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  • 1.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sundqvist, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Den lokala nivåns betydelse i det förebyggande arbetet mot våldsbejakande islamistisk extremism2017In: Våldsbejakande extremism: en forskarantologi / [ed] Christofer Edling och Amir Rostamni, Stockholm: Wolters Kluwer, 2017, p. 225--255Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    What is local resilience against radicalization and how can it be promoted?: a multidisciplinary literature review2018In: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, ISSN 1057-610X, E-ISSN 1521-0731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research note, we present results from a review of research on local resilience in relation to radicalization in public health, social work, crisis management, and community policing using terrorism studies as a point of departure. In order to identify agreements between literatures, we focus on how local resilience is understood, how it is said to be promoted, and how this knowledge could be synthesized. We show that resilience by and large is understood as both a process and a capacity underpinned by cooperation, social networks, and community resources and that an initial mapping of existing strengths and resources is pivotal for local resilience-building.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Social capital and health: implications for health promotion2011In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 4, p. 5611-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a review of the PhD Thesis of Malin Eriksson, entitled 'Social capital, health and community action - implications for health promotion.' The article presents a theoretical overview of social capital and its relation to health, reviews empirical findings of the links between social capital and (self-rated) health, and discusses the usefulness of social capital in health promotion interventions at individual and community levels. Social capital, conceptualized as an individual characteristic, can contribute to the field of health promotion by adding new knowledge on how social network interventions may best be designed to meet the needs of the target group. The distinction of different forms of social capital, i.e. bonding, bridging, and linking, can be useful in mapping the kinds of networks that are available and health-enhancing (or damaging) and for whom. Further, social capital can advance social network interventions by acknowledging the risk for unequal distribution of investments and returns from social network involvement. Social capital, conceptualized as characterizing whole communities, provides a useful framework for what constitutes health-supporting environments and guidance on how to achieve them. Mapping and mobilization of social capital in local communities may be one way of achieving community action for health promotion. Social capital is context-bound by necessity. Thus, from a global perspective, it cannot be used as a 'cookbook' on how to achieve supportive environments and community action smoothly. However, social capital can provide new ideas on the processes that influence human interactions, cooperation, and community action for health promotion in various contexts.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Social capital, health and community action: implications for health promotion2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background; The overwhelming increase in studies about social capital and health occurring since 1995 indicates a renewed interest in the social determinants of health and a call for a more explicit use of theory in public health and epidemiology. The links between social capital and health are still not clear and the meanings of different forms of individual and collective social capital and their implications for health promotion needs further exploration. The overall aims of this thesis are to explore the relationship between social capital and health and to contribute to the theoretical framework of the role of social capital for health and health promotion.

    Methods; Data from a social capital survey were used to investigate the associations between individual social capital and self-rated health for men and women and different educational groups. Survey data were also analyzed to determine the association between collective social capital and self-rated health for men and women. A qualitative case study in a small community with observed high levels of civic engagement formed the basis for exploring the role of social capital for community action. Data from the same study were utilized for a grounded theory situational analysis of the social mechanisms leading to social capital mobilization.

    Main findings; Access to individual social capital increases the odds for good self-rated health equally for men and women and different educational groups. However, the likelihood of having access to social capital differs between groups. The results indicate a positive association between collective social capital and self-rated health for women but not for men. Results from the qualitative case study illustrate how social capital in local communities can facilitate collective actions for public good but may also increase social inequality. Mobilizing social capital in local communities requires identification of community issues that call for action, a fighting spirit from trusted local leaders, “know-how” from creative entrepreneurs, and broad legitimacy and support in the community.

    Conclusions; This thesis supports the idea that individual social capital is health-enhancing and that strengthening individual social capital can be considered one important health promotion strategy. Collective social capital may have a positive effect on self-rated health for women but not for men and therefore mobilizing collective social capital might be more health-enhancing for women. Collective social capital may have indirect positive effects on health for all by facilitating the ability of communities to solve collective health problems. However, mobilizing social capital in local communities requires an awareness of the risk for increased social inequality.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Socialt kapital och hälsa: förklaringsmodeller och implikationer för hälsofrämjande interventioner2012In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 89, no 4-5, p. 332-346Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social capital concerns social networks, the reciprocities that arise from them and the value of these for individuals as well as for whole communities. Despite extensive research many questions remain, such as the implication of this knowledge for health promotion. The aim of this article is to give a brief overview of the links between social capital and health, and to illuminate possible explanations for these associations. Furthermore, I intend to highlight areas where this knowledge may have implications for health promotion. The review shows that social capital adds knowledge concerning how social network interventions could best be designed, and generates new knowledge on what characterizes a health enabling environment. Social capital can be used as a "theoretical tool" for health promotion, but requires an awareness of people's unequal opportunities to access social networks.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Socialt kapital: teori, begrepp och mätning - en kunskapsöversikt med fokus på folkhälsa2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social capital has become an attractive theoretical perspective for a range of phenomena. However there is no consensus about definitions and measures of the concept. The aim of this paper is to make a Swedish review with relevance for public health of how the concept is used among some well cited researchers in political science, sociology, economy and public health. The review describes the background and use of the concept within these four disciplines. Different forms and perspectives on social capital are reviewed, and the important question about sources and consequences of social capital is discussed. Some of the critics against the concept are also presented. Social capital is often measured by connecting variables from already existing databases to the concept. However there are also examples of instruments that are prepared especially for measuring social capital and some of these are showed in this review. Examples of both quantitative and qualitative studies are presented. The review calls attention to the wide application of social capital within public health. The concept is useful in understanding the connections between social factors and health outcome on three different levels, - state, community and individual level. Some researchers state that the concept is too broad to be able to add some new knowledge; while this review argues that a wide application also could be a benefit. The question about health determinants is complex and could not be understood only on one level. Social capital can add important new knowledge about health determinants on all three levels. However, there is a need for further theoretical development to make the research about social capital and health valid. The basis for community social capital has to be clarified. In addition, there is a need for more knowledge about the collective and the individual aspects of social capital. Analysis of social capital on different levels also demands awareness of the fact that social capital could have positive consequences on one level and concurrently, negative consequences on another level.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Dahlblom, Kjerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    What constitute health promoting living environments from children's perspectives?2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no Suppl_3, p. 508-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Swedish research on the effects of living environment on children's health is limited, and very few studies bring up children’s own views and experiences from their everyday lives. The overall aim of this study is to explore what constitutes health promoting living environments from children’s own perspectives.

    Methods: This is an ongoing qualitative exploratory study, building on children’s active involvement using Photovoice method. Schoolchildren in grade five, living in a medium sized Swedish municipality were equipped with digital cameras to document places of importance for their well-being. These photographs were discussed in sex-stratified focus groups. By discussing their photos, the children could identify and portray their choices of places, which gave valuable insights of how they view their worlds and what they perceive as health promoting in their living environments. Data were initially analyzed thematically.

    Results: Children presented photos from their homes showing mostly their own rooms and their computers, sports- and other facilities for leisure activities as well as photos from playgrounds, forests and neighborhood venues. These places were all perceived as important for their wellbeing. Preliminary analyzes reveal how these places in different ways are characterized as; Places allowing Socializing; Places for Activities; Places for Relaxation, and Places providing a sense of Freedom. Having a Space of one’s own was also perceived as important for well-being.

