staples industries. If remote regions are to harness tourism for economic and social development, there needs to be a better understanding of the conditions under which remote economies (including tourism) can become locked into a continuous export-dependency development path. The paper concludes that using staples thesis as a conceptual framework offers considerable potential to enhance the understanding of tourism development in remote regions. Finally, it proposes a research agenda for tourism in remote areas to facilitate more targeted future research.

  • 43.
    Schmallegger, Doris
    et al.
    James Cook University, Australia.
    Carson, Dean
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Whose Tourism City Is It?: The Role of Government in Tourism in Darwin, Northern Territory2010In: Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, ISSN 1479-053X, E-ISSN 1479-0548, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 111-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Darwin, the capital city of the Northern Territory, has recently received high levels of government investment in tourism development. This paper examines the role of the Northern Territory Government in the development and marketing of tourism in Darwin and investigates the types of strategies that the government has sought to implement over the past decade. The results suggest that the Northern Territory Government has been using tourism primarily as avehicle to boost immediate short-term economic and employment growth by investing in large scale “showy” construction projects. Government sponsored initiatives in tourism are highly growth-orientated and show a tendency towards “superlativism”. The paper finally discusses a range of limitations and implications of such strong government patronage of tourism and identifies directions for future research.

  • 44.
    Schmallegger, Doris
    et al.
    James Cook University, Australia.
    Carson, Dean B.
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Jacobsen, Damien
    The use of photographs on consumer generated content websites: practical implications for destination image analysis2010In: Tourism informatics: visual travel recommender systems, social communities and user interface design / [ed] Nalin Sharda, Hershey, Pennsylvania: IGI Global, 2010, p. 243-261Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Schmallegger, Doris
    et al.
    James Cook University, Australia.
    Carson, Dean
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Tremblay, Pascal
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    The Economic Geography of Remote Tourism: The Problem of Connection-seeking2010In: Tourism Analysis, ISSN 1083-5423, E-ISSN 1943-3999, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 125-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current literature on peripheral tourism appears conceptually weak for its inability to distinguish between different types of "peripheral" destinations. This review article argues that "remote" destinations have intrinsically different characteristics compared to peripheral ones and require different theoretical approaches to better explain the dynamics of tourism in remote areas. The review builds on theoretical models from the fields of economic geography and political economy, which have been largely absent from peripheral research in Tourism Studies in the past. In particular, the Canadian "staples thesis" is seen by these authors to offer some valuable insights into the unique patterns of economic development and core–periphery relationships in remote areas. They argue that while peripheral areas usually have entrenched relationships with a clearly defined core, remote areas are characterized by "disconnectedness" and face substantial challenges in establishing viable connections with other places. This review article thereby suggests that understanding the processes and implications of connection seeking is critical if tourism is to provide an effective tool for economic development in remote areas.

  • 46.
    Schmallegger, Doris
    et al.
    James Cook University.
    Harwood, Sharon
    Charles Darwin University.
    Cerveny, Lee
    US Forest Service.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Tourist populations and local capital2011In: Demography at the edge: remote human populations in developed nations / [ed] Dean Carson, Rasmus Ole Rasmussen, Prescott Ensign, Lee Huskey, Andrew Taylor, Farnham: Ashgate, 2011, p. 271-288Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Schmallegger, Doris
    et al.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Robinson, Guy M.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Tourism as a ‘Post-Staple’: Understanding the Role of Institutional Legacies in Diversifying Peripheral Resource Economies2011In: Nachhaltigkeit – Regionalentwicklung – Tourismus: Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstag von Prof. Dr. Friedrich M. Zimmermann / [ed] S. Janschitz; G.K. Lieb, Graz: Institut für Geographie und Raumforschung , 2011, p. 319-331Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism is commonly promoted as a tool for economic diversification inperipheral regions that have traditionally relied on exporting natural resources(the ‘staples’). However, developing tourism in these regions has often provenimmensely difficult, and many rural and remote communities seem to beill-prepared to diversify their economic base from extractive to attractiveindustries. This chapter presents the case of the Flinders Ranges, a traditionalresource periphery in South Australia, and discusses why communities inresource peripheries struggle to develop tourism as a self-sustaining ‘poststaples’industry. The paper uses a systems-of-innovation approach and drawson insights from the ‘staples thesis’ literature to illustrate how the institutionallegacies of staples industries can stifle the capacity of resource dependentcommunities to diversify and change.

