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  • 1.
    Andersson, Åsa Scott
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Fängmark, Ingrid
    Use of questionnaires and an expert panel to judge the environmental consequences of chemical spills for the development of an environment-accident index2005In: JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, ISSN 0301-4797, Vol. 75, no 3, p. 247-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing the environmental consequences of a chemical accident is a complex task. To date, the methods used to evaluate the environmental effects of an acute release of a chemical have often been based on measurements of chemical and physical variables deemed to be important, such as the concentration of the chemical. However, a broader strategy is needed to predict the environmental consequences of potential accidents during the planning process. An Environment-Accident Index (EAI), a simple tool based on such a strategy, has been developed to facilitate the consideration of a multitude of influential variables. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether questionnaire-based expert panel's judgements could provide useful data on the environmental consequences of chemical spills, and an effective basis for further development of the EAI. As expected, the judgements did not agree perfectly, but they do give rough indications of the environmental effects, and highlight consistent trends that should be useful inputs for planning, prevention and decontamination processes. The different accidents were also judged to have caused everything from minor to very major effects in the environment, implying that a wide range of accident scenarios were represented in the material and covered by the EAL Therefore, questionnaires and expert panel judgements can be used to collect useful data for estimating the likely environmental consequences of chemical accidents and for further development of the EAI.

  • 2.
    Apsite, Elina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Baltic State migration system: the case of latvian immigrants in Sweden2012In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 31-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden, with a particular focus on Latvia. Two historical turns in the BalticStates’ recent history have contributed to an out-migration from the region—the restoration of independence in the early 1990s and accession to the EuropeanUnion (EU) in 2004. Although these events were considered positive asthey meant “open” borders for Baltic State citizens, lately the out-migrationfrom Latvia has increased. Likewise, the global economic crisis that started in2008 and the consequential unemployment draw attention to emerging patternsand the composition of emigrants to several destinations, but in this caseparticularly to Sweden. After the EU expansion Sweden did not receive as manyEastern European migrants as was expected at the time, but recent trends revealthat there has been a steady increase in the migration flow since then. TheNordic countries as a potential destination initially lacked pioneer migrants toestablish social support networks that would attract newcomers, but this is nowchanging; statistics for 2010 show that the number of Baltic State immigrantsin Sweden has grown significantly since 2008. With the economic recessionand unemployment in Latvia in 2009, 2010 had even higher emigration activitythan in 2004 just after the country’s accession to the EU. Nordic countriesemerge as welcoming destinations to recent migrants, who state that the proximityto their home country and the labour market opportunities are the mainattraction but also that a positive view of Sweden and the Swedes plays a part.Contemporary trends of migration from the Baltic States and especially Latviaunder conditions of economic downturn lead to emerging pattern of migrationsystems between Latvia and Sweden, combining a mixture of motives and diversityof the people involved in migration chains.

  • 3.
    Bergstén, Sabina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Faculty of Social Sciences, Nord University, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Experiences and emotions among private forest owners versus public interests: why ownership matters2018In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 79, p. 801-811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By adopting a qualitative approach and considering the case of Sweden, the aim of the paper is to investigate and analyse how private forest owners' experiences and emotions related to their private forest ownership manifest themselves in their relationship to public use of their forests and public planning for recreation and biodiversity on their land. The study incorporates and elaborates upon a conceptual framework related to the dimensions of property rights, feelings of ownership, and sense of place in its analysis of the private forest ownership context. Fifty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with forest owners owning land in two geographically different areas. The results demonstrate the important role of the 'social contract' of rights and responsibilities, which are associated with the concept of property rights, and are embedded in the relationship between private ownership and the Swedish custom of the Right of Public Access to nature in the broad acceptance of public use of private forestland. The forest owners' relationships with public planning are diverse and complex, illustrating the various dimensions of private forest ownership, the heterogeneous forest owner corps, and the different geographical contexts. The dimensions of ownership feelings and sense of place, and the interplay between them, are shown to contribute to enhanced sentiments linked to forest ownership, expressed in ambivalence or lack of conviction about public planning. An important point of resistance to public interests is owners' identity as stewards or long-term custodians of their particular forestland. The article ends with a set of recommendations for public policy and planning processes regarding public interests related to private forest ownership.

