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  • 1.
    Akimoto, Chizuru
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Birve, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Backlund, Irene
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Andersson, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Ann-Charloth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Alstermark, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Andersen, Peter M
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    No GGGGCC-hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 in parkinsonism patients in Sweden2013Inngår i: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration, ISSN 2167-8421, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 26-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An intronic GGGGCC-hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 was recently identified as a major cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Some amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients have signs of parkinsonism, and many parkinsonism patients develop dementia. In this study we examined if the hexanucleotide repeat expansion was present in parkinsonism patients, to clarify if there could be a relationship between the repeat expansion and disease. We studied the size of the hexanucleotide repeat expansion in a well defined population-based cohort of 135 Parkinson's disease patients and 39 patients with atypical parkinsonism and compared with 645 Swedish control subjects. We found no correlation between Parkinson's disease or atypical parkinsonism and the size of the GGGGCC repeat expansion in C9ORF72. In conclusion, this GGGGCC-repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is not a cause of parkinsonism in the Swedish population.

  • 2. Beghi, Ettore
    et al.
    Berg, Anne
    Carpio, Arturo
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurologi.
    Hesdorffer, Dale C
    Hauser, W Allen
    Malmgren, Kristina
    Shinnar, Shlomo
    Temkin, Nancy
    Thurman, David
    Tomson, Torbjörn
    Comment on epileptic seizures and epilepsy: definitions proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the International Bureau for Epilepsy (IBE).2005Inngår i: Epilepsia, ISSN 0013-9580, Vol. 46, nr 10, s. 1698-9; author reply 1701Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3. Beghi, Ettore
    et al.
    Carpio, Arturo
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurologi.
    Hesdorffer, Dale C
    Malmgren, Kristina
    Sander, Josemir W
    Tomson, Torbjorn
    Hauser, W Allen
    Recommendation for a definition of acute symptomatic seizure2010Inngår i: Epilepsia, ISSN 0013-9580, E-ISSN 1528-1167, Vol. 51, nr 4, s. 671-675Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Acute symptomatic seizures must be distinguished from unprovoked seizures and separately categorized for epidemiologic purposes. These recommendations are based upon the best available data at the time of this report. Systematic studies should be undertaken to better define the associations in question, with special reference to metabolic and toxic insults, for which the time window for the occurrence of an acute symptomatic seizure and the absolute values for toxic and metabolic dysfunction still require a clear identification.

  • 4. Berge-Seidl, Victoria
    et al.
    Pihlstrøm, Lasse
    Maple-Grødem, Jodi
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Larsen, Jan Petter
    Tysnes, Ole-Bjørn
    Toft, Mathias
    The GBA variant E326K is associated with Parkinson's disease and explains a genome-wide association signal2017Inngår i: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 658, s. 48-52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Coding variants in the GBA gene have been identified as the numerically most important genetic risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified associations with PD in the SYT11-GBA region on chromosome 1q22, but the relationship to GBA coding variants have remained unclear. The aim of this study was to sequence the complete GBA gene in a clinical cohort and to investigate whether coding variants within the GBA gene may be driving reported association signals. Methods: We analyzed high-throughput sequencing data of all coding exons of GBA in 366 patients with PD. The identified low-frequency coding variants were genotyped in three Scandinavian case-controls series (786 patients and 713 controls). Previously reported risk variants from two independent association signals within the SYT11-GBA locus on chromosome 1 were also genotyped in the same samples. We performed association analyses and evaluated linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the variants. Results: We identified six rare mutations (1.6%) and two low-frequency coding variants in GBA. E326K (rs2230288) was significantly more frequent in PD patients compared to controls (OR 1.65, p = 0.03). There was no clear association of T369M (rs75548401) with disease (OR 1.43, p = 0.24). Genotyping the two GWAS hits rs35749011 and rs114138760 in the same sample set, we replicated the association between rs35749011 and disease status (OR 1.67, p = 0.03), while rs114138760 was found to have similar allele frequencies in patients and controls. Analyses revealed that E326K and rs35749011 are in very high LD (r(2) 0.95). Conclusions: Our results confirm that the GBA variant E326K is a susceptibility allele for PD. The results suggest that E326K may fully account for the primary association signal observed at chromosome 1q22 in previous GWAS of PD.

  • 5.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Fytagoridis, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Hariz, Marwan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Unilateral caudal Zona incerta deep brain stimulation for Parkinsonian tremor2012Inngår i: Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, ISSN 1353-8020, E-ISSN 1873-5126, Vol. 18, nr 10, s. 1062-1066Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The subthalamic nucleus is currently the target of choice in deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD), while thalamic DBS is used in some cases of tremor-dominant PD. Recently, a number of studies have presented promising results from DBS in the posterior subthalamic area, including the caudal zona incerta (cZi). The aim of the current study was to evaluate cZi DBS in tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease.

    Methods: 14 patients with predominately unilateral tremor-dominant PD and insufficient relief from pharmacologic therapy were included and evaluated according to the motor part of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). The mean age was 65 ± 6.1 years and the disease duration 7 ± 5.7 years. Thirteen patients were operated on with unilateral cZi DBS and 1 patient with a bilateral staged procedure. Five patients had non-L-dopa responsive symptoms. The patients were evaluated on/off medication before surgery and on/off medication and stimulation after a minimum of 12 months after surgery.

    Results: At the follow-up after a mean of 18.1 months stimulation in the off-medication state improved the contralateral UPDRS III score by 47.7%. Contralateral tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia were improved by 82.2%, 34.3%, and 26.7%, respectively. Stimulation alone abolished tremor at rest in 10 (66.7%) and action tremor in 8 (53.3%) of the patients.

    Conclusion: Unilateral cZi DBS seems to be safe and effective for patients with severe Parkinsoniantremor. The effects on rigidity and bradykinesia were, however, not as profound as in previous reports of DBS in this area.

  • 6.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Hariz, Marwan I
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Tisch, Stephen
    Holmberg, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Bergenheim, Tommy A
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurologi.
    A family with a hereditary form of torsion dystonia from northern Sweden treated with bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation2009Inngår i: Movement Disorders, ISSN 0885-3185, E-ISSN 1531-8257, Vol. 24, nr 16, s. 2415-2419Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate pallidal DBS in a non-DYT1 form of hereditary dystonia. We present the results of pallidal DBS in a family with non-DYT1 dystonia where DYT5 to 17 was excluded. The dystonia is following an autosomal dominant pattern. Ten members had definite dystonia and five had dystonia with minor symptoms. Four patients received bilateral pallidal DBS. Mean age was 47 years. The patients were evaluated before surgery, and "on" stimulation after a mean of 2.5 years (range 1-3) using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden scale (BFM). Mean BFM score decreased by 79 % on stimulation, from 42.5 +/- 24 to 9 +/- 6.5 at the last evaluation. Cervical involvement improved by 89%. The 2 patients with oromandibular dystonia and blepharospasm demonstrated a reduction of 95% regarding these symptoms. The present study confirms the effectiveness of pallidal DBS in a new family with hereditary primary segmental and generalized dystonia.

  • 7.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Lindvall, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Olivecrona, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Hariz, Marwan I.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Reoperation after failed deep brain stimulation for essential tremor2012Inngår i: World Neurosurgery, ISSN 1878-8750, Vol. 78, nr 5, s. 554.e1-554.e5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of reoperation with deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the caudal zona incerta (cZi) in patients with failed DBS in the ventral intermediate (Vim) nucleus of the thalamus for essential tremor. METHODS: The results of reoperation with cZi DBS in five patients with failed Vim DBS were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Two patients had early failure of Vim DBS, and three after several years of good effect. The mean deviation from the atlas Vim target point was 1.4 mm. Before the reoperation Vim DBS improved hand function and tremor in the treated hand at 25 %, whereas cZi DBS achieved an improvement of 57%. Although cZi was more efficient than Vim DBS, also in the patients with late failure of Vim DBS, they still exhibited a considerable residual tremor on cZi DBS. CONCLUSIONS: The effect on tremor was, in this small sample population, improved by implanting an electrode in the cZi. The effect was modest in those patients suffering a deterioration years after the initial operation.

