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  • 1.
    Bidleman, Terry F.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Brugel, Sonia
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Ericson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Kupryianchyk, Darya
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lau, Danny C. P.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Liljelind, Per
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Anders
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Bromoanisoles and Methoxylated Bromodiphenyl Ethers in Macroalgae from Nordic Coastal Regions2019Ingår i: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, s. 881-892Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine macroalgae are used worldwide for human consumption, animal feed, cosmetics and agriculture. In addition to beneficial nutrients, macroalgae contain halogenated natural products (HNPs), some of which have toxic properties similar to those of well-known anthropogenic contaminants. Sixteen species of red, green and brown macroalgae were collected in 2017–2018 from coastal waters of the northern Baltic Sea, Sweden Atlantic and Norway Atlantic, and analyzed for bromoanisoles (BAs) and methoxylated bromodiphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs). Target compounds were quantified by gas chromatography-low resolution mass spectrometry (GC-LRMS), with qualitative confirmation in selected species by GC-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Quantified compounds were 2,4-diBA, 2,4,6-triBA, 2′-MeO-BDE68, 6-MeO-BDE47, and two tribromo-MeO-BDEs and one tetrabromo-MeO-BDE with unknown bromine substituent positions. Semiquantitative results for pentabromo-MeO-BDEs were also obtained for a few species by GC-HRMS. Three extraction methods were compared; soaking in methanol, soaking in methanol–dichloromethane, and blending with mixed solvents. Extraction yields of BAs did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) with the three methods and the two soaking methods gave equivalent yields of MeO-BDEs. Extraction efficiencies of MeO-BDEs were significantly lower using the blend method (p < 0.05). For reasons of simplicity and efficiency, the soaking methods are preferred. Concentrations varied by orders of magnitude among species: ∑2BAs 57 to 57 700 and ∑5MeO-BDEs < 10 to 476 pg g−1 wet weight (ww). Macroalgae standing out with ∑2BAs >1000 pg g−1 ww were Ascophyllum nodosumCeramium tenuicorneCeramium virgatumFucus radicansFucus serratusFucus vesiculosusSaccharina latissimaLaminaria digitata, and Acrosiphonia/Spongomorpha sp. Species A. nodosumC. tenuicorneChara virgataF. radicans and F. vesiculosus (Sweden Atlantic only) had ∑5MeO-BDEs >100 pg g−1ww. Profiles of individual compounds showed distinct differences among species and locations.

  • 2.
    Calderon, Blanca
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Univ Alicante, Dept Chem Engn, San Vicente del Raspeig Rd S-N, Alicante 03690, Spain.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Aracil, Ignacio
    Fullana, Andres
    Study of the presence of PCDDs/PCDFs on zero-valent iron nanoparticles2017Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 169, s. 361-368Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies show that nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles enhance the formation of chlorinated compounds such as polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) during thermal processes. However, it is unclear whether nZVI acts as a catalyst for the formation of these compounds or contains impurities, such as PCDD/Fs, within its structure. We analyzed the presence of PCDD/Fs in nZVI particles synthesized through various production methods to elucidate this uncertainty. None of the 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners were found in the commercially-produced nZVI, but they were present in the laboratory synthesized nZVI produced through the borohydride method, particularly in particles synthesized from iron (III) chloride rather than from iron sulfate. Total PCDD/F WHO-TEQ concentrations of up to 35 pg/g were observed in nZVI particles, with hepta-and octa-chlorinated congeners being the most abundant. The reagents used in the borohydride method were also analyzed, and our findings suggest that FeCl3 effectively contains PCDD/Fs at concentrations that could explain the concentrations observed in the nZVI product. Both FeCl3 and nZVI showed a similar PCDD/F patterns with slight differences. These results suggest that PCDD/Fs might transfer from FeCl3 to nZVI during the production method, and thus, care should be taken when employing certain nZVI for environmental remediation.