  • 4.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Thellbro, Camilla
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Svensson, Johan
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Per
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Between protocol and reality: Swedish municipal comprehensive planning2018In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 35-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial planning using a landscape approach has been recognized as being essential for reconciling ecological, cultural and socioeconomic dimensions in sustainable development (SuD). Although embraced as a concept, there is a lack of planning tools capable of incorporating multi-level, multifunctional and multi-sectoral perspectives, especially in a rural context. The departure point in this paper is the legal requirements for municipal comprehensive planning (MCP) in Sweden and an e-mail survey about incentives, stakeholder involvement, policy integration and implementation in MCP in all 15 Swedish mountain municipalities. The purpose of this explorative study is to examine whether MCP could be a tool in planning for SuD. Results indicate a general lack of resources and a low status of MCP that affect, and even limit, stakeholder involvement, policy integration and implementation. However, legal requirements for MCP are targeted at SuD, and municipal personnel responsible for planning appreciate the potential of MCP. Therefore, there is potential to develop the MCP into an effective landscape planning tool. To accomplish this, the status of an active planning process has to be raised, the mandate of the local planning agency has to be secured, and residents and land users have to be involved throughout the planning process.

  • 5.
    Blaauboer, Marjolein
    et al.
    Faculteit der Geesteswetenschappen, Universiteit Van Amsterdam.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Life course needs, sibling ties and the geographical dispersion of sibling networks2010In: Family Background and Residential Choice, Oisterwijk: Uitgeverij BOXPress , 2010, p. 120-143Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Blaauboer, Marjolein
    et al.
    Universiteit van Amsterdam, Planning and International Development Studies, Department of Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Life course preferences, sibling ties and the geographical dispersion of sibling networks2013In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 594-609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Swedish register data, we analyse how life course preferences and sibling ties are related to the geographical dispersion of siblings. We argue that life course preferences and siblings ties are influenced by siblings' socio-demographic characteristics, by similarities and differences between them, and by their family background. The measurement of geographical dispersion, the nearest neighbour index, allows us to go beyond dyadic relationships and investigate entire networks. Results from the OLS regression analysis show that life course preferences are related to the dispersion of siblings, and that differences between siblings are associated with a greater geographical dispersion than similarities are. Sibling ties developed during childhood also seem to be associated with the dispersion of sibling networks.

  • 7.
    Carlquist, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Pfister, Linda
    Åkerlund, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Språk och planering2017In: Plan, ISSN 0032-0560, no 1, p. 48-51Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Costamagna, Federico
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lind, Rebecka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Faculty of Social Sciences, Nord University, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Livability of Urban Public Spaces in Northern Swedish Cities: The Case of Umeå2019In: Planning practice + research, ISSN 0269-7459, E-ISSN 1360-0583, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 131-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how winter conditions are taken into accountin urban planning in the city of Umea in northern Sweden. Snow and harsh winter conditions are to some extent considered inurban planning in most northern towns in Sweden. Besides that, snow and ice could also be elements in the city attracting people and contribute to the design of public spaces. Current plans and interviews with planners were complemented with participatory observations. The results show that public spaces designed for both winter and summer seasons are preferred.

  • 9.
    Hedlund, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Rural restructuring and gendered micro-dynamics of the agricultural labour market2017In: Fennia, ISSN 0015-0010, Vol. 195, no 1, p. 25-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a comparison of the employment trajectories of two cohorts of men and women in the agricultural sector in Sweden, this article gives an account of the past 50 years’ decline in employment in agriculture. The findings show that the decline of employment in agriculture was the result of fewer entries into the sector and more exits out of the sector. The findings also suggest that the restructuring of the agricultural sector has had greater effects on women than men, with women exiting the sector to a greater degree or never entering it to begin with.

