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  • 1.
    Amjadi, Golnaz
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    The Rebound Effect in Swedish Heavy Industry2018In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 71, p. 140-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency improvement (EEI) benefits the climate and matters for energy security. The potential emission and energy savings due to EEI may however not fully materialize due to the rebound effect. In this study, we measure the size of the rebound effect for fuel and electricity within the four most energy intensive sectors in Sweden: pulp and paper, basic iron and steel, chemical, and mining. We use a detailed firm-level panel data set for 2000–2008 and apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) for measuring the rebound effect. We find that neither fuel nor electricity rebound effects fully offset the potential energy and emission savings. Among the determinants, we find CO2 intensity and fuel/electricity share to be useful indicators for identifying firms with higher or lower rebound effect within each sector.

  • 2. Amjadi, Golnaz
    et al.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Zhang, Shanshan
    The rebound effect in the Swedish heavy industry2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency improvement (EEI) benefits the climate and matters for energy security. The potential emission and energy savings due to EEI may however not fully materialize due to the rebound effect. In this study, we measure the size of rebound effect for the two energy types fuel and electricity within the four most energy intensive sectors in Sweden – pulp and paper, basic iron and steel, chemical, and mining. We use a detailed firm-level panel data set for the period 2000-2008 and apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) for measuring the rebound effect. We find that both fuel and electricity rebound effects do not fully offset the potential for energy and emission savings. Furthermore, we find CO2 intensity and fuel and electricity share as the two main determinants of rebound effect in Swedish heavy industry. Our results seems to imply that it matters both to what extent and where to promote EEI, as the rebound effect varies between sectors as well as between firms within sectors. 

  • 3.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Decentralized fiscal federalism revisited: Optimal income taxation and public goods under horizontal leadership2012In: Economics Letters, ISSN 0165-1765, E-ISSN 1873-7374, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 223-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns optimal taxation and public goods in an economic federation with decentralized leadership, where one lower level government is the first mover also in the horizontal dimension. Under plausible assumptions, horizontal leadership reinforces the incentives created by decentralized leadership.

  • 4.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Does wage bargaining justify environmental policy coordination?2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the welfare consequences of coordinated tax reforms in an economy where a transboundary environmental externality and an international wage bargaining externality are operative at the same time. We assume that the wage in each country is decided upon in a bargain between trade-unions and firms, and the wage bargaining externality arises because the fall-back profit facing firms depends on the profit they can earn if moving production abroad. Using the noncooperative Nash equilibrium as a reference case, our results imply that the international wage bargaining externality may either reinforce or weaken the welfare gain of a coordinated increase in environmental taxation, depending on (among other things) how the reform affects the wage. For a special case, we also derive an exact condition under which a coordinated increase in the environmental tax leads to higher welfare.

  • 5.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Mixed Taxation and Transboundary Externalities: A Model with Large Jurisdictions2014In: Public Finance Review, ISSN 1091-1421, E-ISSN 1552-7530, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 254-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns income taxation and commodity taxation in a multi-jurisdiction framework with transboundary environmental damage. The decision-problem facing the government in each such jurisdiction is represented by a two-type model (with asymmetric information between the government and the private sector). We show how the possibility to influence the world-market producer price adds mechanisms of relevance for redistribution and externality-correction which, in turn, affect the domestic use of taxation. Finally, with the noncooperative Nash equilibrium as a reference case, we consider the welfare effects of policy coordination.

  • 6.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mixed taxation, public goods and transboundary externalities: a model with large jurisdictions2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns income taxation, commodity taxation, production taxation and public good provision in a multi-jurisdiction framework with transboundary environmental damage. We assume that each jurisdiction is large in the sense that its government is able to influence the world-market producer price of the externality-generating commodity. The decision-problem facing the government in each such jurisdiction is represented by a two-type model (with asymmetric information between the government and the private sector). We show how the possibility to influence the world-market producer price adds mechanisms of relevance for redistribution and externality-correction which, in turn, affect the domestic use of taxation and public goods. Finally, with the noncooperative Nash equilibrium as a reference case, we consider the welfare effects of policy coordination.