    Conclusions: A safe environment, allowing positive activities, relaxation, togetherness as well as freedom and a space of one’s own, characterizes health-promoting places for Children in a Swedish context.

    Key messages:

    • Children are active actors in their living environments and are well aware of aspects in their living environments of importance for their well-being.
    • Children’s voices and experiences needs to be taken into account in the planning and design of health promoting living environments.
  • 8.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Dahlgren, Lars
    Emmelin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Collective actors as driving forces for mobilizing social capital in a local community: what can be learned for health promotion?2010In: Social capital and rural development / [ed] H Westlund & K Kobayashi, ? , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Dahlgren, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Emmelin, Maria
    Lund university.
    Collective actors as driving forces for mobilizing social capital in a local community: what can be learned for health promotion?2013In: Social capital and rural development in the knowledge society / [ed] Hans Westlund and Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, p. 273-298Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Dahlgren, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Emmelin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Understanding the role of social capital for health promotion beyond Putnam: a qualitative case study from northern Sweden2009In: Social theory and health, ISSN 1477-8211, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 318-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social capital is believed to improve the capacity of communities to work together for solving collective health problems. The present study was conducted in a community in northern Sweden where citizens through collective actions managed to build an association-driven health center. The aims were to describe the community's existing social capital in order to explore how Putnam's theories could contribute to an understanding of the observed high civic engagement and to discuss how other theoretical perspectives might add to an understanding of the role of social capital for health promotion. A qualitative case study was performed and the analysis followed a grounded theory approach. In accordance with Putnam, inherited social capital and high participation in existing associations were found to be important for uniting people. Beyond these, other aspects such as effective information channels, strong leaders and high social control were also significant and better understood by adding Coleman's and Bourdieu's views of social capital. If social capital is to be used for the purposes of health promotion the risk of increased social inequality as an unintended consequence needs to be considered. An awareness of how specific contextual conditions affect the building and mobilizing of social capital is also crucial.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Dahlgren, Lars
    Janlert, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Emmelin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Social capital, gender and educational level: impact on self-rated health2010In: The Open Public Health Journal, ISSN 1874-9445, Vol. 3, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Social capital has been recognized as one important social determinant for health, but we still have limited knowledge about how it can be used to explain inequality in health. This study investigated the links between individual social capital and self-rated health by gender and educational level, and analyzed if access to social capital might explain the observed disparities in self-rated health between men and women and different educational groups. Study design: A cross-sectional survey in Northern Sweden. Methods: A social capital questionnaire was constructed and mailed to 15 000 randomly selected individuals. Different forms of structural and cognitive social capital were measured. Self-rated health was used as the outcome measure. Crude and adjusted OR and 95% CI were calculated for good selfrated health and access to each form of social capital. Multivariate regression was used to analyze how sociodemographic factors and access to social capital might influence differences in self-rated health by gender and educational level. Results: Access to almost each form of social capital significantly increased the odds for good self-rated health for all groups. A higher education significantly increased the odds for access to each form of social capital, and being a man significantly increased the odds for having access to some forms of social capital. The health advantage for higher educated and men partly decreased when controlling for access to social capital. Conclusions: Access to social capital can partly explain the observed health inequality between men and women and different educational groups. Strengthening social capital might be one way of tackling health inequality. It is important to consider the structural conditions that create unequal opportunities for different groups to access social capital.

  • 12.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Emmelin, Maria
    Challenges and opportunities for local development initiatives to influence social capital for health promoting purposes: theoretical and empirical support2016In: Handbook of social capital and regional development / [ed] Hans Westlund, Johan P. Larsson, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, p. 359-390Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Emmelin, Maria
    Lunds universitet.
    What constitutes a health-enabling neighborhood? A grounded theory situational analysis addressing the significance of social capital and gender.2013In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 97, p. 112-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variations in health between neighborhoods are well known and the conceptualization of social capitalhas contributed to an understanding of how contextual factors influence these differences. Studies showpositive health-effects from living in high social capital areas, at least for some population sub-groups.The aim of this qualitative study was to understand what constitutes a ‘health-enabling’ neighborhood.It follows up results from a social capital survey in northern Sweden indicating that the healtheffects of living in a high social capital neighborhood is gendered in favor of women. A grounded theorysituational analysis of eight focus group discussions e four with men and four with women e illustratedsimilar and different positions on how neighborhood characteristics influence health. A neighborhood,where people say hi to each other (“hi-factor”) and where support between neighbors exist, were factorsperceived as positive for health by all, as was a good location, neighborhood greenness and proximity toessential arenas. Women perceived freedom from demands, feeling safe and city life as additional healthenabling factors. For men freedom to do what you want, a sense of belonging, and countryside life wereimportant. To have burdensome neighbors, physical disturbances and a densely living environment wereperceived as negative for health in both groups while demands for a well styled home and feeling unsafewere perceived as negative for health among women. Neighborhood social capital, together with otherelements in the living environment, has fundamental influence on people’s perceived health. Ourfindings do not confirm that social capital is more important for women than for men but that distinctiveform of social capital differ in impact. Investing in physical interventions, such as planning for meetingplaces, constructing attractive green areas, and making neighborhoods walking-friendly, may increasehuman interactions that is instrumental for social capital and is likely to have health promoting effectsfor all.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Different uses of Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory in public mental health research: what is their value for guiding public mental health policy and practice?2018In: Social Theory & Health, ISSN 1477-8211, E-ISSN 1477-822X, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 414-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory is appealing as a conceptual tool for guiding public mental health interventions. However, his theory underwent significant changes since its first inception during the late 1970s until his death in 2005, due to which the implications that can be drawn might differ depending on what concepts (i.e. early or later) of the theory is utilized. The aim of this paper was to examine how different concepts of Bronfenbrenner’s theory have been utilized in (public) mental health research, and to analyse the value of these different uses for guiding public mental health policy and practice. A systematic search for articles that have utilized concepts of Bronfenbrenner’s theory within the field of mental health resulted in a review of 16 published papers. We found that one set of papers (N = 10) used the early concepts of ecological systems without investigating interactions between these systems, while another set of papers used the concepts of ecological systems by also investigating interactions within and between these systems (N = 4). Another limited set of papers (N = 2) utilized the later concepts of proximal processes and the PPCT model. Our results show that studies using Bronfenbrenner’s ecological system concepts by clearly considering interactions between and within these systems can result in recommendations that are most useful for guiding public mental health policy and practice.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Hanberger, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Isaksson, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Wimelius, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Utvärdering av insatser för ensamkommande barn och ungdomar i Umeå 2012-2013: slutrapport2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna slutrapport redovisas en utvärdering av hur mottagningssystemet och samhällets insatser för ensamkommande barn och ungdomar har utformats och fungerat i Umeå kommun under perioden 2012-2013. Rapporten har utvecklats inom ramen för forskningsprojektet ”Hur fungerar samhällets insatser för ensamkommande flyktingungdomar?” och handlar om flyktingungdomars introduktion och etablering i det svenska samhället.

    En av slutsatserna är att det saknas en tydlig politisk styrning och vägledning av mottagandet av ensamkommande i Umeå och att aktörerna i hög grad själva har fått tolka sina uppdrag och samordna insatserna. En annan slutsats är att samhällets insatser har bidragit till att stödja, stärka och förbereda ungdomarna på att leva i Sverige och till att socialisera dem till vad som förväntas och krävs för att anpassa sig i det svenska samhället, men det finns stora utmaningar när det gäller ungdomarnas fortsatta integration i samhället.

