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  • 1.
    Backteman-Erlanson, Susann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Burnout, work, stress of conscience and coping among female and male patrolling police officers2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Police work is a stressful occupation with frequent exposure to traumatic events and psychological strain from work might increase the risk of burnout. This thesis focuses on patrolling police officers (PPO), who work most of their time in the community and have daily contact with the public. Since police work traditionally is a male coded occupation we assume that there are differences between women and men in burnout as well as experiences from psychosocial work environment.

    Aim. The overall aim of this thesis is to explore burnout, psychosocial and physical work environment, coping strategies, and stress of conscience when taking gender into consideration among patrolling police officers.

    Methods. This thesis employs both qualitative and quantitative methods. In Paper I a qualitative approach with narrative interviews was used where male PPO described experiences of traumatic situations when caring for victims of traffic accidents. A convenience sample of nine male PPO from a mid-sized police authority was recruited. Interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Papers II, III, and IV were based on a cross-sectional survey from a randomly selected sample stratified for gender from all 21 local police authorities in Sweden. In the final sample, 1554 PPOs were invited (778 women, 776 men), response rate was 55% (n=856) in total, 56% for women (n=437) and 53% for men (n=419). The survey included a self-administered questionnaire based on instruments measuring burnout, stress of conscience, psychosocial and physical work environment, and coping.

    Results. Findings from Paper I were presented in three themes; “being secure with the support system,” “being confident about prior successful actions,” and “being burdened with uncertainty.” Results from Paper II showed high levels of emotional exhaustion (EE), 30% for female PPOs and 26% for male PPOs. High levels of depersonalization (DP) were reported for 52 % of female PPO, corresponding proportions for male were 60%. Multiple logistic regression showed that stress of conscience (SCQ-A), high demand, and organizational climate increased the risk of EE for female PPO. For male PPO stress of conscience (SCQ-A), low control and high demand increased the risk of EE. Independent of gender, stress of conscience (SCQ-A) increased the risk of DP. Psychometric properties of the WOCQ were investigated with exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, a six-factor solution was confirmed. DIF analysis was detected for a third of the items in relation to gender. In Paper IV a block wise hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed investigating the predictive impact of psychological demand, decision latitude, social support, coping strategies, and stress of conscience on EE as well as DP. Findings revealed that, regardless of gender, risk of EE and DP increased with a troubled conscience amongst the PPO.

    Conclusion. “Being burdened with uncertainty” in this male-dominated context indicate that the PPO did not feel confident talking about traumatic situations, which might influence their coping strategies when arriving to a similar situation. This finding can be related to Paper II and IV showing that stress of conscience increased the risk of both EE and DP. The associations between troubled conscience and the risk of experiencing both emotional exhaustion and depersonalization indicate that stress of conscience should be considered when studying the influence of the psychosocial work environment on burnout. Results from this study show that the psychosocial work environment is not satisfying and needs improvement for patrolling police officers in Sweden. Further studies including both qualitative and quantitative (longitudinal) methods should be used to improve knowledge in this area to increase conditions for preventive and rehabilitative actions.

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    Burnout, work, stress of conscience and coping among female and male patrolling police officers
  • 2.
    Backteman-Erlanson, Susann
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Jacobsson, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Öster, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Caring for traffic accident victims: the stories of nine male police officers2011In: International Emergency Nursing, ISSN 1755-599X, E-ISSN 1878-013X, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 90-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychological strain due to the work environment is common, especially in those occupations which involve working in critical situations. Working as a police officer seems to increase the risk of psychological problems such as symptoms of stress and post traumatic stress disorders. The aim of this study was to describe male police officers’ experiences of traumatic situations when caring for victims of traffic accidents, and to reflect the results through the perspective of gender theories. Nine police officers were asked to narrate and reflect upon their experiences in taking care of people who had been severely injured in traffic accidents. The interviews were analysed with qualitative content analysis. The findings are presented in three themes: “being secure with the support system”, “being confident about prior successful actions, and “being burdened with uncertainty”. The officers’ descriptions showed that most of them had strategies that they used when they were first responders, developed on the basis of their own knowledge and actions and the support systems in their organization which enabled them to act in traumatic situations. When support systems, knowledge, and actions were insufficient, they sometimes felt insecure and “burdened with uncertainty”. In this male-dominated context, there was a risk that the officers may not talk enough about traumatic situations, thus influencing their ability to cope successfully.