  • 7.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Carlén, Ola
    SLU.
    Gisselman, Fredrik
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Fiskefria områden ur ett samhällsekonomiskt perspektiv: En empirisk studie2016Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). SLU.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Carlén, Ola
    SLU.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Fiskefria områden ur ett samhällsekonomiskt perspektiv: en konceptuell analys2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudsyftet med föreliggande rapport är att på ett övergripande och konceptuellt plan beskriva innebörden av en samhällsekonomisk nytto- och kostnadsanalys, eller samhällsekonomisk bedömning, och hur en sådan kan och bör genomföras för att analysera samhällsnyttan av fiskefria områden. Vidare syftar rapporten till att exemplifiera vilken typ av empiriska data och metoder som finns tillgängliga för en sådan analys med hjälp av den fritidsfiskeundersökning som årligen görs i regi av Hav och Vattenmyndigheten.

  • 9.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Vesterberg, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    An electricity market in transition: demand flexibility and preference heterogeneity2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent report to the Swedish Energy Markets Inspectorate (Broberg et al., 2014) consumer behavior and consumer flexibility concerning energy use were analyzed. Two main conclusions were drawn. First, electricity consumption follows a regular pattern over the day, week, and year, which to a large extent reflects household living patterns and climate variations over the year. Second, the average household needs a substantial economic compensation to voluntarily reschedule its electricity use away from peak demand hours. The required compensations were found to be far higher than the economic incentives households face today when exposed to real-time pricing. In addition, it was found that households are more flexible in the use of electricity for heating than in the use of electrical appliances. Finally, households were found to be more flexible during the morning peak hours than during the evening hours. These findings led to the overall conclusion that both the possibilities and incentives are such that we cannot expect any substantial change in energy use patterns from technical reforms that creates incentives for demand response in line with the current price variation on the wholesale market for electricity.

    In the above-mentioned report we also analyzed people’s attitudes towards information dissemination. We concluded that many households do not wish to have their electricity use scrutinized by experts and other households. We found that people, on average, required a compensation to allow such information sharing. Again, new technologies open for various demand response policies, although it does not necessarily imply substantially higher demand flexibility. New technologies need to be combined with consumer interest to be successful in a market economy.

    The overall objective of the current report is to further scrutinize consumer behavior and flexibility. The first part focuses on Swedish households’ choice of electricity supplier contracts. Specifically, we analyze what types of households choose a fixed price contract. 1 The choice of contract implicitly reveals a consumer’s flexibility since a fixed price contract works as an insurance against price variation. So, by studying what type of households chose a fixed price contract we are able to infer on which type of households are relatively inflexible. This part of the analysis is policy relevant since it touches on the question of what to expect from real-time pricing reforms. A central question is whether a household who uses relatively more electricity is more likely to have a fixed price contract. If this is the case, future access to real-time pricing and a greater price variation may not be a guarantee for a substantial increase in demand response as important consumers (from a policy perspective) are more likely to insure against such circumstances. From this perspective the market for price insurances (fixed price contracts) is a market for inflexibility.

    While the analysis above considers the effectiveness of future energy policies to promote demand response, it is also relevant to study the question of how the peak demand problem may develop over time. This question is explicitly addressed in the current report by studying how consumer behavior varies across income levels. The existing literature suggests that electricity consumption is positively related to income, although the income elasticity 2 is fairly small. However, almost all studies concerning income effects have studied aggregate electricity use on monthly or yearly basis. The present study departs from the existing literature by studying how daily household electricity use patterns vary across income levels. This approach is novel since it allows us to analyze how the peak load problem may develop in the future as a result of higher income levels, which is commonly expected.

    By studying the choice of electricity contracts and by estimating hourly income elasticities, the report approach demand flexibility in an indirect way. In the third analysis of the report we address these issues again, although with a somewhat more direct approach. The choice experiment part in Broberg et al. (2014), which focused on the economic incentives needed in order to change people’s energy consumption in a predefined way, is now deepened. The focus is on how socio-economic factors such as e.g. age, gender, education and income may explain preference heterogeneity among the Swedish population. Energy related factors such as living conditions and heating systems are also considered in the analysis. This analysis will inform us about what types of households are inclined to reschedule their energy use when given relatively small economic incentives, and what household’s that are relatively inflexible and thus require large compensations to change their behavior. We also study preference heterogeneity regarding information dissemination in purpose of anonymous peer comparisons.

