umu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 63
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Amiri, Parisa
    et al.
    Shaheed Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Obes Res Ctr, Res Inst Endocrine Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Hosseinpanah, Farhad
    Shaheed Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Obes Res Ctr, Res Inst Endocrine Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Shaheed Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Obes Res Ctr, Res Inst Endocrine Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Rambod, Mehdi
    Shaheed Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Obes Res Ctr, Res Inst Endocrine Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Montazeri, Ali
    Shaheed Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Obes Res Ctr, Res Inst Endocrine Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Mehrabi, Yadollah
    Shaheed Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Obes Res Ctr, Res Inst Endocrine Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Azizi, Fereidoun
    Shaheed Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Obes Res Ctr, Res Inst Endocrine Sci, Tehran, Iran).
    The role of metabolic syndrome duration in predicting poor health related quality of life (HRQOL) in Iranian adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS)2008In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Azadbakht, Leila
    et al.
    Kimiagar, Masoud
    Mehrabi, Yadollah
    Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad
    Padyab, Mojgan
    School of Public Health, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran.
    Hu, Frank B
    Willett, Walter C
    Soy inclusion in the diet improves features of the metabolicsyndrome: a randomized crossover study in postmenopausal women2007In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 85, no 3, p. 735-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Little evidence exists regarding the effects of soyconsumption on the metabolic syndrome in humans.Objective: We aimed to determine the effects of soy consumptionon components of the metabolic syndrome, plasma lipids, lipoproteins,insulin resistance, and glycemic control in postmenopausalwomen with the metabolic syndrome.Design: This randomized crossover clinical trial was undertaken in42 postmenopausal women with the metabolic syndrome. Participantswere randomly assigned to consume a control diet (DietaryApproaches to Stop Hypertension, DASH), a soy-protein diet, or asoy-nut diet, each for 8 wk. Red meat in the DASH period wasreplaced by soy-protein in the soy-protein period and by soy-nut inthe soy-nut period.Results: The soy-nut regimen decreased the homeostasis model ofassessment-insulin resistance score significantly compared with thesoy-protein (difference in percentage change:7.40.8; P0.01)or control (12.9 0.9; P 0.01) diets. Consumption of soy-nutalso reduced fasting plasma glucose more significantly than did thesoy-protein (5.30.5%; P0.01) or control (5.10.6%; P0.01) diet. The soy-nut regimen decreased LDL cholesterol morethan did the soy-protein period (5.0 0.6%; P 0.01) and thecontrol (9.5 0.6%; P 0.01) diet. Soy-nut consumptionsignificantly reduced serum C-peptide concentrations comparedwith control diet (8.0 2.1; P 0.01), but consumption ofsoy-protein did not.Conclusion: Short-term soy-nut consumption improved glycemiccontrol and lipid profiles in postmenopausal women with the metabolicsyndrome.

  • 3. Azizi, F
    et al.
    Mehran, L
    Sheikholeslam, R
    Ordookhani, A
    Naghavi, M
    Hedayati, M
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Mirmiran, P
    Sustainability of a well-monitored salt iodization program in Iran: marked reduction in goiter prevalence and eventual normalization of urinary iodine concentrations without alteration in iodine content of salt.2008In: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, ISSN 0391-4097, E-ISSN 1720-8386, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 422-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    Two yr after legislation of salt iodization of 40 parts per million (ppm) in 1994, goiter was still endemic and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) remained elevated in many provinces of Iran. Goiter prevalence and UIC were compared 2 and 7 yr after sustained consumption of uniformly iodized salt by Iranian households.

    METHODS:

    Schoolchildren (7-10 yr) of all provinces were randomly selected by cluster sampling from December 2000 to June 2001. Goiter rate, UIC, and household salt iodine values were compared to those in 1996. Factory salt iodine was also compared in 2001 vs 1996. Ultrasonographically determined thyroid volumes of 7-10 yr old children were compared in 2001 vs 1999.

    RESULTS:

    In 2001 (no.=33600) vs 1996 (no.=36178), total, grade 1, and grade 2 goiter rates were 13.9 vs 53.8%, 11.0 vs 44.8%, and 2.9 vs 9.0%, respectively (p<0.0001). Weighted total goiter rate was 9.8% in 2001. Median (range) UIC in 2001 (no.=3329) was 165 (18-499) microg/l and in 1996 (no.=2917) was 205 (10-2300) microg/l (p<0.0001). In 2001 vs 1996, mean+/-SD for iodine salt content was 32.7+/-10.1 vs 33.0+/-10.2 ppm (p=0.68) in households and was 33.2+/-13.4 and 33.8+/-13.2 ppm (p=0.57) in factories, respectively. Among 7-10 yr old children in 2001 (no.=400) vs 1999 (no.=396), only 7-yr-old children in 2001 (the only group with probably no history of iodine deficiency) showed significant smaller thyroid volumes by ultrasonography compared to those in 1999.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    After 7 yr of optimized iodized-salt supplementation in Iran, adequate UIC values and marked reduction in goiter rate have been achieved.

  • 4.
    Backteman-Erlanson, Susann
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Prevalence of burnout and associations with psychosocial work environment, physical strain, and stress of conscience among Swedish female and male police personnel2012In: Police Practice & Research, ISSN 1561-4263, E-ISSN 1477-271XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Focus of this study was to investigate prevalence of burnout and relation to psychosocial work environment, physical strain, and stress of conscience amongst female and male police personnel in Sweden. The questionnaire was answered by 856 (55%) patrolling police officers, 437 (56%) women vs. 419 (53%) men. Prevalence and mean values for emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization (DP) was higher in our study compared to other studies including police personnel in Norway and the Netherlands. A multiple logistic regressions showed that for women stress of conscience, high demand, and organizational climate was significant associated with EE, for men it was stress of conscience, decision, and high demand. For DP only stress of conscience contributed statistically significant in our model, respectively, of gender. Further research is needed to develop interventions aiming to reduce levels of burnout among police personnel in Sweden.

  • 5.
    Backteman-Erlanson, Susann
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Öster, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Exploration of the WOCQ tool in relation to gender and psychometric properties among Swedish patrolling police officersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Police work is a stressful occupation with frequent exposure to traumatic events. In Sweden knowledge about coping strategies among police personnel is absent probably due to lack of validated measurements. Aim of this study was to explore psychometric properties of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WOCQ) among Swedish police personnel, including testing differential item functioning (DIF) for gender. The WOCQ was sent out to 1554 randomly selected patrolling police officers in Sweden. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used. A six factor solution was confirmed with differences and similarities compared to the original eight factor solution. DIF analysis showed similarities and differences in relation to gender. We suggest that the WOCQ can be used when investigating coping strategies in a Swedish police context.

     

  • 6.
    Barkhordari, Mahnaz
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics, Bandar Abbas Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Hadaegh, Farzad
    Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
    Azizi, Fereidoun
    Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
    Bozorgmanesh, Mohammadreza
    Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
    Stata Modules for Calculating Novel Predictive Performance Indices for Logistic Models2016In: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 1726-9148, Vol. 14, no 1, article id e26707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prediction is a fundamental part of prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The development of prediction algorithms based on the multivariate regression models loomed several decades ago. Parallel with predictive models development, biomarker researches emerged in an impressively great scale. The key question is how best to assess and quantify the improvement in risk prediction offered by new biomarkers or more basically how to assess the performance of a risk prediction model. Discrimination, calibration, and added predictive value have been recently suggested to be used while comparing the predictive performances of the predictive models’ with and without novel biomarkers.Objectives: Lack of user-friendly statistical software has restricted implementation of novel model assessment methods while examining novel biomarkers. We intended, thus, to develop a user-friendly software that could be used by researchers with few programming skills.Materials and Methods: We have written a Stata command that is intended to help researchers obtain cut point-free and cut point-based net reclassification improvement index and (NRI) and relative and absolute Integrated discriminatory improvement index (IDI) for logistic-based regression analyses.We applied the commands to a real data on women participating the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS) to examine if information of a family history of premature CVD, waist circumference, and fasting plasma glucose can improve predictive performance of the Framingham’s “general CVD risk” algorithm.Results: The command is addpred for logistic regression models.Conclusions: The Stata package provided herein can encourage the use of novel methods in examining predictive capacity of ever-emerging plethora of novel biomarkers.