    I rapporten presenteras också rekommendationer för hur mottagandet kan utvecklas. Bland annat rekommenderas att de olika aktörernas uppdrag förtydligas och att en mer utvecklad målsättning och vägledning för Umeå kommuns mottagande av ensamkommande arbetas fram. Aktörerna bör också utveckla och pröva nya sätt att främja ungdomarnas integration i samhället som bättre tillvaratar resurser i civilsamhället.

    Forskningsprojektet har utvecklats och genomförts av en tvärvetenskaplig forskargrupp vid Umeå universitet i samverkan med Umeå kommun och KFUM i Umeå. Projektet har medfinansierats av Europeiska Flyktingfonden.

  • 16.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Hanberger, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Isaksson, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Wimelius, Malin E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Utvärdering av insatser för ensamkommande flyktingungdomar i Umeå: delrapport2013Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Child health and place: How is neighborhood social capital associated with child health injuries?2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no Suppl_3, p. 41-41Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Child health inequalities can be explained by social determinants of health, including neighborhood social capital. Swedish research about place effects on children's health is limited. This project aims to contribute to knowledge on how neighborhood social capital may influence child health in the Swedish context. The overall research questions were: What is the incidence rate of child injuries in the living environments among boys and girls? What are the associations between neighborhood social capital and child injuries?

    Methods: Child injury data from the Umeå SIMSAM Lab were utilized, with data from all children 0-12 years of age, living in Umeå municipality during 2006-2009. Individual child injury and residential area data were linked to a neighborhood social capital index, where 49 defined neighborhoods were assigned a score from low- high in social capital, based on people’s perceptions about their neighborhoods. Individual, household and neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic variables (country of birth, educational level, income and family type) were also extracted from the Umeå SIMSAM lab. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze factors associated with child injury.

    Results: We observed 3930 injury events that occurred in the living environments, experienced by 24 000 children who lived in 14 767 households within 49 neighborhoods. The incidence rate of child injuries was about 72.5/1000 for boys and 60/1000 for girls. The odds for child injures was lower in neighborhoods with high social capital compared to neighborhoods with low social capital (OR 0.87 95%CI 0.80-0.95) after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors at individual, household and neighborhood level. The protective effects of neighborhood social capital were stronger for girls than boys.

    Conclusions: Neighborhood social capital may have a protective effect on child injuries and especially so for girls.

    Key messages:

    • Neighborhood conditions have a significant influence on child health inequalities in the Swedish context, including inequalities in child injuries.
    • Mobilization of neighborhood social capital might be good investment for reducing child injuries.
  • 18.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Lönnberg, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    En pilotstudie om Hälsa och livskvalitet i Storuman: i en jämförelse med Västerbotten i stort2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna pilotundersökning har författarna, med hjälp av data från "Västerbottens hälsoundersökningar (VHU), tittat närmare på hur utfallet av hälsa och livskvalitet i Storumans kommun ser ut i en jämförelse med Västerbotten i stort. Bland de frågor som deltagarna fått svara på i VHU-materialet finns också upplysningar om socialt stöd, sociala nätverk och föreningsaktivitet - faktorer som ofta kopplas samman med begreppet socialt kapital. Dessa avser vi lyfta fram och diskutera som möjliga förklaringsfaktorer till utfallet av hälsa och livskvalitet. I studien finns också material från en intervju med en nyckelperson i Storuman, vilket bidrar till en subjektiv beskrivning av lokalsamhället Storuman. Utförd inom EU-projektet Urban Design.

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Changes in access to structural social capital and its influence on self-rated health over time for middle-aged men and women: a longitudinal study from northern Sweden.2015In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 130, p. 250-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Until recently, most studies on social capital and health have been cross-sectional making it difficult to draw causal conclusions. This longitudinal study used data from 33,621 individuals (15,822 men and 17,799 women) from the Vasterbotten Intervention Program, to analyse how changes in access to individual social capital influence self-rated health (SRH) over time. Two forms of structural social capital, i.e. informal socializing and social participation, were measured. Age, sex, education, marital status, smoking, snuff, physical activity, alcohol consumption, high blood pressure, and body mass index were analysed as potential confounders. The association between changes in access to structural social capital and SRH in the follow-up was adjusted for SRH at baseline, as well as for changes in the socio-demographic and health-risk variables over time. The results support that changes in access to structural social capital over time impact on SRH. Remaining with no/low level of informal socializing over time increased the odds ratio for poor SRH for both men and women (OR of 1.45; 95%CI = 1.22-1.73 among men and OR of 1.56; 95%CI = 1.33-1.84 among women). Remaining with no/low levels of social participation was also detrimental to SRH in men and women (OR 1.14; 95%CI = 1.03-1.26 among men and OR 1.18; 95% Cl = 1.08-1.29 among women). A decrease in informal socializing over time was associated with poor SRH for women and men (OR of 135; 95%CI = 1.16-1.58 among men and OR of 1.57; 95%Cl = 1.36-1.82 among women). A loss of social participation had a negative effect on SRH among men and women (OR of 1.16; 95%Cl = 1.03-130 among men and OR of 1.15; 95%CI = 1.04-1.27 among women). Gaining access to social participation was harmful for SRH for women (OR 1.17; 95%CI = 1.05-131). Structural social capital has complex and gendered effects on SRH and interventions aiming to use social capital for health promotion purposes require an awareness of its gendered nature.

  • 20.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Neighborhood social capital and women's self-rated health - is there an age pattern?: A multi-level study from Northern Sweden2015In: Social capital as a health resource in later life: the relevance of context / [ed] Fredrika Nyqvist, Anna K. Forsman, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2015, p. 127-143Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Emmelin, Maria
    The importance of gender and conceptualization for understanding the association between collective social capital and health: a multilevel analysis from northern Sweden2011In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 73, no 2, p. 264-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing research on social capital and health has fuelled the debate on whether there is a place effect on health. A central question is whether health inequality between places is due to differences in the composition of people living in these places (compositional effect) or differences in the local social and physical environments (contextual effects). Despite extensive use of multilevel approaches that allows controlling for whether the effects of collective social capital are confounded by access to social capital at the individual level, the picture remains unclear. Recent studies indicate that contextual effects on health may vary for different population subgroups and measuring "average" contextual effects on health for a whole population might therefore be inappropriate. In this study from northern Sweden, we investigated the associations between collective social capital and self-rated health for men and women separately, to understand if health effects of collective social capital are gendered. Two measures of collective social capital were used: one conventional measure (aggregated measures of trust, participation and voting) and one specific place-related (neighbourhood) measure. The results show a positive association between collective social capital and self-rated health for women but not for men. Regardless of the measure used, women who live in very high social capital neighbourhoods are more likely to rate their health as good-fair, compared to women who live in very low social capital neighbourhoods. The health effects of collective social capital might thus be gendered in favour for women. However, a more equal involvement of men and women in the domestic sphere would potentially benefit men in this matter. When controlling for socioeconomic, sociodemographic and social capital attributes at the individual level, the relationship between women's health and collective social capital remained statistically significant when using the neighbourhood-related measure but not when using the conventional measure. Our results support the view that a neighbourhood-related measure provides a clearer picture of the health effects of collective social capital, at least for women.