  • 3.
    Duong Phan, Ngoc Chau
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Weidemann, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jansson, Stina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Accurate sampling of PCDD/F in high temperature flue-gas using cooled sampling probes2012Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 88, nr 7, s. 832-836Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a laboratory-scale combustion reactor, flue-gas samples were collected at two temperatures in the post-combustion zone, 700 °C and 400 °C, using two different water-cooled sampling probes. The probes were the cooled probe described in the European Standard method EN-1948:1, referred to as the original probe, and a modified probe that contained a salt/ice mixture to assist the cooling, referred to as the sub-zero probe. To determine the efficiency of the cooling probes, internal temperature measurements were recorded at 5 cm intervals inside the probes. Flue-gas samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Samples collected at 700 °C using the original cooling probe showed higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs compared to samples collected using the sub-zero probe. No significant differences were observed between samples collected at 400 °C. The results indicated that artifact formation of PCDD/Fs readily occurs during flue-gas sampling at high temperatures if the cooling within the probe is insufficient, as found for the original probe at 700 °C. It was also shown that this problem could be alleviated by using probes with an enhanced cooling capacity, such as the sub-zero probe.

    Although this may not affect samples collected for regulatory purposes in exit gases, it is of great importance for research conducted in the high-temperature region of the post-combustion zone. 

  • 4. Enell, Anja
    et al.
    Fuhrman, Filippa
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Warfvinge, Per
    Thelin, Gunnar
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ash: Determination of total and leachable concentrations2008Ingår i: Environmental Pollution, Vol. 152, nr 2, s. 285-92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Before wood ash can be used as a soil fertilizer, concentrations of environmentally hazardous compounds must be investigated. In this study, total and leachable concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in four ash samples and one green liquor sludge. The ash sample with the highest carbon content also contained high levels of PAHs; three of the ash samples had total concentrations exceeding the limit permitted by the Swedish Forest Agency for recycling to forest soils. The leachable concentrations were higher for the non-stabilized samples; this was probably due to colloid-facilitated transport of the contaminants in these samples. However, the leachable concentrations were overall relatively low in all the samples studied. The amounts of PAHs introduced to forest soils by additions of stabilized, recyclable ash products will be determined primarily by the rate of weathering of the ash particles and the total concentration of contaminants.

    Total PAH content and the particle weathering rate are more important influences on the rate of migration of PAHs from recycled wood ash into forest soils than leaching.

  • 5.
    Jansson, Stina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Characterisation and fingerprinting of PCBs in flue gas and ash from waste incineration and in technical mixtures2011Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 85, nr 3, s. 509-515Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Congener patterns of mono- to deca-chlorinated biphenyls (PC(1-10)B) were evaluated in (a) waste incineration flue gases collected in the post-combustion zone of a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor, (b) ashes from two different MSW incineration plants, and (c) published data of eight Aroclor formulations. The congener patterns of the flue gases, ashes, and Aroclor mixtures clearly differed from each other, likely reflecting differences in formation pathways. The flue gas congener patterns were largely dominated by the least chlorinated congeners, whereas the ashes displayed more evenly distributed patterns. The most abundant congeners indicated a preference for 3,3',4,4'-oriented substitution, which may be related to de novo-type formation involving perylene. Principal component analysis confirmed that congener patterns differed among the three matrices and also distinguished flue gases collected at 200°C from those collected at 300°C and 450°C. This distinction could be partly explained by the degree of chlorination, although the substitution status of the ortho-position, and substitution in the 3,3',4,4'-positions also seemed to be influential. Injecting biphenyl into the post-combustion zone of the reactor did not alter the patterns, indicating that availability of the backbone structure is not a limiting factor for PCB formation.