  • 10.
    Jörgensen, Hans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Grubbström, Ann
    Uppsala University.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Private landowners’ relation to land and forest in two Estonian counties2010In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 2010, no 2, p. 33-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This comparative study is based on two large surveys of privateland and forest owners in two Estonian counties. While more than half of Põlvamaa is covered with forests, Läänemaa has a potential for summer tourism and second homes. We explore different rationales for obtaining landed property and analyse the individual property holders’ relations to—and use of—landand forests. Based on the two interlinked restitution and privatisation processes from 1991 onwards, our surveys reveal two main rationales among the owners:emotional and economic. The owners’ relations to the property are connected with legacies from both the interwar independence and the Soviet period. In addition, different rationalities, ambitions and attitudes are also related to how the property was obtained. In spite of the demand for land, many resituated landowners have chosen to maintain or recreate family property, even if the property was not actively used. In both Põlvamaa and Läänemaa the emotional bonds to land are strong among the owners of restituted or inherited property, while this is a weaker factor among those who have obtained land or forest through privatisation.

  • 11.
    Jörgensen, Hans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Emotional links to forest ownership.: Restitution of land and use of a productive resource in Põlva County, Estonia2008In: Fennia, ISSN 0015-0010, Vol. 186, no 2, p. 95-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our survey among new land and forets owners in Põlva County in southeast Estonia focuses on the owner's different motives for obtaining land and forest property through restitution and privatization from 1992 on. In the light of the historical context presented, two clear-cut motives for obtaining property appear: emotional and economic. Based on the results from the survey we conclude that the emotional non-economic factors have been most influential for a majority of the landowners, regardless of if the actual property was restituted or purchased. The emotional bonds to landed property are related to the aspiration to regain and reposess family property and thereby related to a certain place affiliation. Another interpretation concerns the restrictions with regards to the spread of modern commercial forestry among the - foremost small-scale - property holders for which  the actual posession is around 12 ha each.

  • 12.
    Lind, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Olof, Stjernström
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Organizational challenges for schools in rural municipalities: cross-national comparisons in a Nordic context2015In: Journal of Research in Rural Education, ISSN 1551-0670, E-ISSN 1551-0670, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the spatial structure of primary schools and alternative organizational frameworks are studied in a number of rural municipalities in the northern parts of Norway, Sweden, and Finland. The aim of the study is to investigate how the spatial structure of schools has changed between the years 2008 and 2013 in these municipalities, what strategies the municipalities have developed to adapt their schools to changing conditions, and what constraints there are to apply the strategies at the local level. To answer these questions, semi-structured interviews with municipal representatives were conducted. Substantial changes to the spatial structure of school organizations through closures and mergers can be observed. The overall strategy for the future in all three national settings is a spatial structure with well equipped and well staffed schools in municipal centers and as few small village schools as possible, using information and communication technology (ICT) as a distance-bridging technology. The constraints to applying these strategies are on three different spatial levels. At the state level, the state places constraints regarding what municipalities and schools can and cannot do. At the municipal level, local politicians do not want to close schools for fear of losing the next election. At the community level, the constraints mainly lie in the resistance and strong social capital of the inhabitants who are focused on keeping their schools open irrespective of per capita costs.

  • 13.
    Lindgren, Urban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Mahieu, Ron
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Local or non-local?: Some notes on the economic-geographical impacts of large investments1992In: Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, ISSN 0435-3684, E-ISSN 1468-0467, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 211-228Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Eco-protectorates, planning and nature based tourism2007Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Mackay, Heather
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindström, Ida-Maja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Chapter 16: Sweden: evaluation of, and feedback from, Sweden's SKC recognition system2015In: The diversity value: how to reinvent the European approach to immigration / [ed] Laura Zanfrini, Maidenhead, UK: McGraw-Hill, 2015, 1, p. 277-288Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Byström, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Svensson, Daniel
    KTH.
    Making "wilderness" in a northern natural resource periphery: on restructuring and production of a pleasure periphery in northern Sweden2019In: The politics of Arctic resources: change and continuity in the "Old North" of northern Europe / [ed] E. Carina H. Keskitalo, London: Routledge, 2019, p. 99-118Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chapter 6 takes up the more recently developed sector of tourism, problematizing the assumptions inherent in conceptions such as "resource periphery" and "pleasure periphery". Instead, the chapter shows that resource use and tourism may well interact, and that tourism even largely relates to mining or mining infrastructure: the extensive existence of infrastructure related to resource uses and industrial as well as post-industrial development at large can even be seen as the basis for tourists being able to access the "wilderness".