  • 22.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Wimelius, Malin E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    'I stand on my own two feet but need someone who really cares': Social networks and social capital among unaccompanied minors for becoming established in Swedish society2018In: The Journal of Refugee Studies, ISSN 0951-6328, E-ISSN 1471-6925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Settling in a new host country as an unaccompanied minor holds a lot of challenges such as adaptation of new social norms, learning a new language and understanding a new culture. Social networks may foster good conditions for settlement in the host community but little is known about the availability, quality and significance of social networks for unaccompanied minors (UM) in Sweden. The aim of this qualitative grounded-theory situational study was to explore experiences of social networks among UM and the significance of those networks for becoming established in Sweden, based on data from in-depth interviews with 11 young persons. Unaccompanied young persons were broadly found to be involved in three different kinds of networks: professional carers, like-ethnic friends and ‘Swedes’ in general. Networks with professionals (i.e. linking social capital) were perceived as both a secure base and a source of rejection, and could either facilitate or obstruct the establishment. Supporting networks with like-ethnic friends (bonding social capital) proved to be the most available and important resource for becoming established, while access to networks with Swedes (bridging social capital) was in general low but still perceived as important for becoming established, not least for reducing language and cultural barriers.

  • 23.
    Frumence, Gasto
    et al.
    Department of Development Studies, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Emmelin, Maria
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Social Medicine and Global Health, Lund University, Malmö.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kwesigabo, Gideon
    Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Killewo, Japhet
    Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Moyo, Sabrina
    Department of Microbiology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Access to social capital and risk of HIV infectionin Bukoba urban district, Kagera region, Tanzania2014In: Archives of Public Health, ISSN 0778-7367, E-ISSN 2049-3258, Vol. 72, no 38, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Kagera is one of the 22 regions of Tanzania mainland, which has witnessed a decline in HIV prevalence during the past two decades; decreasing from 24% in 1987 to 4.7 in 2009 in the urban district of Bukoba. Access to social capital, both structural and cognitive, might have played a role in this development. The aim was to examine the association between individual structural and cognitive social capital and socio-economic characteristics and the likelihood of being HIV infected.

    METHODS:

    We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 3586 participants, of which 3423 (95%) agreed to test for HIV following pre-test counseling. The HIV testing was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibody detection tests. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the impact of socio-economic factors, individual structural and cognitive social capital and HIV sero-status.

    RESULTS:

    Individuals who had access to low levels of both structural and cognitive individual social capital were four and three times more likely to be HIV positive compared to individuals who had access to high levels. The associations remained statistically significant for both individual structural and cognitive social capital after adjusting for potential confounding factors such as age, sex, marital status, occupation, level of education and wealth index (OR =8.6, CI: 5.7-13.0 and OR =2.4, CI: 1.6-3.5 for individual structural and cognitive social capital respectively). For both women and men access to high levels of individual structural and cognitive social capital decreased the risk of being HIV infected. This study confirms previous qualitative studies indicating that access to structural and cognitive social capital is protective to HIV infection.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    We suggest that policy makers and programme managers of HIV interventions may consider strengthening and facilitating access to social capital as a way of promoting HIV preventive information and interventions in order to reduce new HIV infections in Tanzania.

  • 24.
    Frumence, Gasto
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Emmelin, Maria
    Kwesigabo, Gideon
    Killewo, Japhet
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Social capital and HIV infection in Bukoba urban district, Kagera region, TanzaniaIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Frumence, Gasto
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Emmelin, Maria
    Kwesigabo, Gideon
    Killewo, Japhet
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Social capital and HIV risk related behaviors in Kagera region, TanzaniaIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Frumence, Gasto
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Killewo, Japhet
    Emmelin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Exploring the role of cognitive and structural social capital in the declining trends of HIV/AIDS in the Kagera region of Tanzania: A grounded theory study2011In: African Journal of AIDS Research, ISSN 1608-5906, E-ISSN 1727-9445, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article presents a synthesis of data from three village case studies focusing on how structural and cognitivesocial capital may have influenced the progression of the HIV epidemic in the Kagera region of Tanzania. Groundedtheory was used to develop a theoretical model describing the possible links between structural and cognitivesocial capital and the impact on sexual health behaviours. Focus group discussions and key informant interviewswere carried out to represent the range of experiences of existing social capital. Both structural and cognitive socialcapital were active avenues for community members to come together, empower each other, and develop norms,values, trust and reciprocal relations. This empowerment created an enabling environment in which members couldadopt protective behaviours against HIV infection. On the one hand, we observed that involvement in formal andinformal organisations resulted in a reduction of numbers of sexual partners, led people to demand abstinencefrom sexual relations until marriage, caused fewer opportunities for casual sex, and gave individuals the agency todemand the use of condoms. On the other hand, strict membership rules and regulations excluded some members,particularly excessive alcohol drinkers and debtors, from becoming members of the social groups, which increasedtheir vulnerability in terms of exposure to HIV. Social gatherings (especially those organised during the night) werealso found to increase youths’ risk of HIV infection through instances of unsafe sex. We conclude that even thoughsocial capital may at times have negative effects on individuals’ HIV-prevention efforts, this study provides initialevidence that social capital is largely protective through empowering vulnerable groups such as women and thepoor to protect against HIV infection and by promoting protective sexual behaviours.

  • 27. Frumence, Gasto
    et al.
    Killewo, Japhet
    Kwesigabo, Gideon
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Emmelin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Social capital and the decline in HIV transmission: a case study in three villages in the Kagera region of Tanzania2010In: SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, ISSN 1729-0376, E-ISSN 1813-4424, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 9-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present data from an exploratory case study characterising the social capital in three case villages situated in areas of varying HIV prevalence in the Kagera region of Tanzania. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews revealed a range of experiences by community members, leaders of organisations and social groups. We found that the formation of social groups during the early 1990s was partly a result of poverty and the many deaths caused by AIDS. They built on a tradition to support those in need and provided social and economic support to members by providing loans. Their strict rules of conduct helped to create new norms, values and trust, important for HIV prevention. Members of different networks ultimately became role models for healthy protective behaviour. Formal organisations also worked together with social groups to facilitate networking and to provide avenues for exchange of information. We conclude that social capital contributed in changing HIV related risk behaviour that supported a decline of HIV infection in the high prevalence zone and maintained a low prevalence in the other zones.

  • 28. Haafkens, Joke
    et al.
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Becher, Heiko
    Ramroth, Heribert
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Training needs for research in health inequities among health and demographic researchers from eight African and Asian countries2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, article id 1254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To support equity focussed public health policy in low and middle income countries, more evidence and analysis of the social determinants of health inequalities is needed. This requires specific know how among researchers. The INDEPTH Training and Research Centres of Excellence (INTREC) collaboration will develop and provide training on the social determinants of health approach for health researchers from the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (INDEPTH) in Africa and Asia. To identify learning needs among the potential target group, this qualitative study explored what INDEPTH researchers from Ghana, Tanzania, South Africa, Kenya, Indonesia, India, Vietnam, and Bangladesh feel that they want to learn to be able to conduct research on the causes of health inequalities in their country.

