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  • 1.
    Avican, Kemal
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Persistent infection by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia species can infect many mammalian organs such as the small intestine, cecum, Peyer’s patches, liver, spleen, and lung and cause diseases that resemble a typhoid-like syndrome, as seen for other enteropathogens. We found that sublethal infection doses of Y. pseudotuberculosis gave rise to asymptomatic persistent infection in mice and identified the cecal lymphoid follicles as the primary site for colonization during persistence. Persistent Y. pseudotuberculosis is localized in the dome area, often in inflammatory lesions, as foci or as single cells, and also in neutrophil exudates in the cecal lumen. This new mouse model for bacterial persistence in cecum has potential as an investigative tool for deeper understanding of bacterial adaptation and host immune defense mechanisms during persistent infection. Here, we investigated the nature of the persistent infection established by Y. pseudotuberculosis in mouse cecal tissue using in vivo RNA-seq of bacteria during early and persistent stages of infection. Comparative analysis of the bacterial transcriptomes revealed that Y. pseudotuberculosis undergoes transcriptional reprogramming with drastic down-regulation of T3SS virulence genes during persistence in the cecum. At the persistent stage, the expression pattern in many respects resembles the pattern seen in vitro at 26°C. Genes that are up-regulated during persistence are genes involved in anaerobiosis, chemotaxis, and protection against oxidative and acidic stress, which indicates the influence of different environmental cues. We found that the Crp/CsrA/RovA regulatory cascades influence the pattern of bacterial gene expression during persistence. Furthermore, we show that ArcA, Fnr, FrdA, WrbA, RovA, and RfaH play critical roles in persistence. An extended investigation of the transcriptional regulator rfaH employing mouse infection studies, phenotypic characterizations, and RNA-seq transcriptomics analyses indicated that this gene product contributes to establishment of infection and confirmed that it regulates O-antigen biosynthesis genes in Y. pseudotuberculosis. The RNA-seq results also suggest that rfaH has a relatively global effect. Furthermore, we also found that the dynamics of the cecal tissue organization and microbial composition shows changes during different stages of the infection. Taken together, based on our findings, we speculate that this enteropathogen initiates infection by using its virulence factors in meeting the innate immune response in the cecal tissue. Later on, these factors lead to dysbiosis in the local microbiota and altered tissue organization. At later stages of the infection, the pathogen adapts to the environment in the cecum by reprogramming its transcriptome from a highly virulent mode to a more environmentally adaptable mode for survival and shedding. The in vivo transcriptomic analyses for essential genes during infections present strong candidates for novel targets for antimicrobials.

  • 2.
    Avican, Kemal
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Fahlgren, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Huss, Mikael
    Heroven, Ann Kathrin
    Beckstette, Michael
    Dersch, Petra
    Fällman, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Reprogramming of Yersinia from Virulent to Persistent Mode Revealed by Complex In Vivo RNA-seq Analysis2015Ingår i: PLoS Pathogens, ISSN 1553-7366, E-ISSN 1553-7374, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id e1004600Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We recently found that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis can be used as a model of persistent bacterial infections. We performed in vivo RNA-seq of bacteria in small cecal tissue biopsies at early and persistent stages of infection to determine strategies associated with persistence. Comprehensive analysis of mixed RNA populations from infected tissues revealed that Y. pseudotuberculosis undergoes transcriptional reprogramming with drastic down-regulation of T3SS virulence genes during persistence when the pathogen resides within the cecum. At the persistent stage, the expression pattern in many respects resembles the pattern seen in vitro at 26oC, with for example, up-regulation of flagellar genes and invA. These findings are expected to have impact on future rationales to identify suitable bacterial targets for new antibiotics. Other genes that are up-regulated during persistence are genes involved in anaerobiosis, chemotaxis, and protection against oxidative and acidic stress, which indicates the influence of different environmental cues. We found that the Crp/CsrA/RovA regulatory cascades influence the pattern of bacterial gene expression during persistence. Furthermore, arcA, fnr, frdA, and wrbA play critical roles in persistence. Our findings suggest a model for the life cycle of this enteropathogen with reprogramming from a virulent to an adapted phenotype capable of persisting and spreading by fecal shedding.

  • 3.
    Avican, Kemal
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Nilsson, K
    Fällman, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Transcriptomic characterization of RfaH linked to persistent infection of Yersinia pseudotuberculosisManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Avican, Ummehan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Avican, Kemal
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Fällman, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Forsberg, Åke
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Transcriptomic and phenotypic analysis of sufI and tatC mutants of Yersinia pseudotuberculosisManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Fahlgren, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Avican, Kemal
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Westermark, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Nordfelth, Roland
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Fällman, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Colonization of cecum is important for development of persistent infection by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis2014Ingår i: Infection and Immunity, ISSN 0019-9567, E-ISSN 1098-5522, Vol. 82, nr 8, s. 3471-3482Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Yersiniosis is a human disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis or Yersinia enterocolitica. The infection is usually resolved but can lead to postinfectious sequelae, including reactive arthritis and erythema nodosum. The commonly used Yersinia mouse infection model mimics acute infection in humans to some extent but leads to systemic infection and eventual death. Here, we analyzed sublethal infection doses of Y. pseudotuberculosis in mice in real time using bioluminescent imaging and found that infections using these lower doses result in extended periods of asymptomatic infections in a fraction of mice. In a search for the site for bacterial persistence, we found that the cecum was the primary colonization site and was the site where the organism resided during a 115-day infection period. Persistent infection was accompanied by sustained fecal shedding of cultivable bacteria. Cecal patches were identified as the primary site for cecal colonization during persistence. Y. pseudotuberculosis bacteria were present in inflammatory lesions, in localized foci, or as single cells and also in neutrophil exudates in the cecal lumen. The chronically colonized cecum may serve as a reservoir for dissemination of infection to extraintestinal sites, and a chronic inflammatory state may trigger the onset of postinfectious sequelae. This novel mouse model for bacterial persistence in cecum has potential as an investigative tool to unveil a deeper understanding of bacterial adaptation and host immune defense mechanisms during persistent infection.

  • 6.
    Wang, He
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Avican, Kemal
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Fahlgren, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Erttmann, Saskia F.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Nuss, Aaron M.
    Dersch, Petra
    Fällman, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Edgren, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Wolf-Watz, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Increased plasmid copy number is essential for Yersinia T3SS function and virulence2016Ingår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 353, nr 6298, s. 492-495Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pathogenic bacteria have evolved numerous virulence mechanisms that are essential for establishing infections. The enterobacterium Yersinia uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded by a 70-kilobase, low-copy, IncFII-class virulence plasmid. We report a novel virulence strategy in Y. pseudotuberculosis in which this pathogen up-regulates the plasmid copy number during infection. We found that an increased dose of plasmid-encoded genes is indispensable for virulence and substantially elevates the expression and function of the T3SS. Remarkably, we observed direct, tight coupling between plasmid replication and T3SS function. This regulatory pathway provides a framework for further exploration of the environmental sensing mechanisms of pathogenic bacteria.

1 - 6 av 6
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