    In the final part of the report we deepen our analysis of households’ demand for information about their own and others electricity use. Besides creating incentives for demand response, new technologies included in the smart grid concept also make it possible for policy makers to use tailored information to help consumers to use energy more efficiently. A number of studies highlight inefficiencies in the households’ use of energy (see e.g. Broberg and Kazukauskas, 2014). One highlighted reality is that people seem to pay little attention to energy issues. Of course, if people pay little attention to the price of electricity, the effectiveness of policy measures that work through the pricechannel is limited. In this part of the report we address four basic questions of great relevance for energy efficiency policies worldwide. The questions are (1) What knowledge do people have about the marginal cost of electricity use in terms of everyday electrical appliances? (2) Are the cost perceptions biased and in what direction? (3) Do inattention to energy issues play a significant role in this bias? (4) Do households want information that may help them de-bias their perceptions about energy costs and use?

    The report is structured such that section 2 gives a brief background on the issues analyzed in the report. The following sections correspond to the issues outlined in the introduction. Section 7 works to tie the analyses together and conclude our results

  • 10.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Vesterberg, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    En elmarknad i förändring: är kundernas flexibilitet till salu eller ens verklig?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten ”En elmarknad i förändring – Är kundernas flexibilitet till salu eller ens verklig?” tittar en forskargrupp vid Centrum för Miljö- och Naturresursekonomi (CERE) vid Handelshögskolan, Umeå Universitet på konsumenternas nuvarande och framtida roll på elmarknaden. Rapporten är beställd av Energimarknadsinspektionen.

  • 11. Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Consumer preferences and soft load control on the Swedish electricity market2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the present report is to present the results of the project "The electricity customer, a new power on the electricity market?" The main purpose of the project is to estimate lost values due to various restrictions on household electricity consumption, which gives us "prices" of schematic reductions in power through behavioral adaptations among Swedish households. Another purpose is to estimate households' costs for short power outages, which gives a "price" of a targeted disconnection of electricity. The willingness of households to adjust their electricity consumption is governed by several factors - both economic and non-economic. An additional objective is therefore to analyze the extent to which households are willing to adapt for non-economic reasons, for example, to facilitate the integration of renewable electricity production such as solar and wind power.

    To achieve the objectives of the project, we analyze household habits and preferences for electricity usage in connection with daily demand peaks during winter time in Sweden. We have chosen an empirical approach where households are subjected to choose between hypothetical electricity contracts where different types of restrictions in the use of large-scale household appliances are included. The different characteristics of the agreements or contracts relate to (1) maximum power usage in watts, (2) the duration of the restriction, (3) number of occasions of restriction and (4) the ability to change the selection of which electrical appliances to be used during the restriction.

    In addition to the above-mentioned approach, we also study how this relates to other electricity usage (e.g. heating, lighting, TV, etc.). This is done by asking households for compensation requirements to accept full power outages, i.e. black-outs. By studying the difference in compensation requirements between the "soft" limitation and the black-outs, the value of different loads can be estimated.

    The results reveal that households on average require a compensation of SEK 2000 - 3700 depending on the severity of electricity consumption constraint. Depending on how we define the potential loss in potential electricity usage for different scenarios, the results can be translated to be between SEK 20 and 40 per kWh. In the case of total power outages, the valuation is significantly higher and corresponds to SEK 3000 to 4600. This can in turn be translated to the equivalent of SEK 400 - 600 per kWh. The results thus indicate a significant difference between the value of the load in a soft control DSM program, and the remaining load (e.g. heating, lighting and TV). Compared to previous literature on the value of lost load, VOLL, our estimates fall in the higher range, especially compared to Swedish studies. We believe this is in line with the context outlined in the present study with rather many occasions of disruptions at the peak demand hour.

    The results also show that a pro-environmental cheap talk make people more likely to opt into a DSM program with load controlled at many occasions. It did not, however, make people see more lenient on hard load controls in general.

    An immediate policy implication from the results is that specific policies aiming at stimulating behavioral changes probably are very ineffective and/or costly. As a result, policies to affect demand response should focus on automatization and passive response. A related policy implication is that it is far from obvious that demand response is always more cost effective than supply response, i.e., increasing production of electricity. 