  • 7. Barkhordari, Mahnaz
    et al.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sardarinia, Mahsa
    Hadaegh, Farzad
    Azizi, Fereidoun
    Bozorgmanesh, Mohammadreza
    Survival Regression Modeling Strategies in CVD Prediction2016In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM, ISSN 1726-913X, Vol. 14, no 2, article id UNSP e32156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A fundamental part of prevention is prediction. Potential predictors are the sine qua non of prediction models. However, whether incorporating novel predictors to prediction models could be directly translated to added predictive value remains an area of dispute. The difference between the predictive power of a predictive model with (enhanced model) and without (baseline model) a certain predictor is generally regarded as an indicator of the predictive value added by that predictor. Indices such as discrimination and calibration have long been used in this regard. Recently, the use of added predictive value has been suggested while comparing the predictive performances of the predictive models with and without novel biomarkers. Objectives: User-friendly statistical software capable of implementing novel statistical procedures is conspicuously lacking. This shortcoming has restricted implementation of such novel model assessment methods. We aimed to construct Stata commands to help researchers obtain the aforementioned statistical indices. Materials and Methods: We have written Stata commands that are intended to help researchers obtain the following. 1, Nam-D'Agostino X-2 goodness of fit test; 2, Cut point-free and cut point-based net reclassification improvement index (NRI), relative absolute integrated discriminatory improvement index (IDI), and survival-based regression analyses. We applied the commands to real data on women participating in the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS) to examine if information relating to a family history of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD), waist circumference, and fasting plasma glucose can improve predictive performance of Framingham's general CVD risk algorithm. Results: The command is adpredsurv for survival models. Conclusions: Herein we have described the Stata package "adpredsurv" for calculation of the Nam-D'Agostino X2 goodness of fit test as well as cut point-free and cut point-based NRI, relative and absolute IDI, and survival-based regression analyses. We hope this work encourages the use of novel methods in examining predictive capacity of the emerging plethora of novel biomarkers.

  • 8.
    Blom-Nilsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    McCarty, Dennis
    OHSU-PSU School of Public Health, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, USA.
    Lundgren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. University of AQ2 Denver Graduate School of Social Work, Denver, USA.
    Sexual Abuse and Future Mental Health Hospitalization ina Swedish National Sample of Men Who Use Opioids2019In: Journal of addiction medicine, ISSN 1932-0620, E-ISSN 1935-3227Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Experiences of trauma, specifically sexual abuse, have been linked to both mental health and substance use disorders. This study used 14 years of Swedish health registry data to select a sample of adult men who reported frequent opioid use and assessed if those with a self-reported history of sexual abuse had a higher likelihood of hospitalization for a mental health disorder.

    Methods: A Swedish longitudinal (2003–2017) registry study linked Addiction Severity Index (ASI) assessments completed with individuals who sought treatment for substance use disorders with data on hospitalizations for mental health disorders, and assessed associations with self-reported histories of sexual abuse among men who reported sustained and frequent use of opioids (n¼1862). Cox regression methods tested associations and controlled for age, and the7 ASI composite scores: family and social relationships, employment, alcohol use, drug use, legal, physical health, and mental health.

    Results: The ASI composite score for mental health (hazard ratio[HR] 16.6, P<0.001) and a history of sexual abuse (HR 1.93,P<0.001) were associated with an elevated risk of future mental health hospitalization.

    Conclusion: Both the ASI composite scores for mental health andself-reported history of sexual abuse reflected complex needs amongmen who used opioids and increased risk for mental health hospitalization.Treatment providers should strive to provide integrated careand address the negative aspects of victimization.

  • 9. Bozorgmanesh, Mohammad Reza
    et al.
    Hadaegh, Farzad
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Mehrabi, Yadollah
    Azizi, Fereidoun
    Temporal Changes in Anthropometric Parametersand Lipid Profile according to Body Mass Indexamong an Adult Iranian Urban Population2008In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 53, p. 13-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To examine changes in anthropometric parametersand lipid profiles over a period of 3.6 years in an Iranian adultpopulation according to body mass index (BMI) groups.Methods: Between 1998 and 2001 (phase 1) and 2002 and2005 (phase 2), 5,618 nondiabetic Iranian adults aged 6 20years were examined. Analysis of covariance was used to delineatetrends in anthropometric parameters as well as totaland low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC, LDL-Cand HDL-C, respectively) across BMI groups. Results: AlthoughBMI increased in women, this increase was not significantin obese persons. Among the men, however, a significantincrease in BMI was observed only in lean persons.Waist circumference (WC) increased across all BMI groupsin both sexes. A significant decrease was observed in TC[men: –0.83 mmol/l, 95% confidence interval (CI) –1.27 to–0.40; women: –0.78 mmol/l, CI –0.97 to –0.60] and LDL-C(men: –0.63 mmol/l, CI –1.13 to –0.13; women: –0.51 mmol/l,CI –0.78 to –0.24). A significant decrease in mean HDL-Cwas observed only among men (–0.09 mmol/l, CI –0.13to –0.04), with no difference among BMI groups (p = 0.3).There were no significant decreases in TC/HDL-C and LDLC/HDL-C ratios in men or women. Conclusions: Despite an 

    increase in WC, favorable trends were observed in TC andLDL-C levels. The favorable trend in TC levels was counterbalancedby changes in HDL-C, as reflected by the absence of asignificant decrease in TC/HDL-C or LDL-C/HDL-C

  • 10.
    Bäck, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Vallès, Lola
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Police students' perceptions of professional competences: a comparative study of Catalonia and Sweden2017In: Police Practice & Research, ISSN 1561-4263, E-ISSN 1477-271X, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 478-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is part of the European cooperation project, Recruitment, Education, and Career in the Police. The overall aim of this study is to compare how Swedish and Catalan police students perceive different competence dimensions in relation to their future profession, and how the perceptions of these competence dimensions change from the beginning to the end of the training program. The empirical data is based on identical questionnaires that were distributed to police students in Sweden and Catalonia. The results show different patterns in how Catalan and Swedish police students perceive the importance of the different competences at the beginning and at the end of their basic training programs. The implications of this study show that more knowledge is needed about the next step; that is, how the police students use these competencies in their professional work.

  • 11.
    Dabir, S
    et al.
    Department of Anesthesiology, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Dr. Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University, MC, Tehran, Iran. .
    Parsa, T
    Department of Anesthesiology, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Dr. Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University, MC, Tehran, Iran. .
    Radpay, B
    Department of Anesthesiology, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Dr. Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University, MC, Tehran, Iran. .
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Department of Anesthesiology, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Dr. Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University, MC, Tehran, Iran. .
    Interpleural morphine vs bupivacaine for postthoracotomy pain relief.2008In: Asian Cardiovascular and thoracic annals, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 370-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This prospective randomized double-blind trial was designed to compare the analgesic effects of interpleural bupivacaine and interpleural morphine for postthoracotomy pain management. Thirty-six American Society of Anesthesiologists class I and II patients undergoing an elective posterolateral thoracotomy were randomly divided into 2 groups of 18 each. Before chest closure, an interpleural catheter was inserted under direct vision. At the end of the operation and every 4 hours thereafter, they received either 0.25% bupivacaine with epinephrine or 0.2 mg x kg(-1) morphine sulfate interpleurally for 24 hours. The chest tubes were clamped during injection and for 15 min afterwards. Supplementary doses of intravenous morphine were given on request. The pain severity was evaluated at rest and on coughing before and 30 min after each interpleural injection, using an 11-point visual analog scale. Supplemental analgesic consumption and side effects were recorded. Both interpleural morphine and bupivacaine significantly reduced pain scores 30 min after each injection. However, pain scores and supplementary analgesic requirements were significantly lower in the interpleural morphine group. No serious side effects were detected in either group. Interpleural morphine provides better pain control than interpleural bupivacaine after a posterolateral thoracotomy.

  • 12.
    Forouzan, Ameneh S
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Social Determinants of Health Research Centre, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Rafiey, Hassan
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ghazinour, Seyedmehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Dejman, Masoumeh
    San Sebastian Chasco, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Reliability and validity of a Mental Health System Responsiveness Questionnaire in Iran2014In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 7, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The Health System Responsiveness Questionnaire is an instrument designed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2000 to assess the experience of patients when interacting with the health care system. This investigation aimed to adapt a Mental Health System Responsiveness Questionnaire (MHSRQ) based on the WHO concept and evaluate its validity and reliability to the mental health care system in Iran.