  • 8.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Sandvik, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Hariz, Marwan
    UCL Insitute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, Uk.
    Fytagoridis, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Hariz, Gun-Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Arbetsterapi.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Influence of age, gender and severity of tremor on outcome after thalamic and subthalamic DBS for essential tremor2011Inngår i: Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, ISSN 1353-8020, E-ISSN 1873-5126, Vol. 17, nr 8, s. 617-620Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for essential tremor (ET). The nucleus ventralis intermedius thalami (Vim) is the target of choice, but promising results have been presented regarding DBS in the posterior subthalamic area (PSA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of gender, age and severity of disease on the outcome of these procedures. Sixty eight patients (34 Vim, 34 PSA) with ET were included in this non-randomised study. Evaluation using the Essential Tremor Rating Scale (ETRS) was performed before, and one year after surgery concerning PSA DBS, and at a mean of 28 ± 24 months concerning Vim DBS. Items 5/6 and 11-14 (hand tremor and hand function) were selected for analysis of tremor outcome. The efficacy of DBS on essential tremor was not related to age or gender. Nor was it associated with the severity of tremor when the percentual reduction of tremor on stimulation was taken into account. However, patients with a more severe tremor at baseline had a higher degree of residual tremor on stimulation. Tremor in the treated hand and hand function were improved with 70% in the Vim group and 89% in the PSA group.

  • 9.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Sandvik, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurologi.
    Fredricks, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurologi.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurologi.
    Hariz, Marwan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurokirurgi.
    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus versus the zona incerta in the treatment of essential tremor2011Inngår i: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 153, nr 12, s. 2329-2335Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for essential tremor (ET). Currently the ventrolateral thalamus is the target of choice, but the posterior subthalamic area (PSA), including the caudal zona incerta (cZi), has demonstrated promising results, and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been suggested as a third alternative. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of STN DBS in ET and to compare this to cZi DBS.

    Methods: Four patients with ET were implanted with two ipsilateral electrodes, one in the STN and one in the cZi. All contacts were evaluated concerning the acute effect on tremor, and the effect of chronic DBS in either target was analyzed.

    Results: STN and cZi both proved to be potent targets for DBS in ET. DBS in the cZi was more efficient, since the same degree of tremor reduction could here be achieved at lower energy consumption. Three patients became tremor-free in the treated hand with either STN or cZi DBS, while the fourth had a minor residual tremor after stimulation in either target.

    Conclusion: In this limited material, STN DBS was demonstrated to be an efficient treatment for ET, even though cZi DBS was more efficient. The STN may be an alternative target in the treatment of ET, pending further investigations to decide on the relative merits of the different targets.

  • 10.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Stenmark Persson, Rasmus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Hariz, Gun-Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Arbetsterapi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Fredricks, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Häggström, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Philipsson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Hariz, Marwan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap. Unit of Functional Neurosurgery, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK.
    Deep brain stimulation in the caudal zona incerta versus best medical treatment in patients with Parkinson's disease: a randomised blinded evaluation2018Inngår i: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, ISSN 0022-3050, E-ISSN 1468-330X, Vol. 89, nr 7, s. 710-716Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several open-label studies have shown good effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the caudal zona incerta (cZi) on tremor, including parkinsonian tremor, and in some cases also a benefit on akinesia and axial symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate objectively the effect of cZi DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).

    Method: 25 patients with PD were randomised to either cZi DBS or best medical treatment. The primary outcomes were differences between the groups in the motor scores of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III) rated single-blindly at 6 months and differences in the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire 39 items (PDQ-39). 19 patients, 10 in the medical arm and 9 in the DBS arm, fulfilled the study.

    Results: The DBS group had 41% better UPDRS-III scores off-medication on-stimulation compared with baseline, whereas the scores of the non-surgical patients off-medication were unchanged. In the on-medication condition, there were no differences between the groups, neither at baseline nor at 6 months. Subitems of the UPDRS-III showed a robust effect of cZi DBS on tremor. The PDQ-39 domains 'stigma' and 'ADL' improved only in the DBS group. The PDQ-39 summary index improved in both groups.

    Conclusion: This is the first randomised blinded evaluation of cZi DBS showing its efficacy on PD symptoms. The most striking effect was on tremor; however, the doses of dopaminergic medications could not be decreased. cZi DBS in PD may be an addition to existing established targets, enabling tailoring the surgery to the needs of the individual patient.

  • 11. Bolin, Kristian
    et al.
    Berggren, F
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurologi.
    Lacosamide as treatment of epileptic seizures: cost utility results for Sweden2010Inngår i: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 121, nr 6, s. 406-412Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The estimated cost per QALY gained falls within the range of reported estimates of the willingness-to-pay for an additional QALY. The results imply that lacosamide is cost-effective in the treatment of uncontrolled partial-onset seizures (1 euro approximately 9.6 SEK).

  • 12. Bolin, Kristian
    et al.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    The Cost Effectiveness of Newer Epilepsy Treatments A Review of the Literature on Partial-Onset Seizures2012Inngår i: PharmacoEconomics (Auckland), ISSN 1170-7690, E-ISSN 1179-2027, Vol. 30, nr 10, s. 903-923Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objective: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders, affecting more than 3 million people in Europe. This paper reviews the published evidence regarding the cost effectiveness of second-generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Methods: A systematic literature search was performed, using the databases Academic Search Complete, Econlit, EMBASE and MEDLINE. Health economic evaluations of newer (second-generation) AEDs, published as full-length journal articles, were searched for. We focused on evaluations of newer AEDs as treatment for partial-onset seizures. 470 studies were initially identified and 19 were finally included. Information regarding (i) AEDs studied, (ii) cost effectiveness, and (iii) a variety of health economic modelling specifics was extracted from each study. Then, the included studies were summarized and a quality assessment was performed, according to the British Medical Journal's guidelines for economic studies. Results: The results were as follows: (i) the cost per additional QALY for newer AEDs used as adjunctive treatment, compared with standard therapy, ranged between $US19 139 (levetiracetam) and $US57 210 (pregabalin) [year 2010 values]; no cost-effectiveness evidence was identified for felbamate, eslicarbazepine, oxcarbazepine or tiagabine; and (ii) all studies met at least 60% of the British Medical Journal's guidelines criteria, and seven studies were found to satisfy more than 80% of the criteria. Guidelines criteria not met involve inadequate reporting of input data and modelling details, including validation and availability of models used for cost-effectiveness calculations. Conclusions: Although failure to meet good practice guidelines influences the reliability of the presented evidence adversely, a sufficient number of the included studies were found to comply enough with the guidelines in order for the qualitative content of the cost-effectiveness results that some of the newer AEDs are cost effective to be reliable. In fact, this conclusion is likely to be relatively robust, since the effect of improved seizure control on labour market performance was not included in the base-case results in any of the included studies and improved seizure control need only to have a moderate effect on sickness absenteeism in order for the corresponding treatment to be cost effective even when willingness to pay for an additional QALY is low. However, the cost effectiveness of newer AEDs has only been studied for a small number of settings, and hence future studies incorporating additional settings are needed.

