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  • 1. Ahmed, Syed Masud
    et al.
    Hadi, Abdullahel
    Razzaque, Abdur
    Ashraf, Ali
    Juvekar, Sanjay
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin. Indonesia.
    Kanungsukkasem, Uraiwan
    Soonthornthada, Kusol
    Van Minh, Hoang
    Huu Bich, Tran
    Clustering of chronic non-communicable disease risk factors among selected Asian populations: levels and determinants2009Ingår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 68-75Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The major chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) operate through a cluster of common risk factors, whose presence or absence determines not only the occurrence and severity of the disease, but also informs treatment approaches. Primary prevention based on mitigation of these common risk factors through population-based programmes is the most cost-effective approach to contain the emerging epidemic of chronic NCDs.

    OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to explore the extent of risk factors clustering for the major chronic NCDs and its determinants in nine

    INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites of five Asian countries. DESIGN: Data originated from a multi-site chronic NCD risk factor prevalence survey conducted in 2005. This cross-sectional survey used a standardised questionnaire developed by the WHO to collect core data on common risk factors such as tobacco use, intake of fruits and vegetables, physical inactivity, blood pressure levels, and body mass index. Respondents included randomly selected sample of adults (25-64 years) living in nine rural HDSS sites in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam.

    RESULTS: Findings revealed a substantial proportion (>70%) of these largely rural populations having three or more risk factors for chronic NCDs. Chronic NCD risk factors clustering was associated with increasing age, being male, and higher educational achievements. Differences were noted among the different sites, both between and within country.

    CONCLUSIONS: Since there is an extensive clustering of risk factors for the chronic NCDs in the populations studied, the interventions also need to be based on a comprehensive approach rather than on a single factor to forestall its cumulative effects which occur over time. This can work best if it is integrated within the primary health care system and the HDSS can be an invaluable epidemiological resource in this endeavor.

  • 2. Allotey, P.
    et al.
    Reidpath, D. D.
    Verhoeff, A.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Data driven responses to the management of population based behaviour change: lessons, pitfalls and possibilities from across the GDP wealth divide2016Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, s. S43-S44Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3. Arokiasamy, Perianayagam
    et al.
    Uttamacharya, .
    Kowal, Paul
    Capistrant, Benjamin D.
    Gildner, Theresa E.
    Thiele, Elizabeth
    Biritwum, Richard B.
    Yawson, Alfred E.
    Mensah, George
    Maximova, Tamara
    Wu, Fan
    Guo, Yanfei
    Zheng, Yang
    Kalula, Sebastiana Zimba
    Rodriguez, Aaron Salinas
    Espinoza, Betty Manrique
    Liebert, Melissa A.
    Eick, Geeta
    Sterner, Kirstin N.
    Barrett, Tyler M.
    Duedu, Kwabena
    Gonzales, Ernest
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Negin, Joel
    Jiang, Yong
    Byles, Julie
    Madurai, Savathree Lorna
    Minicuci, Nadia
    Snodgrass, J. Josh
    Naidoo, Nirmala
    Chatterji, Somnath
    Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases in 6 Low-and Middle-Income Countries: Findings From Wave 1 of the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE)2017Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 185, nr 6, s. 414-428Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine patterns of self-reported diagnosis of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and prevalences of algorithm/measured test-based, undiagnosed, and untreated NCDs in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa. Nationally representative samples of older adults aged >= 50 years were analyzed from wave 1 of the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (2007-2010; n = 34,149). Analyses focused on 6 conditions: angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, and hypertension. Outcomes for these NCDs were: 1) self-reported disease, 2) algorithm/measured test-based disease, 3) undiagnosed disease, and 4) untreated disease. Algorithm/measured test-based prevalence of NCDs was much higher than self-reported prevalence in all 6 countries, indicating underestimation of NCD prevalence in low-and middle-income countries. Undiagnosed prevalence of NCDs was highest for hypertension, ranging from 19.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 18.1, 21.3) in India to 49.6% (95% CI: 46.2, 53.0) in South Africa. The proportion untreated among all diseases was highest for depression, ranging from 69.5% (95% CI: 57.1, 81.9) in South Africa to 93.2% (95% CI: 90.1, 95.7) in India. Higher levels of education and wealth significantly reduced the odds of an undiagnosed condition and untreated morbidity. A high prevalence of undiagnosed NCDs and an even higher proportion of untreated NCDs highlights the inadequacies in diagnosis and management of NCDs in local health-care systems.

  • 4. Ashraf, Ali
    et al.
    Quaiyum, M.A.
    Ng, Nawi
    Purworejo Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Indonesia.
    Van Minh, Hoang
    Razzaque, Abdur
    Masud Ahmed, Syed
    Hadi, Abdullahel
    Juvekar, Sanjay
    Kanungsukkasem, Uraiwan
    Soonthornthada, Kusol
    Huu Bich, Tran
    Self-reported use of tobacco products in nine rural INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems in Asia2009Ingår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 2, s. 19-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is the most preventable cause of premature death and disability. Even though tobacco use is common in many Asian countries, reliable and comparable data on the burden imposed by tobacco use in this region are sparse, and surveillance systems to track trends are in their infancy.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the prevalence of tobacco use and its associated factors in nine selected rural sites in five Asian countries.

    METHODS: Tobacco use among 9,208 men and 9,221 women aged 25-64 years in nine Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites in five Asian countries of the INDEPTH Network were examined in 2005 as part of a broader survey of the major chronic non-communicable disease risk factors. All sites used a standardised protocol based on the WHO STEPS approach to risk factor surveillance; expanded questions of local relevance, including chewing tobacco, were also included. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess demographic factors associated with tobacco use.

    RESULTS: Tobacco use, whether smoked or chewed, was common across all sites with some notable variations. More than 50% of men smoked daily; this applied to almost all age groups. Few women smoked daily in any of the sites. However, women were more likely to chew tobacco than men in all sites except Vadu in India. Tobacco use in men began in late adolescence in most of the sites and the number of cigarettes smoked daily ranged from three to 15. Use of both forms of tobacco, smoked and chewed, was associated with age, gender and education. Men were more likely to smoke compared to women, smoking increased with age in the four sites in Bangladesh but not in other sites and with low level of education in all the sites.

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of tobacco use, regardless of the type of tobacco, was high among men in all of these rural populations with tobacco use started during adolescence in all HDSS sites. Innovative communication strategies for behaviour change targeting adolescents in schools and adult men and women at work or at home, may create a mass awareness about adverse health consequences of tobacco smoking or chewing tobacco. Such efforts, to be effective, however, need to be supported by strong legislation and leadership. Only four of the five countries involved in this multi-site study have ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and even where it has been ratified, implementation is uneven.

  • 5.
    Byass, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Nurturing Global Health Action through its first decade2019Ingår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikel-id 1569847Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 6. Dans, Antonio
    et al.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Varghese, Cherian
    Tai, E. Shyong
    Firestone, Rebecca
    Bonita, Ruth
    Non-communicable diseases in southeast Asia Reply2011Ingår i: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 377, nr 9782, s. 2005-2005Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Dans, Antonio
    et al.
    Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of the Philippines, Manila, Philippines.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Varghese, Cherian
    Western Pacific Regional Office, WHO, Manila, Philippines.
    Tai, E Shyong
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Firestone, Rebecca
    China Medical Board and Harvard Global Equity Initiative, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Bonita, Ruth
    School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    The rise of chronic non-communicable diseases in southeast Asia: time for action2011Ingår i: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 377, nr 9766, s. 680-689Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Southeast Asia faces an epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases, now responsible for 60% of deaths in the region. The problem stems from environmental factors that promote tobacco use, unhealthy diet, and inadequate physical activity. Disadvantaged populations are the hardest hit, with death rates inversely proportional to a country's gross national income. Families shoulder the financial burden, but entire economies suffer as well. Although attempts to control non-communicable diseases are increasing, more needs to be done. Health-care systems need to be redesigned to deliver chronic care that is founded on existing primary health-care facilities, but supported by good referral systems. Surveillance of key modifiable risk factors is needed to monitor the magnitude of the problem and to study the effects of interventions. All branches of government and all sectors of society have to get involved in establishing environments that are conducive to healthy living. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is in a unique position to make a united stand against chronic non-communicable diseases in the region. Inaction will affect millions of lives-often, the lives of those who have the least.