  • 12.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Is our everyday comfort for sale?: Preferences for demand management on the electricity market2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a European perspective, the electricity markets have been experiencing major changes via deregulation, new technologies and changes in the production mix. Together with the daily and seasonal peak hours on the demand side, the changing markets put pressure on increased flexibility to handle and sustain balance in the grid systems. This paper focuses on the demand side and analyzes preferences related to demand management of Swedish households energy use. Preferences are analyzed within the framework of choice experiments and people are faced with hypothetical electricity contracts. The respondents reveal their preferences for attributes related to external control of heating, household electricity and information dissemination (integrity). The results show that people put a substantial value on not being controlled, illustrated by compensations up to thousands of SEK for accepting a contract characterized by external control of energy use in various dimensions. In addition, the results show that household composition, age, gender and income play a role for the perceived discomfort from the external control and information dissemination. 

  • 13.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Is our everyday comfort for sale?: preferences for demand management on the electricity market2016In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 54, p. 24-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a European perspective, the electricity markets have been experiencing major changes via deregulation, new technologies and changes in the production mix. Together with the daily and seasonal peak hours on the demand side, the changing markets put pressure on increased flexibility to handle and sustain balance in the grid systems. This paper focuses on the demand side and analyzes preferences related to demand management of Swedish households' energy use. In a web-based choice experiment respondents were faced with three hypothetical electricity contracts. The choices of preferred contracts revealed preferences for attributes related to external control of heating, household electricity and information dissemination (integrity). The results show that people put a substantial value on not being controlled, illustrated by compensations up to thousands of SEK for accepting a contract characterized by external control of energy use in various dimensions. In addition, the results show that household composition, age, gender and income play a role for the perceived discomfort from the external control and information dissemination. 

  • 14.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    To tax, or not to tax: preferences for climate policy attributes2012In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 704-721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries around the world respond to global warming and its consequences with various policy instruments. In the economic literature, policy instruments have typically been analysed with respect to efficiency, but little effort has been expended to understand public preferences for these instruments. In an internet-based choice experiment to address this shortcoming, Swedes were asked to choose between two alternative hypothetical policy instruments, each of which reduces CO2 emissions by the same amount. The hypothetical policy instruments were characterized by a number of specific attributes. By varying the levels of each of the attributes, respondents indirectly reveal their preferences for these attributes. Half of the respondents are faced with choices labelled ‘tax’ and ‘other’, and the other half are faced with unlabelled choices (hypothetical instruments). The results show that Swedes tend to dislike the term ‘tax’ and show a preference for instruments with a positive effect on environment-friendly technology and climate awareness. A progressive-like cost distribution is preferred to a regressive cost distribution, and the private cost is negatively related to the choice of policy.

  • 15.
    Carlén, Ola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). SLU.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Rekreationsfiske i Sverige 2013: omfattning och värde2016Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Daniel, Aemiro Melkamu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Mr.
    Sandorf, Erlend Dancke (Contributor)
    Accounting for elimination-by-aspects strategies and demand management in electricity contract choice2018In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 73, p. 80-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In deze paper worden we gerapporteerd op een discreete keuzeproject gericht op het eliciteren van de huishoudens' bereidheid om te accepteren een compensatie voor beperkingen op huishoudelijke elektriciteit en verwarming tijdens piekuren. Når man analyserer data fra diskrete valg eksperimenter, er det typisk antaget at folk foretar rationelle verktøy maksimere beslutninger, dvs. at de vurderer alle de attributtinformasjon og sammenligne alle alternativer. Imidlertid viser monteringsbevis at folk bruker et bredt spekter av forenklingsstrategier som er inkonsekvente med maksimal utnyttelse. We use a flexible model capturing a two-stage decision process. In de eerste fase worden respondenten toegelaten om te elimineren van hun keuze, alternatieven die een onacceptabel niveau bevatten, in dit geval beperkingen op het gebruik van verwarming en elektriciteit. In the second stage, respondents choose in a compensatory manner between the remaining alternatives. Våre resultater viser at omtrent halvparten av respondentene velger i henhold til en eliminering-by-aspektstrategi, og at de i utgangspunktet ikke er villige til å motta noen begrensninger om oppvarming i kveld eller elektrisitetsbruk uavhengig av tid-of-dag. Videre, vurderingen eliminasjon-by-aspekteradferd fører til en nedoverskift i elitert villighet-til-aksept. We discuss implications for policy. considering elimination-by-aspects behavior leads to a downward shift in elicited willingness-to-accept. We discuss implications for policy. considering elimination-by-aspects behavior leads to a downward shift in elicited willingness-to-accept. We discuss implications for policy.