  • 13. Bryan, Thomas
    et al.
    Luo, Xiliang
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Davis, Jason J.
    The robust electrochemical detection of a Parkinson's disease marker in whole blood sera2012Inngår i: Chemical Science, ISSN 2041-6520, Vol. 3, nr 12, s. 3468-3473Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Protein aggregation, leading to amyloid deposition in the brain, is implicated in the pathology of a number of increasingly prevalent neurodegeneration states such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease and prion diseases. The body's protective response to the formation of such deposits is to generate specific autoimmune antibodies. Alpha-synuclein, a natively unfolded protein relatively abundant in the brain, is the main constituent of Lewy body amyloid dispositions in PD. Previous assays determining content of alpha-synuclein in bodily fluids have proven to be largely inconclusive. Here we have taken a novel approach in utilising alpha-synuclein modified electrodes to sample the autoantibodies generated as the body responds to changes in its homeostasis. We show that these electroanalytical assays not only robustly distinguish between disease state and control individuals but also map out disease progression with unprecedented sensitivity and clarity. The impedimetric electrode surfaces are highly specific, reusable, exhibit a linear range from 0.5 to 10 nM and a detection limit of 55 +/- 3 pM. We believe electroanalyses such as these, possible with less than 10 microlitres of fluid and a total assay time of only a few minutes, to be of value for early diagnosis of PD and possibly other alpha-synucleinopathies, and for monitoring disease progression and effects of possible disease modifying interventions.

  • 14.
    Brännström, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Lindhagen-Persson, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Gharibyan, Anna L.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Iakovleva, Irina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Vestling, Monika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Sellin, Mikael E.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Brännström, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Olofsson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    A Generic Method for Design of Oligomer-Specific Antibodies2014Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. e90857-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibodies that preferentially and specifically target pathological oligomeric protein and peptide assemblies, as opposed to their monomeric and amyloid counterparts, provide therapeutic and diagnostic opportunities for protein misfolding diseases. Unfortunately, the molecular properties associated with oligomer-specific antibodies are not well understood, and this limits targeted design and development. We present here a generic method that enables the design and optimisation of oligomer-specific antibodies. The method takes a two-step approach where discrimination between oligomers and fibrils is first accomplished through identification of cryptic epitopes exclusively buried within the structure of the fibrillar form. The second step discriminates between monomers and oligomers based on differences in avidity. We show here that a simple divalent mode of interaction, as within e. g. the IgG isotype, can increase the binding strength of the antibody up to 1500 times compared to its monovalent counterpart. We expose how the ability to bind oligomers is affected by the monovalent affinity and the turnover rate of the binding and, importantly, also how oligomer specificity is only valid within a specific concentration range. We provide an example of the method by creating and characterising a spectrum of different monoclonal antibodies against both the A beta peptide and alpha-synuclein that are associated with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, respectively. The approach is however generic, does not require identification of oligomer-specific architectures, and is, in essence, applicable to all polypeptides that form oligomeric and fibrillar assemblies.

  • 15.
    Bäckström, David C
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Eriksson Domellöf, Magdalena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Olsson, Bob
    Öhrfelt, Annika
    Trupp, Miles
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Blennow, Kaj
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Cerebrospinal Fluid Patterns and the Risk of Future Dementia in Early, Incident Parkinson Disease2015Inngår i: JAMA Neurology, ISSN 2168-6149, E-ISSN 2168-6157, Vol. 72, nr 10, s. 1175-1182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE: Alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been found in Parkinson disease (PD) and in PD dementia (PDD), but the prognostic importance of such changes is not well known. In vivo biomarkers for disease processes in PD are important for future development of disease-modifying therapies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of a panel of CSF biomarkers in patients with early PD and related disorders. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Regional population-based, prospective cohort study of idiopathic parkinsonism that included patients diagnosed between January 1, 2004, and April 30, 2009, by amovement disorder team at a university hospital that represented the only neurology clinic in the region. Participants were 128 nondemented patients with new-onset parkinsonism (104 with PD, 11 with multiple system atrophy, and 13 with progressive supranuclear palsy) who were followed up for 5 to 9 years. At baseline, CSF from 30 healthy control participants was obtained for comparison. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of neurofilament light chain protein, Aβ1-42, total tau, phosphorylated tau, α-synuclein, and heart fatty acid-binding protein were quantified by 2 blinded measurements (at baseline and after 1 year). Follow-up included an extensive neuropsychological assessment. As PD outcome variables, mild cognitive impairment and incident PDD were diagnosed based on published criteria. RESULTS: Among the 128 study participants, the 104 patients with early PD had a different CSF pattern compared with the 13 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (baseline area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.87; P < .0001) and the 30 control participants (baseline area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.69; P = .0021). A CSF biomarker pattern associated with the development of PDD was observed. In PD, high neurofilament light chain protein, low Aβ1-42, and high heart fatty acid-binding protein at baseline were related to future PDD as analyzed by Cox proportional hazards regression models. Combined, these early biomarkers predicted PDD with high accuracy (hazard ratio, 11.8; 95% CI, 3.3-42.1; P = .0001) after adjusting for possible confounders. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The analyzed CSF biomarkers have potential usefulness as a diagnostic tool in patients with parkinsonism. In PD, high neurofilament light chain protein, low Aβ1-42, and high heart fatty acid-binding protein were related to future PDD, providing new insights into the etiology of PDD.

  • 16.
    Bäckström, David C
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Jakobson Mo, Susanna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Blennow, Kaj
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Lenfeldt, Niklas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Neurofilament concentration in CSF correlates with disease severity, survival and imaging measures of neurodegeneration in incident Parkinson diseaseManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Bäckström, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Eriksson Domellöf, Magdalena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Granåsen, Gabriel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Mayans, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Elgh, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jakobson Mo, Susanna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    PITX3 genotype and risk of dementia in Parkinson's disease: A population-based study2017Inngår i: Journal of the Neurological Sciences, ISSN 0022-510X, E-ISSN 1878-5883, Vol. 381, s. 278-284Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dementia is a devastating manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study investigates whether a common polymorphism in the PITX3 gene (rs2281983), which is of importance for the function of dopaminergic neurons, affects the risk of developing dementia in PD and whether it affects dopamine transporter (DAT) uptake. We PITX3 genotyped 133 patients with new-onset, idiopathic PD, participating in a population-based study in Sweden. Patients were followed prospectively during 6-11 years with extensive investigations, including neuropsychology and DAT-imaging with I-123 FP-CIT. The primary outcome was the incidence of PD dementia (PDD), diagnosed according to published criteria, studied by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards. Performance in individual cognitive domains, the incidence of visual hallucinations, disease progression and striatal DAT uptake on imaging was also investigated. PD patients carrying the PITX3 C allele had an increased risk of developing PDD (hazard ratio: 2.87, 95% CI: 1.42-5.81, p = 0.003), compared to the PD patients homozygous for the T-allele. Furthermore, the PITX3 C allele carriers with PD had a poorer cognitive performance in the visuospatial domain (p < 0.001) and a higher incidence of visual hallucinations. A trend towards a lower striatal DAT uptake in the PITX3 C allele carriers was suggested, but could not be confirmed. Our results show that a common polymorphism in the PITX3 gene affects the risk of developing PDD and visuospatial dysfunction in idiopathic PD. If validated, these findings can provide new insights into the neurobiology and genetics of non-motor symptoms in PD.

  • 18.
    Bäckström, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Eriksson Domellöf, Magdalena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Granåsen, Gabriel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Mayans, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Elgh, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Zetterberg, H.
    Blennow, K.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Polymorphisms in dopamine-associated genes and cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease2018Inngår i: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 137, nr 1, s. 91-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Cognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the underlying mechanisms for this complication are incompletely understood. Genotypes affecting dopamine transmission may be of importance. This study investigates whether genotypes associated with reduced prefrontal dopaminergic tone and/or reduced dopamine D2-receptor availability (Catechol-O-methyltransferase [COMT] Val(158)Met genotype and DRD2 (CT)-T-957 genotype) affect the development of cognitive deficits in PD.

