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  • 1.
    Berg, Linda
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    National identity and political trust2010In: Perspectives on European Politics and Society, ISSN 1570-5854, E-ISSN 1568-0258, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 390-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article set out to test the almost taken for granted assumption that a minimum form of cohesion amongst the members of society is needed in order for political institutions to exist over time. The problem is that it is rare to find any specifications of the content of the national cohesion to be effective. The debate goes from thin to thick forms of cohesion. We aim to test this idea by examining how two forms of collective national identity (ethnic and civic) affect individual political trust in 18 European countries. We conclude that a strong civic national identity has a positive impact on political trust whereas a strong ethnic national identity has a negative impact on political trust. Individual data comes from the European Social Survey 2004 (ESSII).

  • 2. Berg, Linda
    et al.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Who should decide?: A comparative analysis of multilevel governance in Europe2008In: Nordic Social Attitudes in a European Perspective, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, Cheltenham , 2008, p. 86-109Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3. Bevelander, Pieter
    et al.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The religious affiliation and anti-Semitism of secondary school-age Swedish youths: an analysis of survey data from 2003 and 20092015In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 38, no 15, p. 2705-2721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Not only Swedish studies, but also several international studies, claim an increase in anti-Semitic attitudes in recent decades. As prejudice is acquired in the early years of socialization, and/or is innate and fairly stable over the life cycle, examining adolescents’ attitudes is vitally important. Hence, by controlling for individual demographic and socio-economic background factors, we study two interrelated questions: Has anti-Semitism among Swedish secondary school-age youths changed between 2003 and 2009? Are changes equal across groups, with a specific focus on religious groups? Using two unique cross-section surveys of secondary school-age students in Sweden for the years 2003 and 2009, we try to address the above questions. Our analysis shows, in contrast to the views of the general public and other related studies, that anti-Semitism has decreased slightly during the examined period. Moreover, the study finds a variation in anti-Semitism by religious affiliation: it has increased among Muslim youth, but remains stable in other groups.

  • 4.
    Bohman, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Eger, Maureen A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    En attitydfråga2013In: Axess, ISSN 1651-0941, no 5, p. 46-49Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Bohman, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Eger, Maureen A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Europa tycker olika2013In: Axess, ISSN 1651-0941, no 5, p. 50-53Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Bohman, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    How the religious context affects the relationship between religiosity and attitudes towards immigration2014In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 937-957Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article approaches two shortcomings in previous research on religiosity and prejudice: (1) the lack of cross-country comparative studies; and (2) a failure to consider any moderating effects of religious contexts. We examine whether the relationship between religiosity and anti-immigration attitudes varies depending on religious contexts in Europe, and we find two things. First, strongly religious people are on average less likely to oppose immigration than non-religious people. Second, different religious contexts moderate the religiosity–attitude relationship in that religious people in Protestant countries and in countries with a low proportion of majority adherents are more tolerant than religious people in Catholic countries and in religiously homogenous countries. State policies also matter in that religious people are more negative where the government favours the majority religion. This calls into question the taken-for-granted understanding of religiosity and out-group attitudes found in the USA.

  • 7.
    Bohman, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    In the wake of extreme right electoral success: A cross-country comparative study of anti-immigration attitudes over timeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article tests a theoretically assumed relationship between the parliamentary presence of extreme right parties (ERP) and anti-immigration attitudes over time. Data come from six rounds of the European Social Survey between 2002 and 2012 and cover the 16 European countries that participated in all rounds during this time. Using multi-level models with applications for repeated cross-sectional data, the study examines the implications of changes tied to the political advancements of the extreme right with a focus on three possible scenarios: people’s attitudes about immigration have generally become more negative, opposition towards immigration has become more dependent on immigrants’ ethnicity, and attitudes towards immigration have become more polarized. Contrary to expectations, it is found that neither the presence, the representational strength, nor the nationalistic framing of an ERP affect opposition towards immigration over time. Thus, the conclusion is that the ERPs, so far, have not driven anti-immigration attitudes in Europe. Possible explanations for these results are discussed in the concluding section.