  • 17. Daniel, Aemiro Melkamu
    et al.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Sandorf, Erlend Dancke
    Accounting for elimination-by-aspects strategies and demand management in electricity contract choice2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a discrete choice experiment aimed at eliciting Swedish households’ willingness-to-accept a compensation for restrictions on household electricity and heating use during peak hours. When analyzing data from discrete choice experiments, we typically assume that people make rational utility maximizing decisions, i.e., that they consider all of the attribute information and compare all alternatives. However, mounting evidence shows that people use a wide range of simplifying strategies that are inconsistent with utility maximization. We use a flexible model capturing a two-stage decision process. In the first stage, respondents are allowed to eliminate from their choice set alternatives that contain an unacceptable level, i.e., restrictions on the use of heating and electricity. In the second stage, respondents choose in a compensatory manner between the remaining alternatives. Our results show that about half of our respondents choose according to an elimination-by-aspects strategy, and that, on average, they are unwilling to accept any restrictions on heating in the evening or electricity use, irrespective of time-of-day. Furthermore, we find that considering elimination-by-aspects behavior leads to a downward shift in elicited willingness-to-accept. We discuss implications for policy. 

  • 18.
    Daniel, Aemiro Melkamu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Sandorf, Erlend Dancke
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Accounting for elimination-by-aspects strategies and demand management in electricity contract choice2018In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 73, p. 80-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In deze paper worden we gerapporteerd op een discreete keuzeproject gericht op het eliciteren van de huishoudens' bereidheid om te accepteren een compensatie voor beperkingen op huishoudelijke elektriciteit en verwarming tijdens piekuren. Når man analyserer data fra diskrete valg eksperimenter, er det typisk antaget at folk foretar rationelle verktøy maksimere beslutninger, dvs. at de vurderer alle de attributtinformasjon og sammenligne alle alternativer. Imidlertid viser monteringsbevis at folk bruker et bredt spekter av forenklingsstrategier som er inkonsekvente med maksimal utnyttelse. We use a flexible model capturing a two-stage decision process. In de eerste fase worden respondenten toegelaten om te elimineren van hun keuze, alternatieven die een onacceptabel niveau bevatten, in dit geval beperkingen op het gebruik van verwarming en elektriciteit. In the second stage, respondents choose in a compensatory manner between the remaining alternatives. Våre resultater viser at omtrent halvparten av respondentene velger i henhold til en eliminering-by-aspektstrategi, og at de i utgangspunktet ikke er villige til å motta noen begrensninger om oppvarming i kveld eller elektrisitetsbruk uavhengig av tid-of-dag. Videre, vurderingen eliminasjon-by-aspekteradferd fører til en nedoverskift i elitert villighet-til-aksept. We discuss implications for policy. considering elimination-by-aspects behavior leads to a downward shift in elicited willingness-to-accept. We discuss implications for policy. considering elimination-by-aspects behavior leads to a downward shift in elicited willingness-to-accept. We discuss implications for policy.

  • 19. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Johansson, Maria
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Waldo, Åsa
    Kommunerna och vindkraften2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska vindkraften står inför en massiv utbyggnad de närmaste tio åren, vilket har manifesterats i både nationella och internationella beslut och målsättningar. I praktiken sker emellertid utbyggnaden i det lokala (kommunala) sammanhanget, vilket innebär en rad utmaningar och ställningstaganden både för dem som projekterar vindkraften, för dem som beslutar om den och för dem som ska bli grannar med den.

    I den här studien ligger fokus på det lokala sammanhanget – de fysiska resurserna och de sociala förutsättningarna. Ett grundantagande är att kommunala skillnader i fysiska resurser och sociala förutsättningar har betydelse för kommunens inställning till vindkraft. Sveriges 290 kommuner analyseras med utgångspunkt i hur mycket installerad effekt vindkraft som finns i respektive kommun. Analysen visar att vindkraftsutbyggnaden i Sverige framför allt har präglats av stora variationer – där vissa kommuner har mycket befintlig vindkraft medan andra kommuner helt saknar vindkraft. När det gäller den framtida vindkraftsutbyggnaden, de projekt som planeras idag, baseras analysen framför allt på statistik på länsnivå, vilket begränsar möjligheterna att relatera utbyggnaden till olika kommuner. Det kan ändå konstateras att tendensen att vindkraften etableras på vissa platser, i vissa kommuner och län, men inte andra, ser ut att fortsätta.