    Materials and methods: One hundred and 34 patients with idiopathic PD, participating in a regional, population-based study of incident parkinsonism, underwent genotyping. After extensive baseline investigations (including imaging and biomarker analyses), the patients were followed prospectively during 6-10 years with neuropsychological evaluations, covering six cognitive domains. Cognitive decline (defined as the incidence of either Parkinson's disease mild cognitive impairment [PD-MCI] or dementia [PDD], diagnosed according to published criteria and blinded to genotype) was studied as the primary outcome.

    Results: Both genotypes affected cognition, as shown by Cox proportional hazards models. While the COMT(158)Val/Val genotype conferred an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment in patients with normal cognition at baseline (hazard ratio: 2.13, P=.023), the DRD2(957)T/T genotype conferred an overall increased risk of PD dementia (hazard ratio: 3.22, P<.001). The poorer cognitive performance in DRD2(957)T/T carriers with PD occurred mainly in episodic memory and attention.

    Conclusions: The results favor the hypothesis that dopamine deficiency in PD not only relate to mild cognitive deficits in frontostriatal functions, but also to a decline in memory and attention. This could indicate that dopamine deficiency impairs a wide network of brain areas.

  • 19.
    Bäckström, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Granåsen, Gabriel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Eriksson Domellöf, Magdalenax
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Jakobson Mo, Susanna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Blennow, Kaj
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Early predictors of mortality in parkinsonism and Parkinson disease: A population-based study2018Inngår i: Neurology, ISSN 0028-3878, E-ISSN 1526-632X, Vol. 91, nr 22, s. E2045-E2056Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To examine mortality and associated risk factors, including possible effects of mild cognitive impairment, imaging, and CSF abnormalities, in a community-based population with incident parkinsonism and Parkinson disease. Methods One hundred eighty-two patients with new-onset, idiopathic parkinsonism were diagnosed from January 2004 through April 2009, in a catchment area of 142,000 inhabitants in Sweden. Patients were comprehensively investigated according to a multimodal research protocol and followed prospectively for up to 13.5 years. A total of 109 patients died. Mortality rates in the general Swedish population were used to calculate standardized mortality ratio and expected survival, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to investigate independent predictors of mortality. Results The standardized mortality ratio for all patients was 1.84 (95% confidence interval 1.50-2.22, p < 0.001). Patients with atypical parkinsonism (multiple system atrophy or progressive supranuclear palsy) had the highest mortality. In early Parkinson disease, a mild cognitive impairment diagnosis, freezing of gait, hyposmia, reduced dopamine transporter activity in the caudate, and elevated leukocytes in the CSF were significantly associated with shorter survival. Conclusion Although patients presenting with idiopathic parkinsonism have reduced survival, the survival is highly dependent on the type and characteristics of the parkinsonian disorder. Patients with Parkinson disease presenting with normal cognitive function seem to have a largely normal life expectancy. The finding of a subtle CSF leukocytosis in patients with Parkinson disease with short survival may have clinical implications.

  • 20.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Nylander, P-O
    Hellman, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Forsman-Semb, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Holmgren, Gösta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Holmberg, Dan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Holmberg, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Identification of a susceptibility locus for migraine with and without aura on 6p12.2-p21.1.2002Inngår i: Neurology, ISSN 0028-3878, E-ISSN 1526-632X, Vol. 59, nr 11, s. 1804-1807Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Migraine is the most common type of chronic episodic headache. To find novel susceptibility genes for familial migraine with and without aura, a genomewide screen was performed in a large family from northern Sweden. Evidence of linkage was obtained on chromosome 6p12.2-p21.1, with a maximum two-point lod score of 5.41 for marker D6S452. The patients with migraine shared a common haplotype of 10 Mb between markers D6S1650 and D6S1960.

  • 21.
    Degerman, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Domellöf, Magdalena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Landfors, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Lundin, Mathias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Haraldsson, Susann
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Elgh, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Roos, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Long Leukocyte Telomere Length at Diagnosis Is a Risk Factor for Dementia Progression in Idiopathic Parkinsonism2014Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 12, artikkel-id e113387Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Telomere length (TL) is regarded as a marker of cellular aging due to the gradual shortening by each cell division, but is influenced by a number of factors including oxidative stress and inflammation. Parkinson's disease and atypical forms of parkinsonism occur mainly in the elderly, with oxidative stress and inflammation in afflicted cells. In this study the relationship between blood TL and prognosis of 168 patients with idiopathic parkinsonism (136 Parkinson's disease [PD], 17 Progressive Supranuclear Palsy [PSP], and 15 Multiple System Atrophy [MSA]) and 30 controls was investigated. TL and motor and cognitive performance were assessed at baseline (diagnosis) and repeatedly up to three to five years follow up. No difference in TL between controls and patients was shown at baseline, nor any significant difference in TL stability or attrition during follow up. Interestingly, a significant relationship between TL at diagnosis and cognitive phenotype at follow up in PD and PSP patients was found, with longer mean TL at diagnosis in patients that developed dementia within three years.

  • 22.
    Domellof, Magdalena Eriksson
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Elgh, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    The relation between cognition and motor dysfunction in drug-naive newly diagnosed patients with parkinson's disease2011Inngår i: Movement Disorders, ISSN 0885-3185, E-ISSN 1531-8257, Vol. 26, nr 12, s. 2183-2189Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have reported cognitive decline to be common in the early phase of Parkinson's disease. Imaging data connect working memory and executive functioning to the dopamine system. It has also been suggested that bradykinesia is the clinical manifestation most closely related to the nigrostriatal lesion. Exploring the relationship between motor dysfunction and cognition can help us find shared or overlapping systems serving different functions. This relationship has been sparsely investigated in population-based studies of untreated Parkinson's disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between motor signs and cognitive performance in the early stages of Parkinson's disease before the intake of dopaminergic medication. Patients were identified in a population-based study of incident cases with idiopathic parkinsonism. Patients with the postural instability and gait disturbances phenotype were compared with patients with the tremor-dominant phenotype on demographics and cognitive measures. Associations between cognitive and motor scores were investigated, with age, education, and sex controlled for. Bradykinesia was associated with working memory and mental flexibility, whereas axial signs were associated with episodic memory and visuospatial functioning. No significant differences in the neuropsychological variables were found between the postural instability and gait disturbances phenotype and the tremor phenotype. Our results indicate a shared system for slow movement and inflexible thinking that may be controlled by a dopaminergic network different from dopaminergic networks involved in tremor and/or rigidity. The association between axial signs and memory and visuospatial function may point to overlapping systems or pathologies related to these abilities.

    (C) 2011 Movement Disorder Society

  • 23.
    Domellöf, Magdalena E
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Ekman, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Elgh, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Cognitive function in the early phase of Parkinson's disease, a five-year follow-up2015Inngår i: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 132, nr 2, s. 79-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Presence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as a predictor for Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) has been discussed from a clinical perspective. Recently, a Movement Disorder Society (MDS) commissioned Task Force published guidelines for PD-MCI. However, long-term follow-ups of the PD-MCI guidelines for the prediction of PDD have been sparse.

    METHOD: In a community-based cohort of PD, the MDS guidelines for PD-MCI and consensus criteria for PDD were applied on 147 subjects. The predictive ability of PD-MCI for PDD was investigated. Additionally, baseline comparisons were conducted between MCI that converted to PDD and those who did not, and evolvement of motor function was investigated.