    Design: In accordance with the WHO health system responsiveness questionnaire and the findings of a qualitative study, a Farsi version of the MHSRQ was tailored to suit the mental health system in Iran. This version was tested in a cross-sectional study at nine public mental health clinics in Tehran. A sample of 500 mental health services patients was recruited and subsequently completed the questionnaire. Item missing rate was used to check the feasibility while the reliability of the scale was determined by assessing the Cronbach's alpha and item total correlations. The factor structure of the questionnaire was investigated by performing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

    Results: The results showed a satisfactory feasibility since the item missing value was lower than 5.2%. With the exception of access domain, reliability of different domains of the questionnaire was within a desirable range. The factor loading showed an acceptable unidimentionality of the scale despite the fact that three items related to access did not perform well. The CFA also indicated good fit indices for the model (CFI = 0.99, GFI = 0.97, IFI = 0.99, AGFI = 0.97).

    Conclusions: In general, the findings suggest that the Farsi version of the MHSRQ is a feasible, reliable, and valid measure of the mental health system responsiveness in Iran. Changes to the questions related to the access domain should be considered in order to improve the psychometric properties of the measure.

  • 13.
    Forouzan, Setareh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine. Social Determinants of Health Research Centre, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Rafiey, Hassan
    Social Welfare Management Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Dejman, Masoumeh
    Department of Mental Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Measuring the mental health care system responsiveness: results of an outpatient survey in Tehran2016In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 3, article id 285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As explained by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2000, the concept of health system responsiveness is one of the core goals of health systems. Since 2000, further efforts have been made to measure health system responsiveness and the factors affecting responsiveness, yet few studies have applied responsiveness concepts to the evaluation of mental health systems. The present study aims to measure responsiveness and its related domains in the mental health-care system of Tehran. Utilizing the same method used by the WHO for its responsiveness survey, responsiveness for outpatient mental health care was evaluated using a validated Farsi questionnaire. A sample of 500 public mental health service users in Tehran participated and subsequently completed the questionnaire. On average, 47% of participants reported experiencing poor responsiveness. Among responsiveness domains, confidentiality and dignity were the best performing factors while autonomy, access to care, and quality of basic amenities were the worst performing. Respondents who reported their social status as low were more likely to experience poor responsiveness overall. Attention and access to care were responsiveness dimensions that performed poorly but were considered to be highly important by study participants. In summary, the study suggests that measuring responsiveness could provide guidance for further development of mental health-care systems to become more patient orientated and provide patients with more respect.

  • 14.
    Gebreselassie, Kirubel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Epidemiology of Hypertension Stages in Two Countries in Sub-Sahara Africa: Factors Associated with Hypertension Stages2015In: International Journal of Hypertension, ISSN 2090-0384, E-ISSN 2090-0392, article id 959256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies using the revised hypertension classification are needed to better understand epidemiology of hypertension across full distribution. The sociodemographic, biological, and health behavior characteristics associated with different stages of hypertension in Ghana and South Africa (SA) were studied using global ageing and adult health (SAGE), WAVE 1 dataset. Blood pressure was assessed for a total of 7545 respondents, 2980 from SA and 4565 from Ghana. Hypertension was defined using JNC7 blood pressure classification considering previous diagnosis and treatment. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis using Stata version 12 statistical software was done to identify independent predictors. The weighted prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in Ghana was 30.7% and 42.4%, respectively, and that of SA was 29.4% and 46%, respectively, showing high burden. After adjusting for the independent variables, only age (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.14–1.53), income (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.04–3.47), and BMI (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.1–1.22) remained independent predictors for stage 1 hypertension in Ghana, while, for SA, age (OR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.53–3.36), sex (OR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.08–1), and BMI (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.07–1.25) were found to be independent predictors of stage 1 hypertension. Healthy lifestyle changes and policy measures are needed to promptly address these predictors.

  • 15.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Lauritz, Lars Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Mojgan, Padyab
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Sundqvist, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Wimelius, Malin E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ögren, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Avvisningar och utvisningar av ensamkommande flyktingbarn: om effektivitet, värdighet och barnens bästa från tjänstemäns och gode mäns perspektiv2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport tar sin utgångspunkt i den svenska regeringens ställningstagande att barn som inte anses ha skyddsbehov eller andra skäl att stanna i Sverige ska kunna återvända hem på värdiga sätt. Samma regering har dock också tydligt uttalat att antalet av- och utvisningar väsentligen ska öka i förhållande till tidigare år. Det är den potentiella spänningen mellan skarpa krav på effektivitet i av- och utvisningsärenden å ena sidan och kraven på värdighet, respekt för mänskliga rättigheter och barnets bästa å den andra, som undersöks i den här rapporten. Fokus ligger på hur centrala aktörer förhåller sig till och tolkar dessa krav och på vad deras respektive förhållningssätt och tolkningar betyder för samverkan dem emellan.

    Tre fallstudier i kommuner av varierande storlek belägna i de geografiskt åtskilda länen Västerbotten, Skåne och Värmland har genomförts. Fallstudierna bygger på totalt 49 intervjuer med handläggare på Migrationsverket, socialsekreterare, gode män, HVBpersonal och poliser – alla verksamma som centrala aktörer vid av- och utvisningar. I analysen av det insamlade materialet betraktas de professionella aktörerna (de gode männen undantagna) som gräsrotsbyråkrater med vida handlingsutrymmen. Det som undersöks är i vilken utsträckning de anser sig kunna omsätta de politiska målsättningarna om ökad effektivitet och bibehållen värdighet i praktiken. För att kunna analysera vad det är som utmärker samarbete och samverkan mellan aktörerna används teorier om interorganisatorisk samverkan.

    De huvudsakliga slutsatser som framkommit i rapporten är att uppfattningar om och förhållningssätt till det effektiva och värdiga återvändandet skiljer sig åt bland de olika aktörerna i Västerbotten, Skåne och Värmland. Aktörerna gör egna tolkningar av begreppen effektivitet och värdighet, i vilka mening skapas utifrån professionella erfarenheter, roller och uppdrag. De största skillnaderna i uppfattning och tolkning har återfunnits mellan aktörskategorierna, inte mellan de tre fallstudierna. Polis och Migrationsverk anser generellt att effektivitet och värdighet går att förena. Poliserna och tjänstemännen på Migrationsverket har jämfört med de andra aktörerna oftare ett uttalat legalt perspektiv och ser både värdighet och respekt för barnens mänskliga rättigheter som inbäddade i det juridiska ramverket. Socialsekreterare, HVB-personal och gode män anser däremot generellt att ett återvändande mot ett barns vilja inte någonsin kan bli värdigt. De är också mer benägna att se det som att Barnkonventionen i relation till utlänningslagen hamnar i underordnad ställning. Vissa likheter mellan aktörerna har också kunnat identifieras. Samtliga betonar gott bemötande, god kommunikation och tydlig information i relation till de barn som fått av- eller utvisningsbeslut.

    Aktörernas olika förhållningssätt får konsekvenser för deras samverkan. Överlag kan samverkan i samtliga undersökta kommuner beskrivas som begränsad, oklar, personberoende och utan gemensamma mål. Aktörerna uttrycker brist på tillit och många upplever en känsla av ensamhet i sina roller. Goda erfarenheter av samverkan finns visserligen men det är tydligt att skilda professionella normer, organisationskulturer, erfarenheter och perspektiv försvårar samverkan.

  • 16.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Lauritz, Lars Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sundqvist, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ögren, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    En resa med tvång: erfarenheter av avvisningar och utvisningar av ensamkommande asylsökande flyktingbarn2015Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lauritz, Lars Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sundqvist, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Wimelius, Malin E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ögren, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ensamkommande flyktingbarns återvändande: om förutsättningar samt centrala aktörers roller och ansvar2014Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Lauritz, Lars-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Richter, Jörg
    Personality and mental health changes throughout the course of university police training in Sweden2019In: Nordisk Politiforskning, E-ISSN 1894-8693, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 7-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Police trainees have to be prepared for future job demands and challenges. Personality plays an important role in stress management. The first assessment of a longitudinal investigation was conducted among 103 Swedish police trainees to study their personality changes and mental health responses in first two weeks after intake. Fifty-two of these trainees, who participated in the second assessment, were included in the analysis. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used to measure personality, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to measure mental health. A multiple regression analysis was performed with personality scores from the first assessment as independent variables and SCL-90-R scores as dependent variables. Over two years, minor changes were found in the police trainees’ personality characteristics, which seemingly fit the demands of policing and are potentially valuable in the trainees’ future careers. Personality characteristics are predictors of mental health at the end of university training.