    METHODS: Using an inductive method, online concept-mapping, participants were asked to generate statements in response to the question what background knowledge they would need to conduct research on the causes of health inequalities in their country, to sort those statements into thematic groups, and to rate them in terms of how important it would be for the INTREC program to offer instruction on each of the statements. Statistical techniques were used to structure statements into a thematic cluster map and average importance ratings of statements/clusters were calculated.

    RESULTS: Of the 150 invited researchers, 82 participated in the study; 54 from Africa; 28 from Asia. Participants generated 59 statements and sorted them into 6 broader thematic clusters: "assessing health inequalities"; "research design and methods"; "research and policy"; "demography and health inequalities"; "social determinants of health" and "interventions". African participants assigned the highest importance to further training on methods for assessing health inequalities. Asian participants assigned the highest importance to training on research and policy.

    CONCLUSION: The identified thematic clusters and statements provide a detailed understanding of what INDEPTH researchers want to learn in order to be able to conduct research on the social determinants of health inequalities. This offers a framework for developing capacity building programs in this emerging field of public health research.

  • 29.
    Hanberger, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Isaksson, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Local Service-Delivery Networks for Unaccompanied Children in Sweden: evaluating Their Effectiveness2016In: Journal of social service research, ISSN 0148-8376, E-ISSN 1540-7314, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 675-688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article defines the effectiveness of local service-delivery networks for unaccompanied and separated children (UASC) and develops criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of such networks in Sweden. It also explores factors and conditions that enhance network performance and suggests that cultural and multicultural competences are required for such networks to be effective. Twentyone evaluation criteria are developed for enhancing network performance generated from research into UASC, network governance theory, and the authors’ own evaluation of the reception of UASC in a Swedish municipality. The evaluation and this article are based on 32 interviews with social workers, legal guardians, care-home staff, teachers and school personnel, a questionnaire, and 11 interviews with UASC. The article reanalyzes data from the authors’ evaluation study finalized in 2014 and applies the criteria tentatively on this reception system. Experiences and findings include the importance of taking into account client needs and involvement in services when evaluating the effectiveness of service-delivery networks. The criteria can productively inform policy and practice when actors deliberate on how to assess and improve local reception-system and servicedelivery-network performance in different contexts.

  • 30.
    Hayati, Elli Nur
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Emmelin, Maria
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Challenges for a local service agency to address domestic violence: a case study from rural indonesia2014In: Global Journal of Health Science, ISSN 1916-9736, E-ISSN 1916-9744, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 214-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the launch of a Zero Tolerance Policy in Indonesia, several policies to address domestic violence have been enacted. The obligation of local governments to establish service units for women survivors of domestic violence is one of them. Since domestic violence is a sensitive and complex issue in Indonesia it is important to understand how governmentally regulated services function in practice. This case study aimed to explore challenges faced by a local service agency in managing service provision for women survivors of domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Data from one focus group discussion (12 participants), four individual interviews, six short narratives, two days of participant observation, as well as archive reviews were collected. All data were analyzed using Grounded Theory Situational Analysis. The major challenge faced by the local agency was the low priority that was given them by the local authorities, mirrored also in low involvement by the assigned volunteers in the daily service. The study also identified a gap between the socio-cultural arena and the law & policy arena that needs to be bridged to avoid that the two arenas address domestic violence in a contradictory way. Budget allocation to support the sustainability of the daily routines of service agencies has to be given priority. There is also a need for careful considerations regarding the composition of personnel involved within daily management of service agencies addressing domestic violence. To bridge the gap between the legal systems and traditional cultural values, culturally adjusted alternative justice systems could be developed to increase women's access to legal support.

  • 31.
    Hayati, Elli Nur
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Ahmad Dahlan Univ, Fac Psychol, Semaki 55166, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Rifka Annisa Womens Crisis Ctr, Komplek Jatimulyo Indah 55241, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
    Emmelin, Maria
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Social Med & Global Hlth, Lund, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    We no longer live in the old days: a qualitative study on men's views on masculinity and violence within marriage in rural Java, Indonesia2014In: BMC Women's Health, ISSN 1472-6874, E-ISSN 1472-6874, Vol. 14, no 58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies on domestic violence in Indonesia have focused primarily on women's experiences and little research has been undertaken to understand men's views on domestic violence or their involvement in the prevention of domestic violence. This study aimed to explore men's views on masculinity and the use of violence within marriage, in order to gain knowledge on how to involve men in prevention of domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Methods: Focus group discussions with six groups of local male community leaders in Purworejo were conducted. The discussions were transcribed and coded for the construction of a positional map on different masculinities and their relation to the level of acceptance of domestic violence. Results: Social and cultural changes have played a crucial role in transforming the relationship between men and women in Indonesian society. Three different positions of masculinity with certain beliefs on the gender order and acceptance of violence within marriage were identified: the traditionalist, the pragmatist, and the egalitarian. The traditionalist had the highest acceptance of violence as a tool to uphold the superior position of men within marriage, while the pragmatist viewed violence as undesirable but sometimes needed in order to correct the wife's behavior. The egalitarian did not see any reason for violence because they believed that men and women are equal and complementary to each other. Conclusions: Adaptation to social and cultural changes combined with lack of exposures to contextual and progressive religious teachings has led to the formation of three different positions of masculinity among the population in this study. Each position has certain beliefs regarding the gender order and the use of violence within marriage. Religion is an extremely important aspect that must be included in every type of intervention with this population.

  • 32.
    Hayati, Elli Nur
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hakimi, Mohammad
    Högberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Emmelin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    "Elastic band strategy": women's lived experience of coping with domestic violence in rural Indonesia2013In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 6, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Experiencing domestic violence is considered a chronic and stressful life event. A theoretical framework of coping strategies can be used to understand how women deal with domestic violence. Traditional values strongly influenced by religious teachings that interpret men as the leaders of women play an important role in the lives of Javanese women, where women are obliged to obey their husbands. Little is known about how sociocultural and psychosocial contexts influence the ways in which women cope with domestic violence.

    Objective: Our study aimed to deepen our understanding of how rural Javanese women cope with domestic violence. Our objective was to explore how the sociocultural context influences coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence in rural Purworejo.

    Design: A phenomenological approach was used to transform lived experiences into textual expressions of the coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence.

    Results: Experiencing chronic violence ruined the women's personal lives because of the associated physical, mental, psychosocial, and financial impairments. These chronic stressors led women to access external and internal resources to form coping strategies. Both external and internal factors prompted conflicting impulses to seek support, that is, to escape versus remain in the relationship. This strong tension led to a coping strategy that implied a long-term process of moving between actively opposing the violence and surrendering or tolerating the situation, resembling an elastic band that stretches in and out.

    Conclusions: Women survivors in Purworejo face a lack of institutional support and tend to have traditional beliefs that hamper their potential to stop the abuse. Although the women in this study were educated and economically independent, they still had difficulty mobilizing internal and external support to end the abuse, partly due to internalized gender norms.