    RESULTS: One fourth of the population developed PDD. MCI and age at baseline predicted later occurrence of PDD, and baseline results of tests measuring episodic memory, visuospatial function, semantic fluency, and mental flexibility differed between MCI converters and non-converters. Postural instability/gait (PIGD) phenotype and education did not predict later occurrence of PDD, but increased postural/gait disturbances were shown across time in those developing dementia.

    CONCLUSION: The new PD-MCI guidelines are useful to detect patients at risk for developing PDD. The PIGD phenotype at diagnosis was not a predictor of PDD within 5 years, but the study supports a temporal association between postural/gait disturbances and PDD. Older patients with PD-MCI at baseline with decline in episodic memory, semantic fluency, and mental flexibility need to be carefully monitored regarding cognition and likely also for fall risk.

  • 24.
    Domellöf, Magdalena E
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Elgh, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Persistence of associations between cognitive impairment and motor dysfunction in the early phase of Parkinson's disease2013Inngår i: Journal of Neurology, ISSN 0340-5354, E-ISSN 1432-1459, Vol. 260, nr 9, s. 2228-2236Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between cognitive and motor functions in Parkinson's disease is not fully understood. In an incidence population of newly diagnosed drug na < ve patients with Parkinson's disease, associations were found between the degree of bradykinesia and postural instability and gait disturbances, measured by the Unified Disease Rating Scale, and different types of cognitive functions. To investigate the stability of these associations over time, we explored the association of differences between baseline and 1-year follow-up in 91 incident cases with Parkinson's disease. The magnitude of change between the two assessments was assessed together with analysis of differences based on which dopaminergic medication was used. Change in bradykinesia was associated with change in working memory and mental flexibility. Changes in postural instability and gait disturbances were associated with change in visuospatial memory. A negative effect of the dopamine agonist pramipexole on phonemic fluency performance was found compared to treatment with other dopaminergic drugs. Change in cognitive and motor functions were associated from time of diagnosis until 1 year after diagnosis. These persisting findings strengthen results from a previous cross-sectional study suggesting similar associations. The effects of dopamine agonists on phonemic fluency should be investigated further.

  • 25.
    Domellöf, Magdalena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Ekman, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Elgh, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Cognitive function in the early phase of Parkinson's disease, a longitudinal follow-upManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 26. Ekman, Mattias
    et al.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurologi.
    Economic evidence in epilepsy: a review.2004Inngår i: Eur J Health Econ, ISSN 1618-7598, Vol. 5 Suppl 1, s. S36-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27.
    Ekman, Urban
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Domellöf, Magdalena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Elgh, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Longitudinal changes in task-evoked brain responses in Parkinson's disease patients with and without mild cognitive impairment2014Inngår i: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 207Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive deficits are common in Parkinson's disease. Previous cross-sectional research has demonstrated a link between cognitive impairments and fronto-striatal dopaminergic dysmodulation. However, longitudinal studies that link disease progression with altered task-evoked brain activity are lacking. Therefore, our objective was to longitudinally evaluate working-memory related brain activity changes in Parkinson's disease patients with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Patients were recruited within a longitudinal cohort study of incident patients with idiopathic parkinsonism. We longitudinally (at baseline examination and at 12-months follow-up) compared 28 patients with Parkinson's disease without MCI with 11 patients with Parkinson's disease and MCI. Functional MRI blood oxygen level dependent signal was measured during a verbal two-back working-memory task. Patients with MCI under-recruited bilateral medial prefrontal cortex at both time-points (main effect of group: p < 0.001, uncorrected). Critically, a significant group-by-time interaction effect (p < 0.001, uncorrected) was found in the right fusiform gyrus, indicating that working-memory related activity decreased for patients with Parkinson's disease and MCI between baseline and follow-up, while patients without MCI were stable across time-points. The functional connectivity between right fusiform gyrus and bilateral caudate nucleus was stronger for patients without MCI relative to patients with MCI. Our findings support the view that deficits in working-memory updating are related to persistent fronto-striatal under-recruitments in patients with early phase Parkinson's disease and MCI. The longitudinal evolution of MCI in Parkinson's disease translates into additional task-evoked posterior cortical changes.

  • 28.
    Ekman, Urban
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Jakobson Mo, Susanna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Functional brain activity and presynaptic dopamine uptake in patients with Parkinson's disease and mild cognitive impairment: a cross-sectional study2012Inngår i: Lancet Neurology, ISSN 1474-4422, E-ISSN 1474-4465, Vol. 11, nr 8, s. 679-687Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many patients with Parkinson's disease have mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Deficits in executive functions and working memory suggest dysfunctional frontostriatal brain circuitry. We aimed to assess brain responses during a working memory task in a cohort of newly diagnosed drug-naive patients with Parkinson's disease with and without MCI.

    Methods: Participants were recruited within a prospective cohort study of incident patients with idiopathic parkinsonism, including Parkinson's disease. Between Jan 1, 2004, and April 30, 2009, all physicians in the Umea catchment area were requested to refer all individuals with suspected parkinsonism to the Department of Neurology at lima University. Included patients fulfilled the UK Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank clinical diagnostic criteria for Parkinson's disease. Control individuals were matched on the basis of age and sex with the first 50 patients included in the study. Participants who scored 1.5 SDs or more below the population mean on at least two cognitive measures were diagnosed with MCI. The primary outcome measures were functional MRI blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal and SPECT presynaptic uptake. Functional MRI was done during a verbal two-back working memory task. Presynaptic dopamine SPECT was done to assess presynaptic striatal dopaminergic system integrity. Event-related transient analyses of functional MRI data were done for the whole brain and for frontostriatal regions of interest, and semi-quantitative SPECT analyses were done for striatal regions of interest.

    Findings: Compared with controls (n=24), patients with Parkinson's disease (n=77) had under-recruitment in an extensive brain network including bilateral striatal and frontal regions (p<0.001). Within the Parkinson's disease group, patients with Parkinson's disease and MCI (n=30) had additional under-recruitment in the right dorsal caudate nucleus (p=0.005) and the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (p<0.001) compared with patients with Parkinson's disease without MCI (n=26). In patients with Parkinson's disease and MCI, SPECT uptake in the right caudate was lower than in patients with Parkinson's disease without MCI (p=0.008) and correlated with striatal functional MRI blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal (r=0.32, p=0.031).

    Interpretation: These altered brain responses in patients with Parkinson's disease and MCI suggest that cognitive impairment is linked to frontostriatal dysfunction.

  • 29.
    Elgh, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Domellöf, Magdalena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Edström, Mona
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Cognitive function in early Parkinson's disease: a population-based study2009Inngår i: European Journal of Neurology, ISSN 1351-5101, E-ISSN 1468-1331, Vol. 16, nr 12, s. 1278-1284Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The study aims to describe the frequency, pattern and determinants of cognitive function in patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease (PD); to compare patients with impaired cognition to patients with intact cognition; and to compare to matched healthy controls.

    METHODS: Patients were identified in a longitudinal population based study of idiopathic non-drug induced parkinsonism. Eighty-eight newly diagnosed patients with PD and no dementia were included during a four year period. The patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment.

    RESULTS: Patients performed significantly worse than healthy controls in a majority of neuropsychological tests. Test results in attention, psychomotor function, episodic memory (free recall), executive function and category fluency were significantly lower in the patient group. Comparison with normative data revealed that 30% of the patients had deficits in > or =1 cognitive domain (episodic memory, executive function and verbal function). Seventy per cent of the patients had normal performance. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III sub scores; speech, facial expression, rigidity and bradykinesia were significantly higher, and disease duration shorter amongst the cognitively impaired than amongst the cognitively intact patients. Tremor showed no difference. Education level was an independent predictor of dysfunction in patients with > or =2 cognitive domains affected.