  • 48.
    Taylor, Andrew
    et al.
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Dean B.
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    ‘Walkabout Tourism’: Is there an Indigenous Tourism Market in Outback Australia?2014In: Athens Journal of Tourism, E-ISSN 2241-8148, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 239-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Outback areas of Australia account for much of the landmass with just 5% of the population, many of whom are Indigenous Australians. Despite tourism being an important industry for Outback economies, it has declined in recent decades prompting a search for new and expanding tourism markets. While Indigenous tourism in the form of visits to Indigenous communities, attractions and sites to obtain the Indigenous ‘experience’ has been pursued it has, along with other niche markets, delivered at best limited and isolated successes. But Indigenous people are themselves highly mobile, making frequent and regular trips away from home. In the past these trips were labelled in a derogatory way as ‘walkabout’. The characteristics of these trips posit them firmly within accepted definitions of tourism but, excepting one study on homelessness, there is a vacuum in research on the potential of people ‘on the move’ as a tourist market. Consequently,we do not know the potential size or characteristics of the market, an awkward contradiction given the historical focus on generating tourism at places where Indigenous people live. This study is the first to analyse data for Outback areas from the perspective of providing baseline information about that market. While results are mixed in terms of the potential to support a flailing tourism industry, this study finds that Indigenous people on the move should not be ignored.

  • 49.
    Taylor, Andrew
    et al.
    Charles Darwin University.
    Carson, Dean B.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Charles Darwin University.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography. Centre for Rural Health & Community Development, University of South Australia, Whyalla, SA, 5601, Australia.
    Brokensha, Huw
    Charles Darwin University.
    ‘Walkabout’ tourism: The Indigenous tourism market for Outback Australia2015In: Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, ISSN 1447-6770, Vol. 24, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism development for remote Indigenous ‘places’ is globally expounded for the potential to garner economic benefits for socio-economically disadvantaged Indigenous citizens. In remote 'Outback' areas of Australia, where half the population are First Australians, tourism is an important industry but has been in decline in recent decades. Whilst Indigenous tourism product development has been pursued it has, along with other niche markets, delivered at best limited and isolated successes. But Indigenous people in Outback Australia are themselves highly mobile, making frequent and regular trips away from home communities and towns. In the past these trips were labelled derogatorily as ‘walkabout’, in spite of trip characteristics positing those ‘on the move’ firmly within accepted definitions of tourism. Few studies to date have explicitly considered Indigenous citizens as tourists, and there has been no systematic research on the potential size or characteristics of the ‘market’, an awkward contradiction given the historical focus on generating tourism at places where Indigenous people live. This research analyses Census data for Australia from the perspective of providing baseline information about the potential of the Indigenous tourist market to support Outback tourism, focusing on identifying the size and characteristics of the internal Outback market and the flows and characteristics of people to and from other meta regions. The results clearly demonstrate there is a potential, with the profile of Indigenous visitors to Outback areas being very different to those travelling away. With financial gains being only one of the potential benefits, this should prompt a re-envisioning of the phenomenon of Indigenous mobility as it may relate to tourism and encourage a research agenda examining market development.

  • 50.
    Vuin, Ana
    et al.
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia.
    Carson, Dean Bradley
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Casuarina, NT 0810, Australia; Flinders Rural Clinical School, Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia.
    Garrett, Jaimee
    Flinders University, Australia.
    The role of heritage tourism in attracting "active" in-migrants to "low amenity" rural areas2016In: Rural Society, ISSN 1037-1656, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 134-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism can influence in-migration to rural areas by enhancing the attractiveness of rural communities and providing opportunities for employment, entrepreneurship and volunteer engagement appealing to in-migrants. Much research on the rural tourism-migration nexus has focused on “high amenity” areas characterized by scenic environments and well-developed tourism and service infrastructures. Many communities in inland Australia, however, are in “low amenity” areas where tourism opportunities are limited to exploiting industrial and cultural heritage assets. This article examines the role of heritage tourism in facilitating in-migration to such areas based on interviews with in-migrants to three communities in South Australia’s Mid-North, focusing on the experiences of “active” in-migrants who get economically or socially involved in their new communities. Findings suggest heritage tourism minimally affected migration decisions. Key attractors were housing, employment, cost of living and easy access to the city. Business opportunities in tourism were attractors where the tourism industry was relatively well developed. Overall, the factors influencing in-migration differed among communities suggesting locally, not regionally, focused place marketing strategies are required to target in-migrants.

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