  • 33.
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Johansson, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Mohamud, Khalif Bile
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Freij, Lennart
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Dalmar, Abdirisak Ahmed
    Ibrahim, Abdirashid Omer
    Hagi, Abdisamad Abikar
    Abdi, Abshir Ali
    Hussein, Abdullahi Sheik
    Shirwa, Abdulkadir Mohamed
    Warsame, Amina
    Ereg, Derie Ismail
    Aden, Mohamed Hussain
    Qasim, Maryan
    Ali, Mohamed Khalid
    Elmi, Abdullahi
    Afrah, Abdullahi Warsame
    Sabtiye, Faduma Omar
    Guled, Fatuma Ege
    Ahmed, Hinda Jama
    Mohamed, Halima
    Tinay, Halima Ali
    Mohamud, Kadigia Ali
    Yusuf, Mariam Warsame
    Omar, Mayeh
    Abdi, Yakoub Aden
    Abdulkadir, Yusuf
    Johansson, Annika
    Kulane, Asli Ali
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Essen, Birgitta
    Kalengayi, Faustine Nkulu
    Elgh, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Norström, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lönnberg, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Norder, Helene
    Schröders, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Edin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sahlen, Klas-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Gustafsson, Lars L.
    Persson, Lars-Ake
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Emmelin, Maria
    Hasselberg, Marie
    Klingberg, Marie
    Preet, Raman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hogberg, Ulf
    Sjostrom, Urban
    Omar, Saif
    Healing the health system after civil unrest2015In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 8, p. 1-4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Karhina, Kateryna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Gender and social inequalities in access to structural and cognitive social capital in Ukraine: what are the determinants?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Karhina, Kateryna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    What determines gender inequalities in social capital in Ukraine?2019In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 8, article id 100383Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Social capital is a social determinant of health that has an impact on equity and well-being. It may be unequally distributed among any population. The aims of this study are to investigate the distribution of different forms of social capital between men and women in Ukraine and analyse how potential gender inequalities in social capital might be explained and understood in the Ukrainian context.

    Method

    The national representative cross-sectional data from the European Social Survey (wave 6) was used with a sample of 1377 women and 797 men. Seven outcomes that represent cognitive and structural social capital were constructed i.e. institutional trust, generalised trust, reciprocity, safety, as well as bonding, bridging and linking forms. Multivariate logistic regression and post-regression Fairlies decompositions were used for the analyses.

    Results

    There are several findings that resulted from the analyses i), access to institutional trust, linking and bridging social capital is very limited; ii), the odds for almost all forms of social capital (besides safety) are lower for men; iii), feeling about income and age explain most of the gender differences and act positively, as well as offsetting the differences.

    Conclusion

    Social capital is unequally distributed between different population groups. Some forms of social capital have a stronger buffering effect on women than on men in Ukraine. Reducing gender and income inequalities would probably influence the distribution of social capital within the society.

  • 36.
    Karhina, Kateryna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Social capital transformation, voluntarily services and mental health during times of military conflict in Ukraine2017In: Global Journal of Health Science, ISSN 1916-9736, E-ISSN 1916-9744, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 141-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The effects of war as well as military conflict include long-term physical and psychological harm to children and adults. Social relations and trust play a role in peace building and conflict resolution. Social capital is believed to facilitate institutional and interpersonal trust as well as safety and security, and thus may become an important resource in times of military conflict.

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are to analyse how social capital may be transformed due to a military conflict in contemporary Ukraine and to explore the role of voluntarily services in this change. Further we aim to discuss the possible influence of social capital transformation on mental health in times of military conflict.

    METHODS: A qualitative case study design was chosen to explore it. In-depth interviews were chosen as a method for data collection. Informant’s selection criteria were: either to be involved in volunteering activities in the city of Khmelnitsky (which is the place of research) or to receive volunteering help. 18 interviews were conducted.

    Informants were reached by snowball sampling. Interviews are collected, transcribed, translated and analyzed using constructive Grounded Theory approach of Charmaz.

    RESULTS: Our results show that social capital transforms during military conflict experiences. The changes happen both in cognitive and structural components since they are connected. The most important changes occur in bonding social capital, where new formation such as brotherhood, emerges and replaces previous bonding ties with family and friends. In addition, voluntarily acting actors (those who normally belong to bridging social capital) transform into relations with bonding entities. New forms of social capital are thus generated through the existence of voluntary services, and these networks provide essential social support in times of military conflict. Perceived support softens negative emotional responses to traumatic events. In line with the stress-buffering model, our results support that the formation of new social capital in times of military conflict may protect against the negative mental health effects of these experiences.

  • 37.
    Karhina, Kateryna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Voluntary work during times of military crisis: what motivates people to be involved and what are the effects on well-being?2017In: Psychology, ISSN 2152-7180, E-ISSN 2152-7199, Vol. 8, p. 1601-1619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The positive health effects of volunteering are quite well described in the lite- rature; however, potential negative effects of volunteering are less explored. Volunteering got attention in Ukraine because of the recent political crisis that brought military conflict to the Eastern part of the country in 2014. In- formal volunteering has transformed into a formal one. In order to be able to organize volunteering that promotes well-being, it is important to have more in-depth knowledge about motives behind volunteering as well as the positive and potential negative effects of it. We explore the case voluntary work in of one of the cities in Ukraine. Military conflict context has its own specifics and different motives make people act voluntarily. There are goal-oriented, val- ue-oriented, affectual and traditional motives present in our data. The data shows that involvement in volunteering brings positive returns on well-being of the providers such as enlarging the circles of friendship and expanding the networks volunteers involved in; brings positive emotions into life; compen- sates the efforts and gives meaning to life. However, the negative effects of volunteering are also present. They are physical tiredness and a lot of time spent on volunteering activities; becoming disconnected from the ordinary (non-volunteering) world; unsafety; neglect of own needs and experiences of negative emotions out of the involvement in volunteering activities. 

  • 38.
    Karhina, Kateryna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Gender differences in the association between cognitive social capital, self-rated health, and depressive symptoms: a comparative analysis of Sweden and Ukraine2016In: International Journal of Mental Health Systems, ISSN 1752-4458, E-ISSN 1752-4458, Vol. 10, article id 37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Social capital is one of the social determinants of health, but there is still a lack of studies comparing its significance for health in different cultural settings. This study investigates and compares the relations between individual cognitive social capital and depressive symptoms and self-rated health in Sweden and Ukraine for men and women separately.

    STUDY DESIGN: Two cross-sectional nationally representative surveys of adult populations were used for the analysis. Data from the Ukraine's World Health Survey and the Sweden's National Public Health Survey were analyzed in this comparative study.

    METHODS: The independent variable, cognitive social capital, was operationalized as institutional trust and feelings of safety. Depressive symptoms and self-rated health were used as the outcome variables. Crude and adjusted odds ratios and the 95 % confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression. The model also adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables.

    RESULTS: Institutional trust is higher in Sweden compared to Ukraine (31 % of the Swedes vs. 12 % of the Ukrainians reported high trust to their national government/parliament). There is a strong association between self-rated health and institutional trust for both sexes in Sweden (odds ratio/OR = 1.99; 95 % CI = 1.58-2.50 for women and OR = 1.82, CI = 1.48-2.24 for men who reported low institutional trust compared with those with high institutional trust) but only for women (OR = 1.88, CI = 1.12-3.15) in Ukraine. Trust thus seems to be more important for self-rated health of women and men in Sweden compared to their counterparts in Ukraine. Significant associations between depressive symptoms and institutional trust were not observed in either country after adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. A lack of feeling of safety increased the odds of having depressive symptoms among women (OR = 1.97, CI = 1.41-2.76) and men (OR = 3.91, CI = 2.19-6.97) in Sweden. The same association was observed for poor self-rated health among Swedish women (OR = 2.15, CI = 1.55-2.99) and men (OR = 2.75, CI = 1.58-4.80). In Ukraine, a lack of feeling of safety did not show any significant association with self-rated health or depressive symptoms for men, but it increased the odds of depressive symptoms among women (OR = 1.72, CI = 1.13-2.62).