  • 8.
    Bohman, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    In the wake of radical right electoral success: a cross-country comparative study of anti-immigration attitudes over time2016In: Journal of ethnic and migration studies, ISSN 1369-183X, E-ISSN 1469-9451, Vol. 11, no 42, p. 1729-1747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper tests the theoretically assumed relationship between the parliamentary presence of radical right parties (RRPs) and anti-immigration attitudes over time. Data come from six rounds of the European Social Survey between 2002 and 2012. Using multi-level models with applications for repeated cross-sectional data, the study examines the implications of changes tied to the political advancements of the radical right with a focus on three possible scenarios: people's attitudes about immigration have generally become more negative, opposition towards immigration has become more dependent on immigrants' ethnicity, and attitudes towards immigration have become more polarised. Contrary to expectations, it is found that neither the presence, the representational strength, nor the nationalistic framing of an RRP affect opposition towards immigration over time. Thus, the conclusion is that the RRPs, so far, have not driven anti-immigration attitudes in Europe. Possible explanations for these results are discussed in the concluding section.

  • 9.
    Bohman, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Radikala högerpartier och attityder till invandring: Europa under 2000-talet2014Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Bohman, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Trots extrempartier ökar inte främlingsfientligheten2014In: DN-debattArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Bohman, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Eger, Maureen A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Politics and prejudice: How political discussion with peers is related to attitudes about immigrants during adolescence2019In: Frontiers in Sociology, E-ISSN 2297-7775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on prejudice has shown that with whom we surround ourselves matters for intergroup attitudes, but these studies have paid little attention to the content of those interactions. Studies on political socialization and deliberation have focused on the content of interaction by examining the transmission of norms as well as the direct consequences of political discussion on attitudes and behavior. However, this literature has not focused on prejudice as a potential consequence. In this study, we combine these approaches to examine if political discussions with peers during adolescence matter for prejudice. We rely on five waves of a Swedish panel of adolescents, ages 13-22. Results show an association between political discussion and prejudice over time, and that this relationship increases as adolescents grow older. Results also demonstrate that the effect of political discussions depends on the level of prejudice in one’s peer network. Discussion with low prejudice friends is associated with lower levels of prejudice over time, while political discussion with high prejudice peers is not significantly related to attitudes.

  • 12.
    Danell, Rickard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Career prospects for female university researchers: Event history analysis of career trajectories at Swedish universities2012In: Proceeding of STI 2012 Montreal: 17th international conference on science and technology indicators / [ed] Eric Archambault, Yves Gingras, Vincent Lariviere, 2012, p. 228-235Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Danell, Rickard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Career prospects for female university researchers have not improved2013In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 94, no 3, p. 999-1006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are fewer female than male professors in the world (21–79 distribution in the country of examination). The unequal distribution of male and female professors has usually been taken to indicate that men and women have not had equal opportunities to achieve professorship. At the same time, the increase in the proportion of female professors has been taken as evidence that academia is becoming more gender equal. It is possible that both of these assumptions are flawed, and that the gender distribution among professors is the result of demographic inertia, i.e., affected by the previous distribution of men and women within the system, and how fast the distribution has changed.This study examines whether the chances, for men and women, of becoming a full professor changes over time, and whether gender differences may possibly depend on early career events. It concludes that women are significantly less likely than men to become professors and that this situation is not improving over time. In spite of policies that have tried to increase the proportion of female professors, the chances of a woman becoming a professor do not change over time. We also show that these gender differences in promotion rate can be attributed to early career events.

  • 14.
    Danell, Rickard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kvinnor diskrimineras på lärosätena2013In: Curie : en tidning från VetenskapsrådetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Danell, Rickard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The importance of early academic career opportunities and gender differences in promotion rates2013In: Research Evaluation, ISSN 0958-2029, E-ISSN 1471-5449, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 210-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on previous studies it has been found that women have a smaller chance than men of attaining professorships. It has also been found that gender differences in career development have been observed in many different countries. This study aims to contribute to these discussions by analyzing the extent to which gender differences in career development can be explained by early career opportunities, specifically the prestigious postdoctoral fellowship which is particular to the Swedish university system. This study concluded that women and men have the same probability to achieve a postdoctoral fellowship and that among men and women who have achieved this we observed that they had equal chances of becoming professors. However, it was also shown that women are substantially worse off than men for the study group of those who have not achieved a postdoctoral fellowship. This indicates that a meritocratic system does not seem do discriminate against women whereas as vacancy system seems to do so.