  • 8. Dewi, Fatwa S. T.
    et al.
    Choiriyyah, Ifta
    Indriyani, Citra
    Wahab, Abdul
    Lazuardi, Lutfan
    Nugroho, Agung
    Susetyowati, Susetyowati
    Harisaputra, Rosalia K.
    Santi, Risalia
    Lestari, Septi K.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Sleman HDSS, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Hakimi, Mohammad
    Josef, Hari K.
    Utarini, Adi
    Designing and collecting data for a longitudinal study: the Sleman Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS)2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 46, nr 7, s. 704-710Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: This paper describes the methodological considerations of developing an urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), in the Sleman District of Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

    METHODS: 1) The Sleman District was selected because it is mostly an urban area. 2) The minimum sample size was calculated to measure infant mortality as the key variable and resulted in a sample of 4942 households. A two-stage cluster sampling procedure with probability proportionate to size was applied; first, 216 Censuses Blocks (CBs) were selected, and second, 25 households in each CB were selected. 3) A baseline survey was started in 2015, and collected data on demographic and economic characteristics and verbal autopsy (VA); the 2nd cycle collected updated demographic data, VA, type of morbidity (communicable and non-communicable diseases, disability and injury) and health access. 4) The data were collected at a home visit through a Computer-Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) on a tablet device, and the data were transferred to the server through the Internet. 5) The quality control consisted of spot-checks of 5% of interviews to control for adherence to the protocol, re-checks to ensure the validity of the interview, and computer-based data cleaning. 6) A utilization system was designed for policy-makers (government) and researchers.

    RESULTS: In total, 5147 households participated in the baseline assessment in 2015, and 4996 households participated in the second cycle in 2016 (97.0% response rate).

    CONCLUSIONS: Development of an urban HDSS is possible and is beneficial in providing data complementary to the existing demographic and health information system at local, national and global levels.

  • 9.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Neighbourhood inequality as a health risk: Empirical evidence from Swedish registers2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore the impact on mortality of income inequality in residential neighbourhoods and municipalities among elderly 65-84 years in the year 2004, using Swedish longitudinal micro-data covering the entire Swedish population for the period 1970 – 2006. Preliminary cross-sectional multi-level analyses are now complemented by longitudinal analyses of long-term residential histories with exposure to equal/unequal municipalities and neighbourhoods and the long-term impact on mortality. We investigate the association between mortality and income inequality at place of residence at different time lags and the effect of a summary measure of previous exposures to environments characterised by different inequality levels. We also compare groups that have different experiences of residential characteristics, i.e. those that have resided in unequal or equal places and those that have changed from equal to unequal residences or vice versa. Preliminary results from a cross-sectional analysis on 2006, show that income inequality in the municipality of residence had an independent effect on mortality in the age group 65-74 years

  • 10. Egondi, Thaddaeus
    et al.
    Ettarh, Remare
    Kyobutungi, Catherine
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Exposure to Outdoor Particles (PM2.5) and Associated Child Morbidity and Mortality in Socially Deprived Neighborhoods of Nairobi, Kenya2018Ingår i: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 9, nr 9, artikel-id 351Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with adverse health outcomes. However, the health burden related to ambient outdoor air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. This study examined the relationship between exposure to outdoor air pollution and child health in urban slums of Nairobi, Kenya. We conducted a semi-ecological study among children under 5 years of age from two slum areas and exposure measurements of particulate matter (PM2.5) at the village level were aligned to data from a retrospective cohort study design. We used logistic and Poisson regression models to ascertain the associations between PM2.5 exposure level and child morbidity and mortality. Compared to those in low-pollution areas (PM2.5 < 25 µg/m3), children in high-pollution areas (PM2.5 ≥ 25 µg/m3) were at significantly higher risk for morbidity in general (odds ratio (OR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.41) and, specifically, cough (OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.20–1.48). Exposure to high levels of pollution was associated with a high child mortality rate from all causes (IRR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.08–1.39) and respiratory causes (IRR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.88–1.42). The findings indicate that there are associated adverse health outcomes with air pollution in urban slums. Further research on air pollution health impact assessments in similar urban areas is required.

  • 11.
    Egondi, Thaddaeus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Kyobutungi, Catherine
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Muindi, Kanyiva
    Oti, Samuel
    van de Vijver, Steven
    Ettarh, Remare
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Community perceptions of air pollution and related health risks in Nairobi slums2013Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 10, nr 10, s. 4851-4868Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollution is among the leading global risks for mortality and responsible for increasing risk for chronic diseases. Community perceptions on exposure are critical in determining people's response and acceptance of related policies. Therefore, understanding people' perception is critical in informing the design of appropriate intervention measures. The aim of this paper was to establish levels and associations between perceived pollution and health risk perception among slum residents. A cross-sectional study of 5,317 individuals aged 35+ years was conducted in two slums of Nairobi. Association of perceived score and individual characteristics was assessed using linear regression. Spatial variation in the perceived levels was determined through hot spot analysis using ArcGIS. The average perceived air pollution level was higher among residents in Viwandani compared to those in Korogocho. Perceived air pollution level was positively associated with perceived health risks. The majority of respondents were exposed to air pollution in their place of work with 66% exposed to at least two sources of air pollution. Less than 20% of the respondents in both areas mentioned sources related to indoor pollution. The perceived air pollution level and related health risks in the study community were low among the residents indicating the need for promoting awareness on air pollution sources and related health risks.

  • 12.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Child health and place: How is neighborhood social capital associated with child health injuries?2017Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, nr Suppl_3, s. 41-41Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Child health inequalities can be explained by social determinants of health, including neighborhood social capital. Swedish research about place effects on children's health is limited. This project aims to contribute to knowledge on how neighborhood social capital may influence child health in the Swedish context. The overall research questions were: What is the incidence rate of child injuries in the living environments among boys and girls? What are the associations between neighborhood social capital and child injuries?

    Methods: Child injury data from the Umeå SIMSAM Lab were utilized, with data from all children 0-12 years of age, living in Umeå municipality during 2006-2009. Individual child injury and residential area data were linked to a neighborhood social capital index, where 49 defined neighborhoods were assigned a score from low- high in social capital, based on people’s perceptions about their neighborhoods. Individual, household and neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic variables (country of birth, educational level, income and family type) were also extracted from the Umeå SIMSAM lab. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze factors associated with child injury.

    Results: We observed 3930 injury events that occurred in the living environments, experienced by 24 000 children who lived in 14 767 households within 49 neighborhoods. The incidence rate of child injuries was about 72.5/1000 for boys and 60/1000 for girls. The odds for child injures was lower in neighborhoods with high social capital compared to neighborhoods with low social capital (OR 0.87 95%CI 0.80-0.95) after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors at individual, household and neighborhood level. The protective effects of neighborhood social capital were stronger for girls than boys.

    Conclusions: Neighborhood social capital may have a protective effect on child injuries and especially so for girls.

    Key messages:

    • Neighborhood conditions have a significant influence on child health inequalities in the Swedish context, including inequalities in child injuries.
    • Mobilization of neighborhood social capital might be good investment for reducing child injuries.
  • 13.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa. Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institution of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The effect of neighbourhood social capital on child injuries: a gender-stratified analysis2019Ingår i: Health & Place, Vol. 60, artikel-id 102205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We designed a longitudinal retrospective cohort study to analyse the associations between neighbourhood social capital and child injures. Register data from the Umeå Simsam Lab in Sweden was used to measure child injuries and demographic and socioeconomic factors at individual, household and neighbourhood level. A social capital score from a previous survey was used to measure neighbourhood social capital. We conducted a three-level multilevel negative binomial regression analysis, with children (level 1, N = 77,193) nested within households (level 2, N = 10,465), and households nested within neighbourhoods (level 3, N = 49). The incidence rate of child injuries was lower in high social capital neighbourhoods. When controlling for factors at individual, household and neighbourhood levels, living in a high social capital neighbourhood was protective of injuries among girls, but not among boys. Promoting social capital in local neighbourhoods could be seen as a prevention strategy for injuries among girls.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Changes in access to structural social capital and its influence on self-rated health over time for middle-aged men and women: a longitudinal study from northern Sweden.2015Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 130, s. 250-258Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Until recently, most studies on social capital and health have been cross-sectional making it difficult to draw causal conclusions. This longitudinal study used data from 33,621 individuals (15,822 men and 17,799 women) from the Vasterbotten Intervention Program, to analyse how changes in access to individual social capital influence self-rated health (SRH) over time. Two forms of structural social capital, i.e. informal socializing and social participation, were measured. Age, sex, education, marital status, smoking, snuff, physical activity, alcohol consumption, high blood pressure, and body mass index were analysed as potential confounders. The association between changes in access to structural social capital and SRH in the follow-up was adjusted for SRH at baseline, as well as for changes in the socio-demographic and health-risk variables over time. The results support that changes in access to structural social capital over time impact on SRH. Remaining with no/low level of informal socializing over time increased the odds ratio for poor SRH for both men and women (OR of 1.45; 95%CI = 1.22-1.73 among men and OR of 1.56; 95%CI = 1.33-1.84 among women). Remaining with no/low levels of social participation was also detrimental to SRH in men and women (OR 1.14; 95%CI = 1.03-1.26 among men and OR 1.18; 95% Cl = 1.08-1.29 among women). A decrease in informal socializing over time was associated with poor SRH for women and men (OR of 135; 95%CI = 1.16-1.58 among men and OR of 1.57; 95%Cl = 1.36-1.82 among women). A loss of social participation had a negative effect on SRH among men and women (OR of 1.16; 95%Cl = 1.03-130 among men and OR of 1.15; 95%CI = 1.04-1.27 among women). Gaining access to social participation was harmful for SRH for women (OR 1.17; 95%CI = 1.05-131). Structural social capital has complex and gendered effects on SRH and interventions aiming to use social capital for health promotion purposes require an awareness of its gendered nature.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Neighborhood social capital and women's self-rated health - is there an age pattern?: A multi-level study from Northern Sweden2015Ingår i: Social capital as a health resource in later life: the relevance of context / [ed] Fredrika Nyqvist, Anna K. Forsman, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2015, s. 127-143Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Emmelin, Maria
    The importance of gender and conceptualization for understanding the association between collective social capital and health: a multilevel analysis from northern Sweden2011Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 73, nr 2, s. 264-273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing research on social capital and health has fuelled the debate on whether there is a place effect on health. A central question is whether health inequality between places is due to differences in the composition of people living in these places (compositional effect) or differences in the local social and physical environments (contextual effects). Despite extensive use of multilevel approaches that allows controlling for whether the effects of collective social capital are confounded by access to social capital at the individual level, the picture remains unclear. Recent studies indicate that contextual effects on health may vary for different population subgroups and measuring "average" contextual effects on health for a whole population might therefore be inappropriate. In this study from northern Sweden, we investigated the associations between collective social capital and self-rated health for men and women separately, to understand if health effects of collective social capital are gendered. Two measures of collective social capital were used: one conventional measure (aggregated measures of trust, participation and voting) and one specific place-related (neighbourhood) measure. The results show a positive association between collective social capital and self-rated health for women but not for men. Regardless of the measure used, women who live in very high social capital neighbourhoods are more likely to rate their health as good-fair, compared to women who live in very low social capital neighbourhoods. The health effects of collective social capital might thus be gendered in favour for women. However, a more equal involvement of men and women in the domestic sphere would potentially benefit men in this matter. When controlling for socioeconomic, sociodemographic and social capital attributes at the individual level, the relationship between women's health and collective social capital remained statistically significant when using the neighbourhood-related measure but not when using the conventional measure. Our results support the view that a neighbourhood-related measure provides a clearer picture of the health effects of collective social capital, at least for women.

  • 17.
    Fottrell, Edward
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Sartorius, Benn
    Huong, Dao Lan
    Van Minh, Hoang
    Fantahun, Mesganaw
    Byass, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Mortality measurement in transition: proof of principle for standardised multi-country comparisons2010Ingår i: Tropical medicine & international health, ISSN 1360-2276, E-ISSN 1365-3156, Vol. 15, nr 10, s. 1256-1265Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the standardised method of VA interpretation, the observed differences in mortality cannot be because of local differences in assigning cause of death. Standardised, fit-for-purpose methods are needed to measure population health and changes in mortality patterns so that appropriate health policy and programmes can be designed, implemented and evaluated over time and place. The InterVA approach overcomes several longstanding limitations of existing methods and represents a valuable tool for health planners and researchers in resource-poor settings.

  • 18.
    Gangane, Nitin
    et al.
    Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha, India.
    Anshu, Anshu
    Manvatkar, Shiva
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    San Sebastián, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Prevalence and Risk Factors for Patient Delay Among Women With Breast Cancer in Rural India2016Ingår i: Asia-Pacific journal of public health, ISSN 1941-2479, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 72-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Delay in seeking health care by women with breast cancer increases mortality risk. This study was conducted in rural India to identify risk factors associated with patient delay. A total of 212 women with primary breast cancer diagnosed between 2010 and 2012 were interviewed. Sociodemographic characteristics, time interval between seeking medical attention and appearance of symptoms, and reasons for delay were inquired. Patient delay was defined as more than 3 months between date of first symptoms and medical consultation. Logistic regression was applied to assess associations between potential risk factors and patient delay. Almost half the women with breast cancer experienced patient delay. Age more than 60 years (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-18.0) was significantly associated with patient delay. Only 6.6% of patients had heard about breast self-examination. Significantly higher number of patients with delay presented with advanced clinical stage (P = .000). Health education programs should be introduced with specific strategies to shorten patient delay.

  • 19.
    Gangane, Nitin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    San Sebastián, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    System delay of diagnosis and treatment experienced by women with breast cancer in rural IndiaIngår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Gangane, Nitin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Department of Pathology, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha, India.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Sebastian, Miguel San
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Women's Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices about Breast Cancer in a Rural District of Central India2015Ingår i: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, ISSN 1513-7368, Vol. 16, nr 16, s. 6863-6870Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer accounted for almost 25% of all cancers in women globally in 2012. Although breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in India, there is no organised national breast cancer screening programme. Local studies on the burden of breast cancer are essential to develop effective context-specific strategies for an early detection breast cancer programme, considering the cultural and ethnic heterogeneity in India. This study examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices about breast cancer in rural women in Central India.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This community-based cross sectional study was conducted in Wardha district, located in Maharashtra state in Central India in 2013. The sample included 1000 women (609 rural, 391 urban) aged 13-50 years, selected as representative from each of the eight development blocks in the district, using stratified cluster sampling. Trained social workers interviewed women and collected demographic and socio-economic data. The instrument also assessed respondents' knowledge about breast cancer and its symptoms, risks, methods of screening, diagnosis and treatment, as well as their attitudes towards breast cancer and self- reported practices of breast cancer screening. Chi-square and t-test were applied to assess differences in the levels of knowledge, attitude, and practice (the outcome variables) between urban and rural respondents. Multivariable linear regression was conducted to analyse the relationship between socio-demographic factors and the outcome variables.

    RESULTS: While about two-thirds of rural and urban women were aware of breast cancer, less than 7% in rural and urban areas had heard about breast self-examination. Knowledge about breast cancer, its symptoms, risk factors, diagnostic modalities, and treatment was similarly poor in both rural and urban women. Urban women demonstrated more positive attitudes towards breast cancer screening practices than their rural counterparts. Better knowledge of breast cancer symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment correlated significantly with older age, higher levels of education, and being office workers or in business.

    CONCLUSIONS: Women in rural Central India have poor knowledge about breast cancer, its symptoms and risk factors. Breast self-examination is hardly practiced, though the willingness to learn is high. Positive attitudes towards screening provide an opportunity to promote breast self-examination.

  • 21.
    Genbäck, Minna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Stanghellini, Elena
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Predictors of decline in self-reported health: addressing non-ignorable dropout in longitudinal studies of ageing2018Ingår i: European Journal of Ageing, ISSN 1613-9372, E-ISSN 1613-9380, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 211-220Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictors of decline in health in older populations have been investigated in multiple studies before. Most longitudinal studies of aging, however, assume that dropout at follow-up is ignorable (missing at random) given a set of observed characteristics at baseline. The objective of this study was to address non-ignorable dropout in investigating predictors of declining self-reported health (SRH) in older populations (50 years or older) in Sweden, the Netherlands, and Italy. We used the SHARE panel survey, and since only 2895 out of the original 5657 participants in the survey 2004 were followed up in 2013, we studied whether the results were sensitive to the expectation that those dropping out have a higher proportion of decliners in SRH. We found that older age and a greater number of chronic diseases were positively associated with a decline in self-reported health in the three countries studies here. Maximum grip strength was associated with decline in self-reported health in Sweden and Italy, and self-reported limitations in normal activities due to health problems were associated with decline in self-reported health in Sweden. These results were not sensitive to non-ignorable dropout. On the other hand, although obesity was associated with decline in a complete case analysis, this result was not confirmed when performing a sensitivity analysis to non-ignorable dropout. The findings, thereby, contribute to the literature in understanding the robustness of longitudinal study results to non-ignorable dropout while considering three different population samples in Europe.