  • 6. Josefsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Bergknut, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Futter, Martyn N.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Persistent Organic Pollutants in Streamwater: Influence of Hydrological Conditions and Landscape Type2016Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, nr 14, s. 7416-7424Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in streamwater were measured in a remote catchment in northern Sweden and downstream to the Baltic Sea. Sampling took place at seven sites during two years and under different hydrological conditions: during the snow-free, snow-covered, and spring-flood seasons. Concentrations varied substantially between seasons and were up to 20 times higher during the spring flood compared to the preceding snow-covered period. The increase in concentrations with runoff was due to higher levels of particle-associated contaminants, while the dissolved concentrations remained stable. Particulate-contaminant concentrations were positively correlated primarily to suspended particulate matter (SPM) at sites in areas with a high land-cover fraction of sorted sediment. When upstream sampling locations were compared, a mire-dominated stream had higher concentrations and a lower retention of atmospherically deposited contaminants than a forest stream of the same catchment size. Contaminant concentrations (normalized to volume) did not increase consistently downstream despite the presence of several point sources. However, when normalized to the amount of SPM, concentrations were on average >20 times higher at the outlet in the Baltic Sea compared to the outlet from the remote catchment without point sources.

  • 7.
    Liljelind, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Söderström, Gunilla
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Hedman, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Karlsson, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Method for Multiresidue Determination of Halogenated Aromatics and PAHs in Combustion-Related Samples2003Ingår i: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 37, nr 16, s. 3680-6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Flue gas and fly ash samples have a complex composition. Thus, thorough extraction and selective cleanup prior to analysis are essential. This paper presents an evaluated method for determining halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PXDD), halogenated dibenzofurans (PXDF), chlorinated biphenyls (PCB), chlorobenzenes (CBz), -phenols (CPh), dibenzo-p-dioxins (DD), dibenzofurans (DF), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a single sample. Since these combustion byproducts are ubiquitous, harmful environmental contaminants it is very important to obtain reliable assessments of them: especially specific PCDD/F and PCB congeners with Ah-receptor mediated toxicity. The reported method for this purpose includes techniques such as solid-phase extraction, Soxhlet-Dean-Stark extraction, cleanup using open liquid chromatographic columns, and finally GC/MS analysis/determination with quantification by the isotope dilution technique. The validation results presented here show good reproducibility for PXDD/F and PCB and are satisfactory for CPh, CBz, and PAH. An extraction efficiency test revealed that a nonpolar solvent did not completely extract a few analytes, i.e., diCPh and fluorene, which appear to require a more polar extraction agent. To pinpoint and minimize the loss of analytes, specific studies on reductions of their amounts during sample concentration were performed, showing that traditional rotary evaporation and nitrogen blow-down produce equally good results as a novel technique.

  • 8.
    Lundin, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Aurell, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    The behavior of PCDD and PCDF during thermal treatment of waste incineration ash2011Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 84, nr 3, s. 305-310Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) content of three fly ash samples with different elemental compositions from different municipal waste incinerators were analyzed before and after thermal treatment at 300°C or 500°C. Gas phase emissions during the treatments were also collected and analyzed. Substantial reductions in the total PCCD/F content of the ashes were observed after treatment at 500°C, seemingly due to degradation rather than dechlorination. Treatment at 300°C resulted in an increase in the PCDD/F content of the three ashes. Initial concentration of PCDD/F in the untreated ashes did not reflect the outcome of the treatment at the different temperatures. In addition, the composition of the ash was found to influence the rate of decomposition and formation of PCDD and PCDF during thermal treatment; the results showed that Cu, Fe, Ca and S play important roles in these processes.

  • 9.
    Lundin, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Gomez-Rico, Maria Francisca
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Forsberg, Christer
    Vattenfall AB Heat, Älvkarlebylaboratoriet, S-814 26 Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Nordenskjöld, Carl
    Vattenfall AB Heat, Älvkarlebylaboratoriet, S-814 26 Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Vattenfall AB Heat, Älvkarlebylaboratoriet, S-814 26 Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Reduction of PCDD, PCDF and PCB during co-combustion of biomass with waste products from pulp and paper industry2013Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 91, nr 6, s. 797-801Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of waste wood as an energy carrier has increased during the last decade. However, elevated levels of alkali metals and chlorine in waste wood compared to virgin biomass can cause increased deposit formation and higher concentrations of organic pollutants. In this study, we investigated the effect of the ChlorOut technique on concentrations of organic pollutants. Ammonium sulfate was injected into the combustion system to inhibit formation of KCl (which causes deposits) and persistent organic pollutants, namely polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs). The results showed that concentrations of the toxic congeners of PCDD, PCDF and PCB decreased in the presence of ammonium sulfate.