  • 16.
    Eger, Maureen A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The Sweden Democrats remain deeply unpopular despite making gains2019In: Tracking the rise of the radical right globally: CARR Yearbook 2018/2019 / [ed] William Allchorn, Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag, 2019, p. 135-138Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Eger, Maureen A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Two sides of the same coin?: The rise of neo-nationalism and civic integrationism in multi-ethnic Europe2018In: The effects of race / [ed] Nina G. Jablonski, Gerhard Maré, Stellenbosch: AFRICAN SUN MeDIA, 2018, p. 151-167Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18. Ervasti, Heikki
    et al.
    Fridberg, Torben
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Attitudes towards immigrants2008In: Nordic Social Attitudes in a European Perspective, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, Cheltenham , 2008, p. 188-206Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19. Ervasti, Heikki
    et al.
    Fridberg, Torben
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Kangas, Olli
    Ringdal, Kristen
    The Nordic Model2008In: Nordic Social Attitudes in a European Perspective, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, Cheltenham , 2008, p. 1-21Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20. Ervasti, Heikki
    et al.
    Fridberg, Torben
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Ringdal, Kristen
    Conclusions: Nordic uniqueness, reality or myth?2008In: Nordic Social Attitudes in a European Perspective, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, Cheltenham , 2008, p. 249-261Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21. Ervasti, Heikki
    et al.
    Fridberg, TorbenHjerm, MikaelUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Sociology.Ringdal, Kristen
    Nordic Social Attitudes in a European Perspective2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 22. Ervasti, Heikki
    et al.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Immigration, trust and support for the welfare state2012In: The future of the welfare state / [ed] Heikki Ervasti, Jørgen Goul Andersen, Torben Fridberg, Kristen Ringdal, Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, p. 153-171Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Goossen, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Does Gender Equality Cause Gender Differences in Values?: Reassessing the Gender-Equality-Personality Paradox2019In: Sex Roles, ISSN 0360-0025, E-ISSN 1573-2762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Gender-Equality-Personality Paradox (GEPP) is the finding that gender differences in personality are at their largest in the most gender equal countries. Previous known studies have not examined this relationship over time. Examining this linkage is crucial to our understanding of gender differences and personality development. In the present study, we contrast evolutionary perspectives predicting a gender divergence in personality due to progression in gender equality against biosocial perspectives predicting convergence. Using data from all eight rounds of the European Social Survey (n = 235,339) across 32 European countries, we report three findings. First, in accordance with the evolutionary perspective, country-level gender equality is positively associated with gender differences in basic human values. Second, in accordance with the biosocial perspective, we find evidence supporting gender convergence in basic human values. Third, contradicting both evolutionary and biosocial assumptions, we find no evidence that gender equality causes gender differences in values. We argue that there is a need to explore alternative explanations to the observed cross-sectional association between gender equality and personality differences, as well as gender convergence in personality over time.

  • 24. Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    Gamble, Amelie
    Fors, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Emotional Well-Being Related to Time Pressure, Impediment to Goal Progress, and Stress-Related Symptoms2016In: Journal of Happiness Studies, ISSN 1389-4978, E-ISSN 1573-7780, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 1789-1799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose that emotional well-being in everyday life is partially related to the balance of positive and negative affect associated with everyday routine activities. Factors that interfere with positive affect associated with such activities would therefore have negative impacts on emotional well-being. Supporting that time pressure is one such factor, we find in Study 1 for a representative sample of Swedish employees (n = 1507) answering a survey questionnaire that emotional well-being has a negative relationship to time pressure. In Study 2 we test the hypothesis that the negative effect of time pressure on emotional well-being is jointly mediated by impediment to goal progress and time stress. In another survey questionnaire a sample of Swedish employees (n = 240) answered retrospective questions about emotional well-being at work and off work, experienced impediment to goal progress, experienced time pressure, and stress-related symptoms. Statistical mediation analyses supported the proposed hypothesis.

  • 25.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Anti-Immigrant Attitudes and Cross-Municipal Variation in the Proportion of Immigrants2009In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 47-62Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Are We the People? National Sentiments in a Changing Political Landscape2007In: The Political Sociology of the Welfare State: Institutions, Social Cleavages, and Orientations, Stanford University Press, Stanford , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Defending Liberal Nationalism - At what Cost?2004In: Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 41-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article sets out to theoretically and empirically examine the liberal nationalist argument of promotion of cultural nationalism as a means of securing individual autonomy. The claim that a specific national identity needs to be promoted in the name of cultural nationalism in order to facilitate free and autonomous individuals is analysed. The article uses data from 21 of the countries participating in the International Social Survey Programme and examines whether cultural nationalism can be promoted without us having to pay a price for such promotion. It concludes that cultural nationalism only can be promoted as long as we are willing to pay the price of derogatory values aimed at individuals not considered as belonging to the nation. Thus, the liberal nationalist argument is put into question.