  • 17.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Making Russian Arctic accessible for tourists: analysis of the institutional barriers2014In: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 137-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent improvements in nature protection in the European territory of Russia's Arctic islands and archipelagoes – such as the creation of the Russian Arctic National Park – have also resulted in an increase in visitation to this area. This study uses the Key Informants' Technique to analyze Russian tourism planning and development of this territory since 2011. The majority of the principle stakeholders identified for this study agreed that these areas have great potential for tourism development and are already attracting both foreign and Russian tourists. At the same time, impediments to foreign cruise companies and individual travelers spell rather gloomy prospects for further destination development in the area. The contradictions of the current stage of tourism development support the assumption that Russia's territorial interests still prevail. Tourism development appears to be a top-down enterprise, organized by less experienced tourism developers and bureaucrats and without consideration for the long-term perspective.

  • 18.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Nature-based tourism, conservation and institutional governance: a case study from the Russian Arctic2016In: The Polar Journal, ISSN 2154-896X, E-ISSN 2154-8978, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 112-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses current institutional arrangements connected to the protection of natural resources in developing nature-based tourism in the territories of the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Examples from two regions, the Arkhangelsk Oblast and the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, illustrate how the different methods of nature conservation – national parks and nature reserves – are promoting or constraining the development of nature-based tourism activities. The study is based on 14 semi-structured interviews with representatives from state organisations as well as representatives from non-governmental organisations, and reviews of planning and policy documents. This paper discusses the factors shaping present institutional arrangements connected to environmental protection and the capability to establish planning schemes. The agencies responsible for nature-based tourism development often suffer from rudimentary tourism planning, inadequate tourism infrastructure and a lack of service management skills. In addition, there is evidence that mistrust and a lack of collaboration among governmental agencies and private stakeholders also limit development opportunities. Despite the difficulties experienced by authorities responsible for the measures of conservation and nature protection in the remote Arctic territories (Nenetsky State Nature Reserve), pockets of success are identifiable (e.g. Kenozersky National Park). The reality of the nature conservation efforts and the ability to develop nature-based activities is heavily dependent on individual engagement and interpersonal collaboration, which makes the best practices non-transferable to other contexts. So far, the current system of institutional governance limits the possibilities to increase the economic impact of nature-based tourism in the Russian Arctic.

  • 19.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    The role of participation in the planning process: examples from Sweden2017In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 986-997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participation in decision-making has successively developed into a guiding principle at both EU and national level. However, diverse perspectives exist on what the role of different interests in participative processes should be, and the legal rules regarding participation varies between different sectors; from clearly defined to virtually non-existent requirements. This may have adverse effects on the legitimacy of decisions and decision-making. This paper reviews the role of participation in the planning process in relation to natural resource development in Sweden, as guided by EU and international law. Based on the notion of effective participation, the study illustrates the potential clashes that may result from different conceptions of participation, for instance, at various levels of governance, as well as from disparate principles for implementation in different sectors. 

  • 20.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Socio-economic determinants of divorce in Sweden 1960-19652014In: Social science history, ISSN 0145-5532, E-ISSN 1527-8034, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 127-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1960s in Sweden, socio-economic differentials decreased sharply at the same time as the labor force participation of married women and aggregate divorce rates increased more rapidly than during any other period of the twentieth century. The aim of this paper is to investigate how the socio-economic composition of the couple influenced the probability of divorce during this period of rapid restructuring. The study uses a large dataset covering the entire married population of Sweden in 1960 and applies a binary model whereby the couples are analyzed as units rather than separate individuals to model divorce during the period 1960-1965. The main results show that the equalization process between genders and social classes during this period contributed to the decrease in marital stability. Dual-provider families exhibit substantially higher probabilities of divorce as compared to traditional single-provider families. We also find that the socio-economic gradient of divorce had become negative by the early 1960s and that couples with low socio-economic status contributed more to the increase in divorce than did couples in the higher strata. A difference between the results reached in this study and those from divorce research covering later decades is that children do not reduce the probability of divorce when the wife's labor force participation is controlled for. The results indicate that the determinants of divorce have varied across different phases of the divorce transition during the twentieth century and that a historical perspective is necessary if we are to understand the long-term process that has produced current marital behavior.