    Denna ojämna utveckling av vindkraften gör det intressant att undersöka vilka lokala förutsättningar som är relaterade till utbyggnad. I en ekonometrisk analys relateras installerad effekt (kW) vindkraft till kommunernas fysiska resurser och sociala förutsättningar. Valet av faktorer som ingår i analysen är baserat på ett resonemang kring att en kommuns potential för vindkraft avgörs dels av fysiska resurser såsom markyta och vind och dels av sociala förutsättningar såsom kommunens utvecklingstrend som boende-, besöks- och företagsmiljö. Resultaten visar att det är mer sannolikt att det finns vindkraft i kommuner med en positiv befolkningsutveckling, låg befolkningstäthet och mycket fritidsturism. Betydelsen av ett kustnära läge, en stor markyta och ett lokalt miljöengagemang kan däremot inte statistiskt säkerställas. Utbyggnaden tycks vidare vara oberoende av kommunens vindresurser (baserat på hur stor andel riksintresse för vindbruk som finns i kommunen) och företagsklimatet i kommunen. Vindkraften är således utbyggd främst i kommuner som är attraktiva boende- och besöksarenor, men oberoende av om kommunen är en attraktiv affärsarena eller inte. 5

    Flera av resultaten pekar i en oväntad riktning, vilket gör dem svårtolkade. De processer som leder fram till en stark eller svag utbyggnad lokalt är komplexa och drivs sannolikt av förhållanden som inte kan analyseras inom ramen för en tvärsnittsstudie.

    Denna studie ska ses som ett första försök att identifiera och testa betydelsen av olika lokala faktorer för vindkraftsutbyggnaden. Kombinationen av perspektiv och metoder från nationalekonomi, miljöpsykologi och sociologi har gett en bredd till analysen och pekar på möjligheter att fördjupa analysen med bättre och mer fullständig statistik. Exempelvis skulle statistik för den planerade vindkraftsutbyggnaden på kommunnivå ge en helt annan bild och förståelse för vilka lokala förutsättningar som har betydelse för utbyggnaden. Vidare skulle en mer omfattande longitudinell studie kunna visa vilka processer som samvarierar med en viss utvecklingstendens. Slutligen skulle en fördjupad analys genom intervjuer med centrala aktörer i det lokala sammanhanget kunna öka förståelsen för vilka resonemang som i praktiken föranleder beslut för eller emot vindkraft

  • 20.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Priorities and preferences in the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive - A case study of the river Alsterån2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper elicits local and semi-local citizens’ preferences for water quality attributes explicitly related to the water framework directive. A river basin in southeast of Sweden is used as a case study. The sample consists of 502 respondents living in the municipalities through which the river passes, or neighboring municipalities. By the use of a choice experiment tailored to the specific case study area, the paper analyzes public attitudes and willingness to pay for selected attributes related to water quality management. The attributes and their corresponding levels are based on real criteria for ecological water status, used in the implementation of the WFD in the river basin. Although participants live in or close to the catchment area, the results reveal a general lack of knowledge and interest in matters related to the environmental quality of the river. All attributes included in the choice experiment proved to have a statistically significant impact on the choice probabilities. There was however no significant evidence that the preferences differ between respondents with regard to self reported previous experience or knowledge about the water body, nor with regard to differences in recreational habits in the area. The results can potentially be used as inputs in practical policy making with its inevitable trade offs and priorities. 

  • 21. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    The economics of the European Water Framework Directive - A retrospective remark focusing on Sweden2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) explicitly acknowledges the role of economics in the process of reaching the environmental quality objectives. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the implementation of the WFD in Sweden based on standard economic theory regarding instruments for cost efficient- and effective solutions to environmental problems. A lesson is that although incentive based instruments are beneficial from a cost-efficiency perspective, the complexities associated with environmental water management may somewhat challenge their implementation. Flexibility is a key issue for cost-effectiveness and, since Swedish water management mainly consists of command-and control instruments, the cost effectiveness is likely to be limited. Furthermore, the paper also points at how policy instruments relate to the economic burden aspect and the PPP – both highlighted in the Directive. 