  • 28.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Do Numbers Really Count? Group Threat Theory Revisited2007In: Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, ISSN 1469-9451, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 1253-1275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A specific case of group threat theory states that the size of a given minority has a direct bearing on anti-immigrant attitudes amongst the majority, a hypothesis that has been shown to have some merit, especially in the USA. This article embarks on group threat theory by focusing on the actual as well as the perceived size of a minority under different political circumstances. Data are drawn from the European Social Survey. After using multilevel analysis for 20 European countries, the paper concludes that neither actual nor perceived size matter for anti-immigrant attitudes in Europe. Nor does size have any effect under different economic or political contexts. This challenges both the theoretical foundation of this specific case of group threat as well as the European political discourse that claims that immigration needs to be reduced in order to lessen tension and, in the long run, preserve a stable democracy.

  • 29.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    En Svensk arbetsmarknad: Deltagande och exkludering av invandrare på arbetsmarknaden i Sverige2009In: Arbetslivet / [ed] Tomas Berglund, Stefan Schedin, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, 2, p. 421-446Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    En välfärdsstat för alla? - Invandrares ställning på och utanför arbetsmarknaden2004In: Arbetsliv och Hälsa 2004, Arbetslivsinstitutet , 2004, p. 237-256Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Etnicitetsforskningens vägar2007In: Etnicitet - Perspektiv på samhället, Gleerups , 2007, p. 240-251Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Främlingsfientlighet2007In: Etnicitet - Perspektiv på samhället, Gleerups , 2007, p. 220-239Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Immigrant Entrepreneurship in the Swedish Welfare State2004In: Sociology, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 739-756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article puts into question the taken-for-granted view that immigrant entrepreneurship is a fast track towards integration in civil society. It does so by examining income and disposable income for immigrant entrepreneurs in Sweden in relation to immigrants that are not entrepreneurs. Data is drawn from the LOUISE database, which is a longitudinal register database covering all individuals above 16 years of age living in Sweden and includes income variables, age, sex, education, employment status and so on. It is shown that immigrant entrepreneurs have substantially lower incomes than employed immigrants and only marginally higher levels of disposable incomes compared to the unemployed when other background variables are held constant. The relationship between the two groups did not change between 1992 and 1998 suggesting that, contrary to what was expected, differences in the state of the economy are not decisive in explaining income differences between the different groups of immigrants. It is suggested that entrepreneurship for immigrants may or may not be positive for the individual, but it is clear that it is not a successful way to fight economic marginalization and segregation. It puts into question the effectiveness of the whole social democratic welfare state when it comes to integrating immigrants into society.

  • 34.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    Integration into the social democratic welfare state2005In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 70, no 2, p. 117-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the assumption that the social democratic welfare state is better than others in integrating immigrants into society, or at least that the comprehensive welfare state should compensate for the problems of labour market entry. A number of key indicators from The Living Conditions Survey are used to show that this assumption is inherently wrong. Immigrants do not have the same possibilities to enter the labour market, which is shown to have severe affects on other important areas of social and political citizenship. It stands clear that the social democratic welfare state, built and expanded on grounds of homogeneity, is insufficient to deal with changing circumstances in a plural society.

  • 35.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    My people right or wrong?: a comparative analysis of national sentiments and their meaning2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world of presumed nation-states, nation has been, and still is, an intrinsic part of political legitimization and identity formation. Thus, it is clear that the understanding of nationality and people's relationship too it is of great importance for our understanding of how a stable society, partly built on nationality, can prevail in a world of migration consisting of individuals with diverging moral, religious and cultural conceptions. This thesis examines national sentiments in a cross-country comparative perspective. It consists of an introductory chapter and five articles.

    The first objective is to study the relationship between policy regimes and supposedly related national sentiments. The question is whether there are differences in national sentiments that can be derived from differences in policy regimes or whether there are more universal features to be found. In examining this we have the possibility to further understand what factors that help to create and sustain national sentiments. The second objective is to study the relation between different national sentiments and other complex attitudes such as xenophobia and protectionism. This includes the study of national identities as well as of nationalism.