  • 19.
    Grahn, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lundgren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Center for Addictions Research and Services, Boston University School of Social Work, USA.
    Chassler, Deborah
    Center for Addictions Research and Services, Boston University School of Social Work, USA.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Repeated entries to the Swedish addiction compulsory care system: A national register database study2015In: Evaluation and Program Planning, ISSN 0149-7189, E-ISSN 1873-7870, Vol. 49, p. 163-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study identified and described specific client groups who have repeated entries to the Swedish addiction compulsory care system. Specifically, through the use of baseline data from the Swedish government Staten’s Institutions Styrelse (SiS) database, for 2658 individuals who were assessed at their compulsory care intake interview by social workers in the national social welfare system between 2001 and 2009 the study identified the associations between specific predisposing, enabling and need characteristics and repeated addiction compulsory care entries. The logistic regression model identified that individuals whose children have been mandated to the child welfare system, who have experienced prior compulsory care including compulsory treatment through LVU (law (1990:52) with specific provision about care of young people under 18), and those who have been in prison are more likely to have two or more entries in the addiction compulsory care system compared to their counterparts. Individuals who have been mandated to compulsory care for their substance use disorder two or more times have significant multiple complex problems and repeated experiences of institutionalization. These individuals are a group in need of a well-coordinated and integrated system of aftercare services to reduce the likelihood of re-entry into addiction compulsory care. 

  • 20.
    Grahn, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lundgren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The Importance of Risky Psychosocial Childhood for Repeated Addiction Compulsory Care as AdultIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Treatment for substance use disorder (SUD), results, in general, in improvements in terms of both drug use and social functioning. However, there are clients who are in need of repeated treatment. The aim of this retrospective study is to identify, for adults in compulsory care for severe SUD, the association between and reporting have experienced a risky psychosocial childhood and repeated entries into the Swedish compulsory care system for SUD.

    Method: Hierarchical logistic regression and mediation analysis methods were used to analyze data from the Swedish National Board of Institutional Care (SiS) database. The sample included 2719 adults assessed at their compulsory care intake. The study examined the association between history of institutional care, family with SUD or psychiatric problem and repeated compulsory care entries as adult controlling for main drug, age and gender.

    Results: In the regression model the factor with the strongest association with repeated compulsory care intakes for SUD, was that as a child having been in mandated institutional care (OR=2.0 (1.60-2.51)). The proportion of the total effect that is mediated through LVU was 33% for SUD problems in family during childhood, 44% for psychiatric problems in family during childhood, and 38% for having been in foster care.

    Conclusion: Having been in mandated institutional care as a youth was strongly associated with repeated compulsory care for SUD as an adult. This is concerning since receipt of services as a child is supposed to mediate against the consequences of risky childhood conditions. These adults, as a group are in need of a well-coordinated and integrated system of extensive after care services to reduce the likelihood of re-entryinto compulsory care for an SUD.

  • 21. Hadaegh, Farzad
    et al.
    Ghasemi, Asghar
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Tohidi, Maryam
    Azizi, Fereidoun
    The metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes: Assessmentof alternative definitions of the metabolic syndrome in anIranian urban population2008In: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, ISSN 0168-8227, E-ISSN 1872-8227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To compare the ability of definitions of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in the predictionof type 2 diabetes.Methods: We examined 4756 subjects in an Iranian population who were non-diabetic atbaseline. After 3.6 years, 188 individuals developed diabetes.Results: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and MetS definitions predicted type 2 diabetes withodds ratios ranging from 3.7 to 11.9 (all P < 0.05) although IGT had the highest area under thereceiver operator characteristic (aROC) curve than all the MetS definitions. Reduction ofglucose in the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) definition of the MetSincreased diabetes prediction, but adding the family history of diabetes did not changeaROC curves. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition had the highest sensitivityand false positive rate (72.2 and 35.1%, respectively) and the WHO definition had thelowest ones (54.8 and 9.2%, respectively) for predicting diabetes. The positive predictivevalues of all definitions were low (8.6–19.7%) but their negative predictive values werearound 98%.Conclusions: In Iranian population, the MetS was inferior to IGT for predicting type 2diabetes. The NCEP definition of the MetS with reduced level of glucose (not includingthe family history of diabetes) and IDF definition predicted type 2 diabetes at least as well asWHO definition.

  • 22.
    Hansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The Swedish Police Service's deportations of unaccompanied, asylum-seeking refugee children: The role of coping and general mental health2017In: Cogent Psychology, ISSN 2331-1908, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 1355629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of unaccompanied, asylum-seeking refugee children (UARC) coming to Sweden has increased 100 times during the last ten years. If children do not voluntarily return, the police are responsible for deportation. This study aims to describe police officers’ coping in the deportation of UARC and to investigate the associations between coping and general mental health in relation to the deportation of UARC among police officers by considering sociodemographic variables. Validity and reliability analyses were conducted for the use of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WOCQ) in the context of UARC. Mental health was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12). The GHQ-12 was the outcome (dependent variable), and the experience of deportations of UARC, the WOCQ and sociodemographic variables were the independent variables. A 5-factor structure with some important similarities and differences to the original version was confirmed. This study shows that the police officers utilize different coping strategies in the same complex situations during the deportation of UARC. The use of escape-avoidance and self-control increased the likelihood of psychological disturbance, whereas positive reappraisal had a protective effect. This research also demonstrates that coping strategies have a moderating effect on general mental health in police officers’ work with the deportations of UARC. 

  • 23.
    Hansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lauritz, Lars-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Swedish Police Officers' Job Strain, Work-Related Social Support and General Mental Health2017In: Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, ISSN 0882-0783, E-ISSN 1936-6469, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 128-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the association between psychosocial job characteristics and general mental health among police officers and the extent to which social support at work plays a role in this association. The findings are based on a cross-sectional survey. A written questionnaire was assessed by 714 police officers volunteered to participate in the study. The participants completed a series of validated instruments assessing job demand, control and social support at work (JDCS); general mental health (GHQ); and sociodemographic characteristics. High job strain was associated with low levels of work-related social support. Moreover, poor mental health was associated with low levels of work-related social support, active work and high job strain. The joint effect of high job strain and low levels of work-related social support had a significant effect on poor mental health. Work-related social support buffered job strain to some extent. Workforce health promotion policies should attempt to reduce job strain and emphasise the importance of work-related social support. Knowledge about police officers' general mental health and policymakers' support for police officers may have positive effects on the performance of the police force.

  • 24.
    Jacobsson, Ann
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Backteman-Erlandson, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Egan Sjölander, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Burnout and association with psychosocial work environment among Swedish firefighters2017In: Global Journal of Health Science, ISSN 1916-9736, E-ISSN 1916-9744, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 214-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firefighters are exposed to traumatic and stressful psychosocial and physical strain in their work, and thus they are considered to be a group at high risk of burnout. The aim of this study was to investigate burnout (emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization (DP) among Swedish female and male firefighters and to examine the gender-stratified relationship between psychosocial work environment and burnout when considering the moderating effect of coping strategies among Swedish firefighters. The overall mean values of both EE and DP were notably low in comparison with the general population in Sweden. We found that psychosocial work environment factors increase the risk of burnout among male firefighters. Among men, EE was associated with high demands and lack of social support in work. The association was also confirmed with DP as the outcome and lack of good leadership as the exposure among men. However, among female firefighters the association between psychosocial work environment factors and burnout failed to appear. Among women, EE and DP were only associated with the coping strategy Psychological distancing (PDi). A negative association with DP and the coping strategy Positive Reappraisal (PRe) was also found among women. Regardless of the result from the regression analyses, we must consider that the majority of the female and male firefighters in our study had low scores on the outcome variables EE and DP. Future studies should explore female and male firefighters' context and possible health-protecting environment.

  • 25.
    Kohlström, Kirsi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Rantatalo, Oscar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Karp, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Policy ideals for a reformed education: How police students value new and enduring content in a time of change2017In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859, Vol. 29, no 7/8, p. 524-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose This study aims to examine how subgroups within a cohort of Swedish police students value different types of curricula content (i.e. new competencies versus enduring ones) in the context of the currently transforming landscape of basic police training.