    CONCLUSIONS: In general, individual cognitive social capital is higher in Sweden than in Ukraine, and there is a stronger association between cognitive social capital and self-rated health in Sweden than in Ukraine. Interventions aiming to increase cognitive social capital for health promoting purposes might be favorable in Sweden, but this is not evidently the case in Ukraine.

  • 39. Kasperiuniene, Judita
    et al.
    Zydziunaite, Vilma
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Stroking the net whale: a constructivist grounded theory of self-regulated learning in virtual social spaces2017In: Qualitative Research in Education, ISSN 2014-6418, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 276-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study explored the self-regulated learning (SRL) of teachers and their students in virtual social spaces. The processes of SRL were analyzed from 24 semi-structured individual interviews with professors, instructors and their students from five Lithuanian universities. A core category stroking the net whale showed the process of SRL skills development of university teachers and their students. This core category was constructed from three categories: building boats, angling in the multifaceted ocean, nurturing the big fish. Building boats showed social networking and identity marketing processes which are the same for both research participant groups. Angling in the multifaceted ocean implied personal capabilities and mutual trust dimensions, applicable to both teachers and students. Other dimensions of Angling in the multifaceted ocean differ: maintenance of liquid identities was observed for teachers; students stressed reinforcement of formal studies in virtual social spaces. Nurturing the big fish for both participant groups means academic communication; for university teachers, it also means professional knowledge development, and for students, virtual learning skills development. These findings contribute to understanding how the SRL of university teachers and their students progresses in virtual social spaces.

  • 40.
    Kien, Vu Duy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Minh, HV
    Giang, KB
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Viet, N
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Responsiveness of commune health stations to non-communicable disease in urban VietnamArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Kien, Vu Duy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Center for Population Health Sciences, Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam; Center for Health System Research, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Van Minh, Hoang
    Giang, Kim Bao
    Dao, Amy
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Socioeconomic inequalities in self-reported chronic non-communicable diseases in urban Hanoi, Vietnam2017In: Global Public Health, ISSN 1744-1692, E-ISSN 1744-1706, Vol. 12, no 12, p. 1522-1537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study measures and decomposes socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of self-reported chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in urban Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey of 1211 selected households was carried out in four urban districts in both slum and non-slum areas of Hanoi city in 2013. The respondents were asked if a doctor or health worker had diagnosed any household members with an NCD, such as cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory, diabetes or cancer, during last 12 months. Information from 3736 individuals, aged 15 years and over, was used for the analysis. The concentration index (CI) was used to measure inequalities in self-reported NCD prevalence, and it was also decomposed into contributing factors. The prevalence of chronic NCDs in the slum and non-slum areas was 7.9% and 11.6%, respectively. The CIs show gradients disadvantageous to both the slum (CI = -0.103) and non-slum (CI = -0.165) areas. Lower socioeconomic status and aging significantly contributed to inequalities in the self-reported NCDs, particularly for those living in the slum areas. The findings confirm the existence of substantial socioeconomic inequalities linked to NCDs in urban Vietnam. Future policies should target these vulnerable areas.

  • 42.
    Kien, Vu Duy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Oncare Medical Technology Company Limited , Hanoi, Vietnam; Center for Population Health Sciences, Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Van Minh, Hoang
    Giang, Kim Bao
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nguyen, Viet
    Tuan, Le Thanh
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Views by health professionals on the responsiveness of commune health stations regarding non-communicable diseases in urban Hanoi, Vietnam: a qualitative study2018In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 18, article id 392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Primary health care plays an important role in addressing the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in low- and middle-income countries. In light of the rapid urbanization of Vietnam, this study aims to explore health professionals' views about the responsiveness of primary health care services at commune health stations, particularly regarding the increase of NCDs in urban settings.

    METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted in Hanoi from July to August 2015. We implemented 19 in-depth interviews with health staff at four purposely selected commune health stations and conducted a brief inventory of existing NCD activities at these commune health stations. We also interviewed NCD managers at national, provincial, and district levels. The interview guides reflected six components of the WHO health system framework, including service delivery, health workforce, health information systems, access to essential medicines, financing, and leadership/governance. A thematic analysis approach was applied to analyze the interview data in this study.

    RESULTS: Six themes, related to the six building blocks of the WHO health systems framework, were identified. These themes explored the responsiveness of commune health stations to NCDs in urban Hanoi. Health staff at commune health stations were not aware of the national strategy for NCDs. Health workers noted the lack of NCD informational materials for management and planning. The limited workforce at health commune stations would benefit from more health workers in general and those with NCD-specific training and skills. In addition, the budget for NCDs at commune health stations remains very limited, with large differences in the implementation of national targeted NCD programs. Some commune health stations had no NCD services available, while others had some programming. A lack of NCD treatment drugs was also noted, with a negative impact on the provision of NCD-related services at commune health stations. These themes were also reflected in the inventory of existing NCD related activities.

    CONCLUSIONS: Health professionals view the responsiveness of commune health stations to NCDs in urban Hanoi, Vietnam as weak. Appropriate policies should be implemented to improve the primary health care services on NCDs at commune health stations in urban Hanoi, Vietnam.

  • 43.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Disentangling the directions of associations between structural social capital and mental health: Longitudinal analyses of gender, civic engagement and depressive symptoms2016In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 163, p. 135-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper analysed the directions of associations between individual-level structural social capital, in the form of civic engagement, and depressive symptoms across time from age 16-42 years in Swedish men and women. More specifically, we asked whether civic engagement was related to changes in depressive symptoms, if it was the other way around, or whether the association was bi-directional. This longitudinal study used data from a 26-year prospective cohort material of 1001 individuals in Northern Sweden (482 women and 519 men). Civic engagement was measured by a single-item question reflecting the level of engagement in clubs/organisations. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a composite index. Directions of associations were analysed by means of gender-separate cross-lagged structural equation models. Models were adjusted for parental social class, parental unemployment, parental health, and family type at baseline (age 16). Levels of both civic engagement and depressive symptoms were relatively stable across time. The model with the best fit to data showed that, in men, youth civic engagement was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in adulthood, thus supporting the hypothesis that involvement in social networks promotes health, most likely through provision of social and psychological support, perceived influence, and sense of belonging. Accordingly, interventions to promote civic engagement in young men could be a way to prevent poor mental health for men later on in life. No cross-lagged effects were found among women. We discuss this gender difference in terms of gendered experiences of civic engagement which in turn generate different meanings and consequences for men and women, such as civic engagement not being as positive for women's mental health as for that of men. We conclude that theories on structural social capital and interventions to facilitate civic engagement for health promoting purposes need to acknowledge gendered life circumstances. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 44.
    Ng, Nawi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Social capital and self-rated health in older population in lower- and upper- middle income countries in Africa and Asia2015In: Social capital as a health resource in later life: the relevance of context / [ed] Fredrica Nyqvist och Anna K. Forsman, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2015, p. 157-176Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence on how access to social capital influences health among older populations in lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is generally lacking. The existing evidence indicates that associations with health might be stronger for cognitive forms of social capital compared to structural forms. This chapter presents the comparative patterns of levels of individual social capital, and its association with self-rated health among older populations. Data from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) conducted in nationally representative samples of adults in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation and South Africa were used. This study shows that (i) older men consistently reported better health than older women across the six countries; (ii) there is considerable gender heterogeneity in access to structural and cognitive social capital within each country and across the countries; and (iii) the associations between access to social capital and self-rated health differ between men and women within the same cultural context, as well as between cultural contexts across different countries. Access to bridging social capital and personal trust shows a positive and significant effect on self-rated health in both sexes, while access to bonding social capital and general trust have positive health effects only among women, and access to safety has a positive effect on health only among men. A better understanding of both individual and social determinants in the relationship between social capital and health in different settings is warranted and would allow for better-tailored public health recommendations for achieving health improvement in different settings.