    The following conclusions are drawn. First, it appears that we need to reconsider the almost taken for granted assumption of a correspondence between regime types prevalent in a certain society and people's sentiments towards such a society. Second, there exist substantial cross­country similarities in the effect that different national sentiments have. It is shown that people who have more civic forms of national sentiments are clearly less inclined to hold derogatory preconceptions about people perceived as not belonging to the group, compared the ideas held by those who have more ethnic national sentiments. Moreover, the findings also supply empirical evidence supporting the notion that a clear-cut positive nationalism can never exist.

    All in all, it is shown that multicultural ideas are something worth striving for on an individual level. Moreover, the results seem to indicate that a liberal form of multiculturalism is preferable to a more communitarian version, which is explored and supported in the normative exposé of the two forms of multiculturalism.

  • 36.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Möjligheter att mäta2014In: Tid för tolerans: en studie om vad skolelever i Sverige tycker om varandra och om samhället / [ed] huvudsaklig författare och administrativ redaktör: Jacob Severin, Stockholm: Forum för levande historia , 2014, no 1, p. 5p. 16-20Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Tolerans – viktiga faktorer att belysa2014In: Tid för tolearans: En studie om vad skolelever i Sverige tycker om varandra och samhället i stort / [ed] Jacob Severin, Stockholm: Forum för levande historia , 2014, no 1, p. 6p. 23-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport mäter inte tolerans i dess mest teoretiska form. Det vi mäter handlar snarare om tolerans i betydelsen avsaknad av negativa attityder till olika grupper, exempelvis invandrare och homosexuella (se även avsnitt 1.3). Negativa attityder är det vi i den här rapporten kallar för intolerans.

  • 38.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Sociology.
    What the future may bring - Xenophobia among Swedish adolescents2005In: ACTA SOCIOLOGICA, ISSN 0001-6993, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 292-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The educational system is assumed to facilitate our full participation in society by laying the foundation for participatory rights and possibilities and at the same time strengthening civil society by fostering its individuals into democratic citizens. The question is what the future may bring if continuous economic cutbacks in the educational system lead to diminishing resources for the teaching of values of liberal democracy and multiculturalism. I try to answer this question by focusing on how xenophobia among Swedish teenage school adolescents is related to other values in the democratic system. The empirical data are drawn from a national sample comprising more than 6000 adolescents between 14 and 15 years of age. I conclude that willingness to participate actively in the democratic process through both political participation and other legal action relates negatively to xenophobia, whereas willingness to undertake acts of civil disobedience and mistrust in the political institutions relate positively to xenophobia. These findings raise the question of what the educational system should focus on in trying to combat racism and xenophobia and of what will happen in the future in times of diminishing resources.

  • 39.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bohman, Andrea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Främlingsfientlighet - hundra år av forskning2012In: Framtider, ISSN 0281-0492, no 2, p. 9-12Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bohman, Andrea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Is it getting worse?: Anti-immigrant attitudes in Europe during the 21th century2014In: European Populism and winning the immigration debate / [ed] Clara Sandelind, Fores , 2014, p. 41-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bohman, Andrea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Välkommen hit?: attityder till invandring i Europa under 2000-talet2016In: Utblick: Sverige i en internationell jämförelse / [ed] Filip Fors och Jenny Olofsson, Umeå: Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2016, p. 11-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Eger, Maureen A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bohman, Andrea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A New Approach to the Study of Tolerance: Conceptualizing and Measuring Acceptance, Respect, and Appreciation of Difference2019In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous empirical research on tolerance suffers from a number of shortcomings, the most serious being the conceptual and operational conflation of (in)tolerance and prejudice. We design research to remedy this. First, we contribute to the literature by advancing research that distinguishes analytically between the two phenomena. We conceptualize tolerance as a value orientation towards difference. This definition—which is abstract and does not capture attitudes towards specific out-groups, ideas, or behaviors—allows for the analysis of tolerance within and between societies. Second, we improve the measurement of tolerance by developing survey items that are consistent with this conceptualization. We administer two surveys, one national (Sweden) and one cross-national (Australia, Denmark, Great Britain, Sweden, and the United States). Results from structural equation models show that tolerance is best understood as a three-dimensional concept, which includes acceptance of, respect for, and appreciation of difference. Analyses show that measures of tolerance have metric invariance across countries, and additional tests demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity. We also assess tolerance’s relationship to prejudice and find that only an appreciation of difference has the potential to reduce prejudice. We conclude that it is not only possible to measure tolerance in a way that is distinct from prejudice but also necessary if we are to understand the causes and consequences of tolerance.