  • 3.
    Backteman-Erlanson, Susann
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Prevalence of burnout and associations with psychosocial work environment, physical strain, and stress of conscience among Swedish female and male police personnel2012In: Police Practice & Research, ISSN 1561-4263, E-ISSN 1477-271XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Focus of this study was to investigate prevalence of burnout and relation to psychosocial work environment, physical strain, and stress of conscience amongst female and male police personnel in Sweden. The questionnaire was answered by 856 (55%) patrolling police officers, 437 (56%) women vs. 419 (53%) men. Prevalence and mean values for emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization (DP) was higher in our study compared to other studies including police personnel in Norway and the Netherlands. A multiple logistic regressions showed that for women stress of conscience, high demand, and organizational climate was significant associated with EE, for men it was stress of conscience, decision, and high demand. For DP only stress of conscience contributed statistically significant in our model, respectively, of gender. Further research is needed to develop interventions aiming to reduce levels of burnout among police personnel in Sweden.

  • 4.
    Backteman-Erlanson, Susann
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Öster, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Exploration of the WOCQ tool in relation to gender and psychometric properties among Swedish patrolling police officersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Police work is a stressful occupation with frequent exposure to traumatic events. In Sweden knowledge about coping strategies among police personnel is absent probably due to lack of validated measurements. Aim of this study was to explore psychometric properties of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WOCQ) among Swedish police personnel, including testing differential item functioning (DIF) for gender. The WOCQ was sent out to 1554 randomly selected patrolling police officers in Sweden. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used. A six factor solution was confirmed with differences and similarities compared to the original eight factor solution. DIF analysis showed similarities and differences in relation to gender. We suggest that the WOCQ can be used when investigating coping strategies in a Swedish police context.

     

  • 5.
    Jacobsson, Ann
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Backteman-Erlandson, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Egan Sjölander, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    ’There is nothing wrong with diversity and equality as long as the right people are employed’. Promoting and hindering health in firefighter discourse2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Jacobsson, Ann
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Backteman-Erlandson, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Egan Sjölander, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Burnout and association with psychosocial work environment among Swedish firefighters2017In: Global Journal of Health Science, ISSN 1916-9736, E-ISSN 1916-9744, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 214-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firefighters are exposed to traumatic and stressful psychosocial and physical strain in their work, and thus they are considered to be a group at high risk of burnout. The aim of this study was to investigate burnout (emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization (DP) among Swedish female and male firefighters and to examine the gender-stratified relationship between psychosocial work environment and burnout when considering the moderating effect of coping strategies among Swedish firefighters. The overall mean values of both EE and DP were notably low in comparison with the general population in Sweden. We found that psychosocial work environment factors increase the risk of burnout among male firefighters. Among men, EE was associated with high demands and lack of social support in work. The association was also confirmed with DP as the outcome and lack of good leadership as the exposure among men. However, among female firefighters the association between psychosocial work environment factors and burnout failed to appear. Among women, EE and DP were only associated with the coping strategy Psychological distancing (PDi). A negative association with DP and the coping strategy Positive Reappraisal (PRe) was also found among women. Regardless of the result from the regression analyses, we must consider that the majority of the female and male firefighters in our study had low scores on the outcome variables EE and DP. Future studies should explore female and male firefighters' context and possible health-protecting environment.

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  • 7.
    Jacobsson, Ann
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Backteman-Erlanson, Susann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hörnsten, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Experiences of critical incidents among female and male firefighters2015In: International Emergency Nursing, ISSN 1755-599X, E-ISSN 1878-013X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 100-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A critical incident is defined as an event stressful enough to overwhelm the usually effective coping skills of an individual. Firefighters are frequently exposed to critical incidents that might have consequences for individuals and their performance in organization. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe experiences of critical incidents among female and male Swedish firefighters. Method: In all 180 participants (16 women, 164 men) who had been involved in up to 25 critical incidents during the last year responded to a survey describing critical incidents experienced in the past year. A qualitative content analysis identified several areas for improvement in firefighters' working conditions. Results: Female firefighters were terse in describing their experiences, while the men described their experiences of critical events more vividly. The critical incidents described by the firefighters concerned such overwhelming situations as traffic accidents, huge fires, and other fatal incidents such as drownings and suicides. Risk of delay due to lack of equipment training and lack of medical education was mentioned. Lack of resources and organizational problems was mentioned as causing risks of failure. Several firefighters expressed frustration over being assaulted and threatened, or exposed to other kinds of violence. Not knowing how close, physically or mentally, one can get to people during ongoing rescue can lead to unsuccessful operations. Conclusions: Gender patterns should always be taken into account, making it possible for all firefighters to express and reflect on existentially tough experiences. Education needs to focus more on medical and mental health issues. Firefighters were sometimes exposed to the difficult challenge of violence and assault during rescue operations. The complexity of this problem needs to be highlighted, not only in firefighter organizations, but also in society in general. 

  • 8. Lukumay, Gift G.
    et al.
    Ndile, Menti L.
    Outwater, Anne H.
    Mkoka, Dickson A.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Backteman-Erlandsson, Susann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Provision of post-crash first aid by traffic police in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a cross-sectional survey2018In: BMC Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1471-227X, E-ISSN 1471-227X, Vol. 18, article id 45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The availability of prehospital trauma care is an important means of reducing serious injuries and fatalities associated with road traffic injuries (RTIs). Lay responders such as traffic police play an important role in the provision of prehospital trauma care to RTI victims, especially where there is no established prehospital care system. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate knowledge, self-reported practice, and attitudes toward post-crash first aid among traffic police officers in Tanzania.

    Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania between July-September 2017 to investigate knowledge, self-reported practice and attitude among traffic police officers during provision of post-crash care. We used simple random technique to recruit 340 traffic police officers, self -administered questionnaires were used to collect data. The researchers used descriptive statistics and Pearson's chi-square tests to analyze the data.

    Results: A total of 340 traffic police officers were surveyed. Nearly two thirds (65.3%) reported having had post-crash first aid on-the job training; a slightly larger proportion (70.9%) reported that they had cared for RTI victims in the previous year. The survey responses showed that, generally, traffic police officers' level of knowledge about post-crash first aid to RTI victims was low-about 3% of the surveyed officers possessed knowledge at a level considered good. Also, there was a statistically significant correlation between higher educational attainment and greater knowledgeability (p = 0.015). Almost all of the officers (96%) had a positive attitude toward providing post-crash first aid to RTI victims.

    Conclusions: Improved training of Tanzania traffic police officers, by means of an updated post-crash first aid curriculum and updated resources is recommended. Also, user-friendly post-crash first aid leaflets should be provided to traffic police for their reference.

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  • 9. Ndile, Menti
    et al.
    Lukumay, Gift G.
    Bölenius, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Outwater, Anne H.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Backteman-Erlandson, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Impact of a postcrash first aid educational program on knowledge, perceived skills confidence, and skills utilization among traffic police officers: a single-arm before-after intervention study2020In: BMC Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1471-227X, E-ISSN 1471-227X, Vol. 20, article id 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An overwhelming proportion of road traffic deaths and injuries in low- and middle-income countries(LMICs) occur in prehospital environments. Lay first responders such as police officers play an important role inproviding initial assistance to victims of road traffic injuries either alone or in collaboration with others. The presentstudy evaluated a postcrash first aid (PFA) educational program developed for police officers in Tanzania.

    Method: A 16-h PFA educational program was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, for 135 police officers. Participantscompleted training surveys before, immediately and 6months after the training (before, N = 135; immediately after, N=135;after 6 months, N=102). The primary outcome measures were PFA knowledge, perceived skills confidence, and skillsutilization. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used to analyse changes in outcome.

    Results: The mean PFA knowledge score increased from 44.73% before training (SD = 20.70) to 72.92% 6months aftertraining (SD = 18.12), p < .001, N = 102. The mean PFA perceived skills confidence score (measured on a 1–5 Likert scale)increased from 1.96 before training (SD = 0.74) to 3.78 6months after training (SD=0.70), p < .001, N = 102. Followingtraining, application of the recovery position skill (n = 42, 46%) and application of the bleeding control skill (n = 45, 49%) werereported by nearly half of the responding officers. Less than a quarter of officers reported applying head and neckimmobilization skills (n = 20, 22%) following training.

    Conclusion: A PFA educational program has shown to improve police officers’ knowledge and perceived skills confidenceon provision of first aid. However qualitative research need to be conducted to shed more light regarding reasons for lowutilization of trained first aid skills during follow-up.

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  • 10.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Backteman-Erlanson, Susann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Burnout, coping, stress of conscience and psychosocial work environment among patrolling police officers2016In: Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, ISSN 0882-0783, E-ISSN 1936-6469, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 229-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Police personnel work under different circumstances in various environments involving stressful situations which can increase the risk of burnout. Aim of this study was to investigate the association between burnout (emotional exhaustion, EE vs. depersonalization, DP) and psychosocial work environment, stress of conscience as well as coping strategies among patrolling police officers in Sweden. Most of the independent variables; psychological demand, decision latitude, social support, and coping scales were correlated with EE and DP. A hierarchical multiple regression was performed to investigate the predictive impact of; psychological demand, decision latitude, social support, coping strategies and stress of conscience. Findings revealed that risk of EE increased with a troubled conscience for both women and men when coping strategies were added to the model. For men risk of DP increased with troubled conscience. Only low decision latitude was associated with risk of DP for women when coping strategies were added to the model. Results from this study indicate that stress of conscience has to be taken into consideration and also levels of social support and decision latitude when studying the influence of the psychosocial work environment on burnout.

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