  • 22.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Economics Unit, Luleå, Sweden.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Wind farms - where and how to place them?: A choice experiment approach to measure consumer preferences for characteristics of wind farm establishments in Sweden2014In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 105, p. 193-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores preferences among the general public in Sweden for attributes related to the establishment of wind power farms. The method applied is a choice experiment where people are asked to choose between two hypothetical wind farms characterized by different attributes. Five attributes are included in the experiment: (i) type of landscape, (ii) type of ownership, (iii) the degree of local participation in the planning process, (iv) the choice to transfer revenue to the society in a pre-specified way, and (v) a monetary cost in terms of an additional electricity certificate fee. The data are analyzed with multinomial logit, random parameter logit, and latent class models. The results indicate that consumers in Sweden are more likely to accept the higher renewable electricity certificate fee if: (a) wind power farms in areas used for recreational purposes are substantially avoided, (b) the establishment is anchored by whole or partial ownership in the local community and, (c) the locals are involved in the planning and implementation process. Our policy simulation exercise shows that respondents are willing to pay a higher electricity fee corresponding to about 0.6 Euro cents per kWh to avoid wind farms located in the mountainous area and private ownership.

  • 23. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Wind farms - Where and how to put them?: A choice experiment approach to measure consumer preferences for characteristics of wind power developments in Sweden2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at measuring preferences for attributes related to the establishment of wind power farms among the general public in Sweden. The method applied is a choice experiment where people are asked to choose between two hypothetical wind farms, each characterized by different attributes. Five attributes are included in the experiment: (i) type of landscape, (ii) ownership, (iii) the extent to which the local public is invited to participate in the planning process, (iv) the choice to transfer revenue to the society in a pre-specified way, and (v) a monetary cost in terms of an additional electricity certificate fee. The results are based on the survey responses from 1500 individuals and show that all attributes have a significant impact on the choice of the preferred wind farm. The results indicate that the electricity consumers in Sweden are more likely to accept the higher costs (through the renewable electricity certificate fee) if; (a) wind power farms in areas used for recreational purposes are substantially avoided, (b) if the establishment is anchored by whole or partly ownership in the local community and, (c) if the local population is involved in the planning and implementation process. Our policy simulation exercise shows that respondents are willing to pay a higher electricity fee corresponding to about four öre to avoid wind farms located in the mountainous area and to avoid private ownership. People consider extended consultation processes and earmarked transfers for nature conservation to the local community as changes for the better, while the opposition towards wind energy in the mountainous areas and privately owned wind farms dominates the positive effects from consultation and transfers.

  • 24.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Lulea University of Technology, Division of Economics and Social Sciences, Luleå, Sweden.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Johansson, Maria
    Lund University, Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund, Sweden.
    Waldo, Åsa
    Lund University, Department of Sociology, Lund, Sweden.
    Location of Swedish wind power - Random or not?: A quantitative analysis of differences in installed wind power capacity across Swedish municipalities2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 58, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of installed wind power varies significantly across municipalities although the financial support for wind power production and the technology available is identical in all Swedish municipalities. This study analyses how local differences between municipalities, such as local wind prerequisites and socioeconomic conditions, might explain the establishment of wind power. The analysis is carried out for a cross section of Swedish municipalities. The time periods before and after 2006 are analyzed separately; and results reveal that the factors affecting wind power establishments are different between the two periods. In the later time period we found a statistically significant positive relationship between good wind resources and the presence of wind power as well as with the amount of wind energy installed. This result is consistent with the idea that the first wind power investments in Sweden were highly affected by individual wind energy enthusiasts, while in the more recent large-scale investments market-based judgments about future profitability may have become increasingly important. In addition, previous experience seems to be a factor that in itself facilitates additional future wind power establishments, thereby pointing to the role of accumulated institutional capacity.

  • 25.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Environmental policy and lobbying in small open economies2012In: Resources and Energy Economics, ISSN 0928-7655, E-ISSN 1873-0221, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 24-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes consequences of lobby group activity for policy outcomes in economies with transboundary pollution and international environmental policies. International environmental policies are here characterized as pollution taxes determined in a negotiation between two countries. The optimal pollution taxes are characterized and comparative statics are carried out to increase the understanding of mechanisms underlying pollution taxes in the specified setup. It is found, among other things, that the presence of local lobbying may decrease, as well as increase pollution taxes – depending on, e.g. an assumption of symmetry.