  • 43.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Eger, Maureen A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Danell, Rickard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Peer Attitudes and the Development of Prejudice in Adolescence2018In: Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World, ISSN 2378-0231, Vol. 4, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to a number of psychological and sociological theories, individuals are susceptible to social influence from their immediate social environment, especially during adolescence. An important social context is the network of one’s peers. However, data limitations, specifically a lack of longitudinal data with information about respondents’ social networks, have limited previous analyses of the relationship between peers and prejudice over time. In this article, we rely on a five-wave panel of adolescents, aged either 13 or 16 in wave 1 (N = 1,009). We examine the effects of this social context on prejudice by focusing on nominated friends’ attitudes, attitudes of prestigious peers, and respondents’ own positions in their networks. Results indicate that the level of prejudice among peers affects individual prejudice over time. Results also show that both prestigious and nonprestigious peers affect prejudice. Finally, adolescents’ own positions in their networks matter: Network centrality is inversely related to prejudice.

  • 44.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hox, Jop
    An evaluation of macro indicators in ESS2009Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Werner, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    How critical thinking, multicultural education and teacher qualification affect anti-immigrant attitudes2018In: International Studies in Sociology of Education, ISSN 0962-0214, E-ISSN 1747-5066, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 42-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies identify a relationship between education and anti-immigrant attitudes. There is, however, uncertainty regarding the underlying explanations linking education to attitudes. In this article, we examine whether a relationship exists between exposure to teaching about critical thinking as well as multiculturalism (measured as religions/cultures as well as xenophobia/racism), and anti-immigrant attitudes among adolescents. In addition, we examine whether teacher qualification matters for attitudes. The analysis is based on survey data collected from high school students in Sweden. The results show an association between exposure to teaching about critical thinking as well as multiculturalism (both indicators) and anti-immigrant attitudes among students, i.e. higher exposure is related to lower levels of anti-immigrant attitudes. However, we find that teaching about xenophobia/racism affects attitudes, but not when simultaneously controlling for teaching about critical thinking and religions/cultures. In terms of teacher qualification, we find that students in schools with a high proportion of certified teachers tend to have lower levels of anti-immigrant attitudes.

  • 46.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lindgren, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Introduksjon til samfunnsvitenskapelig analyse2011Book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lindgren, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Introduktion till samhällsvetenskaplig analys2010 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lindgren, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Göteborgs universitet, Box 100, 405 30 Göteborg.
    Introduktion till samhällsvetenskaplig analys2014 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Nagayoshi, Kikuko
    Tohoku University, Japan .
    Anti-immigration attitudes in different welfare states: do types of labor market policies matter?2015In: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, ISSN 0020-7152, E-ISSN 1745-2554, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 141-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research sheds light onto the effects of welfare policies on anti-immigration attitudes by focusing on qualitative differences in these policies over time. Previous studies provide little evidence that welfare policies affect levels of anti-immigration attitudes because they view the welfare state in an overly abstract manner in relation to attitudes toward immigration. From this viewpoint, this research focuses on differences in a specific aspect of welfare policies, i.e. labor market policies, according to level and type of activation. By analyzing cross-national data over time, we determine that labor market policies in the form of activation policies indeed affect attitudes toward immigration. We also show that the effects vary across different types of labor market policies and depend on individual levels of socioeconomic vulnerability. Thus, this article provides a first step to rethinking how we conceptualize the welfare state in relation to anti-immigrant attitudes.

  • 50.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Nagayoshi, Kikuko
    The composition of the minority population as a threat: Can real economic and cultural threats explain xenophobia?2011In: International Sociology, ISSN 0268-5809, E-ISSN 1461-7242, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 815-843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article sets out to develop a classical theme of empirical research within group threat theory, namely the argument that the size of the minority population threatens the majority population. To be able to clarify the mixed empirical results within this version of group threat theory, the article focuses on the composition of the immigrant population. The article tests both objective sources of cultural threats (linguistic composition and the Muslim population) and economic threats (the proportion of working-class individuals and the unemployed among the immigrant population). The study concludes that, first, the composition of the immigrant population is of utter importance for the size argument to be valid for cultural threats (proportion of Muslim population), whereas for economic threats it does not matter. Second, compositional economic threats matter strongly to the group that genuinely competes for scarce resources - the working class is more xenophobic when the immigrant working class is large. Third, the study brings some clarity with regard to the cultural composition of the immigrant population: it is shown that the relationship between Muslims and European majority populations mirrors the relationship between whites and African-Americans in the US.

12 1 - 50 of 66
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