    Design/methodology/approach Drawing on a Swedish national survey (N = 369), the study examined variations in how students value new versus enduring police curricula content based on sociodemographic factors. Specifically, factors such as student age and gender and the institutional arrangements of education were tested using an independent t test.

    Findings The study identified differences in values based on gender. Female students valued competencies such as communication, flexibility, diversity and decisiveness as more important in an educational setting than did males. Fewer differences were found in relation to institutional arrangement, and in-house students valued flexibility and communication skill as more important for educational curricula compared to university-based students. No differences were found in relation to age.

    Originality/value This study adds knowledge to the question of how changes in occupational education policy develop in practice. More specifically, the study explored how students in educational programmes value new versus enduring competencies and whether differences can be identified based on sociodemographic factors. These questions are important because they expose sociodemographic conditions that influence how students value policy-driven skills versus enduring ones.

  • 26.
    Kohlström, Kirsi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Rantatalo, Oscar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Karp, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Policy Ideals for a Reformed Education: Police Students' Occupational Attitudes in a Time of Change2015In: 9th International Conference on Researching Work and Learning: 9-11 December 2015, School of the Arts Singapore, 2015, p. 1-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines discrepancies between educational objectives expressed in police vocational education policy and police recruits' views on knowledge and anticipatory occupational expectations. From a global perspective, police institutions in many countries are currently undergoing substantial professional reorientations in light of societal developments such as transforming demographics, increased societal diversity, changing public demands on police service delivery and crime patterns that are increasingly transnational and globalised. In sum, these developments have been suggested to be leading to increased complexity in the police's fulfilment of their professional obligations and new demands on police professional knowledge. In the context of police education, these shifts are visible on a policy level wherein experiential approaches to policing are increasingly substituted for problem-oriented and evidence-based policing which builds on theory, evaluation and utilisation of research. On the level of police educational curricula, traditional subjects, such as law enforcement, investigation and crime control, are increasingly complemented with subjects such as cultural awareness, communication and gender and diversity training. Given these broad developments, the present study investigates how the uptake of new educational ideas and practices is perceived by students undergoing police education. Previous research has put forth that educational content at variance with the occupational practices and culture of the police runs a considerable risk of being disapproved by police recruits and by extension has little or no impact on student learning. Drawing on a Swedish national survey (n=369) targeting Swedish police students in their fourth term of police education, the present paper investigates discrepancies between policy objectives and students attitudes towards 'new' subjects. The survey measures students values and attitudes towards different areas of police educational content. The results indicate that skill areas such as communication, flexibility and diversity are considered more important to emphasise in education by female students than male students. Based on the results, the authors discuss how ideas regarding policing which are promoted on a policy level may influence the development of new kinds of skills in police practice. Discrepancies between official rhetoric and police educational practice are discussed in terms of how such gaps may counteract the development of new kinds of expertise and knowledge within the occupational community of the police.

  • 27. Koocheka, Afsaneh
    et al.
    Mirmiran, Parvin
    Azizi, Tohid
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Endocrine Research Center, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. Iran.
    Johansson, Sven-Erik
    Karlström, Brita
    Azizi, Fereidoun
    Sundquist, Jan
    Is migration to Sweden associated with increased prevalenceof risk factors for cardiovascular disease?2008In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1741-8267, E-ISSN 1741-8275, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 78-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bakground: The proportion of elderly immigrants in Sweden is increasing. This is an important issue considering that theprevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a global health problem and that CVD is one of the main causes of morbidityamong the elderly. The aim of this study is to analyze whether there is an association between migration status, that isbeing an elderly Iranian immigrant in Sweden, as compared with being an elderly Iranian in Iran, and the prevalence of riskfactors for CVD.Design Population-based cross-sectional study with face-to-face interviews.Participants and setting A total of 176 Iranians in Stockholm and 300 Iranians in Tehran, aged 60–84 years.

    Methods: The prevalence of general obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertension, smoking, and diabetes was determined.Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) foroutcomes.

    Results: The age-adjusted risk of hypertension and smoking was higher in Iranian women and men in Sweden. OR forhypertension was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1–3.2) for women and 3.1 (95% CI: 1.5–6.3) for men and OR for smoking was 6.9 (95% CI:2.2–21.6) for women and 4.7 (95% CI: 2.0–11.0) for men. The higher risk for hypertension and smoking remained significantafter accounting for age, socioeconomic status, and marital status. Abdominal obesity was found in nearly 80% of thewomen in both groups.

    Conclusion: The findings show a strong association between migration status and the prevalence of hypertension andsmoking. Major recommendation for public health is increased awareness of CVD risk factors among elderlyimmigrants

  • 28.
    Larsson, Ellinor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Larsson-Lund, Maria
    Department of Health Science, Occupational Therapy, Luleå University of Technology.
    Nilsson, Ingeborg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Effects of a social internet-based intervention programme for older adults: An explorative randomised crossover study2016In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 10, p. 629-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Restraints and changes in social activities might contribute to loneliness and health decline for older adults. To reduce loneliness and support activities, social internet-based interventions are indicated to be effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a social internet-based intervention for older adults who are vulnerable to loneliness. Method: An explorative, randomised, crossover study with an AB/BA sequence was completed. The intervention was conducted over a period of three months. Thirty participants were included (24 women and six men, 61–89 years old) and allocated to two groups. Data were collected at three time points. The primary outcome was the UCLA loneliness scale, and the secondary outcomes were satisfaction with social contacts and social interaction skills. Statistical analyses were conducted with the paired t-test, Wilcoxon’s signed-rank test and repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: Loneliness was significantly decreased in both groups post intervention, and satisfaction with social contacts online significantly increased in one group. Significant treatment effects were detected for all outcomes. Conclusion: The results of the social internet-based intervention programme are promising, but further evaluations are needed.

  • 29. Lukumay, Gift G.
    et al.
    Ndile, Menti L.
    Outwater, Anne H.
    Mkoka, Dickson A.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Backteman-Erlandsson, Susann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Provision of post-crash first aid by traffic police in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a cross-sectional survey2018In: BMC Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1471-227X, E-ISSN 1471-227X, Vol. 18, article id 45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The availability of prehospital trauma care is an important means of reducing serious injuries and fatalities associated with road traffic injuries (RTIs). Lay responders such as traffic police play an important role in the provision of prehospital trauma care to RTI victims, especially where there is no established prehospital care system. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate knowledge, self-reported practice, and attitudes toward post-crash first aid among traffic police officers in Tanzania.

    Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania between July-September 2017 to investigate knowledge, self-reported practice and attitude among traffic police officers during provision of post-crash care. We used simple random technique to recruit 340 traffic police officers, self -administered questionnaires were used to collect data. The researchers used descriptive statistics and Pearson's chi-square tests to analyze the data.

    Results: A total of 340 traffic police officers were surveyed. Nearly two thirds (65.3%) reported having had post-crash first aid on-the job training; a slightly larger proportion (70.9%) reported that they had cared for RTI victims in the previous year. The survey responses showed that, generally, traffic police officers' level of knowledge about post-crash first aid to RTI victims was low-about 3% of the surveyed officers possessed knowledge at a level considered good. Also, there was a statistically significant correlation between higher educational attainment and greater knowledgeability (p = 0.015). Almost all of the officers (96%) had a positive attitude toward providing post-crash first aid to RTI victims.

    Conclusions: Improved training of Tanzania traffic police officers, by means of an updated post-crash first aid curriculum and updated resources is recommended. Also, user-friendly post-crash first aid leaflets should be provided to traffic police for their reference.

  • 30.
    Lundgren, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Butler Institute of Families, Graduate School of Social Work, University of Denver, Denver, CO.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Lucero, Nancy M.
    Butler Institute of Families, Graduate School of Social Work, University of Denver, Denver, CO.
    Blom-Nilsson, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nyström, Siv
    National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carver-Roberts, Tabitha
    Butler Institute of Families, Graduate School of Social Work, University of Denver, Denver, CO.
    Sandlund, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Immigration Status and Substance Use Disorder-related Mortality in Sweden2019In: Journal of addiction medicine, ISSN 1932-0620, E-ISSN 1935-3227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: First-generation immigrants, in many countries, are healthier than their native counterparts. This study examined the association between first- and second-generation immigrant status and alcohol- or drugs other than alcohol-related (primarily opioids) mortality for those with risky substance use.