    Highlights

    ► Environmental policy (taxes) is studied in the presence of environmental lobbying. ► Focus is on environmental policies determined in a negotiation between countries. ► National environmental lobbying may decrease, as well as increase pollution taxes.

  • 26.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Environmental policy and transboundary externalities: coordination and commitment in open economies2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of an introductory chapter and four papers, which relate to environmental policy in the presence of transboundary environmental damage. Paper [I] concerns public policy in a multi-jurisdiction framework with transboundary environmental damage. Each jurisdiction is assumed large in the sense that its government is able to infuence the world-market producer price of the externality-generating good. This gives rise to additional incentives of relevance for national public policy in the non-cooperative Nash equilibrium. With the uncoordinated equilibrium as the reference case, the welfare effects from coordinated changes in public policy variables are analyzed. Paper [II] analyses welfare effects of coordinated changes in environmental and capital taxation in the presence of transboundary environmental externalities and wage bargaining externalities. In the wage bargaining between frms and labor unions, firms use the threat of moving abroad to moderate wage claims, which means that domestic policy infuences wage formation abroad. The specific framework implies welfare effects of policy coordination that correspond to each of the respective international interaction mentioned above. In paper [III], national governments face political pressure from environmental and industrial lobby groups, while pollution taxes are determined in an international negotiation. It is shown that a general increase in the environmental concern and the weight the governments attach to social welfare both tend to increase the pollution tax. However, allowing for asymmetries between the countries means that a general increase in the environmental concern has the potential to reduce the pollution tax. Paper [IV] studies national environmental policies in an economic federation characterized by decentralized leadership. The federal government sets emission targets for each member country, which are implemented by the national governments. Although all national governments have commitment power vis-à-vis the federal government, one of them also has commitment power vis-à-vis the other member countries. This creates incentives to act strategically toward the federal government, as well as toward other members.

  • 27.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Environmental policy negotiations, transboundary pollution and lobby groups in small open economies2007Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the consequences of lobby group activity for policy outcomes in economies with transboundary pollution and international environmental policies. International environmental policies are characterized as pollution taxes determined in a negotiation between two countries and it is found, among other things, that the presence of local lobbying tends to reduce the level of pollution taxes. Furthermore, an increase in the environmental concern - here de fined as an increase in the number of environmentalists - may reduce the pollution tax in both countries. It is also possible that increased environmental concern in one country reduces the pollution tax in the other country.

  • 28.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Incentives underlying tax policies in a decentralized federation with horizontal leadership and transboundary environmental damage2015In: Letters in spatial and resource sciences, ISSN 1864-4031, E-ISSN 1864-404X, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 77-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns income- and production taxation in a decentralized fiscal federalism model where the ability to commit differs among member countries. It is assumed that the federal government dictates environmental targets to be implemented at the national level, where the horizontal leader has commitment power vis-à-vis the other country (the follower). The results show how incentives underlying the horizontal leader’s tax policies are influenced by the decision structure.

  • 29.
    Persson, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Tax or no tax?: preferences for climate policy attributes2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, many countries around the world respond to the global warming and its consequences with various policy instruments such as e.g. taxes, subsidies, emission permit trading, regulations and information campaigns. In the economic literature, policy instruments have typically been analyzed with respect to efficiency, while little effort has been put on public preferences for these instruments. In this paper, an Internet-based choice experiment is conducted where respondents are asked to choose between two alternative policy instruments that both reduce the emissions of CO2 by the same amount. The policy instruments are characterized by a number of attributes; a technology-effect, an awareness-effect, cost distribution, geographic distribution and private cost (presented in more detail in the paper). By varying the levels of each of the attributes, respondents indirectly reveal their preferences for these attributes. Half of the respondents are faced with instruments labeled by ‘tax’ and ‘other’, whereas the other half are faced with unlabeled instruments. As for the label, the results show that people dislike the ‘tax’. The results also show that people prefer instruments with a positive effect on environmentally-friendly technology and climate awareness. A progressive-like cost distribution is preferred to a regressive cost distribution, and the private cost is negatively related to the choice. Finally, the results indicate that Swedes want the reduction to take place in Europe but not necessarily in Sweden.

  • 30.
    Persson, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Kristina, Ek
    Waldo, Åsa
    Johansson, Maria
    Vindkraft i öppet lanskap, skog, fjäll och hav2013Report (Refereed)
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