  • 21.
    Scott, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Fängmark, Ingrid
    Use of questionnaires and an expert panel as a method to judge the environmental consequences of chemical spills for the development of an environment-accident index2005In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 75, no 3, p. 247-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing the environmental consequences of a chemical accident is a complex task. To date, the methods used to evaluate the environmental effects of an acute release of a chemical have often been based on measurements of chemical and physical variables deemed to be important, such as the concentration of the chemical. However, a broader strategy is needed to predict the environmental consequences of potential accidents during the planning process. An Environment-Accident Index (EAI), a simple tool based on such a strategy, has been developed to facilitate the consideration of a multitude of influential variables. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether questionnaire-based expert panel's judgements could provide useful data on the environmental consequences of chemical spills, and an effective basis for further development of the EAI. As expected, the judgements did not agree perfectly, but they do give rough indications of the environmental effects, and highlight consistent trends that should be useful inputs for planning, prevention and decontamination processes. The different accidents were also judged to have caused everything from minor to very major effects in the environment, implying that a wide range of accident scenarios were represented in the material and covered by the EAL Therefore, questionnaires and expert panel judgements can be used to collect useful data for estimating the likely environmental consequences of chemical accidents and for further development of the EAI.

  • 22.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Databasen ASTRID och befolkningsgeografi: exemplen integration och branfamiljernas geografi2011In: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 79-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Flytta nära, långt bort: de sociala nätverkens betydelse för val av bostadsort1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with long distance migration together with the importance of social networks and geographical preferences for the choice of destination when moving. Thus, the main purpose of this study is to analyze and specify the importance of the mover's social contacts when choosing a new place-of residence. In this connection, the social contents of the destination are chiefly focused. It has also been of interest to estimate in what degree these social contents have influenced this choice of destination by the individual. The differences in quality, intensity, dispersion and direction of social contacts is essential for explaining destination decisions. The basic hypothesis claims that the existence of social networks influences the individual's inclination to move and the choice ofplace-of-residence.

    In this study, empirical material is used, and its base is 2500 "movers" and a group of "stayers" of equal size. Data from public registers as well as data from inquiries have been used as empirical material. Far away moving is defined as moving across the communal boundaries. The examination of the empirical facts provides input paramétrés for a model, where a number of factors might explain the destination. The model work is implemented in three stages. In the multiple regression model, the impact of a number of variables is estimated. In the logistical regression model the probability of moving into a 'network commune' is estimated, i.e., moving to a commune where there are social contacts. In a third stage, the same variables are tested in a multi-nominal model.

    Strictly empirically, this study reveals, that there is evidence that the social networks influence the choice of destination when moving. Equally important, perhaps is to find out how strong an impact these networks have. Moving to a geographically and socially recognizable place is possibly regarded as having a more positive impact than the structure of the labour market. It can be stated that, in spite of the widespread migration within post-war Sweden, most people maintain some sort of social and geographical relation to the place where they grew up. The increased mobility per se has also implied that the individual, spatial and social contacts have become more widely spread. The place where one grew up is central and could be said to represent the place where there are many social contacts and the place you always refer to.

    Social contacts connected to relatives constitute one of the most important single factors. Previous place-of-residence is undoubtedly the most important single factor. Migration to a place of previous residence also implies that there already exists a social network. The access to a holiday cottage and the location of this cottage proves to have a great impact on destination- decisions. Many people simply move to the commune, where they own, or have access to, a holiday cottage. Of several plausible explanations two seem to be relevant. One concerns moving into former cottages, for year round residence, the other implies that the cottage could be regarded as the tangible link to the former home area. If there is no possibility of staying on in one's home area, the cottage represents a link to the past.