    Methods: A Swedish longitudinal, 2003 to 2017, registry study combined Addiction Severity Index (ASI) assessment data with mortality data (n = 15 601). Due to missing data, the analysis sample for this study was 15 012. Multivariate models tested the relationship between immigration status and drugs other than alcohol or alcohol-related mortality, controlling for demographics and the 7 ASI composite scores (CS).

    Results: Age, a higher ASI CS for alcohol, a lower ASI CS family and social relationship, a lower ASI CS for drug use and a higher ASI CS for health significantly predicted mortality because of alcohol-related causes. Higher ASI CS for drugs other than alcohol, employment, and health, age, male sex, and immigration status predicted drugs other than alcohol, related mortality. Individuals born in Nordic countries, excluding Sweden, were 1.76 times more likely to die of drugs other than alcohol compared with their Swedish counterparts. Individuals born outside a Nordic country (most common countries: Iran, Somalia, Iraq, Chile) were 61% less likely to die of drugs other than alcohol compared with their Swedish counterparts. Those with parents born outside Nordic countries were 54% less likely to die of drugs other than alcohol.

    Discussion: Research is needed on why people with risky substance use from Nordic countries (not Sweden) residing in Sweden, have higher mortality rates because of drugs other than alcohol (primarily opioids drugs other than alcohol compared with the other population groups in our study). Findings indicate that ASI CSs are strong predictors of future health problems including mortality due to alcohol and other drug-related causes.

  • 31.
    Löfgren, Hans O.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Nilsson, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Petersen, Solveig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Hägglöf, Bruno
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Healthier Parents: Effects of Parent Training Programs on Mental Health2017In: International Journal of Social Work and Human Services Practice, ISSN 2332-6832, E-ISSN 2332-6840, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 70-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to investigate the effects of Parent Training Programs on the mental health of parents with children aged between 1 and 17 in a universal preventive setting. The intervention group included 279 parents who were assigned to five professionally administered interventions, which included 5–10 two-hour sessions; they were then compared to 702 parents in the comparison group without intervention. The improvement in general mental health was statistically significant in the intervention group compared to the comparison group. The findings suggest that evidence-based parent training programs enhance well-being in parents without indicated problems. However further exploration of preventive training programs for parents are needed.

  • 32.
    Löfgren, Hans O.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Hägglöf, Bruno
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    First-level trial of two school-based prevention programmes for depression, anxiety and social problems in adolescentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recognizing the positive mental health benefits of school-based interventions, the present study examined the effect of the preventive programmes. A small feasibility try-out turned out to have conclusive results worth reporting. Choosing Healthy Actions and Thoughts (CHAT) was examined and compared to Life-Skills, commonly used primary preventive method in Swedish schools that has been evaluated in research studies and showing effects on social skills. The aim was to determine if CHAT can be included in the school curriculum and result in positive mental health gains. A community sample of 59 pupils in grade 7 completed a test battery including the Sense of Coherence, the Children’s Depression Inventory, and the Youth Self Report instruments. Post intervention measures were performed at two time points, i.e., right after the intervention sessions and after 12 months follow-up. The two programmes aimed at improving mental health in schoolchildren and both are administered by teachers. The main result was improvement in self-reported depression symptoms for the CHAT programme and less social problems for the Life-Skill programme. There is however a dimension, attention problems, where the programmes had no effect. The feasibility was considered satisfactory. Educational and healthcare implications are discussed.

  • 33.
    Löfgren, Hans O.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Petersen, Solveig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nilsson, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Hägglöf, Bruno
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Effects of Parent Training Programs on Parental Stress in a General Swedish Population Sample2017In: Psychology, ISSN 2152-7180, E-ISSN 2152-7199, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 700-716, article id 75044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a confirmatory study that assessed the effects of parent training programs on parental stress in a general population. There is a need to repeat and confirm earlier findings to acquire solid knowledge for policy stakeholders. In a quasi-experimental design, self-reported data were gathered at three occasions from 83 parents of children between the ages from one to ten years. These parents had responded to advertisements of parent training programs, and were matched to a comparison group of 83 parents chosen from a governmental database. Parent training program based upon behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, Adlerian and family system-theories. Parental stress due to incompetence, role restriction, social isolation, spousal relationship problems, and health problems were measured by the Swedish Parenthood Stress Ques- tionnaire that is based on the Parent Stress Index Scale. The data indicated a reduction of stress in the sub-scale of health problems among parents in the intervention group with an effect size of 0.33, however, no other subscale showed the intervention as a significant variable when controlling for confounding variables. This study adds on the accumulated knowledge of supporting interventions for parents. We conclude that parent training programs have a significant effect on the stress components of parental health when implemented in real-life settings. 

  • 34.
    Niklasson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nyqvist, Fredrica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nygren, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Psychometric properties and feasibility of the Swedish version of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale2015In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 24, no 11, p. 2795-2805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Morale is related to psychological well-being and quality of life in older people. The Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) is widely used to assess morale. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and feasibility of the Swedish version of the 17-item PGCMS among very old people.

    METHODS: The Umea 85+/GERDA study included Swedish-speaking people aged 85, 90 and 95 years and older, from Sweden and Finland. Participants were interviewed in their own homes using a predefined set of questions. In the main sample, 493 individuals answered all 17 PGCMS items (aged 89.0 +/- 4.3 years). Another 105 answered between 1 and 16 questions (aged 89.6 +/- 4.4 years). A convenience sample was also collected, and 54 individuals answered all 17 PGCMS items twice (aged 84.7 +/- 6.7 years). The same assessor restated the questions within 1 week.

    RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha was 0.74 among those who answered all 17 questions in the main sample. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the construct validity of the most widely used version of the PGCMS, with 17 items and three factors, and showed a generally good fit. Among those answering between 1 and 17 PGCMS questions, 92.6 % (554/598) answered 16 or 17. The convenience sample was used for intra-rater test-retesting, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.89. The least significant change between two assessments, with 95 % confidence interval, was 3.53 PGCMS points.

    CONCLUSION: The Swedish version of the PGCMS seems to have satisfactory psychometric properties and feasibility among very old people.

  • 35.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Health disparities in Europe’s ageing population: the role of social network2018In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 1445498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research suggests that the social network may play very different roles in relation to health in countries with differing welfare regimes. 

    Objective: The study aimed to assess the interplay between social network, socioeconomic position, and self-rated health (SRH) in European countries. 

    Methods: The study used cross-sectional data on individuals aged 50+ from the fourth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and includes data from 16 countries. The outcome is poor SRH. All analyses are adjusted for age and stratified by gender. 

    Results: Low satisfaction with the social network was associated with poor SRH among women in all country groups, but predicted poor SRH among males in West/Central and Eastern Europe only. The results from the multivariable analysis showed an increased likelihood of poor SRH among those with relatively lower education, as well as among those with low satisfaction with the social network (women from all country groups and men from Western/Central and Eastern Europe). However, the results from interaction analysis show that poor SRH for those with lower relative position in educational level was greater among those with higher satisfaction with the social network among male and female participants from Northern Europe. The health of individuals who are highly satisfied with their social network is more associated with socioeconomic status in Northern Europe. 

    Conclusions: This study highlights the significance of social network and socioeconomic gradients in health among the elderly in Europe.

  • 36. Ordookhani, Arash
    et al.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Endocrine Research Center, Taleghani Hospital, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Goldasteh, Akbar
    Mirmiran, Parvin
    Richter, Jörg
    Azizi, Fereidoun
    Seasonal variation of neonatal transient hyperthyrotropinemia in tehran province, 1998–20052010In: Chronobiology International, ISSN 0742-0528, E-ISSN 1525-6073, Vol. 27, no 9-10, p. 1854-1869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal aggregation and the monthly rate of neonatal transient hyperthyrotropinemia(THT) were assessed. From November 1998 to April 2005, neonates of gestationalage ≥37 wks, birth weight 2500–4000 g, birth length 45–55 cm, and 1st min Apgarscore >3, who had thyrotropin (TSH) ≥20 mU/L in their cord dried-blood specimen,but without congenital hypothyroidism, were enrolled in the study. The recall rateequals the rate of THT occurrence in this study. Of 47,945 neonates, 555 had THT(recall rate: 1.2%). The aggregated seasonal recall rate (recall for further assessment torule out congenital hypothyroidism) was significantly higher in winter (January,February, and March) than the other seasons ( p < .0001). Winter had higher recallrate in each year as compared to other seasons, but the overall rate of recalls decreasedin 2001 and 2002. Excluding the first 6 months (due to erratic variations), the remaining72 months revealed a relatively sinusoidal pattern in monthly recall rates; indeed,there was an initial 11-month high recall rates (1.7%), followed by a 33-month decrease(0.7%), a 19-month increase (1.9%), and a final 9-month decrease (0.8%). The recallrate of each of these time intervals was significantly different from that of the nexttime interval ( p < .0001). The monthly recall rates were best fitted to cubic curve estimationand then autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) (0, 1, 1) models.THT occurs significantly more in winter than in other seasons, and this suggests apossible role for time-varying factor(s) contributing to its seasonal preponderance.