    CONCLUSION: Cognitive dysfunction is common in untreated patients in early PD, affecting attention, psychomotor function, episodic memory, executive function and category fluency. Education level was an independent predictor of severe cognitive dysfunction.

  • 30.
    Eriksson Domellöf, Magdalena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Lundin, Karl-Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Edström, Mona
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Olfactory dysfunction and dementia in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease2017Inngår i: Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, ISSN 1353-8020, E-ISSN 1873-5126, Vol. 38, s. 41-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Studies report that up to 90% of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) have olfactory dysfunction (hyposmia). Hyposmia has also been connected to cognitive impairment and dementia in PD, but no studies of newly diagnosed patients followed longer than three years exists. The present study investigates the prevalence of olfactory dysfunction at PD diagnosis, how it evolves over time and whether hyposmia increases the risk of dementia in Parkinson's disease.

    METHODS: Olfactory function was assessed with Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT) in 125 newly diagnosed patients with PD. They were followed for a maximum of 10 years (median six years) with extensive investigations at baseline, 12, 36, 60 and 96 months. Patients with B-SIT<9 were considered hyposmic.

    RESULTS: Hyposmia was found in 73% of the patients at diagnosis. During the follow up period of ten years 42 (46%) patients with hyposmia at baseline developed dementia compared to seven (21%) of the normosmic patients. Cox proportional hazards model showed that hyposmia at baseline (controlled for age, gender, UPDRS III and Mild Cognitive Impairment) increased the risk of developing dementia (hazard ratio (95%CI): 3.29 (1.44-7.52), p = 0.005). Only one of 22 patients with normal cognition and normal olfaction at baseline developed dementia.

    CONCLUSIONS: Olfactory dysfunction was common at the time of PD diagnosis and increased the risk of dementia up to ten years after PD diagnosis regardless of baseline cognitive function. Normal olfaction together with normal cognition at baseline predicted a benign cognitive course up to ten years after diagnosis.

  • 31. Feigin, V
    et al.
    Brainin, M
    Breteler, M M B
    Martyn, C
    Wolfe, C
    Bornstein, N
    Fieschi, C
    Sevcik, P
    Lima, M L
    Boysen, G
    Beghi, E
    Tzourio, C
    Demarin, V
    Gusev, E
    López-Pousa, S
    Forsgren, L
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurologi.
    Teaching of neuroepidemiology in Europe: time for action.2004Inngår i: Eur J Neurol, ISSN 1351-5101, Vol. 11, nr 12, s. 795-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 32. Fisher, Robert S.
    et al.
    Acevedo, Carlos
    Arzimanoglou, Alexis
    Bogacz, Alicia
    Cross, J. Helen
    Elger, Christian E.
    Engel, Jerome, Jr.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    French, Jacqueline A.
    Glynn, Mike
    Hesdorffer, Dale C.
    Lee, B. I.
    Mathern, Gary W.
    Moshe, Solomon L.
    Perucca, Emilio
    Scheffer, Ingrid E.
    Tomson, Torbjorn
    Watanabe, Masako
    Wiebe, Samuel
    ILAE official report: a practical clinical definition of epilepsy2014Inngår i: Epilepsia, ISSN 0013-9580, E-ISSN 1528-1167, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 475-482Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Epilepsy was defined conceptually in 2005 as a disorder of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. This definition is usually practically applied as having two unprovoked seizures >24h apart. The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) accepted recommendations of a task force altering the practical definition for special circumstances that do not meet the two unprovoked seizures criteria. The task force proposed that epilepsy be considered to be a disease of the brain defined by any of the following conditions: (1) At least two unprovoked (or reflex) seizures occurring >24h apart; (2) one unprovoked (or reflex) seizure and a probability of further seizures similar to the general recurrence risk (at least 60%) after two unprovoked seizures, occurring over the next 10years; (3) diagnosis of an epilepsy syndrome. Epilepsy is considered to be resolved for individuals who either had an age-dependent epilepsy syndrome but are now past the applicable age or who have remained seizure-free for the last 10years and off antiseizure medicines for at least the last 5years. "Resolved" is not necessarily identical to the conventional view of "remission or "cure." Different practical definitions may be formed and used for various specific purposes. This revised definition of epilepsy brings the term in concordance with common use. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section.

  • 33. Fisher, Robert S.
    et al.
    Acevedo, Carlos
    Arzimanoglou, Alexis
    Bogacz, Alicia
    Cross, J. Helen
    Elger, Christian E.
    Engel, Jerome, Jr.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    French, Jacqueline A.
    Hesdorffer, Dale C.
    Lee, Byung-In
    Mathern, Gary W.
    Moshe, Solomon L.
    Perucca, Emilio
    Scheffer, Ingrid E.
    Tomson, Torbjorn
    Watanabe, Masako
    Wiebe, Samuel
    How long for epilepsy remission in the ILAE definition?2017Inngår i: Epilepsia, ISSN 0013-9580, E-ISSN 1528-1167, Vol. 58, nr 8, s. 1486-1487Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 34.
    Forsgren, L
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurologi.
    Epidemiology and Prognosis of Epilepsy and its Treatment2004Inngår i: The Treatment of Epilepsy, Blackwell Science, Oxford , 2004Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 35.
    Forsgren, L
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurologi.
    Incidence and prevalence2004Inngår i: Epilepsy in Children, Arnold, London , 2004Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 36.
    Forsgren, L
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurologi.
    Beghi, E
    Oun, A
    Sillanpää, M
    The epidemiology of epilepsy in Europe - a systematic review.2005Inngår i: Eur J Neurol, ISSN 1351-5101, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 245-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 37.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    An enigmatic neuropathy at the Swedish House of Parliament in the early 20th century2012Inngår i: European Journal of Neurology, ISSN 1351-5101, E-ISSN 1468-1331, Vol. 19, s. 841-841Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Forsgren, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Ghanean, Helia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Richter, Jorg
    On the experience of stigma by persons with epilepsy in Sweden and Iran: a comparative study2013Inngår i: Seizure, ISSN 1059-1311, E-ISSN 1532-2688, Vol. 22, nr 9, s. 748-751Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to compare the experience of stigma by persons with epilepsy in Sweden and Iran.

    METHOD: An adapted version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale was completed by 130 persons with epilepsy in Tehran and 93 patients at a neurology clinic in Sweden.

    RESULTS: The Swedish subjects reported a significantly lower level of experienced stigmatization than the Iranian patients, which we think is an effect of a more individualized medical treatment and a longer experience of health education in the Swedish society.

    CONCLUSION: Improved seizure control, legislative measures and health education are major contributory factors for stigma reduction in a society as regards epilepsy and probably also other medical conditions.