  • 24.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Hållbar utveckling och restriktiv markanvändning i Västerbotten2007Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Hållbar utveckling och restriktiv markanvändning i Västerbottens län2007Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Om upprinelsen till händelserna i Srebrenica sommaren 19952009In: Geografiska notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, no 2, p. 98-110Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Recension av boken Planeringens utmaningar och tillämpningar: (Red. G. Forsberg)2005In: PLAN: Tidskrift för samhällsplanering, no 3-4, p. 52-55Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Recension av "Planeringens grunder. En översikt" Nyström och Tonell 20122012In: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, no 2, p. 98-99Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Regional Integration & Regional Disparity - Keeping the World Together2007In: International Trends Analysis - Yearbook 2007, 2007, p. 65-90Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Välfärdens pris påverkar naturen2004In: Västerbottens Kuriren: januari 2004Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Världens dyraste fåglar?2005In: Västerbottens Kuriren 20 januariArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Världens dyraste fåglar - planeringsprocess i baklås2005In: PLAN, no 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Stjernström, Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Skogen och den kommunala planeringen2013In: Plan, ISSN 0032-0560, no 1, p. 42-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Stjernström, Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Lundberg, T.
    Natura 2000 - en dyr historia2005In: Västerbottens Kuriren 21 aprilArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Stjernström, Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Environmental protection: an instrument for regional development? National ambitions versus local realities in the case of tourism2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 387-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the relation between protection of land and local and regional development through a power and democracy perspective on planning. A Swedish case is used to illustrate the connection between planning, local power and local development, with reference to tourism in a Nordic context. When areas are protected, planning automatically becomes centralized, taking the planning process out of the hands of the local authorities. Within these state territories of set rules, regulations and institutionalized systems - eco-protectorates - the local population becomes powerless when it comes to making decisions about land-use and is unable to engage in economically viable tourism enterprises because of centralized decision-making. Even in nature-based tourism where the quality of nature is important, it could therefore be more advantageous to have access to non-protected land for nature tourism. This is even more so because the idea of regional and local development often appears to have been "attached" as an afterthought or pious wish to the central planning documents. With genuine intention to stimulate local and regional development, protection should itself be based on geographical awareness and sensitivity to the diverse conditions in which such development is visualized. Local initiatives regarding land-use and protection do not have to be in conflict with national and international ambitions and regulations but they easily can be.

  • 36.
    Stjernström, Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Michael, GentileUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Geografiska Notiser:  tema geografi i Umeå2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Stjernström, Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Myrlund, Håkan
    IES/Statsvetenskap, Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Holm, Stig-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Stage, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Wiberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Den hållbara regionen: Om förutsättningar och framtidsmöjligheter för en hållbar samhällsutveckling i Västerbottens län - ett projektförslag2001Report (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Stjernström, Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Faculty of Social Sciences, Nord University, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Skogslandskapets markanvändning och konflikter2019In: Samhällsplaneringens teori och praktik / [ed] Gunnel Forsberg, Stockholm: Liber, 2019, p. 255-264Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med kapitlet är att beskriva skogens nyttjande och hur synen på den har förändrats över tid, samt kopplingen till fysisk planering och relaterad lagstiftning. 

  • 39.
    Stjernström, Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Faculty of Social Sciences, Nord University, Kongens Gate 42, 7713 Steinkjer, Norway.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    How can Sweden deal with forest management and municipal planning in the system of ongoing land-use and multilevel planning?2018In: European Countryside, ISSN 1803-8417, E-ISSN 1803-8417, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 23-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies the relation between territorial and functional planning by investigating the Swedish local comprehensive planning system and the forest management. The former is locally based and the latter is functionally based or sector-orientated. By interviewing planners from the County Administrative Boards responsible for monitoring the national interests in the Swedish municipalities and forest managers from the Regional Forest Agency Administration, we found out that forest- and municipality related issues that coincide or interact with each other is normally considered in the collaborative planning process based on consultations and cooperation between the involved stakeholders. Weaknesses in the collaborative planning system consists of lack of coordination between the involved legal frameworks as well as lack of local planning resources and in some cases competences. 