  • 45.
    Nygren, Lennart
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Edvall Malm, Disa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hamreby, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Barnavårdskarriärer: En studie av risktecken och insatser för unga vuxna som varit föremål för omfattande interventioner från socialtjänst, skola och hälso- och sjukvård2015Report (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Pujilestari, Cahya Utamie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hakimi, Mohammad
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    "It is not possible for me to have diabetes": Community Perceptions on Diabetes and Its Risk Factors in Rural Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia2014In: Global Journal of Health Science, ISSN 1916-9736, E-ISSN 1916-9744, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 35738-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accumulating evidence suggests that negative perceptions towards diabetes can limit the management and prevention of the disease. The negative perceptions towards diabetes are prevalent in many different settings, especially among rural communities. Few qualitative studies have been performed to understand how the community views diabetes and its associated risk factors. This study aimed to explore general community perceptions of diabetes and its risk factors in rural Indonesia. A total of 68 participants were recruited to 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) comprised of different age groups and sexes. The FGDs were conducted in six villages in rural Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia, from 2011 to 2012. All FGDs were recorded and transcribed. Qualitative content analysis was performed to describe and analyse how the rural community perceived diabetes and its risk factors. Diabetes was perceived as a visible and scary sugar disease, and the affected individuals themselves were blamed for getting the disease. Recognised as 'sugar' or 'sweet-pee' disease with terrifying effects, diabetes was believed to be a disease with no cure. The participants seemed to have an unrealistic optimism with regards to the diabetes risk factors. They believed that diabetes would not affect them, only others, and that having family members with diabetes was necessary for one to develop diabetes. Our findings demonstrate that rural communities have negative perceptions about diabetes and at the same time individuals have unrealistic optimism about their own risk factors. Understanding how such communities perceive diabetes and its risk factors is important for planning prevention strategies. Health messages need to be tailored to health-related behaviours and the local culture's concepts of diseases and risk factors.

  • 47.
    Saim, Nor Jana Bte
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. School of Psychology and Human Development, Univ ersiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kebangsaan, Malaysia .
    Dufåker, Mona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Listen to the Voices of Unwed Teenage Mothers in Malaysian Shelter Homes: an Explorative Study2013In: Global Journal of Health Science, ISSN 1916-9736, E-ISSN 1916-9744, ISSN 1916-9736, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 20-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative research aims to explore the daily life experiences of Malaysian unwed teenage mothers inshelter homes. The research is based on the thematic analysis of interviews with seventeen respondents agedfrom 12 to 18 years. Eight sub-themes described the experience of the unwed teenage mothers in the shelterhome and led to three overall themes: rules and regulations, relationship with the staff and relationship with theother girls at the shelter home. The findings indicated that the shelter homes involved were not fulfilling thestandard of the Malaysian national laws and United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. We stronglysuggest that the authorities provide a clear guideline concerning the implementation of Malaysian national lawsand United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  • 48. Susilo, Dwidjo
    et al.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Preet, Raman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Padmawati, Siwi
    Kandarina, Istiti
    Trisnantoro, Laksono
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Reducing health inequity in Indonesia through a comprehensive training on social determinants of health among researchers and policy makers2013In: Proceedings of the 7th Postgraduate Forum on Health Systems and Policies / [ed] Chayanin Pratoomsoot and Supasit Pannarunothai, 2013, Vol. 14 (Suppl 1), p. O2-O2Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Subramanian, S. V.
    Households, the omitted level in contextual analysis: disentangling the relative influence of households and districts on the variation of BMI about two decades in Indonesia2016In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 15, article id 102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Most of the research investigating the effect of social context on individual health outcomes has interpreted context in terms of the residential environment. In these studies, individuals are nested within their neighbourhoods or communities, disregarding the intermediate household level that lies between individuals and their residential environment. Households are an important determinant of health yet they are rarely included at the contextual level in research examining association between body mass index (BMI) and the social determinants of health. In this study, our main aim was to provide a methodological demonstration of multilevel analysis, which disentangles the simultaneous effects of households and districts as well as their associated predictors on BMI over time.

    Methods: Using both two- and three-level multilevel analysis, we utilized data from all four cross-sections of the Indonesian Family life Survey (IFLS) 1993 to 2007-8.

    Results: We found that: (i) the variation in BMI attributable to districts decreased from 4.3 % in 1993 to 1.5 % in 1997-98, and remained constant until 2007-08, while there was an alarming increase in the variation of BMI attributable to households, from 10 % in 2000 to 15 % in 2007-08; (ii) ignoring the household level did not change the relative variance contribution of districts on BMI, but ignoring the district level resulted in overestimation of household effects, and (iii) households' characteristics (socioeconomic status, size, and place of residence) did not attenuate the variation of BMI at the household-level.

    Conclusions: Estimating the relative importance of multiple social settings allows us to better understand and unpack the variation in clustered or hieratical data in order to make valid and robust inferences. Our findings will help direct investment of limited public health resources to the appropriate context in order to reduce health risk (variation in BMI) and promote population health.

  • 50.
    Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hakimi, Mohammad
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kusnanto, Hari
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    The effect of gender and social capital on the dual burden of malnutrition: a multilevel study in indonesia2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 8, p. e103849-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The paradoxical phenomenon of the coexistence of overweight and underweight individuals in the same household, referred to as the "dual burden of malnutrition", is a growing nutrition dilemma in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

    AIMS: The objectives of this study were (i) to examine the extent of the dual burden of malnutrition across different provinces in Indonesia and (ii) to determine how gender, community social capital, place of residency and other socio-economic factors affect the prevalence of the dual burden of malnutrition.

    METHODS: The current study utilized data from the fourth wave of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) conducted between November 2007 and April 2008. The dataset contains information from 12,048 households and 45,306 individuals of all ages. This study focused on households with individuals over two years old. To account for the multilevel nature of the data, a multilevel multiple logistic regression was conducted.

    RESULTS: Approximately one-fifth of all households in Indonesia exhibited the dual burden of malnutrition, which was more prevalent among male-headed households, households with a high Socio-economic status (SES), and households in urban areas. Minimal variation in the dual burden of malnutrition was explained by the community level differences (<4%). Living in households with a higher SES resulted in higher odds of the dual burden of malnutrition but not among female-headed households and communities with the highest social capital.

    CONCLUSION: To improve household health and reduce the inequality across different SES groups, this study emphasizes the inclusion of women's empowerment and community social capital into intervention programs addressing the dual burden of malnutrition.

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