  • 39.
    Forsgren, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurologi.
    Hauser, W Allen
    Olafsson, Elias
    Sander, J W A S
    Sillanpää, Matti
    Tomson, Torbjörn
    Mortality of epilepsy in developed countries: a review.2005Inngår i: Epilepsia, ISSN 0013-9580, Vol. 46 Suppl 11, s. 18-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 40.
    Forsgren, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurologi.
    Hesdorffer, Dale
    Epidemiology and Prognosis of Epilepsy2009Inngår i: The Treatment of Epilepsy / [ed] Shorvon, Simon D.; Perucca, Emilio; Engel, Jerome, Wiley-Blackwell , 2009, 3rd, s. 21-31Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 41. Gallo, Valentina
    et al.
    Brayne, Carol
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Barker, Roger A
    Petersson, Jesper
    Hansson, Oskar
    Lindqvist, Daniel
    Ruffmann, Claudio
    Ishihara, Lianna
    Luben, Robert
    Arriola, Larraitz
    Bergareche, Alberto
    Gavrila, Diana
    Erro, Maria Elena
    Vanacore, Nicola
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Bueno-De-Mesquita, Bas
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Seelen, Meinie
    Sieri, Sabina
    Masala, Giovanna
    Ramat, Silvia
    Kyrozis, Andreas
    Thricopolou, Antonia
    Panico, Salvatore
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Teucher, Birgit
    Katzke, Verena
    Kloss, Manja
    Curry, Lisa
    Calboli, Federico
    Riboli, Elio
    Vineis, Paolo
    Middleton, Lefkos
    Parkinson's Disease Case Ascertainment in the EPIC Cohort: The NeuroEPIC4PD Study2015Inngår i: Neurodegenerative Diseases, ISSN 1660-2854, E-ISSN 1660-2862, Vol. 15, nr 6, s. 331-338Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aims: Large epidemiological prospective studies represent an important opportunity for investigating risk factors for rare diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we describe the procedures we used for ascertaining PD cases in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. Methods: The following three-phase procedure was used: (1) elaboration of a NeuroEPIC4PD template for clinical data collection, (2) identification of all potential PD cases via record linkage and (3) validation of the diagnosis through clinical record revision, in a population of 220,494 subjects recruited in 7 European countries. All cases were labelled with the NeuroEPIC4PD diagnoses of 'definite', 'very likely', 'probable', or 'possible' PD. Results: A total of 881 PD cases were identified, with over 2,741,780 person-years of follow-up (199 definite, 275 very likely, 146 probable, and 261 possible). Of these, 734 were incident cases. The mean age at diagnosis was 67.9 years (SD 9.2) and 458 patients (52.0%) were men. Bradykinesia was the most frequent presenting motor sign (76.5%). Tremor-dominant and akinetic rigid forms of PD were the most common types of PD. A total of 289 patients (32.8%) were dead at the time of the last follow-up. Conclusions: This exercise proved that it is feasible to ascertain PD in large population-based cohort studies and offers a potential framework to be replicated in similar studies.

  • 42. Gallo, Valentina
    et al.
    Vineis, Paolo
    Cancellieri, Mariagrazia
    Chiodini, Paolo
    Barker, Roger A.
    Brayne, Carol
    Pearce, Neil
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Panico, Salvatore
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Vanacore, Nicola
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Ramat, Silvia
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Arriola, Larraitz
    Peterson, Jesper
    Hansson, Oskar
    Gavrila, Diana
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Sieri, Sabina
    Kühn, Tilman
    Katzke, Verena A.
    van der Schouw, Yvonne T.
    Kyrozis, Andreas
    Masala, Giovanna
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Perneczky, Robert
    Middleton, Lefkos
    Saracci, Rodolfo
    Riboli, Elio
    Exploring causality of the association between smoking and Parkinson's disease2018Inngår i: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this paper is to investigate the causality of the inverse association between cigarette smoking and Parkinson's disease (PD). The main suggested alternatives include a delaying effect of smoking, reverse causality or an unmeasured confounding related to a low-risk-taking personality trait.

    Methods: A total of 715 incident PD cases were ascertained in a cohort of 220 494 individuals from NeuroEPIC4PD, a prospective European population-based cohort study including 13 centres in eight countries. Smoking habits were recorded at recruitment. We analysed smoking status, duration, and intensity and exposure to passive smoking in relation to PD onset.

    Results: Former smokers had a 20% decreased risk and current smokers a halved risk of developing PD compared with never smokers. Strong dose-response relationships with smoking intensity and duration were found. Hazard ratios (HRs) for smoking <20 years were 0.84 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-1.07], 20-29 years 0.73 (95% CI 0.56-0.96) and >30 years 0.54 (95% CI 0.43-0.36) compared with never smokers. The proportional hazard assumption was verified, showing no change of risk over time, arguing against a delaying effect. Reverse causality was disproved by the consistency of dose-response relationships among former and current smokers. The inverse association between passive smoking and PD, HR 0.70 (95% CI 0.49-0.99) ruled out the effect of unmeasured confounding.

    Conclusions: These results are highly suggestive of a true causal link between smoking and PD, although it is not clear which is the chemical compound in cigarette smoking responsible for the biological effect.

  • 43.
    Georgiev, Dejan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Arbetsterapi. Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia; Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Hariz, Marwan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap. Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Hariz, Gun-Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Gender differences in Parkinson's disease: a clinical perspective2017Inngår i: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 136, nr 6, s. 570-584Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Available data indicate that there are gender differences in many features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Precise identification of the gender differences is important to tailor treatment, predict outcomes, and meet other individual and social needs in women and men with PD. The aim of this study was to review the available clinical data on gender differences in PD. Original articles and meta-analyses published between 1990 and 2016 systematically exploring gender differences in PD were reviewed. There is slight male preponderance in incidence and prevalence of PD. PD starts earlier in men. Women tend to be more prone to develop tremor-dominant PD but are less rigid than men. Motor improvement after deep brain stimulation is equal in both sexes, but women tend to show better improvement in activities of daily living. Furthermore, women with PD show better results on tests for general cognitive abilities, outperform men in verbal cognitive tasks, show more pain symptoms, and score higher on depression scales. It seems, however, that the differences in cognition, mood, and pain perception are not disease specific as similar gender differences can be found in healthy subjects and in other neurological conditions. Despite PD being the most frequently studied movement disorder, studies investigating gender differences in PD are still scarce with most of the studies being cross-sectional. Good-quality, prospective, longitudinal studies analyzing gender differences in PD and comparing them to matched healthy controls are needed in order to properly address the issues of gender differences in PD.

  • 44. Hansson, Oskar
    et al.
    Janelidze, Shorena
    Hall, Sara
    Magdalinou, Nadia
    Lees, Andrew J.
    Andreasson, Ulf
    Norgren, Niklas
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Constantinescu, Radu
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Blennow, Kaj
    Blood-based NfL: A biomarker for differential diagnosis of parkinsonian disorder2017Inngår i: Neurology, ISSN 0028-3878, E-ISSN 1526-632X, Vol. 88, nr 10, s. 930-937Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine if blood neurofilament light chain (NfL) protein can discriminate between Parkinson disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonian disorders (APD) with equally high diagnostic accuracy as CSF NfL, and can therefore improve the diagnostic workup of parkinsonian disorders. Methods: The study included 3 independent prospective cohorts: the Lund (n 5 278) and London (n 5 117) cohorts, comprising healthy controls and patients with PD, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal syndrome (CBS), and multiple system atrophy (MSA), as well as an early disease cohort (n 5 109) of patients with PD, PSP, MSA, or CBS with disease duration <= 3 years. Blood NfL concentration was measured using an ultrasensitive single molecule array (Simoa) method, and the diagnostic accuracy to distinguish PD from APD was investigated. Results: We found strong correlations between blood and CSF concentrations of NfL (p >= 0.73-0.84, p <= 0.001). Blood NfL was increased in patients with MSA, PSP, and CBS (i.e., all APD groups) when compared to patients with PD as well as healthy controls in all cohorts (p, 0.001). Furthermore, in the Lund cohort, blood NfL could accurately distinguish PD from APD (area under the curve [AUC] 0.91) with similar results in both the London cohort (AUC 0.85) and the early disease cohort (AUC 0.81). Conclusions: Quantification of blood NfL concentration can be used to distinguish PD from APD. Blood-based NfL might consequently be included in the diagnostic workup of patients with parkinsonian symptoms in both primary care and specialized clinics.