  • 40.
    Stjernström, Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Geographical distance between children and absent parents in separated families2012In: Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, ISSN 0435-3684, E-ISSN 1468-0467, Vol. 94, no 3, p. 239-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, the share of traditional nuclear-family households has decreased in most Western countries, resulting in an increase in the proportion of children living in other forms of household constellations. How children with an absent parent or vice versa arrange their life and relations is partly a matter of physical distance between them. The aim of the study is to analyse the geographical distance between children and absent parents, that is, parents living in another household. The study is a cross-sectional study based on register data comprising all children in Sweden in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005. Using descriptive statistics and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis, we examine the development and determinants of the distance between children and absent parents. OLS regression is employed in order to clarify how the distance relates to the age of the child, as well as demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the present and absent parents. The results show that while the share of children living with only one parent has increased over time, the average distance between children and absent parents has decreased. The distance between children and absent parents is strongly related to the sex of the absent parent and the age of the child. Absent mothers tend to live closer to their children compared with absent fathers, and the younger the children are, the shorter the distance to the absent parents. Among other factors that influence the distance are remarriage and having a child with another parent, both of which contribute to increasing distances between children and absent parents.

  • 41.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Tammaru, Tiit
    University of Tartu, Department of Geography.
    Danzer, Alexander M.
    University of Munich (LMU), Department of Economics.
    van Ham, Maarten
    Delft University of Technology, OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment.
    Marcińczak, Szymon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Factors shaping workplace segregation between natives and immigrants2014In: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 645-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on segregation of immigrant groups is increasingly turning its attention from residential areas toward other important places, such as the workplace, where immigrants can meet and interact with members of the native population. This article examines workplace segregation of immigrants. We use longitudinal, georeferenced Swedish population register data, which enables us to observe all immigrants in Sweden for the period 1990–2005 on an annual basis. We compare estimates from ordinary least squares with fixed-effects regressions to quantify the extent of immigrants' self-selection into specific workplaces, neighborhoods, and partnerships, which may bias more naïve ordinary least squares results. In line with previous research, we find lower levels of workplace segregation than residential segregation. The main finding is that low levels of residential segregation reduce workplace segregation, even after we take into account intermarriage with natives as well as unobserved characteristics of immigrants such as willingness and ability to integrate into the host society. Being intermarried with a native reduces workplace segregation for immigrant men but not for immigrant women.

  • 42.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Tammaru, Tiit
    van Ham, Maarten
    Marcinczak, Szymon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Pre-hire factors and workplace ethnic segregation2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to neighbourhoods of residence, family and places of work play important roles in producing and reproducing ethnic segregation. Therefore, recent research on ethnic segregation and contact is increasingly turning its attention from residential areas towards other important domains of daily interethnic contact. The key innovation of this paper is to clarify the role of immigrants' pre-hire exposure to natives in the residence, workplace and family domains in immigrant exposure to natives in their current workplace. The study is based on Swedish population register data. The results show that at the macro level, workplace neighbourhood segregation is lower than residential neighbourhood segregation. Our micro-level analysis further shows that high levels of residential exposure of immigrants to natives help to reduce ethnic segregation at the level of workplace establishments as well.

  • 43.
    Tammaru, Tiit
    et al.
    University of Tartu.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Learning through contact?: The effects on earnings of immigrant exposure to native population2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors influencing immigrant labour market outcomes have received increased scholarly atten- tion lately. A recent research focus has been the effects of residential setting on labour market outcomes. This study brings a new dimension to this emerging body of research, introducing the role played by workplace composition, in addition to place of residence, in immigrant earnings. Based on Swedish longitudinal register data, OLS regression is used to examine effects of previous exposure to natives on earnings in three immigrant cohorts (1990, 1995 and 2000) five years after arrival. Besides controlling for individual characteristics and various labour market attributes, a two-step Heckman correction procedure is applied to take into account the selectivity of entering the Swedish labour market. The main finding of the study is that exposure to the native population at the workplace is more important than residential exposure for predicting immigrant earnings.