  • 10.
    Lundin, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Gullett, Brian
    Carroll, William F., Jr.
    Touati, Abderrahmane
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    The effect of developing nations' municipal waste composition on PCDD/PCDF emissions from open burning2013Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 79, s. 433-441Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Open burning tests of municipal waste from two countries, Mexico and China, showed composition-related differences in emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). Twenty-six burn tests were conducted, comparing results from two laboratory combustion facilities. Waste was shredded to isolate composition-specific effects from those due to random waste orientation. Emissions ranged from 5 to 780 ng toxic equivalent/kg carbon burned (ng TEQ (kg C-b)(-1)) with an average of 140 ng TEQ (kg C-b)(-1) (stdev = 170). The waste from Mexico (17 ng TEQ (kg C-b)(-1)) had a statistically lower average emission factor than waste from China (240 ng TEQ (kg C-b)(-1). This difference was attributed primarily to waste composition differences, although one time-integrated combustion quality measure, Delta CO/Delta CO2, showed statistical significance between laboratories. However, waste composition differences were far more determinant than which laboratory conducted the tests, illustrated using both statistical techniques and comparison of cross-over samples (wastes tested at both facilities). Comparison of emissions from previous waste combustion tests in Sweden and the U.S.A, showed emission factors within the range of those determined for Mexico and China waste. For laboratory-scale combustion, existing emission factors and test methodologies are generally applicable to both developed and developing countries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 11.
    Lundin, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    A desktop study on destruction of persistent organic compounds in combustion systems2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    On behalf of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Dr. Lisa Lundin and Dr. Stina Jansson at the Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, has conducted this desktop study. The main aim of this desktop study was to provide a compilation of the current state of knowledge of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE), hexabromocyclodecane (HBCD), and perfluoroctanesulphonate (PFOS) with regard to their degradation efficiency in advanced solid waste incinerators (ASWI). The objective was also to assess if more support is needed to determinethe degradation efficiency of these compounds in ASWIs.

  • 12.
    Lundin, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    The effects of fuel composition and ammonium sulfate addition on PCDD, PCDF, PCN and PCB concentrations during the combustion of biomass and paper production residuals2014Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 94, s. 20-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of waste wood as an energy carrier has increased during the last decade. However, the higher levels of alkali metals and chlorine in waste wood compared to virgin biomass can promote the formation of deposits and organic pollutants. Here, the effect of fuel composition and the inhibitory effects of ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4, on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the flue gas of a lab-scale combustor was investigated. Ammonium sulfate is often used as a corrosion-preventing additive and may also inhibit formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). In addition to PCDDs and PCDFs, polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCN) and biphenyls (PCB) were also analyzed. It was found that the flue gas composition changed dramatically when (NH4)2SO4 was added: CO, SO2, and NH3 levels increased, while those of HCl decreased to almost zero. However, the additive's effects on POP formation were less pronounced. When (NH4)2SO4 was added to give an S:Cl ratio of 3, only the PCDF concentration was reduced, indicating that this ratio was not sufficient to achieve a general reduction in POP emissions. Conversely, at an S:Cl ratio of 6, significant reductions in the WHO-TEQ value and the PCDD and PCDF contents of the flue gas were observed. The effect on the PCDF concentration was especially pronounced. PCN formation seemed to be promoted by the elevated CO concentrations caused by adding (NH4)2SO4.

  • 13.
    Lundin, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Distribution of mono- to octa-chlorinated PCDD/F in fly ashes from a municipal solid waste incinerator2004Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 1245-1250Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have estimated the concentration and distribution of the mono to octa-chlorinated congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) in fly ashes at various sampling points in a large-scale municipal solid waste incinerator at Umeå, Sweden, as they cooled from 700 to 170 °C. Differences between the ashes were observed, the PCDD homologue profile was found to vary with temperature. The total amount of PCDD and PCDF increased as the temperature decreased in the postcombustion zone. The increase was due to both adsorption to the fly ash and formation of PCDD and PCDF. Mono- to trichlorinated PCDD predominated at high temperatures, whereas hepta- and octachlorinated PCDD predominated at temperatures below 400 °C. PCDF predominated over PCDD in the whole temperature range. However, the changes in homologue profile for PCDF were minor. The isomer distribution within the homologue groups was not changed as the temperature decreased in the postcombustion zone.

  • 14.
    Lundin, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Distribution of mono to octa-chlorinated PCDD/Fs in fly ash from a municipal solid-waste incinerator.2008Ingår i: Environmental Science & Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 1245-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have estimated the concentration and distribution of the mono to octa-chlorinated congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) in fly ashes at various sampling points in a large-scale municipal solid waste incinerator at Umeå, Sweden, as they cooled from 700 to 170 degrees C. Differences between the ashes were observed, the PCDD homologue profile was found to vary with temperature. The total amount of PCDD and PCDF increased as the temperature decreased in the postcombustion zone. The increase was due to both adsorption to the fly ash and formation of PCDD and PCDF. Mono-to trichlorinated PCDD predominated at high temperatures, whereas hepta- and octachlorinated PCDD predominated at temperatures below 400 degrees C. PCDF predominated over PCDD in the whole temperature range. However,the changes in homologue profile for PCDFwere minor. The isomer distribution within the homologue groups was not changed asthetemperature decreased in the postcombustion zone.

  • 15.
    Lundin, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Thermal Degradation of PCDD/F in MSW FLY ASH2006Ingår i: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 68, s. 147-150Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Lundin, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Thermal degradation of PCDD/F, PCB and HCB in municipal solid waste ash.2007Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 67, nr 3, s. 474-481Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A thermal degradation procedure for reducing the concentrations of mono- to octa-chlorinated PCDD/Fs, PCBs and hexa-chlorobenzenes (HCB) in filter ash from incinerated municipal solid waste (MSW) is described. Thermal treatment of filter ash samples at 500 °C for 60 min in a closed system providing low oxygen conditions resulted in 97% and 99% reductions in the total and I-TEQ concentrations of PCDD/Fs, to 6.8 μg kg−1 ash and <0.05 μg I-TEQ kg−1 ash, respectively. Increasing the thermal treatment time to 480 min, at the same temperature, yielded 99% reductions in both total and I-TEQ concentrations of the mono- to octa-chlorinated PCDD/Fs. Similar effects were observed for HCB and PCBs. The data from this study indicate that PCDD/Fs and other toxic organic compounds in ash from incinerated MSW, can be effectively degraded by this procedure, which combines relatively low-temperatures, short treatment times, and low oxygen conditions.

  • 17.
    Lundin, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Moltó, Julia
    Fullana, Andres
    Low temperature thermal degradation of PCDD/Fs in soil using nanosized particles of zerovalent iron and CaO2013Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 91, nr 6, s. 740-744Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in contaminated soil using low temperature treatment (200-280°C) both alone and in combination with nanosized zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles or CaO. Control soil samples and soil fortified with nZVI particles or CaO were treated at 200 and 250°C in sealed glass ampoules. Treatment of the ampouled samples at 250°C was more effective than treatment at 200°C and the reduction in PCDD/F concentration was greatest when soil was treated at 250°C with nZVI addition (indeed, treatment at 200°C in the absence of nZVI resulted in increases in total PCDD and PCDD/F concentrations). In larger-scale experiments based on the obtained results, using a rotary furnace, the greatest reduction in total PCDD/F concentration was achieved by treating soil at 280°C, and adding nZVI to the soil resulted in almost no detectable PCDD/F in the gas phase.

     

  • 18.
    Ortuno, Nuria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Emissions of PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and PBDEs from flame-retarded high-impact polystyrene under thermal stress2015Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 123, s. 64-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The emissions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and their chlorinated analogues (PCDD/Fs) during the thermal treatment of a high impact polystyrene (HIPS) TV casing were investigated. The halogenated compounds were analyzed in the original material and in the gases emitted during its treatment at temperatures between 50 degrees C and 250 degrees C. DecaBDE was the primary PBDE in the TV casing, which also contained high levels of PBDFs (ppm range). At the lower treatment temperatures, non-modified PBDEs evaporated from the samples. Conversely, at 200 degrees C or above, debromination reactions led to the formation of additional tri- through nonaBDE. The formation of new PBDD/Fs was also detected in the gas phase when the plastic was heated to 200 degrees C or 250 degrees C, with higher yields of furans than dioxins. This appreciably increased the toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels of the gas phase relative to those seen in the untreated sample. In all cases, the levels and TEQ contributions from PCDD/Fs were negligible compared to those for brominated analogues. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Spinnel, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Nording, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Comparison of cell based bioassay and GC/MS dioxin analysis in fly ash2005Ingår i: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 67, s. 359-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Weidemann, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Bidleman, Terry
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Carlin, Danielle J.
    Collina, Elena
    Cormier, Stephania A.
    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Gullett, Brian K.
    Johansson, Christer
    Lucas, Donald
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Nording, Malin L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Ortuno, Nuria
    Sallam, Asmaa A.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources2016Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, nr 8, s. 8141-8159Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in UmeAyen, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the "Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources". The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants.

  • 21.
    Weidemann, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Industrial Doctoral School, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Boily, Jean-Francois
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Thermal decomposition of municipal solid waste fly ash and desorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans from fly ash surfaces2016Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, nr 22, s. 22843-22851Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Surfaces of fly ashes from three Swedish MSW incinerating plants were extensively characterized to better predict their involvement in the generation of persistent organic pollutants. The ashes were then subjected to thermal treatment at 400 °C in sealed glass ampoules to track the decomposition polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD and PCDF). Temperature programmed desorption experiments in the 30–900 °C range also enabled monitoring of thermally decomposing ashes by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as well as thermally desorbing effluent gases by mass spectrometry. In addition, one ash was doped with 13C-labelled PCDD and PCDF to evaluate the potential of the experimental setup for elucidating the thermal desorption of the organic molecules. It was found that in ashes with high carbon content PCDD and PCDF decomposition were led pronounced, and that PCDD degraded more readily than PCDF.

  • 22.
    Weidemann, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Boily, Jean-Francois
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Thermal desorption and degradation of municipal solid waste incineration fly ashManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23.
    Weidemann, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Bristav, Henrik
    Umeå Energi AB, Box 224, SE-901 05 Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    In-filter PCDF and PCDD formation at low temperature during MSWI combustion2014Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 102, s. 12-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study investigated PCDF and PCDD emissions from a 65 MW waste-to-energy plant to identify why an air pollution control system remodeling to accommodate increased production resulted in increased TEQ concentrations. Pre- and post-filter gases were collected simultaneously in four sample sets with varying filter temperatures and with/without activated carbon injection. Samples were analyzed to determine total PCDF and PCDD concentrations, as well as homologue profiles, and concentrations of individual congeners (some remained co-eluted). The total post filter PCDD concentrations where found to increase while the concentrations of PCDF and 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners declined. An investigation of the individual congener concentrations revealed that the increase of PCDD concentrations were due to a few congeners, suggesting a single formation route. The study also concludes that vital information about the formation could be obtained by not restricting the analysis to just the 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. 

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