  • 22. Gildner, Theresa E.
    et al.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Wu, Fan
    Guo, Yanfei
    Snodgrass, J. Josh
    Kowal, Paul
    Ideal Cardiovascular Health and Cognitive Test Performance: Testing a Modified Index of Life's Simple 7 Among Older Chinese Adults2018Ingår i: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 6, artikel-id 352Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence suggests that cognitive decline in older adults is influenced by cardiovascular health (CVH), with metabolic and vascular mechanisms hypothesized to underlie the etiology of cognitive impairment. Research in high-income nations suggests that improved CVH is linked with decreased cognitive impairment risk, but it is unclear if this pattern is evident in low-income countries. Nationally-representative data collected in China were drawn from the World Health Organization's Study on global AGing and adult health Wave 1 (2007-2010; n = 11,295). Seven CVH factors were classified as "ideal" or "not ideal": smoking and drinking frequency, body mass index, physical activity level, blood pressure, diet, and self-reported anxiety. Additionally, scores from five cognitive performance tests (immediate and delayed verbal recall, forward and backward digit span, verbal fluency) were used to create a composite cognitive function variable. Linear regression analyses tested whether ideal CVH measures were associated with higher composite cognitive performance, controlling for sociodemographic factors. As hypothesized, ideal CVH was generally associated with higher cognitive performance. Low anxiety levels and reliable access to sufficient food (including produce) were particularly associated with higher cognitive function. These results suggest early detection and controlling modifiable CVH risks may protect aging individuals in China from cognitive decline.

  • 23. Gomez-Olive, Francesc Xavier
    et al.
    Schröders, Julia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Aboderin, Isabella
    Byass, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Chatterji, Somnath
    Davies, Justine I.
    Debpuur, Cornelius
    Hirve, Siddhivinayak
    Hodgson, Abraham
    Juvekar, Sanjay
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Kowal, Paul
    Nathan, Rose
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Razzaque, Abdur
    Sankoh, Osman
    Streatfield, Peter K.
    Tollman, Stephen M.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Wilopo, Siswanto A.
    Witham, Miles D.
    Variations in disability and quality of life with age and sex between eight lower income and middle-income countries: data from the INDEPTH WHO-SAGE collaboration2017Ingår i: BMJ Global Health, E-ISSN 2059-7908, Vol. 2, nr 4, artikel-id e000508Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Disability and quality of life are key outcomes for older people. Little is known about how these measures vary with age and gender across lower income and middle-income countries; such information is necessary to tailor health and social care policy to promote healthy ageing and minimise disability.

    Methods: We analysed data from participants aged 50 years and over from health and demographic surveillance system sites of the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health Network in Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, South Africa, Vietnam, India, Indonesia and Bangladesh, using an abbreviated version of the WHO Study on global AGEing survey instrument. We used the eight-item WHO Quality of Life (WHOQoL) tool to measure quality of life and theWHO Disability Assessment Schedule, version 2 (WHODAS-II) tool to measure disability. We collected selected health status measures via the survey instrument and collected demographic and socioeconomic data from linked surveillance site information. We performed regression analyses to quantify differences between countries in the relationship between age, gender and both quality of life and disability, and we used anchoring vignettes to account for differences in interpretation of disability severity.

    Results: We included 43 935 individuals in the analysis. Mean age was 63.7 years (SD 9.7) and 24 434 (55.6%) were women. In unadjusted analyses across all countries, WHOQoL scores worsened by 0.13 points (95% CI 0.12 to 0.14) per year increase in age and WHODAS scores worsened by 0.60 points (95% CI 0.57 to 0.64). WHODAS-II and WHOQoL scores varied markedly between countries, as did the gradient of scores with increasing age. In regression analyses, differences were not fully explained by age, socioeconomic status, marital status, education or health factors. Differences in disability scores between countries were not explained by differences in anchoring vignette responses.

    Conclusions: The relationship between age, sex and both disability and quality of life varies between countries. The findings may guide tailoring of interventions to individual country needs, although these associations require further study.

  • 24.
    Hii, Yien Ling
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Short term effects of weather on hand, foot and mouth disease2011Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. e16796-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks leading to clinical and fatal complications have increased since late 1990s; especially in the Asia Pacific Region. Outbreaks of HFMD peaks in the warmer season of the year, but the underlying factors for this annual pattern and the reasons to the recent upsurge trend have not yet been established. This study analyzed the effect of short-term changes in weather on the incidence of HFMD in Singapore.

    Methods: The relative risks between weekly HFMD cases and temperature and rainfall were estimated for the period 20012008 using time series Poisson regression models allowing for over-dispersion. Smoothing was used to allow non-linear relationship between weather and weekly HFMD cases, and to adjust for seasonality and long-term time trend. Additionally, autocorrelation was controlled and weather was allowed to have a lagged effect on HFMD incidence up to 2 weeks.

    Results: Weekly temperature and rainfall showed statistically significant association with HFMD incidence at time lag of 1-2 weeks. Every 1 degrees C increases in maximum temperature above 32 degrees C elevated the risk of HFMD incidence by 36% (95% CI = 1.341-1.389). Simultaneously, one mm increase of weekly cumulative rainfall below 75 mm increased the risk of HFMD by 0.3% (CI = 1.002-1.003). While above 75 mm the effect was opposite and each mm increases of rainfall decreased the incidence by 0.5% (CI = 0.995-0.996). We also found that a difference between minimum and maximum temperature greater than 7 degrees C elevated the risk of HFMD by 41% (CI = 1.388-1.439).

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest a strong association between HFMD and weather. However, the exact reason for the association is yet to be studied. Information on maximum temperature above 32 degrees C and moderate rainfall precede HFMD incidence could help to control and curb the up-surging trend of HFMD.

  • 25.
    Hii, Yien Ling
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Tang, Choon Siang
    Environment Health Department, National Environment Agency, Singapore.
    Pang, Fung Yin
    Environment Health Department, National Environment Agency, Singapore.
    Sauerborn, Rainer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Climate variability and increase in intensity and magnitude of dengue incidence in Singapore2009Ingår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 2, s. 124-132Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Dengue is currently a major public health burden in Asia Pacific Region. This study aims to establish an association between dengue incidence, mean temperature and precipitation, and further discuss how weather predictors influence the increase in intensity and magnitude of dengue in Singapore during the period 2000-2007.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Weekly dengue incidence data, daily mean temperature and precipitation and the midyear population data in Singapore during 2000-2007 were retrieved and analysed. We employed a time series Poisson regression model including time factors such as time trends, lagged terms of weather predictors, considered autocorrelation, and accounted for changes in population size by offsetting.

    RESULTS: The weekly mean temperature and cumulative precipitation were statistically significant related to the increases of dengue incidence in Singapore. Our findings showed that dengue incidence increased linearly at time lag of 5-16 and 5-20 weeks succeeding elevated temperature and precipitation, respectively. However, negative association occurred at lag week 17-20 with low weekly mean temperature as well as lag week 1-4 and 17-20 with low cumulative precipitation.

    DISCUSSION: As Singapore experienced higher weekly mean temperature and cumulative precipitation in the years 2004-2007, our results signified hazardous impacts of climate factors on the increase in intensity and magnitude of dengue cases. The ongoing global climate change might potentially increase the burden of dengue fever infection in near future.

  • 26.
    Hii, Yien Ling
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Lee Ching
    Tang, Choon Siang
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Optimal lead time for dengue forecast2012Ingår i: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, ISSN 1935-2727, E-ISSN 1935-2735, Vol. 6, nr 10, s. e1848-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A dengue early warning system aims to prevent a dengue outbreak by providing an accurate prediction of a rise in dengue cases and sufficient time to allow timely decisions and preventive measures to be taken by local authorities. This study seeks to identify the optimal lead time for warning of dengue cases in Singapore given the duration required by a local authority to curb an outbreak.

    METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We developed a Poisson regression model to analyze relative risks of dengue cases as functions of weekly mean temperature and cumulative rainfall with lag times of 1-5 months using spline functions. We examined the duration of vector control and cluster management in dengue clusters > = 10 cases from 2000 to 2010 and used the information as an indicative window of the time required to mitigate an outbreak. Finally, we assessed the gap between forecast and successful control to determine the optimal timing for issuing an early warning in the study area. Our findings show that increasing weekly mean temperature and cumulative rainfall precede risks of increasing dengue cases by 4-20 and 8-20 weeks, respectively. These lag times provided a forecast window of 1-5 months based on the observed weather data. Based on previous vector control operations, the time needed to curb dengue outbreaks ranged from 1-3 months with a median duration of 2 months. Thus, a dengue early warning forecast given 3 months ahead of the onset of a probable epidemic would give local authorities sufficient time to mitigate an outbreak.

    CONCLUSIONS: Optimal timing of a dengue forecast increases the functional value of an early warning system and enhances cost-effectiveness of vector control operations in response to forecasted risks. We emphasize the importance of considering the forecast-mitigation gaps in respective study areas when developing a dengue forecasting model.

  • 27.
    Hii, Yien Ling
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Zhu, Huaiping
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Lee Ching
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Forecast of dengue incidence using temperature and rainfall2012Ingår i: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, ISSN 1935-2727, E-ISSN 1935-2735, Vol. 6, nr 11, s. e1908-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: An accurate early warning system to predict impending epidemics enhances the effectiveness of preventive measures against dengue fever. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a forecasting model that could predict dengue cases and provide timely early warning in Singapore.

    METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a time series Poisson multivariate regression model using weekly mean temperature and cumulative rainfall over the period 2000-2010. Weather data were modeled using piecewise linear spline functions. We analyzed various lag times between dengue and weather variables to identify the optimal dengue forecasting period. Autoregression, seasonality and trend were considered in the model. We validated the model by forecasting dengue cases for week 1 of 2011 up to week 16 of 2012 using weather data alone. Model selection and validation were based on Akaike's Information Criterion, standardized Root Mean Square Error, and residuals diagnoses. A Receiver Operating Characteristics curve was used to analyze the sensitivity of the forecast of epidemics. The optimal period for dengue forecast was 16 weeks. Our model forecasted correctly with errors of 0.3 and 0.32 of the standard deviation of reported cases during the model training and validation periods, respectively. It was sensitive enough to distinguish between outbreak and non-outbreak to a 96% (CI = 93-98%) in 2004-2010 and 98% (CI = 95%-100%) in 2011. The model predicted the outbreak in 2011 accurately with less than 3% possibility of false alarm.

    SIGNIFICANCE: We have developed a weather-based dengue forecasting model that allows warning 16 weeks in advance of dengue epidemics with high sensitivity and specificity. We demonstrate that models using temperature and rainfall could be simple, precise, and low cost tools for dengue forecasting which could be used to enhance decision making on the timing, scale of vector control operations, and utilization of limited resources.

  • 28.
    Hirve, Siddhivinayak
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Gomez-Olive, Xavier
    Oti, Samuel
    Debpuur, Cornelius
    Juvekar, Sanjay
    Tollman, Stephen
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Use of anchoring vignettes to evaluate health reporting behavior amongst adults aged 50 years and above in Africa and Asia: testing assumptions2013Ingår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 6, s. 1-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Comparing self-rating health responses across individuals and cultures is misleading due to different reporting behaviors. Anchoring vignettes is a technique that allows identifying and adjusting self-rating responses for reporting heterogeneity (RH). Objective: This article aims to test two crucial assumptions of vignette equivalence (VE) and response consistency (RC) that are required to be met before vignettes can be used to adjust self-rating responses for RH. Design: We used self-ratings, vignettes, and objective measures covering domains of mobility and cognition from the WHO study on global AGEing and adult health, administered to older adults aged 50 years and above from eight low-and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. For VE, we specified a hierarchical ordered probit (HOPIT) model to test for equality of perceived vignette locations. For RC, we tested for equality of thresholds that are used to rate vignettes with thresholds derived from objective measures and used to rate their own health function. Results: There was evidence of RH in self-rating responses for difficulty in mobility and cognition. Assumptions of VE and RC between countries were violated driven by age, sex, and education. However, within a country context, assumption of VE was met in some countries (mainly in Africa, except Tanzania) and violated in others (mainly in Asia, except India). Conclusion: We conclude that violation of assumptions of RC and VE precluded the use of anchoring vignettes to adjust self-rated responses for RH across countries in Asia and Africa.

  • 29.
    Hirve, Siddhivinayak
    et al.
    Vadu Rural Health Program, KEM Hospital Research Centre, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Juvekar, Sanjay
    Vadu Rural Health Program, KEM Hospital Research Centre, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Sambhudas, Somnath
    Vadu Rural Health Program, KEM Hospital Research Centre, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Lele, Pallavi
    Vadu Rural Health Program, KEM Hospital Research Centre, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Berkman, Lisa
    3 Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA.
    Tollman, Steve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Does self-rated health predict death in adults aged 50 years and above in India? Evidence from a rural population under health and demographic surveillance.2012Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 41, nr 6, s. 1719-1727Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) aims to improve empirical understanding of health and well-being of adults in developing countries. We examine the role of self-rated health (SRH) in predicting mortality and assess how socio-demographic and other disability measures influence this association.

    Methods In 2007, a shortened SAGE questionnaire was administered to 5087 adults aged >= 50 years under the Health Demographic Surveillance System in rural Pune district, India. Respondents rated their own health with a single global question on SRH. Disability and well-being were assessed using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule Index, Health State Score and quality-of-life score. Respondents were followed up every 6 months till June 2011. Any change in spousal support, migration or death during follow-up was updated in the SAGE dataset.

    Results In all, 410 respondents (8%) died in the 3-year follow-up period. Mortality risk was higher with bad/very bad SRH [hazard ratio (HR) in men: 3.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93-4.87; HR in women: 1.64, 95% CI: 0.94-2.86], independent of age, disability and other covariates. Disability measure (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule Index) and absence of spousal support were also associated with increased mortality risk.

    Conclusion Our findings confirm an association between bad/very bad SRH and mortality for men, independent of age, socio-demographic factors and other disability measures, in a rural Indian population. This association loses significance in women when adjusted for disability. Our study highlights the strength of nesting cross-sectional surveys within the context of the Health Demographic Surveillance System in studying the role of SRH and mortality.

  • 30.
    Hirve, Siddhivinayak
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Vadu Rural Health Program, KEM Hospital Research Center, Pune, India .
    Oud, JH
    Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Sambhudas, Somnath
    Vadu Rural Health Program, KEM Hospital Research Center, Pune, India .
    Juvekar, Sanjay
    Vadu Rural Health Program, KEM Hospital Research Center, Pune, India.
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Tollman, Stephen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Health and Population Division, School of Public Health, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Unpacking self-rated health and quality of life in older adults and elderly in India: a structural equation modelling approach2014Ingår i: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 117, nr 1, s. 105-119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims at improving empirical understanding of the health and well-being of older adults in low- and middle-income countries. A total of 321 adults aged 50 years and older were interviewed in rural Pune district, India, in 2007. We used Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to examine the pathways through which social factors, functional disability, risk behaviours, and chronic disease experience influence self-rated health (SRH) and quality of life (QOL) amongst older adults in India. Both SRH and QOL worsened with increased age (indirect effect) and limitations in functional ability (direct effect). QOL, socio-economic status (SES), and social networking had no significant effect on SRH. Smoking was associated with the presence of at least one chronic illness, but this did not have a statistically significant effect on SRH. Higher social networking was seen amongst the better educated and those with regular income, which in turn positively affected the QOL rating. QOL had a direct, but statistically not significant, effect on SRH. In conclusion, the indirect effects of age on SRH mediated through functional ability, and the effects of SES on QOL mediated through social networking, provide new understanding of how age and socio-economic status affect SRH and QOL. By allowing for measurement errors, solving for collinearity in predictor variables by integrating them into measurement models, and specifying causal dependencies between the underlying latent constructs, SEM provides a strong link between theory and empirics.

  • 31.
    Hirve, Siddhivinayak
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Verdes, E
    Lele, P
    Juvekar, S
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Tollman, Stephen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Chatterjee, S
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Evaluating reporting heterogeneity in self-rating health responses amongst adults aged 50 years and above in India: an anchoring vignettes analytic approachIngår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Hirve, Siddhivinayak
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. KEM Hosp Res Ctr, Pune 411011, Maharashtra, India.
    Verdes, Emese
    WHO, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Lele, Pallavi
    KEM Hosp Res Ctr, Pune 411011, Maharashtra, India.
    Juvekar, Sanjay
    KEM Hosp Res Ctr, Pune 411011, Maharashtra, India.
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Tollman, Steve
    University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Chatterji, Somnath
    WHO, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Evaluating Reporting Heterogeneity in Self-Rated Health Among Adults Aged 50 Years and Above in India: An Anchoring Vignettes Analytic Approach2014Ingår i: Journal of Aging and Health, ISSN 0898-2643, E-ISSN 1552-6887, Vol. 26, nr 6, s. 1015-1031Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To use anchoring vignettes to evaluate reporting heterogeneity (RH) in self-rated mobility and cognition in older adults. Method: We analyzed vignettes and self-rated mobility and cognition in 2,558 individuals aged 50 years and above. We tested for assumptions of vignette equivalence (VE) and response consistency (RC). We used a joint hierarchical ordered probit (HOPIT) model to evaluate self-rating responses for RH. Results: The assumption of VE was met except for "learning" vignettes. Higher socioeconomic status (SES) and education significantly lowered thresholds for cognition ratings. After correction for RH, women, lower SES, and older respondents were significantly more likely to report greater difficulty in mobility. The influence of age, SES, and education on thresholds was less apparent for cognition. Discussion: Our study provides strong evidence of RH in self-rated mobility and cognition. We highlight the need to formally test basic assumptions before using vignettes to adjust self-rating responses for RH.