  • 37.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Client violence toward Iranian social workers: A national study2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction   Client violence toward social workers has become recognized as a common problem, and major concern has been raised with regard to its impacts on the workers’ practice, and physical and psychological health. More than half a century has passed since the social work profession was established in Iran, and yet client violence and the associated health-related consequences remain unexplored. This thesis aims to address this gap in knowledge.

    Methods   A national survey was conducted involving 390 social workers from the Centres for Socially Injured People (CSIP), affiliated to the Social Affairs Department of the State Welfare Organization, Iran. The survey included self-administered questionnaires, namely, the Workplace Violence in the Health Sector questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), the Ways of Coping questionnaire, the Burnout Measure, and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale.

    Results   A high proportion of CSIP social workers (67%) have experienced violence. Psychological violence was about three times more common than physical violence. A high tendency of not reporting psychological violence to managers/supervisors was found. Psychological violence was associated with poorer mental health. Social workers with experience of psychological violence were found to be more worried about occurrences of violent events. Worrying about violence was significantly correlated with poorer mental health. Active coping had a direct effect on health, suggesting a poorer health status with more frequent use of active coping. Burnout was experienced by 10.9% of social workers, and 17.4% were found to be at risk of developing burnout symptoms. Low self-esteem and experience of violence were associated with burnout.

    Conclusion   The results suggest the importance of not neglecting cases of client violence and of putting the health and safety of social workers on top of the agenda. A victimized social worker with limited resources at work needs to note that coping skills may reduce the impact of stressors, not only by changing the stressors themselves, but also by changing how the social worker responds to them.

  • 38.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Siv
    Department for Knowledge-Based Policy of Social Services, National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gröonlund, Ann-Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lundgren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. The Graduate School of Social Work, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA.
    Is Clinical Assessment of Addiction Severity of Individuals with Substance UseDisorder, Using the Addiction Severity Index, A Predictor of Future InpatientMental Health Hospitalization? A Nine-Year Registry Study2018In: Journal of dual diagnosis, ISSN 1550-4263, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 187-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In Sweden, the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) is the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare's recommended substance use disorder assessment tool and used routinely for patient intakes. Our study of 213 individuals assessed for substance use disorder with the ASI used nine years of the National Patient Register and examined whether clinical social workers' assessments of addiction severity at baseline were associated with later hospitalizations for mental health disorder (MHD). 

    Methods: ASI composite scores and interviewer severity rating were used to measure clients' problems in seven areas (mental health, family and social relationships, employment, alcohol, drug use, health, and legal) at baseline. A stepwise regression method was used to assess the relative importance of ASI composite scores, MHD hospitalization two years prior to baseline, age, and gender for MHD hospitalization seven years post-baseline. 

    Results: Almost two-thirds of the individuals (63%) were hospitalized at least once for MHD in the seven years post-baseline. At the multivariable level, MHD hospitalization prior to baseline was the strongest predictor of future MHD hospitalization, followed by ASI composite scores for drug use, employment, mental health and, last, male gender. Conclusions: A key finding is that higher ASI composite scores for drug use and mental health are predictors of future need for MHD treatment. Future studies will replicate this effort with a national population of individuals with substance use disorder.

  • 39.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Backteman-Erlanson, Susann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Burnout, coping, stress of conscience and psychosocial work environment among patrolling police officers2016In: Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, ISSN 0882-0783, E-ISSN 1936-6469, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 229-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Police personnel work under different circumstances in various environments involving stressful situations which can increase the risk of burnout. Aim of this study was to investigate the association between burnout (emotional exhaustion, EE vs. depersonalization, DP) and psychosocial work environment, stress of conscience as well as coping strategies among patrolling police officers in Sweden. Most of the independent variables; psychological demand, decision latitude, social support, and coping scales were correlated with EE and DP. A hierarchical multiple regression was performed to investigate the predictive impact of; psychological demand, decision latitude, social support, coping strategies and stress of conscience. Findings revealed that risk of EE increased with a troubled conscience for both women and men when coping strategies were added to the model. For men risk of DP increased with troubled conscience. Only low decision latitude was associated with risk of DP for women when coping strategies were added to the model. Results from this study indicate that stress of conscience has to be taken into consideration and also levels of social support and decision latitude when studying the influence of the psychosocial work environment on burnout.

  • 40.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    No association found between cardiovascular mortality, and job demands and decision latitude: experience from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme in Sweden2014In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 117, p. 58-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current prospective study with the longest follow-up period in Northern Sweden aims to investigate the association between job demands and decision latitude and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Further, we aim to assess the effect of conventional risk factors (i.e., body mass index, alcohol consumption, physical activity, marital status, education and smoking) on the association between job demands and decision latitude and CVD mortality. The data originated from the Linnaeus database, available at the Center for Population Studies, Umeå University, Sweden. A cohort of men and women aged 40, 50 and 60 years were recruited from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme. Deaths due to stroke and myocardial infarction at the end of the follow up are considered the outcome. Baseline job characteristics were defined by the Swedish version of the Karasek demand/control model. Statistical methods include proportional Cox hazard modeling and Relative Excess Risk due to Interaction (RERI) to assess interactions. The findings from this study did not support the association between job demands and decision latitude and CVD mortality. Instead, conventional risk factors were found stronger predictors, most evidently education differentials were associated with CVD mortality. We know from previous research that the greater the attenuation of the gradient after adjustment for a given risk factor, the greater the potential to reduce educational inequality via interventions that target this factor. Based on the present findings of the experience in Västerbotten, further research is needed to identify other risk factors besides job strain and its components that would reduce the socioeconomic gradient in CVD mortality.

  • 41.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Chalak, Hassan
    Nygren, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Client violence and mental health status among Iranian social workers: A national survey2012In: British Journal of Social Work, ISSN 0045-3102, E-ISSN 1468-263X, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 111-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Client violence towards social workers is common and its impact on their practice, physical and psychological health is well documented. The majority of research in this field has emerged from the UK and USA, and is limited in developing countries such as Iran. Thus, the aim was to determine the one-year prevalence of client violence in Iran and its association with the mental health status of social workers. A national survey of 390 social workers from the Centres for Socially Injured People affiliated to the Social Affairs Department of the State Welfare Organisation, Iran, was conducted. The results showed that 67 per cent of Iranian social workers had experienced violence with a considerably higher magnitude of psychological violence than physical violence. Psychological violence was associated with poorer health characterised by physical symptoms, anxiety and sleep disorders, and social dysfunction.

  • 42.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Richter, Jörg
    Centre for Children and Adolescents Mental Health, Oslo.
    Coping and mental health of Iranian social workers: the impact of client violence2013In: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 805-814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Client violence towards social workers and its impact on their practice, and physical and psychological health, as well as the importance of coping as a factor in health outcomes, are well documented. However, there is a dearth of studies concerning these issues in Iran. We conducted a national survey of 390 social workers in Iran, and employed structural equation modeling to test the potential mediating role of coping strategies on the relationship between violence and health outcomes. Active coping was used more than passive coping and the use of active coping had a direct positive effect on health. Results indicate that the two coping behaviors are related and the success of each depends on the other. We discuss our findings with special regard to the context of social work in Iran.

  • 43.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Richter, Jörg
    Factor structure of the Farsi version of the ways of coping questionnaire2012In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 2006-2018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite burgeoning research on coping with stress and its crucial role on people's psychological and physical well-being, there is a dearth of psychometrically established instrument for use in Iran to measure coping. A Farsi translation of the Ways of Coping questionnaire (WOC) was administered to 739 participants from Tehran, Iran. The factor structure of the WOC was assessed with both explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses. A 7-factor structure model with some important similarities and differences to the original version from the United States was confirmed. The Farsi version of WOC was found to have good construct reliability and model fit and has considerable potential to be used in future coping research among Iranian populations.