  • 45.
    Hariz, Gun-Marie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Arbetsterapi.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Activities of daily living and quality of life in persons with newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease according to subtype of disease, and in comparison to healthy controls.2011Inngår i: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 123, nr 1, s. 20-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To describe activity of daily living (ADL) and quality of life (QoL) at first visit to a neurological centre, in patients subsequently diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD), according to subtype of disease and compared to healthy controls.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS:

    99 patients and 31 controls were included. Patients were classified into three groups according to predominant symptoms: 50 Postural instability-gait difficulties (PIGD), 37 tremor dominant, 12 indeterminate. Evaluations included ADL-taxonomy, SF-36, and the Parkinson disease questionnaire (PDQ-39).

    RESULTS:

    Patients experienced early on limitations in ADL and QoL compared to controls. Patients with PIGD subtype had already at first visit a worse status, clinically and in ADL and QoL, than patients with tremor dominant type.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Already at first visit to a neurological centre, patients who will eventually receive the diagnosis of PD exhibited restrictions in ADL and QoL. Patients with axial symptoms were affected most.

  • 46.
    Horvath, Istvan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Iashchishyn, Igor A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik. Department of General Chemistry, Sumy State University, Ukraine.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Immunochemical Detection of alpha-Synuclein Autoantibodies in Parkinson's Disease: Correlation between Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels2017Inngår i: ACS Chemical Neuroscience, ISSN 1948-7193, E-ISSN 1948-7193, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 1170-1176Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Autoantibodies to Parkinson's disease (PD) amyloidogenic protein, a-synuclein, were recognized as a prospective biomarker for early disease diagnostics, yet there is inconsistency in previous reports, potentially related to PD status. Therefore, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the cross-sectional cohort of 60 individuals, including recently diagnosed PD patients with mild and moderate PD and age-matched controls, were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nonparametric statistics was used for data analysis. We found significantly elevated levels of a-synuclein autoantibodies in both plasma and CSF in mild PD compared to controls, followed by some decrease in moderate PD. Receiver operating characteristic and effect size analyses confirmed the diagnostic power of a-synuclein antibodies in both plasma and CSF. For the first time, we showed the correlation between plasma and CSF a-synuclein antibody levels for mild, moderate, and combined PD groups. This indicates the potentiality of a-synuclein antibodies as PD biomarker and the increased diagnostic power of their simultaneous analysis in plasma and CSF.

  • 47.
    Horvath, Istvan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Jia, Xueen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Johansson, Per
    Wang, Chao
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Moskalenko, Roman
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik. Department of Pathology, Sumy State University, Sumy 40000, Ukraine.
    Steinau, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Wågberg, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Svensson, Johan
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla A
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Pro-inflammatory S100A9 Protein as a Robust Biomarker Differentiating Early Stages of Cognitive Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease2016Inngår i: ACS Chemical Neuroscience, ISSN 1948-7193, E-ISSN 1948-7193, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 34-39Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pro-inflammatory protein S100A9 was established as a biomarker of dementia progression and compared with others such as Aβ1-42 and tau-proteins. CSF samples from 104 stringently diagnosed individuals divided into five subgroups were analyzed, including nondemented controls, stable mild cognitive impairment (SMCI), mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) patients. ELISA, dot-blotting, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used as research methods. The S100A9 and Aβ1-42 levels correlated with each other: their CSF content decreased already at the SMCI stage and declined further under MCI-AD, AD, and VaD conditions. Immunohistochemical analysis also revealed involvement of both Aβ1-42 and S100A9 in the amyloid-neuroinflammatory cascade already during SMCI. Tau proteins were not yet altered in SMCI; however their contents increased during MCI-AD and AD, diagnosing later dementia stages. Thus, four biomarkers together, reflecting different underlying pathological causes, can accurately differentiate dementia progression and also distinguish AD from VaD.

  • 48.
    Håglin, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Bäckman, L
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Domellöf, Magdalena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Early Recognition of Cognitive Ability and Nutritional Markers for Dementia in Parkinson’s Disease2018Inngår i: Journal of Aging Research & Clinical Practice, ISSN 2258-8094, Vol. 7, s. 156-162Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cognitive decline and dementia are common non-motor problems in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The underlying aetiology is multifaceted and both chronic and reversible causes for cognitive decline are likely to be present. Malnutrition is frequent in the Parkinson population, both early and late in the disease, and nutritional deficiencies could play a role in some cognitive deficits. Objectives: The objective is to study the association between nutritional status with focus on iron intake and homeostasis, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and PD dementia (PDD). Setting and Participants: This study included 73 out of 145 patients with PD participating in a population-based study in northern Sweden. Measurements: Registration of nutritional status by laboratory analyses of blood plasma and neuropsychological assessments at time of diagnosis were performed. MCI and PDD were assessed yearly up to ten years after diagnosis. Mini Nutritional Assessments (Full-MNA score) and plasma variables detecting iron homeostasis were compared between patients with MCI and patients with normal cognition (NC). Motor severity was measured using the Unified Parkinson´s disease rating scale III, (UPDRS III) and Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) staging scale. Cox proportional Hazard model were performed to see if any variables that differed between MCI and NC could predict PDD at follow-up. Results: Patients with MCI at time of diagnosis had lower levels of plasma iron (P-Fe) and albumin (P-Albumin) as well as a lower score on Full-MNA score. Dietary intake of iron was higher in patients with MCI than in patients with NC (p = 0.012). In logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, and UPDRS III, lower levels of P-Fe (p = 0.025) and P-Albumin (p = 0.011) and higher dietary iron intake (p = 0.019) were associated with MCI at baseline. A Cox regression model with dementia as endpoint revealed that lower levels of P-Fe increase the risk of dementia at follow-up with adjustments for age, sex, UPDRS III, and MCI at baseline (HR 95% CI = 0.87 (0.78-0.98), p = 0.021). Conclusions: Low P-Fe was associated with cognitive disturbance at baseline and predicted dementia up to ten years after diagnosis in patients with PD. Low P-Albumin and malnutrition assessed with Full-MNA score were associated with MCI at baseline but did not predict dementia at follow-up.

  • 49.
    Håglin, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Kardiologi.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Bäckman, L
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Intake of vitamin B before onset of Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonism and olfactory function at the time of diagnosis2017Inngår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 71, s. 97-102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether vitamin-B density in the diet 2-8 years before diagnosis is associated with olfactory function at the time of diagnosis.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: This prospective nested case-control study included patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear paralysis identified between 2004 and 2009 in the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden. The case database (NYPUM study; Newly Diagnosed Parkinson in Umeå; n=147) was cross-linked to the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS). Identified patients (n=96) and controls (n=375) were matched for sex, age, year of health survey, sub-cohort and geographical area. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, and the brief smell identification test (B-SIT) was used to measure olfactory function at the time of diagnosis.

    RESULTS: There was no difference in vitamin-B or any other macro- or micro-nutrient densities, energy intake or body mass index (kg/m(2); BMI) between patients and controls at baseline at the time of the healthcare survey. A lower thiamin and folate density, amount per 1 megajoule, was reported in patients who scored below median on B-SIT (<7) when compared with that in patients who scored ⩾7 at the time of diagnosis. After adjusting for age, sex and BMI using linear and logistic regressions, an even stronger association was found between thiamin density and olfactory function.

    CONCLUSIONS: A low thiamin and folate density in the reported diet, 2-8 years before PD diagnosis, was significantly associated with olfactory dysfunction at the time of PD diagnosis.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 5 October 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.181.

  • 50. Iqbal, Zafar
    et al.
    Pihlstrom, Lasse
    Rengmark, Aina
    Henriksen, Sandra Pilar
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Toft, Mathias
    Rare variants in dementia genes and Parkinson's disease2016Inngår i: European Journal of Human Genetics, ISSN 1018-4813, E-ISSN 1476-5438, Vol. 24, nr 12, s. 1661-1662Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
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