  • 33.
    Hirve, Siddhivinayak
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Vounatsou, Penelope
    Juvekar, Sanjay
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Chatterji, Somnath
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Self-rated health: small area large area comparisons amongst older adults at the state, district and sub-district level in India2014Ingår i: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 26C, s. 31-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We compared prevalence estimates of self-rated health (SRH) derived indirectly using four different small area estimation methods for the Vadu (small) area from the national Study on Global AGEing (SAGE) survey with estimates derived directly from the Vadu SAGE survey. The indirect synthetic estimate for Vadu was 24% whereas the model based estimates were 45.6% and 45.7% with smaller prediction errors and comparable to the direct survey estimate of 50%. The model based techniques were better suited to estimate the prevalence of SRH than the indirect synthetic method. We conclude that a simplified mixed effects regression model can produce valid small area estimates of SRH.

  • 34.
    Holmner, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation2012Ingår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 5, s. 1-9Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on 'green information and communication technology (ICT)' are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies.

  • 35. Hutajulu, Susanna Hilda
    et al.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Jati, Baning Rahayu
    Fachiroh, Jajah
    Herdini, Camelia
    Hariwiyanto, Bambang
    Haryana, Sofia Mubarika
    Middeldorp, Jaap Michiel
    Seroreactivity against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) among first-degree relatives of sporadic EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Indonesia2012Ingår i: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 84, nr 5, s. 768-776Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and family history are significant risk factors associated with undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The presence of aberrant immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies against specific EBV antigens in healthy individuals can be predictive of the disease. Very limited reports explored the EBV IgA antibody presence within families of sporadic cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This study aimed to determine whether EBV IgA was observed more frequently among family members of sporadic cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma compared to community controls and evaluated the non-viral factors as determinants of antibody level. First-degree relatives of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients (n = 520) and case-matched community controls (n = 86) were recruited. Sera from all individuals were tested in standardized peptide-based EBV IgA ELISA. Data on demographic variables and other exogenous factors were collected using a questionnaire through face-to-face interviews. A similar frequency of EBV IgA (cut-off value/CoV 0.354) was observed in the first-degree relatives of cases and in community controls (41.2% vs. 39.5%, P = 0.770). However, with a higher antibody level (OD(450)  = 1.000; about three times standard CoV), the relatives showed significantly higher frequency (36.9% vs. 14.7%, P = 0.011). When adjusted for all exogenous factors, the strongest factors associated with seropositivity are being a father (odds ratio/OR = 4.36; 95% confidence interval/CI = 1.56-12.21) or a sibling (OR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.06-3.38) of a case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The higher level of EBV IgA seroreactivity in first-degree relatives of sporadic cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma compared to the general population supports the use of EBV IgA ELISA for screening among family members. J. Med. Virol. 84:768-776, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 36.
    Huu Bich, Tran
    et al.
    Hanoi School of Public Health Viet Nam.
    Thi Quyng Nga, Pham
    Hanoi School of Public Health Viet Nam.
    Ngoc Quang, La
    Hanoi School of Public Health Viet Nam.
    Van Minh, Hoang
    Hanoi Medical University Viet Nam.
    Ng, Nawi
    Jogjakarta Indonesia.
    Juvekar, Sanjay
    Pune India.
    Razzaque, Abdur
    ICDDR, B Bangladesh.
    Ashraf, Ali
    ICDDR, B Bangladesh.
    Masud Ahmed, Syed
    BRAC Watch Project Bangladesh.
    Soonthornthada, Kusol
    Mahidol University Thailand.
    Kanungsukkasem, Uraiwan
    Mahidol University Thailand.
    Patterns of alcohol consumption in diverse rural populations in the Asian region2009Ingår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 28-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse, together with tobacco use, is a major determinant of health and social well-being, and is one of the most important of 26 risk factors comparatively assessed in low and middle income countries, surpassed only by high blood pressure and tobacco. OBJECTIVES: The alcohol consumption patterns and the associations between consumption of alcohol and socio-demographic and cultural factors have been investigated in nine rural Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) located in five Asian countries. METHODS: The information was collected from multiple study sites, with sample sizes of sufficient size to measure trends in age and sex groups over time. Adopting the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance (WHO STEPS), stratified random sampling (in each 10-year interval) from the HDSS sampling frame was undertaken. Information regarding alcohol consumption and demographic indicators were collected using the WHO STEPwise standard surveillance form. The data from the nine HDSS sites were merged and analysed using STATA software version 10. RESULTS: Alcohol was rarely consumed in five of the HDSS (four in Bangladesh, and one in Indonesia). In the two HDSS in Vietnam (Chililab, Filabavi) and one in Thailand (Kanchanaburi), alcohol consumption was common in men. The mean number of drinks per day during the last seven days, and prevalence of at-risk drinker were found to be highest in Filabavi. The prevalence of female alcohol consumption was much smaller in comparison with men. In Chililab, people who did not go to school or did not complete primary education were more likely to drink in comparison to people who graduated from high school or university. CONCLUSIONS: Although uncommon in some countries because of religious and cultural practices, alcohol consumption patterns in some sites were cause for concern. In addition, qualitative studies may be necessary to understand the factors influencing alcohol consumption levels between the two sites in Vietnam and the site in Thailand in order to design appropriate interventions.

  • 37.
    Jat, Tej Ram
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Factors affecting the use of maternal health services in Madhya Pradesh state of India: a multilevel analysis2011Ingår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 59-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Improving maternal health is one of the eight Millennium Development Goals. It is widely accepted that the use of maternal health services helps in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. The utilization of maternal health services is a complex phenomenon and it is influenced by several factors. Therefore, the factors at different levels affecting the use of these services need to be clearly understood. The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of individual, community and district level characteristics on the utilisation of maternal health services with special reference to antenatal care (ANC), skilled attendance at delivery and postnatal care (PNC).

    Methods This study was designed as a cross sectional study. Data from 15,782 ever married women aged 15-49 years residing in Madhya Pradesh state of India who participated in the District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3) 2007-08 were used for this study. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed accounting for individual, community and district level factors associated with the use of maternal health care services. Type of residence at community level and ratio of primary health center to population and percent of tribal population in the district were included as district level variables in this study.

    Results The results of this study showed that 61.7% of the respondents used ANC at least once during their most recent pregnancy whereas only 37.4% women received PNC within two weeks of delivery. In the last delivery, 49.8% mothers were assisted by skilled personnel. There was considerable amount of variation in the use of maternal health services at community and district levels. About 40% and 14% of the total variance in the use of ANC, 29% and 8% of the total variance in the use of skilled attendance at delivery and 28% and 8.5% of the total variance in the use of PNC was attributable to differences across communities and districts, respectively. When controlled for individual, community and district level factors, the variances in the use of skilled attendance at delivery attributed to the differences across communities and districts were reduced to 15% and 4.3% respectively. There were only marginal reductions observed in the variance at community and district level for ANC and PNC use. The household socio-economic status and mother's education were the most important factors associated with the use of ANC and skilled attendance at delivery. The community level variable was only significant for ANC and skilled attendance at delivery but not for PNC. None of the district level variables used in this study were found to be influential factors for the use of maternal health services.

    Conclusions We found sufficient amount of variations at community and district of residence on each of the three indicators of the use of maternal health services. For increasing the utilisation of these services in the state, in addition to individual-level, there is a strong need to identify and focus on community and district-level interventions.

  • 38. Kalsum, Ummi
    et al.
    Nainggolan, Sahridayanti
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Pizza and Hamburger Consumption to Overweight among Adolescents in Jambi City2018Ingår i: Kesmas: National Public Health Journal, ISSN 1907-7505, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 53-59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Junk food is unhealthy and poor in nutrient quality, and may result in weight gain, obesity, and coronary heart disease, if consumed regularly. The prevalence of overweight in adolescents is 5-10% higher in urban areas. Adolescents undergo lifestyle changes, including in food consumption behavior. This study aimed to determine relation between junk food consumption patterns and overweight in adolescents. This study was conducted based on a cross-sectional design. A total of 137 high school students in Jambi City were involved in this study. Patterns of junk food consumption were assessed using food frequency questionnaires that examined the eating habits of study subjects. The variables were sex, maternal education, parents's occupation, and family's socio-economic level. Analysis was conducted using the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. Nutritional status was measured using body mass index-forage with WHO Antro software. The results of this study indicated a 23.4% prevalence of overweight in adolescents. After controlling for maternal education, father's occupation, instant noodle eating habits, and tea, coffee and cookies consumption, final model showed that consumption of pizza and hamburgers among adolescents was the dominant determinant for overweight (OR=3.55). Consumption of pizza and hamburger was related to overweight among adolescents in Jambi City.