  • 44.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ghazinour, Seyedmehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    A comparative study of experiences of client violence and its impact among Iranian and Swedish social workers2015In: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 129-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Client violence toward social workers has been recognized as a serious problem and major concern has been raised with regard to its impacts on social workers’ practice, and physical and psychological health. There is recognition among researchers and policy makers that it is time for international social work community to develop conventions and agreements to address this issue globally. A cross-cultural study between Sweden and Iran was conducted to compare and contrast levels of violence between the two countries. Prevalence of violence was 72% in Sweden and 68% in Iran. Iranian social workers show a significantly higher increase in general mental health problems regarding client violence, compared to Swedish social workers. Despite differences in rules and regulations between Sweden and Iran, client violence was found common in two countries. Preventive policies for detecting potential violence situation are good but not enough. We suggest taking actions on building trust and supportive structures within organisations.

  • 45.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Grahn, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lundgren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Center for Addictions Research and Services, Boston University School of Social Work, 264 Bay State Road, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
    Drop-out from the Swedish addiction compulsory care system2015In: Evaluation and Program Planning, ISSN 0149-7189, E-ISSN 1873-7870, Vol. 49, p. 178-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drop-out of addiction treatment is common, however, little is known about drop-out of compulsory care in Sweden. Data from two national register databases were merged to create a database of 4515 individuals sentenced to compulsory care 2001-2009. The study examined (1) characteristics associated with having dropped out from a first compulsory care episode, (2) the relationship between drop-out and returning to compulsory care through a new court sentence, and (3) the relationship between drop-out and mortality. Methods: Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to address Aim 1 and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was applied to respond to Aims 2 and 3. Findings: Age and previous history of crime were significant predictors for drop-out. Clients who dropped out were 1.67 times more likely to return to compulsory care and the hazard of dying was 16% higher than for those who dropped-out. Conclusion: This study finds that 59% of clients assigned to compulsory care drop-out. Younger individuals are significantly more likely to drop-out. Those who drop out are significantly more likely to experience negative outcomes (additional sentence to compulsory care and higher risk of mortality). Interventions need to be implemented that increase motivation of youth to remain in compulsory care. 

  • 46.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Ageing and Living Conditions (ALC).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Life course socioeconomic position and mortality: A population register-based study from Sweden2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 785-791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Adverse social circumstances during one’s life course have been related to an increased risk of mortality. This article extends the literature by focusing on adversity at each phase of, and cumulatively at midlife in the Swedish population.

    Methods: Data on socioeconomic indicators from 1970, 1980 and 1990 were linked to death registrations from 2000 to 2009. Relative indices of inequalities were computed for socioeconomic indicators, in order to measure the cumulative impact of inequality on mortality.

    Results: A significant cumulative effect of being in the worst-off socioeconomic groups was found. For men, almost all indicators had a significant independent impact on risk of death. Among women, significant independent impacts were found for education in 1990 and for socioeconomic index in the two census years of 1970 and 1980.

    Conclusions: Being disadvantaged during longer period in midlife has a significant negative impact on health. Policies targeted to reduce health inequality should focus on every stage of the midlife course.

  • 47.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Socioeconomic inequalities and body mass index in Västerbotten County, Sweden: a longitudinal study of life course influences over two decades2014In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 13, p. 35-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Life course socioeconomic inequalities in heart disease, stroke and all-cause mortality are well studied in Sweden. However, few studies have sought to explain the mechanism for such associations mainly due to lack of longitudinal data with multiple measures of socioeconomic status (SES) across the life course. Given the population health concern about how socioeconomic inequality is related to poorer health, we aim to tackle obesity as one of the prime suspects that could explain the association between SES inequality and cardiovascular disease and consequently premature death. The aim of this study is to test which life course model best describes the association between socioeconomic disadvantage and obesity among 60 year old inhabitants of Västerbotten County in Northern Sweden.

    METHODS: A birth cohort consisting of 3340 individuals born between 1930 and 1932 was studied. Body mass index (BMI) at the age of 60 and information on socioeconomic status at three stages of life (ages 40, 50, and 60 years) was collected. Independent samples t-test was used to compare BMI between advantaged and disadvantaged groups and one-way ANOVA was used to compare BMI among eight SES trajectories. We applied a structured modeling approach to examine three different hypothesized life course SES models (accumulation, critical period, and social mobility) in relation to BMI.

    RESULTS: We found sex differences in the way that late adulthood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with BMI among inhabitants of Northern Sweden. Our study suggests that social adversity in all stages of late adulthood is a particularly important indicator for addressing the social gradients in BMI among women in Northern Sweden and that unhealthy behaviors in terms of smoking and physical inactivity are insufficient to explain the relationships between social and lifestyle inequalities and BMI.

    CONCLUSION: In order for local authorities to develop informed preventive efforts, we suggest further research to identify modifiable risk factors across the life course which could explain this health inequality.

  • 48.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Reher, David
    Requena, Miguel
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Going It Alone in Later Life: A Comparative Analysis of Elderly Women in Sweden and Spain2019In: Journal of Family Issues, ISSN 0192-513X, E-ISSN 1552-5481, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 1038-1064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article compares the determinants of living alone in later life in Spain and Sweden, two countries with relatively similar levels of economic development from a global view point but different family systems and institutional contexts. With microdata coming from census (Spain) and linked administrative registers (Sweden), logistic regression techniques, including a nonlinear regression–based decomposition of differences between, are used to estimate the weight of different factors behind the residential choices of elderly women. Theoretical expectations are validated. Levels of living alone are associated with age, childlessness, marital status, and education in both populations. Population characteristics (compositions effects) explain only a small part of the differences in living alone between both countries, while behaviors (rate effects) account for the larger part of the variation. Therefore, among elderly women proximate determinants of living arrangements produce different outcomes in different sociocultural environments largely determined by existing family systems.

  • 49.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Richter, Jörg
    Centre for Children and Adolescents Mental Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Nygren, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Burnout among social workers in Iran: relations to individual characteristics and client violence2013In: Global Journal of Health Science, ISSN 1916-9736, E-ISSN 1916-9744, Vol. 5, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social workers are considered a professional group at high risk of burnout. Noticing the insufficient human resource management and understaffed social work centers, Iranian social workers are faced with a considerable level of physical and mental stress, which can lead to burnout. A national study on 390 social workers was conducted. Among social workers, 10.9% had experienced burnout and 17.4% are at risk of developing burnout. Social workers scored higher in burnout if they were dissatisfied with their income, had experienced violence, or had lower self-esteem. Findings are discussed with regard to Iranian context and recommendations for authorities of Iranian state welfare organizations are made.

  • 50. Rambod, Mehdi
    et al.
    Hosseinpanah, Farhad
    Ardakani, Emad
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Azizi, Fereidoun
    Fine-tuning of prediction of isolated impaired glucosetolerance: A quantitative clinical prediction model2008In: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, ISSN 0168-8227, E-ISSN 1872-8227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated results of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) from4742 women and 3470 men, participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, aged 20years and without diabetes, to determine the diagnostic value of subjects’ clinical traits withisolated impaired glucose tolerance (isolated-IGT) defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG)<5.6 mmol/L and 2-h plasma glucose between 7.8 and 11.1 mmol/L. The overall prevalenceof IGT was 13.6% (n = 1120); of these subjects, 59.6% (n = 668) had isolated-IGT. The adjustedodds ratios for having isolated-IGT among 7012 subjects with FPG <5.6 mmol/L weresignificant for age 40 years (2.5), hypertension (1.9), abnormal waist circumference (1.9),obesity (1.5), and family history of diabetes (1.3). Adding the lipid profiles to the clinicalmodel increased the area under the ROC curve only slightly (73.2% vs. 72.1%, respectively;P = 0.002). In summary, this study showed that in adults with FPG <5.6 mmol/L, older age,family history of diabetes, abnormal waist circumference and obesity, and hypertensionwere significantly associated with a higher likelihood of isolated-IGT; OGTT could hence berecommended in subjects who have most of these characteristics to find Isolated-IGT,especially if the findings are supported by appropriately designed clinical trials.

12 1 - 50 of 63
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf