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  • 1. Frykberg, G.
    et al.
    Johansson, Gudrun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Selling, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    The “Arm Posture Score” for assessment of arm swing during gait: Evaluation of additional rotational components and different gait speeds2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Frykberg, Gunilla E.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Johansson, Gudrun M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Schelin, Lina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Häger, Charlotte K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    The Arm Posture Score for assessing arm swing during gait: An evaluation of adding rotational components and the effect of different gait speeds2014In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 64-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 3D gait analysis, quantification of leg movements is well established, whereas ameasure of armswing has been lacking. Recently, the Arm Posture Score (APS) was introduced to characterize arm movements in children with cerebral palsy, including information from four variables (APS(4)) in the sagittal and frontal planes. A potential limitation of the APS is that it does not include rotational movements and has not yet been evaluated with regard to gait speed. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate the effect on APS of adding two components of arm rotation (APS(6)) and (ii) to determine the influence of gait speed on the APS measures, when applied to non-disabled adults. Forty-two subjects walked 10 m at a selfselected speed (1.34 m/s), and in addition a subgroup of 28 subjects walked at a slowspeed (0.66 m/s) set by a metronome. Data were collected from markers in a whole-body set up and by eight optoelectronic cameras. The results demonstrated significantly higher APS(6) than APS(4) values for both arms, irrespective of gait speed. Speed condition, whether self-selected or slow, had a significant effect on both APS measures. The two additional arm components are suggested to provide relevant information about arm swing during walking. However, APS(6) needs to be implemented in gait analysis of individuals with gait arm pathologies in order to further examine its utility. Werecommend that gait speed should to be taken into account when using APS measures to quantify arm swing during gait. (C) 2014 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Johansson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lindström, Britta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Johansson, Gudrun M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Balance and mobility in patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease - a five-year follow-up of a cohort in northern Sweden2018In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The presence of early balance impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease has not been fully investigated.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine balance and mobility, self-perceived unsteadiness, self-reported falls, and effects of medication on balance among patients at their first visit to a neurological clinic and during the ensuing five years.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The participants were collected from a prospective longitudinal study. One hundred and forty-five patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 31 healthy controls were included. The outcome measures were the Berg Balance Scale, the Timed Up and Go, the Postural Stability test and a questionnaire.

    RESULTS: At their first visit to the neurological clinic, the patients performed less well on the Berg Balance Scale (p < 0.001, r = 0.36), the Timed Up and Go (p < 0.001, r = 0.32), and the Postural Stability test (p < 0.001, r = 0.35) compared with the controls. In addition, a higher percentage of the patients reported self-perceived unsteadiness (p < 0.001, phi = 0.47). During the ensuing five years, balance and mobility worsened both with and without medication (p < 0.01, r = 0.24-0.37), although with small median differences.

    CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are needed to confirm that minor balance impairments exist even at the time of diagnosis and worsen during the ensuing five years. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION Impairments in balance and mobility may occur early in Parkinson's disease, especially in the elderly patients, and seem to worsen during the first five years. There is a need to use sensitive outcome measures and to ask the patients about unsteadiness and falls to detect balance impairment in this cohort. Parkinsonian medication has a limited effect on balance and may preferably be complemented with balance exercises to target balance impairment early in Parkinson's disease.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Gudrun
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Frykberg, G.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    The Arm Posture Score with additional rotational components (APS6) applied to persons with stroke to assess arm movements during gait.2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Johansson, Gudrun M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Clinical and kinematic assessments of upper limb function in persons with post-stroke symptoms2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stroke is a common and multifaceted disease that often involves motor deficits in the upper limb. This thesis investigated reliability and validity of existing clinical assessments of upper limb function in persons with post-stroke symptoms and in non-disabled controls. Study I was conducted in a clinical setting where the Motor Evaluation Scale of Upper Extremity in Stroke patients (MESUPES) was assessed in persons post-stroke by two physiotherapists selected from a group of four.  Study II-IV took place in a motion analysis laboratory with an optoelectronic system. Kinematic measures and clinical measures were used to investigate the validity of the Arm Posture Score (APS), the Finger-to-Nose test (FNT), and the Standardised Nine Hole Peg test (S-NHPT) in persons post-stroke and non-disabled controls.

     

    The results showed that the MESUPES had a high inter-rater reliability while the concurrent validity was not fully confirmed. MESUPES has a maximum score of 58 and the minimal detectable change ranged from 5 to 8 for a confidence level of 80% and 95%. The Arm Posture Scores, which include either four or six arm movement variables, were able to distinguish between the affected and non-affected arms, as well as between the affected arm and the non-dominant arm of the controls. The total movement time of the FNT, which is a coordination test, was able to distinguish persons post-stroke from controls, at least at a group level. Movement smoothness, accuracy and compensation, obtained from kinematic analysis, were the most discriminative variables for the FNT. Smoothness was most strongly correlated with the timed FNT and had the greatest association with the variance of the timed FNT. For the S-NHPT, which is a dexterity test involving grasping and reaching, the movement times, smoothness and compensation discriminated between the stroke group and the control group. Persons post-stroke spent considerably more time in the grasp-related parts of the task compared to controls. Smoothness and upper limb impairments had the strongest correlation with the S-NHPT.

     

    In conclusion, the clinical measures used within stroke rehabilitation seem valid and reliable, although some limitations are highlighted by the kinematic assessment. MESUPES was shown to be a reliable assessment of upper limb movement quality after stroke. The kinematic analysis revealed that the timed FNT does not have sufficient discriminative validity at an individual level. The timed FNT reflected speed-related aspects of pointing movements such as smoothness and length of the deceleration phase, but should not be used as an overall measure of upper limb coordination after stroke. The timed S-NHPT demonstrated sufficient discriminative validity and reflected smoothness and upper limb impairments. For both the FNT and S-NHPT, kinematic analysis showed that the clinical outcomes of those tests (time of performance) did not adequately detect qualitative aspects of the upper limb movements after stroke such as possible compensatory movements. Therefore, clinical assessments that capture qualitative aspects of upper limb movements would improve the assessment of upper limb coordination and dexterity after stroke. In addition, 3D movement analysis provided unique information about upper limb function after stroke, not least in persons with mild post-stroke impairments. The APS, for instance, which quantifies how much the arm swing during gait deviates from normal, discriminated between persons with stroke and non-disabled persons. Such subtle deviations are not possible to quantify with the human eye.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Gudrun M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Frykberg, Gunilla E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Broström, Eva W
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Assessment of arm movements during gait in stroke: the Arm Posture Score2014In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 549-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to apply the Arm Posture Score (APS) to a stroke population, since comprehensive measures to quantify arm swing in the affected and non-affected arms during gait are lacking. A further aim was to investigate how gait speed and upper limb function estimated by clinical measures are related to the APS in the stroke group. The APS is the summarized root mean square deviation (RMSD) from normal, based on kinematics. Four arm movements (sagittal and frontal planes) as well as six arm movements (incorporating transversal plane) were included in the calculation of APS, referred to as APS4 and APS6, respectively. The study population consisted of 25 persons with stroke and 25 age- and gender-matched controls. The APS measures were significantly different between the affected and non-affected arms, as well as between the affected arm and the non-dominant arm of the controls (p≤0.001). Spasticity significantly influenced both APS measures, while speed only had a significant effect on the APS4. The APS measures correlated significantly to clinical measures of upper limb function. Both APS measures seem to be useful indices to quantify and discriminate between impaired and normal arm swing during gait after stroke. The variability of rotational arm movements needs to be studied further before considering the additional value of the APS6 over the APS4. When interpreting the APS, complementary kinematics should be taken into account, as the single value of the APS gives no information about the direction of the deviation.

  • 7.
    Johansson, Gudrun M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Levin, Mindy F
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    The added value of kinematic evaluation of the timed finger-to-nose test in persons post-stroke.2017In: Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, ISSN 1743-0003, E-ISSN 1743-0003, Vol. 14, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Upper limb coordination in persons post-stroke may be estimated by the commonly used Finger-to-Nose Test (FNT), which is also part of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment. The total movement time (TMT) is used as a clinical outcome measure, while kinematic evaluation also enables an objective quantification of movement quality and motor performance. Our aims were to kinematically characterize FNT performance in persons post-stroke and controls and to investigate the construct validity of the test in persons with varying levels of impairment post-stroke.

    METHODS: A three-dimensional motion capture system recorded body movements during performance of the FNT in 33 persons post-stroke who had mild or moderate upper limb motor impairments (Fugl-Meyer scores of 50-62 or 32-49, respectively), and 41 non-disabled controls. TMT and kinematic variables of the hand (pointing time, peak speed, time to peak speed, number of movement units, path ratio, and pointing accuracy), elbow/shoulder joints (range of motion, interjoint coordination), and scapular/trunk movement were calculated. Our analysis focused on the pointing phase (knee to nose movement of the FNT). Independent t or Mann-Whitney U tests and effect sizes were used to analyze group differences. Sub-group analyses based on movement time and stroke severity were performed. Within the stroke group, simple and multiple linear regression were used to identify relationships between TMT to kinematic variables.

    RESULTS: The stroke group had significant slower TMT (mean difference 2.6 s, d = 1.33) than the control group, and six other kinematic variables showed significant group differences. At matched speeds, the stroke group had lower accuracy and excessive scapular and trunk movements compared to controls. Pointing time and elbow flexion during the pointing phase were most related to stroke severity. For the stroke group, the number of movement units during the pointing phase showed the strongest association with the TMT, and explained 60% of the TMT variance.

    CONCLUSIONS: The timed FNT discriminates between persons with mild and moderate upper limb impairments. However, kinematic analysis to address construct validity highlights differences in pointing movement post-stroke that are not captured in the timed FNT.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Gudrun M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Häger, Charlotte K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    A modified standardized nine hole peg test for valid and reliable kinematic assessment of dexterity post-stroke2019In: Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, ISSN 1743-0003, E-ISSN 1743-0003, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Impairments in dexterity after stroke are commonly assessed by the Nine Hole Peg Test (NHPT), where the only outcome variable is the time taken to complete the test. We aimed to kinematically quantify and to compare the motor performance of the NHPT in persons post-stroke and controls (discriminant validity), to compare kinematics to clinical assessments of upper extremity function (convergent validity), and to establish the within-session reliability.

    METHODS: The NHPT was modified and standardized (S-NHPT) by 1) replacing the original peg container with an additional identical nine hole pegboard, 2) adding a specific order of which peg to pick, and 3) specifying to insert the peg taken from the original pegboard into the corresponding hole of the target pegboard. Eight optical cameras registered upper body kinematics of 30 persons post-stroke and 41 controls during the S-NHPT. Four sequential phases of the task were identified and analyzed for kinematic group differences. Clinical assessments were performed.

    RESULTS: The stroke group performed the S-NHPT slower (total movement time; mean diff 9.8 s, SE diff 1.4), less smoothly (number of movement units; mean diff 0.4, SE diff 0.1) and less efficiently (path ratio; mean diff 0.05, SE diff 0.02), and used increased scapular/trunk movements (acromion displacement; mean diff 15.7 mm, SE diff 3.5) than controls (P < 0.000, r ≥ 0.32), indicating discriminant validity. The stroke group also spent a significantly longer time grasping and releasing pegs relative to the transfer phases of the task compared to controls. Within the stroke group, kinematics correlated with time to complete the S-NHPT and the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (rs 0.38-0.70), suggesting convergent validity. Within-session reliability for the S-NHPT was generally high to very high for both groups (ICCs 0.71-0.94).

    CONCLUSIONS: The S-NHPT shows adequate discriminant validity, convergent validity and within-session reliability. Standardization of the test facilitates kinematic analysis of movement performance, which in turn enables identification of differences in movement control between persons post-stroke and controls that may otherwise not be captured through the traditional time-based NHPT. Future research should ascertain further psychometric properties, e.g. sensitivity, of the S-NHPT.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Gudrun M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Häger, Charlotte K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Measurement properties of the motor evaluation scale for upper extremity in stroke patients (MESUPES)2012In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 288-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate inter-rater reliability of the Motor Evaluation Scale for Upper Extremity in Stroke patients (MESUPES), to provide estimates of the minimal detectable change (MDC) of the MESUPES and to investigate concurrent validity in relation to the arm scores of the Modified Motor Assessment Scale (M MAS). Methods: Forty-two stroke patients (mean age 56 +/- 12 years) were independently assessed within a 48-hours window by two raters in different pairs (total available raters = 4). Results: Weighted. analysis indicated good to very good agreement at item level (range 0.63-0.96). The relative and absolute reliability of the total score of MESUPES (maximum 58) was high according to the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC = 0.98) and the standard error of measurement (SEM = 2.68). The MDC for three levels of confidence was calculated: A score change of 8, 7 and 5 is necessary for a MDC to have confidence of 95%, 90% and 80%, respectively, of a genuine change. Correlation between the MESUPES and M MAS was high (r(s) = 0.87). Conclusions: The MESUPES shows high inter-rater reliability, and our study provides useful estimates of MDC for different levels of certainty. Additional research to confirm concurrent validity and to examine other psychometric properties of the MESUPES such as sensitivity is needed.

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