  • 39. Kanungsukkasem, Uraiwan
    et al.
    Ng, Nawi
    Purworejo Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Indonesia.
    Van Minh, Hoang
    Razzaque, Abdur
    Ashraf, Ali
    Juvekar, Sanjay
    Masud Ahmed, Syed
    Huu Bich, Tran
    Fruit and vegetable consumption in rural adults population in INDEPTH HDSS sites in Asia2009Ingår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Low fruit and vegetable consumption is among the top 10 risk factors contributing to mortality worldwide. WHO/FAO recommends intake of a minimum of 400 grams (or five servings) of fruits and vegetables per day for the prevention of chronic diseases such as heart diseases, cancer, diabetes, and obesity.

    OBJECTIVE: This paper examines the fruit and vegetable consumption patterns and the prevalence of inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption (less than five servings a day) among the adult population in rural surveillance sites in five Asian countries.

    DATA AND METHODS: The analysis is based on data from a 2005 cross-site study on non-communicable disease risk factors which was conducted in nine Asian INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites. Standardised protocols and methods following the WHO STEPwise approach to risk factor surveillance were used. The total sample was 18,429 adults aged 25-64 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between socio-demographic factors and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption.

    RESULTS: Inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption was common in all study sites. The proportions of inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption ranged from 63.5% in men and 57.5% in women in Chililab HDSS in Vietnam to the whole population in Vadu HDSS in India, and WATCH HDSS in Bangladesh. Multivariate logistic regression analysis in six sites, excluding WATCH and Vadu HDSS, showed that being in oldest age group and having low education were significantly related to inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, although the pattern was not consistent through all six HDSS.

    CONCLUSIONS: Since such a large proportion of adults in Asia consume an inadequate amount of fruits and vegetables, despite of the abundant availability, education and behaviour change programmes are needed to promote fruit and vegetable consumption. Accurate and useful information about the health benefits of abundant fruit and vegetable consumption should be widely disseminated.

  • 40.
    Karhina, Kateryna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för polisutbildning vid Umeå universitet.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Gender and social inequalities in access to structural and cognitive social capital in Ukraine: what are the determinants?Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 41.
    Karhina, Kateryna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för polisutbildning vid Umeå universitet.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    What determines gender inequalities in social capital in Ukraine?2019Ingår i: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 8, artikel-id 100383Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Social capital is a social determinant of health that has an impact on equity and well-being. It may be unequally distributed among any population. The aims of this study are to investigate the distribution of different forms of social capital between men and women in Ukraine and analyse how potential gender inequalities in social capital might be explained and understood in the Ukrainian context.

    Method

    The national representative cross-sectional data from the European Social Survey (wave 6) was used with a sample of 1377 women and 797 men. Seven outcomes that represent cognitive and structural social capital were constructed i.e. institutional trust, generalised trust, reciprocity, safety, as well as bonding, bridging and linking forms. Multivariate logistic regression and post-regression Fairlies decompositions were used for the analyses.

    Results

    There are several findings that resulted from the analyses i), access to institutional trust, linking and bridging social capital is very limited; ii), the odds for almost all forms of social capital (besides safety) are lower for men; iii), feeling about income and age explain most of the gender differences and act positively, as well as offsetting the differences.

    Conclusion

    Social capital is unequally distributed between different population groups. Some forms of social capital have a stronger buffering effect on women than on men in Ukraine. Reducing gender and income inequalities would probably influence the distribution of social capital within the society.

  • 42.
    Karhina, Kateryna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för polisutbildning vid Umeå universitet.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Social capital transformation, voluntarily services and mental health during times of military conflict in Ukraine2017Ingår i: Global Journal of Health Science, ISSN 1916-9736, E-ISSN 1916-9744, Vol. 9, nr 5, s. 141-155Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The effects of war as well as military conflict include long-term physical and psychological harm to children and adults. Social relations and trust play a role in peace building and conflict resolution. Social capital is believed to facilitate institutional and interpersonal trust as well as safety and security, and thus may become an important resource in times of military conflict.

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are to analyse how social capital may be transformed due to a military conflict in contemporary Ukraine and to explore the role of voluntarily services in this change. Further we aim to discuss the possible influence of social capital transformation on mental health in times of military conflict.

    METHODS: A qualitative case study design was chosen to explore it. In-depth interviews were chosen as a method for data collection. Informant’s selection criteria were: either to be involved in volunteering activities in the city of Khmelnitsky (which is the place of research) or to receive volunteering help. 18 interviews were conducted.

    Informants were reached by snowball sampling. Interviews are collected, transcribed, translated and analyzed using constructive Grounded Theory approach of Charmaz.

    RESULTS: Our results show that social capital transforms during military conflict experiences. The changes happen both in cognitive and structural components since they are connected. The most important changes occur in bonding social capital, where new formation such as brotherhood, emerges and replaces previous bonding ties with family and friends. In addition, voluntarily acting actors (those who normally belong to bridging social capital) transform into relations with bonding entities. New forms of social capital are thus generated through the existence of voluntary services, and these networks provide essential social support in times of military conflict. Perceived support softens negative emotional responses to traumatic events. In line with the stress-buffering model, our results support that the formation of new social capital in times of military conflict may protect against the negative mental health effects of these experiences.

  • 43.
    Karhina, Kateryna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för polisutbildning vid Umeå universitet.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Voluntary work during times of military crisis: what motivates people to be involved and what are the effects on well-being?2017Ingår i: Psychology, ISSN 2152-7180, E-ISSN 2152-7199, Vol. 8, s. 1601-1619Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The positive health effects of volunteering are quite well described in the lite- rature; however, potential negative effects of volunteering are less explored. Volunteering got attention in Ukraine because of the recent political crisis that brought military conflict to the Eastern part of the country in 2014. In- formal volunteering has transformed into a formal one. In order to be able to organize volunteering that promotes well-being, it is important to have more in-depth knowledge about motives behind volunteering as well as the positive and potential negative effects of it. We explore the case voluntary work in of one of the cities in Ukraine. Military conflict context has its own specifics and different motives make people act voluntarily. There are goal-oriented, val- ue-oriented, affectual and traditional motives present in our data. The data shows that involvement in volunteering brings positive returns on well-being of the providers such as enlarging the circles of friendship and expanding the networks volunteers involved in; brings positive emotions into life; compen- sates the efforts and gives meaning to life. However, the negative effects of volunteering are also present. They are physical tiredness and a lot of time spent on volunteering activities; becoming disconnected from the ordinary (non-volunteering) world; unsafety; neglect of own needs and experiences of negative emotions out of the involvement in volunteering activities. 

  • 44.
    Karhina, Kateryna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för polisutbildning vid Umeå universitet. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Gender differences in the association between cognitive social capital, self-rated health, and depressive symptoms: a comparative analysis of Sweden and Ukraine2016Ingår i: International Journal of Mental Health Systems, ISSN 1752-4458, E-ISSN 1752-4458, Vol. 10, artikel-id 37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Social capital is one of the social determinants of health, but there is still a lack of studies comparing its significance for health in different cultural settings. This study investigates and compares the relations between individual cognitive social capital and depressive symptoms and self-rated health in Sweden and Ukraine for men and women separately.

    STUDY DESIGN: Two cross-sectional nationally representative surveys of adult populations were used for the analysis. Data from the Ukraine's World Health Survey and the Sweden's National Public Health Survey were analyzed in this comparative study.

    METHODS: The independent variable, cognitive social capital, was operationalized as institutional trust and feelings of safety. Depressive symptoms and self-rated health were used as the outcome variables. Crude and adjusted odds ratios and the 95 % confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression. The model also adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables.

    RESULTS: Institutional trust is higher in Sweden compared to Ukraine (31 % of the Swedes vs. 12 % of the Ukrainians reported high trust to their national government/parliament). There is a strong association between self-rated health and institutional trust for both sexes in Sweden (odds ratio/OR = 1.99; 95 % CI = 1.58-2.50 for women and OR = 1.82, CI = 1.48-2.24 for men who reported low institutional trust compared with those with high institutional trust) but only for women (OR = 1.88, CI = 1.12-3.15) in Ukraine. Trust thus seems to be more important for self-rated health of women and men in Sweden compared to their counterparts in Ukraine. Significant associations between depressive symptoms and institutional trust were not observed in either country after adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. A lack of feeling of safety increased the odds of having depressive symptoms among women (OR = 1.97, CI = 1.41-2.76) and men (OR = 3.91, CI = 2.19-6.97) in Sweden. The same association was observed for poor self-rated health among Swedish women (OR = 2.15, CI = 1.55-2.99) and men (OR = 2.75, CI = 1.58-4.80). In Ukraine, a lack of feeling of safety did not show any significant association with self-rated health or depressive symptoms for men, but it increased the odds of depressive symptoms among women (OR = 1.72, CI = 1.13-2.62).

    CONCLUSIONS: In general, individual cognitive social capital is higher in Sweden than in Ukraine, and there is a stronger association between cognitive social capital and self-rated health in Sweden than in Ukraine. Interventions aiming to increase cognitive social capital for health promoting purposes might be favorable in Sweden, but this is not evidently the case in Ukraine.

  • 45.
    Kien, Vu Duy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Center for Population Health Sciences, Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Minh, HV
    Giang, KB
    Dao, A
    Tuan, LT
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Socioeconomic inequalities in catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment associated with non-communicable diseases in urban Hanoi, Vietnam2016Ingår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 15, artikel-id 169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment indices offer guidance for developing appropriate health policies and intervention programs to decrease financial inequity. This study assesses socioeconomic inequalities in catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment in relation to self-reported non-communicable diseases (NCD) in urban Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to March 2013 in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. We estimated catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment using information from 492 slum household and 528 non-slum households. We calculated concentration indexes to assess socioeconomic inequalities in catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment. Factors associated with catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment were modelled using logistic regression analysis. Results: The poor households in both slum and non-slum areas were at higher risk of experiencing catastrophic health expenditure, while only the poor households in slum areas were at higher risk of impoverishment because of healthcare spending. Households with at least one member reporting an NCD were significantly more likely to face catastrophic health expenditure (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.8-4.0) and impoverishment (OR = 2.3; 95 % CI, 1.1-6.3) compared to households without NCDs. In addition, households in slum areas, with people age 60 years and above, and belonging to the poorest socioeconomic group were significantly associated with increased catastrophic health expenditure, while only households that lived in slum areas, and belonging to the poor or poorest socioeconomic groups were significantly associated with increased impoverishment because of healthcare spending. Conclusion: Financial interventions to prevent catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment should target poor households, especially those with family members suffering from NCDs, with older members and those located in slum areas in Hanoi Vietnam. Potential interventions derived from this study include targeting and monitoring of health insurance enrolment, and developing a specialized NCD service package for Vietnam's social health insurance program.

  • 46.
    Kien, Vu Duy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Minh, HV
    Giang, KB
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Viet, N
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Responsiveness of commune health stations to non-communicable disease in urban VietnamArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 47.
    Kien, Vu Duy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Center for Population Health Sciences, Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam; Center for Health System Research, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Van Minh, Hoang
    Giang, Kim Bao
    Dao, Amy
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Socioeconomic inequalities in self-reported chronic non-communicable diseases in urban Hanoi, Vietnam2017Ingår i: Global Public Health, ISSN 1744-1692, E-ISSN 1744-1706, Vol. 12, nr 12, s. 1522-1537Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study measures and decomposes socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of self-reported chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in urban Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey of 1211 selected households was carried out in four urban districts in both slum and non-slum areas of Hanoi city in 2013. The respondents were asked if a doctor or health worker had diagnosed any household members with an NCD, such as cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory, diabetes or cancer, during last 12 months. Information from 3736 individuals, aged 15 years and over, was used for the analysis. The concentration index (CI) was used to measure inequalities in self-reported NCD prevalence, and it was also decomposed into contributing factors. The prevalence of chronic NCDs in the slum and non-slum areas was 7.9% and 11.6%, respectively. The CIs show gradients disadvantageous to both the slum (CI = -0.103) and non-slum (CI = -0.165) areas. Lower socioeconomic status and aging significantly contributed to inequalities in the self-reported NCDs, particularly for those living in the slum areas. The findings confirm the existence of substantial socioeconomic inequalities linked to NCDs in urban Vietnam. Future policies should target these vulnerable areas.

  • 48.
    Kien, Vu Duy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Oncare Medical Technology Company Limited , Hanoi, Vietnam; Center for Population Health Sciences, Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Van Minh, Hoang
    Giang, Kim Bao
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Nguyen, Viet
    Tuan, Le Thanh
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Views by health professionals on the responsiveness of commune health stations regarding non-communicable diseases in urban Hanoi, Vietnam: a qualitative study2018Ingår i: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 18, artikel-id 392Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Primary health care plays an important role in addressing the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in low- and middle-income countries. In light of the rapid urbanization of Vietnam, this study aims to explore health professionals' views about the responsiveness of primary health care services at commune health stations, particularly regarding the increase of NCDs in urban settings.

    METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted in Hanoi from July to August 2015. We implemented 19 in-depth interviews with health staff at four purposely selected commune health stations and conducted a brief inventory of existing NCD activities at these commune health stations. We also interviewed NCD managers at national, provincial, and district levels. The interview guides reflected six components of the WHO health system framework, including service delivery, health workforce, health information systems, access to essential medicines, financing, and leadership/governance. A thematic analysis approach was applied to analyze the interview data in this study.

    RESULTS: Six themes, related to the six building blocks of the WHO health systems framework, were identified. These themes explored the responsiveness of commune health stations to NCDs in urban Hanoi. Health staff at commune health stations were not aware of the national strategy for NCDs. Health workers noted the lack of NCD informational materials for management and planning. The limited workforce at health commune stations would benefit from more health workers in general and those with NCD-specific training and skills. In addition, the budget for NCDs at commune health stations remains very limited, with large differences in the implementation of national targeted NCD programs. Some commune health stations had no NCD services available, while others had some programming. A lack of NCD treatment drugs was also noted, with a negative impact on the provision of NCD-related services at commune health stations. These themes were also reflected in the inventory of existing NCD related activities.

    CONCLUSIONS: Health professionals view the responsiveness of commune health stations to NCDs in urban Hanoi, Vietnam as weak. Appropriate policies should be implemented to improve the primary health care services on NCDs at commune health stations in urban Hanoi, Vietnam.

  • 49.
    Kien, Vu Duy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Center for Health System Research, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Van Minh, Hoang
    Giang, Kim Bao
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Horizontal inequity in public health care service utilization for non-communicable diseases in urban Vietnam2014Ingår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 7, artikel-id 24919Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A health system that provides equitable health care is a principal goal in many countries. Measuring horizontal inequity (HI) in health care utilization is important to develop appropriate and equitable public policies, especially policies related to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of 1,211 randomly selected households in slum and non-slum areas was carried out in four urban districts of Hanoi city in 2013. This study utilized data from 3,736 individuals aged 15 years and older. Respondents were asked about health care use during the previous 12 months; information included sex, age, and self-reported NCDs. We assessed the extent of inequity in utilization of public health care services. Concentration indexes for health care utilization and health care needs were constructed via probit regression of individual utilization of public health care services, controlling for age, sex, and NCDs. In addition, concentration indexes were decomposed to identify factors contributing to inequalities in health care utilization. RESULTS: The proportion of healthcare utilization in the slum and non-slum areas was 21.4 and 26.9%, respectively. HI in health care utilization in favor of the rich was observed in the slum areas, whereas horizontal equity was achieved among the non-slum areas. In the slum areas, we identified some key factors that affect the utilization of public health care services. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that to achieve horizontal equity in utilization of public health care services, policy should target preventive interventions for NCDs, focusing more on the poor in slum areas.

  • 50. Kowal, Paul
    et al.
    Chatterji, Somnath
    Naidoo, Nirmala
    Biritwum, Richard
    Fan, Wu
    Lopez Ridaura, Ruy
    Maximova, Tamara
    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam
    Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy
    Williams, Sharon
    Snodgrass, J Josh
    Minicuci, Nadia
    D'Este, Catherine
    Peltzer, Karl
    Boerma, J Ties
    Yawson, A
    Mensah, G
    Yong, J
    Guo, Y
    Zheng, Y
    Parasuraman, P
    Lhungdim, H
    Sekher, TV
    Rosa, R
    Belov, VB
    Lushkina, NP
    Peltzer, K
    Makiwane, M
    Zuma, K
    Ramlagan, S
    Davids, A
    Mbelle, N
    Matseke, G
    Schneider, M
    Tabane, C
    Tollman, Stephen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Kahn, Kathy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ng, Nawi
    Juvekar, S
    Sankoh, O
    Debpuur, CY
    Nguyen, TK Chuc
    Gomez-Olive, FX
    Hakimi, M
    Hirve, Siddhivinayak
    Abdullah, S
    Hodgson, A
    Kyobutungi, C
    Egondi, T
    Mayombana, C
    Minh, HV
    Mwanyangala, MA
    Razzaque, A
    Wilopo, S
    Streatfield, PK
    Byass, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Scholten, F
    Mugisha, J
    Seeley, J
    Kinyanda, E
    Nyirenda, M
    Mutevedzi, P
    Newell, M-L
    Data resource profile: the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)2012Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 41, nr 6, s. 1639-1649Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18-49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007-2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18-49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO's SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO's archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata).

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