  • 44.
    Tammaru, Tiit
    et al.
    University of Tartu.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Learning through contact?: The effects on earnings of immigrant exposure to native population2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors influencing immigrant labour market outcomes have received increased scholarly attention lately. A recent research focus has been the effects of residential setting on labour market outcomes. This study brings a new dimension to this emerging body of research, introducing the role played by workplace composition, in addition to place of residence, in immigrant earnings. Based on Swedish longitudinal register data, OLS regression is used to examine effects of previous exposure to natives on earnings in three immigrant cohorts (1990, 1995 and 2000) five years after arrival. Besides controlling for individual characteristics and various labour market attributes, a two-step Heckman correction procedure is applied to take into account the selectivity of entering the Swedish labour market. The main finding of the study is that exposure to the native population at the workplace is more important than residential exposure for predicting immigrant earnings.

  • 45.
    Tammaru, Tiit
    et al.
    University of Tartu.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Learning through contact?: The effects on earnings of immigrant exposure to the native population2010In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 42, no 12, p. 2938-2955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors influencing immigrant labour-market outcomes have received increased scholarly attention lately. A recent research focus has been the effects of residential setting on labour market outcomes. This study brings a new dimension to this emerging body of research, introducing the role played by workplace composition, in addition to place of residence, in immigrant earnings. Based on Swedish longitudinal register data, OLS regression is used to examine effects of previous exposure to natives on earnings in three immigrant cohorts (1990, 1995 and 2000) five years after arrival. Besides controlling for individual characteristics and various labour-market attributes, a two-step Heckman correction procedure is applied to take into account the selectivity of entering the Swedish labour market. The main finding of the study is that exposure to the native population at the workplace is more important than residential exposure for predicting immigrant earnings.

  • 46.
    Tano, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Labour income effects of the recent "mining boom" in northern Sweden2016In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 49, p. 31-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the early 21st century, the world market prices for minerals increased dramatically. As a consequence of this development, large investments were made in mining all around the world. Increased exploration activities, the opening of new mines and large investment schemes in already operating mines and related physical infrastructure also gave rise to a “mining boom” in the remote and sparsely populated areas of northern Sweden. New jobs were generated in the mining sector, but the question of whether the “mining boom” also has stimulated economic development in a broader sense in these areas has been more open. The present article investigated whether labour incomes have increased not only in sectors clearly connected to mining, but also in other parts of the local and regional economy. This was done by following the income changes of residents in the mining areas of northern Sweden over the time period 2004–2010 and by using a propensity score matching estimator method (PSM). The results show rapid income growth for employees in the mining industry and construction sectors, but also some growth in several other sectors, indicating spread effects to the rest of the local and regional economies. The impact, however, is much stronger in the largest mining towns than in communities where mining is of less significance.

  • 47.
    Thellbro, Camilla
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Sandström, Per
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Lidestav, Gun
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniveersitet.
    Visualizing the Forest in a Boreal Forest Landscape: The Perspective of Swedish Municipal Comprehensive Planning2017In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 8, no 6, article id 189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the international policy level, there is a clear link between access to information about forests and the work towards sustainable land use. However, involving forests in planning for sustainable development (SuD) at the Swedish local level, by means of municipal comprehensive planning (MCP), is complicated by sector structure and legislation. Currently, there is a gap or hole in the MCP process when it comes to use and access to knowledge about forest conditions and forest land use. This hole limits the possibilities to formulate well-informed municipal visions and goals for sustainable forest land use as well as for overall SuD. Here we introduce an approach for compilation and presentation of geographic information to increase the preconditions for integrating forest information into Swedish MCP. We produce information about forest ownership patterns and forest conditions in terms of age and significant ecological and social values in forests for a case study municipality. We conclude that it is possible to effectively compile geographic and forest-related information to fill the hole in the municipal land use map. Through our approach, MCP could bestrengthened as a tool for overall land use planning and hence as a base in SuD planning.

  • 48.
    Weissglas, Gösta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Brydtsen, Monika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Sårbarhet på tre nivåer - om systemkollisioner i samhället1997Report (Other academic)
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